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Ukrainian Style Guide

Contents
What's New? .................................................................................................................................... 4
New Topics ................................................................................................................................... 4
Updated Topics ............................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 5
About This Style Guide ................................................................................................................ 5
Scope of This Document .............................................................................................................. 5
Style Guide Conventions .............................................................................................................. 5
Sample Text ................................................................................................................................. 6
Recommended Reference Material ............................................................................................. 7
Normative References .............................................................................................................. 7
Informative References ............................................................................................................. 7

Language Specific Conventions ...................................................................................................... 8


Country/Region Standards ........................................................................................................... 8
Characters ................................................................................................................................ 8
Date .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Time ........................................................................................................................................ 10
Numbers ................................................................................................................................. 12
Sorting ..................................................................................................................................... 16
Geopolitical Concerns ................................................................................................................ 17
Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions ......................................................................... 18
Adjectives ................................................................................................................................ 18
Articles .................................................................................................................................... 18
Capitalization .......................................................................................................................... 18
Conjunctions ........................................................................................................................... 19
Compounds............................................................................................................................. 20
Gender .................................................................................................................................... 20
Genitive ................................................................................................................................... 20
Interchange ............................................................................................................................. 21
Modifiers ................................................................................................................................. 22
Nouns ...................................................................................................................................... 22
Prepositions ............................................................................................................................ 31
Pronouns ................................................................................................................................. 34
Punctuation ............................................................................................................................. 35
Singular & Plural ..................................................................................................................... 39
Split Infinitive ........................................................................................................................... 39
Subjunctive ............................................................................................................................. 39
Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces........................................................................................... 39
Syntax ..................................................................................................................................... 40
Verbs ....................................................................................................................................... 40
Word Order ............................................................................................................................. 44
Standardized translations ....................................................................................................... 44
Style and Tone Considerations .................................................................................................. 46
Audience ................................................................................................................................. 46
Style ........................................................................................................................................ 46
Tone ........................................................................................................................................ 47
Voice ....................................................................................................................................... 47

Localization Guidelines .................................................................................................................. 48


General Considerations ............................................................................................................. 48
Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................... 48
Accessibility ............................................................................................................................ 50
Acronyms ................................................................................................................................ 50
Descriptors .............................................................................................................................. 52
Applications, Products, and Features ..................................................................................... 54
Frequent Errors ....................................................................................................................... 56
Fictitious Information ............................................................................................................... 86
Recurring Patterns .................................................................................................................. 87
Standardized Translations ...................................................................................................... 87
Unlocalized Items.................................................................................................................... 87
Using the Word Microsoft ....................................................................................................... 87
Software Considerations ............................................................................................................ 89
User Interface ......................................................................................................................... 89
Messages .............................................................................................................................. 100
Keys ...................................................................................................................................... 107
Document Translation Considerations ..................................................................................... 114
Titles ..................................................................................................................................... 114
References To User Interface Components ......................................................................... 117
Word Order ........................................................................................................................... 118
Copyright ............................................................................................................................... 119
What's New?
Last Updated: June 2011

The entire Style Guide has been reworked and modifications have been made to all sections.
Because of the new structure of this document, some sections of the previous Style Guide version had to be
moved to different topics.
The major change in this Ukrainian Style Guide is that the information from the Ukrainian Language Kit has
been integrated into this Style Guide.
Please find below a list of New and Updated Topics. Note that changes in these sections also apply to the
corresponding sub-sections.

New Topics
The following topics were added:
Language Specific Conventions

Updated Topics
The following topics were updated:
Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions (topics related to each part of speech created, the
information contained in previous SG is sorted accordingly)
Localization Guidelines (updated topics; illustrated examples)
Normative References list updated
Percentages topic
Punctuation topic (information about dashes; examples in Comma with section)

4
Introduction
This Style Guide went through major revision in February 2011 in order to remove outdated and unnecessary
content. Some topics are considered to be "Core & Common" pertaining to all Microsoft products and
services.

About This Style Guide


The purpose of this Style Guide is to provide everybody involved in the localization of Ukrainian Microsoft
products with Microsoft-specific linguistic guidelines and standard conventions that differ from or are more
prescriptive than those found in language reference materials. These conventions have been adopted after
considering context based on various needs, but above all, they are easy to follow and applicable for all types
of software to be localized.
The Style Guide covers the areas of formatting and grammatical conventions. It also presents the reader with
a general idea of the reasoning behind the conventions. The present Style Guide is a revision of our previous
Style Guide version with the intention of making it more standardized, more structured, and easier to use as a
reference.
The guidelines and conventions presented in this Style Guide are intended to help you localize Microsoft
products and materials. We welcome your feedback, questions and concerns regarding the Style Guide. You
can send us your feedback via the Microsoft Language Portal feedback page
(http://www.microsoft.com/Language/en-US/Feedback.aspx/).

Scope of This Document


This Style Guide is intended for the localization professional working on Microsoft products. It is not intended
to be a comprehensive coverage of all localization practices, but to highlight areas where Microsoft has
preference or deviates from standard practices for Ukrainian localization.

Style Guide Conventions


In this document, a plus sign (+) before a translation example means that this is the recommended correct
translation. A minus sign () is used for incorrect translation examples.
In Microsoft localization context, the word term is used in a slightly untraditional sense, meaning the same as
e.g. a segment in Trados. The distinguishing feature of a term here is that it is translated as one unit; it may
be a traditional term (as used in terminology), a phrase, a sentence, or a paragraph.
References to interface elements really only refer to translatable texts associated with those interface
elements.
Example translations in this document are only intended to illustrate the point in question. They are not a
source of approved terminology.

5
Sample Text
-
, ,
,
. . 400 :
,
, .
.
-
,
, .
, , ,

, - ,
.
Microsoft ,
.
-
, .
.
:
: 01 2011
: . , (. , 13 , . ).
.

(044) 227 84 97 -
: abc@abc.com.ua.
: .
: 400 .
: -

: ,
. ( ).
.

: http://voipopp.vn.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=428:-l-r-
&catid=49:seminars&Itemid=81

20 2011 16:00

6
Recommended Reference Material
Use the Ukrainian language and terminology as described and used in the following publications.

Normative References
These normative sources must be adhered to. Any deviation from them automatically fails a string in most
cases. When more than one solution is allowed in these sources, look for the recommended one in other
parts of the Style Guide.
1. . . ...
. .: , 1990.
2. . . , . . . -
, . : , 2005. 546 .
3. / . . . . . .
.: : "", 2004. 1440 .
4. - / . . . . .: , 2003. 1424 .
5. . . - . :
"", 1995. 304 .
6. ., ., . - -
. : "", 1995.
7. . . , . . , . . . -
: . . . . .:
, 1998. 892 .
8. - / .
. . . : "", 1995. 304 .
9. ( 22.12.2010 . 527).

Informative References
These sources are meant to provide supplementary information, background, comparison, etc.

1. / . . . : " ", 2004. 140 .


2. . . -.

7
Language Specific Conventions
This part of the style guide contains information about standards specific to Ukrainian language

Country/Region Standards
Characters
Country/region Ukraine

Lower-case characters , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Upper-case characters
, ,

Characters in caseless
n/a
scripts

Extended Latin characters n/a

Note on alphabetical order Alphabetical order is not necessarily indicative of sorting order.

Total number of characters 33

The Unicode hexadecimal codes of the Ukrainian letters occupy the range from
Unicode codes 0410 to 0429, 042C, 044, 042E, 044E, and 042F, 044F. Plus 0404/0454 for
/, 0406/0456 for /, 0407/0457 for / and 0490/0491 for /.

Notes n/a

Date
Country/region Ukraine

Calendar/Era Gregorian

First Day of the Week Monday


st
First Week of the Year The week that contains January 1

Separator . (fullstop)

Default Short Date Format dd.MM.yy

Example 17.03.11

Default Long Date Format dd MMMM yyyy p.

Example 17 2011 .

Additional Short Date


dd-MMM-yy
Format 1

Example 17--11

8
Country/region Ukraine

Additional Short Date


n/a
Format 2

Example n/a

Additional Long Date Format


dddd, dd MMMM yyyy .
1

Example , 17 2011 .

Additional Long Date Format


ddd, dd MMMM yyyy .
2

Example , 17 2011 .

Leading Zero in Day Field


Yes
for Short Date Format

Leading Zero in Month Field


Yes
for Short Date Format

No. of digits for year for


2
Short Day Format

Leading Zero in Day Field


Yes
for Long Date Format

Leading Zero in Month Field


n/a
for Long Date Format

Number of digits for year for


4
Long Day Format

Date Format for


d MMMM yyyy .
Correspondence

Example 17 2011 .

Names of months and weekdays are not capitalized unless it is required by


grammar (f.e. first word in the sentence) or specific localization rules.
If the weekday must be mentioned, the following format is used: [weekday], d
Notes mmmm yyyy '.
Additional date formats might be used (e.g. in case of technical restrictions).
Nevertheless the date should always be in the format of day.month.year and
use periods (.) or hyphens () as separators.

d is for day, number of d's indicates the format (d=digits without leading zero,
dd=digits with leading zero, ddd=the abbreviated day name, dddd=full day name)
Abbreviations in Format M is for month, number of M's gives number of digits. (M=digits without leading
Codes zero, MM=digits with leading zero, MMM=the abbreviated name, MMMM=full
name)
y is for year, number of y's gives number of digits (yy=two digits, yyyy=four digits)

9
Time
Country/region Ukrainian

24 hour format yes

Standard time format HH:mm:ss

Standard time format


13:24:12
example

Time separator colon (:)

Time separator examples 13:24:12

Hours leading zero yes

Hours leading zero example 03:24:12

String for AM designator n/a

String for PM designator n/a

Notes Milliseconds are separated by a comma: 03:24:12,09

Days
Country/region: Ukraine

Day Normal Form Abbreviation

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

First Day of Week:


Is first letter capitalized? According to the Ukrainian grammar rules (in the beginning of the sentence, in
case of numerated list if the previous item ends with full stop etc.).
Notes: Use the abbreviations only if you do not have space. Otherwise use the full name of the days

10
Months
Country/region: Ukraine

Month Full Form Abbreviated Form Long Date Form

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Is first letter capitalized? According to the Ukrainian grammar rules (in the beginning of the sentence, in
case of numerated list if the previous item ends with full stop etc.).
Notes:
Abbreviated form should be used only if there are technical restrictions to space, f.e. in mini-calendar
etc. In plain text use full form.
Month names in the Long Date Form column are listed in the form (Genitive) that should be used
together with the date: December, 22 should be 22 . Full month name would be
though (Nominative) listed in the Full Form list.

11
Numbers

Numbers consisting of many digits are divided into groups containing three digits each, which are separated
with spaces. The spaces between groups might not be larger than the space taken up by a single digit.
Longer numbers are separated neither with periods nor commas. Decimal value is separated from the integer
number with a comma. Fractional parts are not separated by spaces. Four-digit numbers and numbers
representing years, page numbers, etc., are also kept together.

Phone Numbers
Country/ International Area Number of Separator Number of Digit
region Dialing Codes Digits Area Digits Groupings
Code Used? Codes Domestic Domestic

Ukraine 38 yes 3; 4; 5 hyphen 10 (###) ###-##-##


(####) ##-##-##
(####) #-##-##

Country/ Number of Digit Number of Digit Number of Digit


region Digits Groupings Digits Mobile Groupings Digits Groupings
Local Local Mobile International International

Ukraine 5, 6, 7 ###-##-## 10 +380 (##) 11 +38 (###) ###-


##-##-## ###-##-## ##-##

#-##-## +38 (####) ##-


##-##
+38 (#####) #-
##-##

Notes: n/a

12
Addresses
Country/region: Ukraine
Disclaimer: Please note that the information in this entry should under no circumstances be used in
examples as fictitious information.

Address Format:

Individuals Legal entities

Last name First Name Middle name Full company name

Title First name Last name

Street, building number, apartment/office number Street, building number, apartment/office number

[State/region] [State/region]

City City

Postal code Postal code

[Country] [Country]

EXAMPLES


. , 2
. . , 2
49001 .
49001

Local Postal Code Format: xxxxx


Notes:
Last name First name Middle name in address on the envelope are always used in Nominative Case
The words (city), (region), (village), (house),
(apartment), / (room) etc. are usually abbreviated (., -, ., ., ., ., .
respectively).
Country may not be included for in-country correspondence
This address format is the official one approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and used by
the Ukrainian State Enterprise of Posts UKRPOSHTA; for more information see
270 ' (f.e. can be found on the
UKRPOSHTA web-site http://www.ukrposhta.com under Additional information-Legislation).

13
Currency
Country/region Ukraine

Currency Name Gryvna/

Currency Symbol . Currency symbol

The digits come first, followed by a space and then the abbreviation .
Currency Symbol Position
(always in lowercase and followed by a full stop) or the symbol.

Positive Currency Format 123,45 ./ 123,45

Negative Sign Symbol - (minus symbol). No space between hyphen/minus sign and digits.

Negative Currency Format -123,45 ./ -123,45

Decimal Symbol , (comma)

Number of Digits after Decimal 2

Digit Grouping Symbol space

Number of Digits in Digit


3
Grouping

Positive Currency Example 123 321 678,00 ./ 123 321 678,00

Negative Currency Example -123 321 678,00 ./ -123 321 678,00

ISO Currency Code UAH

Currency Subunit Name (kopeck)

Currency Subunit Symbol .

Currency Subunit Example 17 .

Digit Groups
Country/region: Ukraine
Decimal Separator: ,
Decimal Separator Description: comma
Decimal Separator Example: 2,87; 0,697; 674,4
Thousand Separator: space
Thousand Separator Description: space
Thousand Separator Example: 1 000; 671 235
Notes:
Period is used in product versions only. Example: MS-DOS 6.22; Windows 3.11
It is acceptable to omit thousand separator (space) for numbers with 4 digits in their integer part.
Numbers not in regular text may or may not have thousand separators. For examples, values in Excel do
not have thousand separators by default for numbers but there is an option in Format Cells dialog to use
1000 Separator.

14
Measurement Units
Metric System Commonly Used? Yes
Temperature: Celsius

Category English Translation Abbreviation

Linear Measure Kilometer

Meter

Decimeter

Centimeter

Millimeter

Capacity Hectoliter

Liter

Deciliter

Centiliter

Milliliter

Mass Ton

Kilogram

Pound n/a

Gram

Decigram

Centigram

Milligram

English Units of Inch "


Measurement
Feet n/a

Mile n/a

Gallon n/a

Notes:
If the unit of measure is preceded by a number, there should be a non-breaking space between the
number and the unit of measure: 35
Use the quotation mark instead of the word for inches only when it is technically impossible to
use the full variant (for example, when there are length restrictions or the English source string with
the " sign to denote inches is locked).

15
Percentages
If the percent sign is preceded by a number, there should be a space between the number and the sign:
10 %. Do not split the number and the sign between different lines (use non-breaking space if possible).

Sorting
1. Capital letters and lowercase letters are equal. No distinction is made between them.
Sorting rules 2. Non-alphabetical characters (i.e. symbols like @ ! #) sort before the letters of the alphabet.
3. Digits sort after the non-alphabetical characters and before the letters of the alphabet.

(1040) (1072) (1041) (1073) (1042) (1074) (1043) (1075) (1168) (1169)
(1044) (1076) (1045) (1077) (1028) (1108) (1046) (1078) (1047) (1079)
(1048) (1080) (1030) (1110) (1031) (1111) (1049) (1081) (1050) (1082) (1051)
Character
(1083) (1052) (1084) (1053) (1085) (1054) (1086) (1055) (1087) (1056)
sorting order
(1088) (1057) (1089) (1058) (1090) (1059) (1091) (1060) (1092) (1061)
(1093) (1062) (1094) (1063) (1095) (1064) (1096) (1065) (1097) (1068)
(1100) (1070) (1102) (1071) (1103)

!
134










Examples of

sorted words











16







Geopolitical Concerns
Part of the cultural adaptation of the US-product to a specific market is the resolving of geopolitical issues.
While the US-product should have been designed and developed with neutrality and a global audience in
mind, the localized product should respond to the particular situation that applies within the target
country/region.

Sensitive issues or issues that might potentially be offensive to the users in the target country/region may
occur in any of the following:
Maps
Flags
Country/region, city and language names
Art and graphics
Cultural content, such as encyclopedia content and other text where historical or political references
may occur
Some of these issues are relatively easy to verify and resolve: the objective should be for the localizer to
always have the most current information available. Maps and other graphic representations of
countries/regions and regions should be checked for accuracy and existing political restrictions.
Country/region, city and language names change on a regular basis and need to be checked, even if
previously approved.
A thorough understanding of the culture of the target market is required for checking the appropriateness of
cultural content, clip art and other visual representations of religious symbols, body and hand gestures.

17
Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions
This section includes information on how to apply the general rules of the Ukrainian language to Microsoft
products and documentation.

Adjectives

Degrees of comparison for qualitative adjectives


Though in Ukrainian language there are two ways to create comparative and superlative degrees, it is
preferred to express them morphologically, not syntactically (where possible).

English Ukrainian

The most convenient way... ()


(+)

The new version of this feature is now more secure () ,


than previous ones. .
(+) .

Remember that syntax is mostly used for participle comparisons:

English Ukrainian

The most used files... ...

Articles
General considerations
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Capitalization

In English, it is a general practice to capitalize all first characters of the words in titles, names, etc, and
sometimes middle characters in words too. Bear in mind that this may be an error for the Ukrainian texts.

General rules
Localized names of protocols, services, packages, technologies etc. are not capitalized. Not localized names
have the same capitalization as in English.

English Ukrainian

Language Interface Pack

Net Logon service Net Logon

The names of days, months, languages, nationalities, also adjectives derived from country names are not
capitalized.

18
English Ukrainian

Select day, f.e. Tuesday. () , .


(+) , .

The product will be released in December () .


(+) .

To select Polish language ()


(+)

We capitalize localized product names:

English Ukrainian

Calculator

The word "Internet" in compound words is not capitalized; it is capitalized when its an independent word

English Ukrainian

Internet shop, Internet community () -, -


(+) -, -

Word "chapter" (and other structure units) is not capitalized

English Ukrainian

For more information see Chapter 3. () , . 3.


(+) , . 3.

Conjunctions

Interchange of the conjunctions


At the beginning of the sentence and after
the pause (period, comma, colon,
semicolon, dash, parentheses or elopsis),
despite the first letter of the next word:
,
, "OK".
,
, ,

.

19

In the sentence after the consonant if the In the sentence after the consonant
next word does not begin with letter: if the next word begins with letter:
'

In the sentence after the vowel if the In the sentence after the vowel
next word begins with any letter: if the next word begins with any
' letter, except , , , , :
.

.
'
NOTE! While choosing between and , remember that links the
words more closely
For the comparison of the notions
(contrast):


If the sentence already contains or
conjunctions:

Compounds
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Gender
Avoid using masculine or feminine gender when referring to the user. Use neutral structures and select verbs
which do NOT discriminate any of the sexes.
Example:

English Ukrainian

I accept the terms of the license agreement () .


(+) .

Genitive
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

20
Interchange

The interchange of "-" appeared to be a problem in modern Ukrainian. Though the rules are determined in
official Ukrainian Orthography, they are contradictory and it's often impossible to apply them. In this case you
should use the following rules, which are the result of research work and consultations.
The main aim of this interchange is to provide facility of the Ukrainian written and oral speech, prepositions
and prefixes "-" are absolute synonyms.

Rule Ukrainian example

After the consonant use , after the vowel use


At the beginning of the sentence, line or after the


pause (period, comma, colon, semicolon, dash,
parentheses,elipsis) use

NOTE! The slash does not denote a pause, so the interchange depends on the previous word

Exceptions list
Below is a list of words for which the interchange is not applied:

, , ( ) , , ( )



i





(but )
, , (all forms)
,

21
Remember that in some words the interchange leads to the change of the meaning:
, , , and , , ,

Interchange with the words in other languages

If the sentence contains the words in other languages than Ukrainian (f.e. product name in English) the
interchange depends on the last sound of previous word or the first sound of the next word (consonant or
vowel). To determine the sound use the phonetic transcription.

English Ukrainian

To start using Messenger specify your login and password () Messenger


.
(+) Messenger
.

Before you can reset your password, you need to type ()


your Windows Live ID and the characters in the picture Windows Live ID ,
below .
(+)
Windows Live ID ,
.

For interchange of conjunctions and prepositions see Conjunctions: Interchange of the conjunctions and
Prepositions: Interchange of /, //.

Modifiers
Please see Descriptors section.

Nouns

Accusative case
Ending of masculine gender nouns in accusative case depends on animated type (e.g., , but
).
Some terms within Microsoft products have declensional endings according to the non-animated type rather
than animated as it happens in usual speech, such as: wizard, agent, client, browser, explorer.

22
English Ukrainian

To close the wizard, click Finish. () , .


(+) , .

If your hardware came with an installation CD, it is ()


recommended that you click Cancel to close this -, ,
wizard and use the manufacturer's CD to install this ,
hardware. .
(+)
-, ,
,
.

Backup to Active Directory must be turned on or the ()


use of data recovery agent enabled for recovery. Active Directory
.
(+)
Active Directory
.

Verbal nouns

The rules provided here are for the verbal nouns denoting the processes. Such verbal nouns are created
using the stem and the - ending. Verbal nouns should be used to denote the process not the result of
the action.

English Ukrainian

Insert menu ()
(+)

Pauses the macro recorder (toggle) ()


()
(+)
()

Before you can use Outlook, you must either log on to ()


your computer as an Administrator and finish configuring Outlook,
Outlook, or ask your System Administrator to configure Outlook,
Outlook e-mail support for you.
.
(+) Outlook

23

Outlook
.

If you want cells to always appear with a certain () ,


formatting even after they have been cut or cleared,
change the Normal style. , .
(+) ,

, .

This operation cannot be completed outside the bounds ()


of the scroll area. .
(+)
.

Use printer metrics to lay out document ()



(+)

Pick a new color when replying or forwarding ()



(+)

You will still be able to encrypt and sign your messages ()


using Microsoft Exchange Server Security.
Microsoft Exchange Server.
(+)

Microsoft Exchange
Server.

data transfer rate ()


(+)

Read our Data Collection Policy ()


(+)

24
To denote the result of the process we do not use the verbal nouns.

English Ukrainian

To align the split bar with the worksheet gridlines, drag ()


the split bar itself rather than the split box. , ,
.
(+)
, ,
.

Default settings ()
(+)

Finished checking the selection. () .


(+) .

Please also note that in general we use the perfect verbs to create the verbal noun not imperfect.

English Ukrainian

How can I open the document downloaded from the () ,


web site?
(+) ,

EXCEPTIONS
We use , not
We use , not
We use [, ], not

- ending

Do not use the - ending for unanimated nouns.

English Ukrainian

The macros in this file do not match the digital ()


signature. .
(+)
.

25
Genitive case

Genitive Case for nouns of the II declension can be very treacherous. On one hand the rule itself is very long
and has a lot of exceptions, on the other dictionaries represent contradicting forms of Genitive case. So to
avoid mistakes do the following:
1. Use Genitive Case Glossary (below in this document).
2. Use the following rules from official Ukrainian Spelling.
Depending on their meaning nouns of the II declension can take the following endings in genitive case
singular: -, -, or -, -.
Neuter nouns can end only with - (hard and mixed groups), - (soft group): , ; ,
; , , , , .
1. The genitive singular of the following masculine nouns is formed by adding - (hard and mixed
groups), - (soft group):
People's names (first and last): , , , , ; ,
, , ; also personalized objects and phenomena: , , ,
etc.
Names of animals and trees: , , , , , , .
Names of objects: , , , , , , , ,
(and ).
Names of settlements and geographic places: , , , , ,
, , , , , .
Note: In compound names of settlements and geographic places -, - should be used if the second part of
the name is formed by the noun, which normally takes ending -: , ,
, , , , etc.
Other names of geographic places with a stress on the last syllable in genitive case form, and with
possessive suffixes -, - (-), - (): , , , , , ,
, , , .
Names of measuring units, units of weight, time, etc.: , , , , ,
( , ); names of months and days: , , (but
name of process), ; names of currencies: , ,
, ; numeric names: , , .
Names of machines and their parts: , , , , , .
Words of foreign origin, which describe structural components, concrete objects, geometric figures
and their parts: , , , , , , , , , etc.,
also terms of Ukrainian origin with suffixes: , , , , ,
, , , etc., but: , , and also , ,
(other types of terms see item 2.)
2. The following masculine nouns, which end with a consonant, take ending- (hard and mixed groups), -
(soft group):
Names of substances, mass, material: , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , but .
Collective nouns: , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ; here
belong the names of bushes and herbs: , , , , , ,
, , , (but ), also names of fruit trees varieties: ,
, , etc.

26
Names of buildings, constructions, rooms, and their parts: , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , but (mainly with a stressed ending): , , , ,
; -, - are used with nouns which describe architectural details: , , ; the
following nouns take both endings- -, - and -, -: and , and ,
and .
Names of institutions, establishments, organizations: , , , ,
, .
The majority of words which denote place, space, etc.: , , , , , ,
, , , , , , but: , , etc., also diminutive forms ending
with -: , , , .
Natural phenomena: , , , , , , , , , ,
, , .
Names of feelings: , , , .
Names of processes, states, properties, characteristics, formations, social life phenomena, general
and abstract notions: , , , , , , , ,
, , , (, ), , , , , ,
, , , (), , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , but: , ,
, .
Terms of foreign origin, which denote physical and chemical processes, part of an area, etc.: ,
, , , , and also philological terms: , ,
, , , , , , , , , , etc.
Names of games and dances: , , , ', , , ,
, , but: , .
The majority of compound words without suffixes (except names of animate objects): ,
, , , , , , , ,
, but: , .
The majority of prefixal nouns with different meanings (except names of animate objects): ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , (), , , .
Names of rivers (except mentioned in item 1), lakes, mountains, islands, peninsulas, countries, regions,
etc.: , , , , , , , , ; , , ,
, ; , , , ; , , , , ; ,
; , , , , , ; , ,
, .
Note: The change of ending influences the meaning of some nouns: ( )
(), () (), () (), ( ,
) (' ), () (), ( )
(), () (), ()
(), () (), () ( ),
() ( ), () (), ()
(), () (), etc.

27
Genitive case glossary
You will find approved genitive case endings of the most common IT terms below. When different meanings
of the word result in different endings, the common IT-meaning is given.

'

' '

28

(
);
( ,
)

c (i.e. desktop)

29
'

()

30

()

Inflection

This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Plural Formation
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Prepositions
Pay attention to the correct use of the preposition in translations. Influenced by the English language, many
translators omit them or change the word order.

US Expression Ukrainian example Comment

action query () Though in the source expression the


(+) preposition is absent, in Ukrainian it
should be used.

Interchange of /, //

Between two consonants Between two vowels


After consonant before vowel


After vowel before the words that start: After vowel before the words that start with single
with two or more consonants; consonant (except , )

with or .

31




At the beginning of the sentence or row, after the pause At the beginning of the sentence or row, after the pause
that is conveyed by a period, comma, semicolon, colon, that is conveyed by a period, comma, semicolon, colon,
dash, parenthesis an ellipsis, before the consonant dash, parenthesis an ellipsis, before the vowel
' .

If the word starts with a vowel, despite the


pause and the previous word ending

'

Between two vowels


Before the words that start with a single If the word starts with two or more
consonant (except , , ) if the previous consonants and the first sound is ,
word ends with vowel , , , ,

At the beginning of the sentence or row or


after the pause

All the other cases that do not


fall under the previous rules

Notes on some prepositions (, , , )

Rules Examples

Preposition is used with such verbs (and verbal ;


nouns derived) as ,

Preposition is used with such verbs (and verbal ;

32
Rules Examples

nouns derived) as , , ; ;
, , ;

EXCEPTION: ()
NOTE! The preposition is not used in the following word combinations: (,
, ), (, , )

Preposition is used with such verbs (and verbal


;
nouns derived) as , ,
;

Preposition is used with such words as ;


, , , ,
, with the noun in
Accusative case

NOTE! The nouns , are used with the preposition :

Special cases (, , )

The use of / prepositions is sometimes difficult due to Russian language influence. Whereas in
Russian the preposition is used, in Ukrainian there are more ways to convey the meaning:
Instrumental case without the preposition: ;
;
Preposition : ;
;
Preposition : ( );
( );
Preposition : '; ;
Preposition : ;
;
Preposition /: ;
(, );
Preposition : ;
;
Other wording: ;
.

33
Below is the table with the standard word combinations with the / prepositions

The Ukrainian preposition is used in almost the same context as in Russian, but there are more
prepositions to convey the meaning depending on the word combinations:

Prepositions with cases Examples

+ (D.c.) Conditions, circumstances: 20 ,


220 , .

+ (G.c.) Conditions, circumstances of the events: ,


,

+ (G.c.) Circumstances of the process flow: ,


, .

, + (G.c.) Proximity: ,

This preposition in Ukrainian cannot be used in the meaning "during" and to describe the
circumstances, which do not presuppose the presence of something nearby. For example, the Russian word
combination can be translated as ,
, , but not .

Pronouns
The frequent use of possessives is a feature of English language. However in Ukrainian try to avoid forms
, , , etc. where there is a choice. You can substitute with , e.g.,
or .

English Ukrainian-

Another application terminated unexpectedly while () ,


using your Personal Address Book. ,
.
(+) ,
,
.

You must first select a name in the To or Cc box ()


.

34
English Ukrainian-
(+)
.

The settings you changed will not take effect until you () , ,
restart Microsoft NetMeeting. Microsoft NetMeeting.
(+)
Microsoft NetMeeting.

Would you like to add %s to your SpeedDial list? () %s


?
(+) %s ?

When "you/your" is necessary to indicate the direction then you should use it in the translation:

English Ukrainian

You are about to join a new meeting. You will lose the (+) .
messages that are currently displayed. Do you want to .
save the current messages? ?

Capitalization of pronouns '''', '''', etc.


Pronouns '''', '''' are usually not capitalized. For example, they should not be capitalized in
documentation, software or materials addressed to users in general. They are capitalized in private and
business letters addressed to specific people

Punctuation
Comma with

The word should be used with commas before and after it:

English Ukrainian

For example, if you add ()


http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/expertzone/ to "http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/expertzone/"
your Trusted sites zone, you are adding -,
http://www.microsoft.com. "http://www.microsoft.com".
(+) ,
"http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/expertzone/"
-,
"http://www.microsoft.com".

For example, information that allows an individual to () ,


be contacted or located on the Internet ...
(+) , ,
...

If is used at the beginning or at the end of an unattached clause, it is not separated with a
comma:

35
English Ukrainian

Demographic and socioeconomic data, such as () - ,


gender, age, and income, not tied to an identifiable , , ,
person. .
(+) - ,
, ,
.

If is used within a parenthetic construction, commas are used as usual:

English Ukrainian

When you visit a website that contains content from () -


another provider, such as a map, advertisement, or ( ,
web measurement tools, some information about -)
your visit is automatically sent to that provider.
.
(+) -
(, ,
-),

.

Commas with
The phrase should not be used with commas.

English Ukrainian

By default, passwords must be at least 8 characters () ,


in length. .
(+)
.

Colon
A colon after alerting words like "Attention", "Warning", "Caution" should be replaced with an exclamation
mark.

English Ukrainian

Attention: () :
(+) !

A colon after the words Note and Example should be replaced with a period: . .

36
Remember to maintain the correct capitalization after the colon. The text may be capitalized in lists or direct
speech.

Dashes and Hyphens

Two different dash characters are used in English and Ukrainian:


Hyphen
The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word. There are should be
no spaces before and after the hyphen. The hyphen should not be used instead of a dash.
Example:
(+) -; -
En Dash
The en dash is used as a minus sign, usually with spaces before and after. Space is omitted only when the
minus is used to show that the number is negative.
Example:
(+) 1 2 = 1
The en dash is also used in number ranges, such as those specifying page numbers. No spaces are used
around the en dash in this case.
Example:
(+) . 1530.
The en dash should be used for dashes wherever technically possible. It separates words in a sentence and
has a grammatical function. Dashes should not be substituted with hyphens.

Slash

Avoid using slashes whenever possible. For example, in many cases you can substitute them with
conjunctions , or , , :

English Ukrainian

The parameter(s) passed to the server in the ()


client/server shared memory window were invalid. /.
(+)
.

Slashes can be used when there are length restrictions (for example, in UI).

Ellipses (Suspension Points)


Ellipsis in Ukrainian are used to indicate an intentional omission of a word in the original text, a pause in
speech or an unfinished thought.

37
Usually if ellipsis is used in English UI elements, the localized UI also contains ellipsis:

English Ukrainian

The ellipsis also can be used to denote the range of values, f.e.:
10...5 C

Period

Missing trailing period is considered to be a language error when it is omitted in regular text (even if it is the
last sentence in paragraph/on page).

Follow the general rules of punctuation when translating plain texts, help content, online materials etc.:

The sentence should end with period unless its a title, heading, table column or row titles, picture
labeles etc.
For specific requirements for period use regarding UI items (such as tooltips, radio buttons, checkboxes etc.)
see Localization Guidelines

Quotation Marks
Quotation marks are used when referring to UI items, such as menus and commands, if they do not have
special formatting (bold, italic etc).
In the software, in product help and on web-pages use straight quotation marks (same as in English.) DO
NOT use single quotation marks.

In the documentation normally chevrons are used, inside chevrons straight quotation marks are used, e.g.
"".

Note: Period stands outside the chevrons in Ukrainian text.


Whenever double quotation marks cannot not be used due to technical reasons, workarounds should be
found and used to display double quotation marks ("" or ) in Ukrainian version. Examples of such
workarounds: using two sequenced single quote characters (''); using code (such as " in HTML) instead
of characters.

Parentheses
In Ukrainian there is no space between the parentheses and the text inside them.
Comma, semicolon, colon, En-dash and Em-dash are always placed after the closing parentheses. Full stop,
exclamation mark and question mark can be placed before the closing parentheses if these symbols are
related to the words in parentheses, or after the closing parentheses if these symbols are related to the
sentence in a whole.
After the closing parentheses at the end of the sentence the appropriate punctuation should be placed
(related to the sentence in a whole), independent of the punctuation in the parentheses.

38
English Ukrainian

Only DSAs configured to be Global Catalog servers (+) DSA,


should be allowed to hold this role. (Applies only to ,
Windows 2000 servers) ( ,
Windows 2000).
(+) DSA,
, .
( ,
Windows 2000).

Singular & Plural


Please note that in many English compound nouns and noun phrases the first noun has a singular form,
though the plural is meant. Such nouns should be translated using plural forms.

English Ukrainian

Template wizard ()
(+)

In case the source contains plural ending in brackets, use only plural in translation (unless singular is more
obvious). Do not add the plural ending in brackets and do not use slash.

English Ukrainian

Select the file(s) and drag them to the folder. () () .


() / .
(+) .

Split Infinitive
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Subjunctive
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces


Use non-breaking spaces (Ctrl+Shift+SPACEBAR or Alt+0160) between words that should not separate onto
different lines. If two words are connected by a non-breaking space, Word will keep them together, even if
subsequent editing causes line breaks to change, e. g. MS-DOS should never be broken as MS-|DOS. On
your screen, a non-breaking space looks like a degree symbol ( ), but it will print like a space.

39
Syntax
This section does not apply to Ukrainian.

Verbs
In general remember that in Ukrainian its more natural to use verbs and verbal construction instead of nouns.

English Ukrainian

You must logon before printing the document. ()


(+) , .

Do not use such word combinations as verb+noun if you can use verb only.

English Ukrainian

File delete operation failed. () .


(+) .

To perform an offline System Restore, the system ()


must be started in the Windows Recovery ,
Environment. Windows Recovery Environment.
(+) ,
Windows
Recovery Environment.

Try to avoid overusing the verb

English Ukrainian

\x000F was last opened as read-only. () \x000F


. .
(+) \x000F
.

-, - suffixes

Try to avoid using these suffixes as they make the sentences less fluent.

40
English Ukrainian

Selects or clears the AutoCorrect SmartQuotes () ''


check box ''
(+) ''
''

Details display details may be inaccurate ()


(+)

... ... ending

If the next word stats with a vowel use -, if the word starts with a consonant use -.

English Ukrainian

Unable to establish the connection with the ()


remote computer
(+)

(+)

Passive voice

It is recommended to use the passive voice form with impersonal verb forms (, endings).. The
object is placed usually at the beginning of the sentence in Accusative case.

English Ukrainian

The object has been renamed or removed ()


(+) '

But if there is an agent in the sentence the passive voice can not be used.

English Ukrainian

The file has been deleted by the user () .


(+) .

See the excerpt from Newsletter of Lviv Polytechnic National University Problems of Ukrainian Terminology
with the detailed explanation below (in Ukrainian):
-, -, ,
.
,
, , , : ,
.
, ,
(, ), , .
41
-, , -, -
, , (?) ( ,
).
-, , ,
. :

. :
.
-, - ,
.

In the sentences with negation after the transitive verbs it is recommended to put noun in Accusative (for
inanimate objects) and Genitive (for animated objects)

English Ukrainian

File not found () .


(+) .

User note found () .


(+) .

Imperfect and perfect verbal forms

Pay attention to perfect or imperfect form of translated verbs. English verbs can be translated in either forms
in Ukrainian depending on whether it is a repeated or a single action.

English Ukrainian

Update links every time you open document () .


(+) .

Would you like to update links now? () ?


(+) ?

Continuous operations

Continuous operations are usually expressed in English with a gerund which should be translated into
Ukrainian by either a reflexive verb ( ), construction with the word or verbal
noun:

42
English Ukrainian

Printing document

Downloading page

Converting file

Compound nominal predicate

The compound nominal predicate consists of copulative verb and noun, adjective or participle. In cases
where as copula the verb to be is used, the nominal predicate should be in Nominative case.

Example:

English Ukrainian

You are the last recipient; () .


(+) .

Do you want this picture to be available to other () ,


applications after you quit Word? Word?
(+) ,
Word?

This mail merge main document is not empty. () .


(+) .

The choice of nominal predicate form is defined by its semantics: Nominative case signifies the permanent
feature, Accusative with the preposition () or Instrumental signify the changeable or indistinctive feature.
To simplify the choice of the case use the table below (not exhaustive)

Condition Case

Copula is null Nominative

Comparative elements in the nominal predicate (, , , , , Nominative


etc)

Copula is one of the verbs , , , , Instrumental


Copula is one of the verbs , Accusative (no preposition)

For more information you can also refer to . -: ,


.
Additional information regarding this rule can be found in reference materials; for a detailed explanation and
historical conditions of this rule please see such sources as
.

43
Word Order

Please see Word Order section. In general, in Ukrainian localized SW and UA the order of actions,
commands etc. should be direct despite the English source word order.

Standardized translations

Auto
The prefix "Auto-" in terms related to IntelliSence technology will be translated with the prefix -.

English Ukrainian

AutoCorrect

AutoSearch

Character, symbol, sign, icon


ISO/IEC 8859 ISO/IEC 10646
(character), , , . Symbol
, . Sign , icon ,
( ).

English Ukrainian

To search for someone, you must type at least one ()


character (+)

Show Outline Symbols ()


(+)

Multiplication Sign ()
(+)

Change Icon ()
(+)

Exception: at sign = @

Click
The verb to click in American documentation has the following meaning: to put the mouse cursor on the given
object and to press left mouse button. In this case this verb is used as a transitive one and it denotes a
certain action. While translating you have to use the word with question ?, for example,
. If it suits, when translating you can indicate the aim of this action, i. e. to indicate not
"how" to do this, but what is reached, for example, , supposing the user
knows how to do this.

44
English Ukrainian

Please click on the signature icon for more


details. .

In the folder window, hold down the CTRL key, , CTRL,


and then click each item you want to select. , .

NOTE! In construction , you have to use namely the word


, but not !
In some constructions it is not allowed to use the word , namely ,
, , , etc.

English Ukrainian

Contact a Customer Support Representative by () ,


clicking OK and following the instructions ,

(+) ,
,
.

Click the link below to see your pictures online () ,


.
(+) ,
.

Drag, drag-and-drop

The verb to drag in American documentation is used to denote mouse moving with a pressed left mouse
button, thus indicating a certain action. When translating you'd better indicate the aim of action (what should
be done), at the same time leaving the reference how to do this. As a result of this you have to use the
Ukrainian word . The stem is a basis for reader, who can easily recognize a certain
action performed with the mouse.
In the cases when it's important to describe actions with the mouse you can use phrases
, but at that you should avoid to use too long phrases.
Below in the table there are given the examples of the most frequent usage of the verb drag and
corresponding Ukrainian translations.

45
English Ukrainian

To move a file, drag it to another folder. ,


.

To copy a file, hold the CTRL key while you drag the ,
file to a folder. , CTRL.

To create a shortcut, hold CTRL+SHIFT while you drag ,


the file to the desktop or a folder. ,
CTRL+SHIFT.

If you use right mouse button to drag a file or folder, a


menu will appear with the options of copying, moving, , ,
or creating a shortcut. ,
.

To join two tables drag a field from one table to the ,


equivalent field in the other table. .

Drag the pointer over the text to select. ,


.

Style and Tone Considerations


This section focuses on higher-level considerations for audience, style, tone, and voice.

Audience
Please take the target audience into account when translating Microsoft products. For example, translation of
learning materials targeted at new users should be more direct and friendly than that of IT Pro materials,
which should be more formal.
The general rule is to make the translation fluent and understandable, be polite and consistent.

Style
Do not copy the grammatical structures of English source

English Ukrainian

This document cannot be edited () .


(+) .

If possible, replace the subordinate sentence with the participial phrase of past tense or adjective.

46
English Ukrainian

The VBA project is currently signed and will be () ,


resigned with this certificate VBA
(+) ,
VBA,

To move an item to a folder that's not visible, drag () , ,


the item over the name in the Folder Banner, and ' ,
then drag the item to the folder you want in the .
Folder List. (+) ,
' ,
.

Though do not use the participial phrases of present tense

English Ukrainian

Set Default Themes () ,


(+) ,

It is allowed to use some of such participles as part of idioms, f.e. ,


.
Try to simplify the sentences to make the translation more easy and fluent.

English Ukrainian

The range object is on a different document from () ' Range ' View
the view object .
(+) ' Range View .

This font will be used on both printer and screen. () ,


.
(+) .

Tone
In general please use formal tone, though in online materials the tone can be friendlier.

Voice
In general please use passive neutral voice rather than active voice, even if active voice is used in English.

English Translation

() .
You are now connected to the Internet. () .
(+) .

47
Localization Guidelines
This section contains guidelines for localization into Ukrainian.

General Considerations
The localized text should be as if it was originally written in Ukrainian. It has to be accurate, correct and clear.
To achieve that try to avoid wordiness and word-by-word translation.
Use correct and consistent grammar in all texts. If in doubt, see the reference books mentioned in
"Recommended Reference Material" chapter. The following are guidelines for consistent use in cases where
more than one solution would theoretically be possible, or where errors have been common in the past.
Accuracy: As a rule all English text needs to be translated. In some cases though, text can be omitted or
added; there should be a specific reason for that and you might need to check it with project team. The
translated text will correctly reflect product functionality.
Localization: Localization means that the translated text needs to be adapted to the to the local language,
customs and localization standards. For example, in many cases you would need to use Ukrainian names
rather than English, e.g. Edward , New York . Do not translate every word, but use
the style that is natural for Ukrainian.
Example: In the message "No line, thank you" not every word needs to be translated:
(+)
() ,
Consistency: Please ensure that all terminology is used consistently both within one component and across
different components (software, help, and documentation). In most cases terminology needs to be consistent
also across different products. Moreover please use consistent style and register and translate similar
phrases consistently.

Abbreviations
Common Abbreviations

You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space or
other reasons (such as avoiding grammatically wrong structures). Do not abbreviate words arbitrarily; use
only the commonly accepted abbreviations listed below.

Expression Acceptable Abbreviation

(+) .

(+) .

(+) .

(+) .

(+) .

(+) . .

48
Expression Acceptable Abbreviation

(+) .

(+) .

(+)

(+) .

(+) .

(+) .

(+) .

' (+)

(+)

(+)

(+)

(+)

Abbreviating proper nouns

Generally localized term should be abbreviated if and only if source term is abbreviated. English
abbreviations should not be translated, except of very few common abbreviations, such as (PC
Personal Computer), (IR infrared). Try to add explanation word before abbreviated name of service,
protocol etc.

English Full translation Abbreviated translation

Windows Diagnostic WDI


Infrastructure Windows
WDI

Sometimes English abbreviation is not quite clear. In this cases translate it as full name.

English Ukrainian

Qualified Certificate

QC

Dont abbreviate such words as .


Remember that such phrases as and so on, etc. can be translated with one word instead of
...

49
Accessibility

Microsoft provides people with disabilities (single-handed or with hearing or motion disabilities) with more
accessible products and services. These may not be available in Ukraine. Please check with your Microsoft
contact and remove these references from Ukrainian text if necessary.

Acronyms

Acronyms are words made up of the initial letters of major parts of a compound term. Some well-known
examples are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM
(Random Access Memory , ). In order for an acronym or abbreviation to make
sense, the full term should be spelled out at first mention and the abbreviation should follow the term in
parenthesis. E.g., Directory Enabled Networking (DEN).
Here are the general rules for the acronyms use:
1) Only use the abbreviation in documentation or in marketing materials after the full name is introduced, e.g.,
"Microsoft introduces Directory Enabled Networking (DEN)". After proper introduction you can use the
abbreviation.
2) Do not use the abbreviation in prominent titles or chapter headings.
3) Periodically use the full name in text of marketing materials or documentation.
4) It is OK to use the abbreviation as part of file names where needed.
5) Do not use the "TM" symbol next to the abbreviation.
6) Do not use the abbreviation prominently in advertising packaging, advertising nor promotional material.
7) Microsoft publications should follow our Microsoft abbreviation guidelines (see guidelines below).

Localized Acronyms

English acronyms with a well-known Ukrainian translation should be translated. No ending is added to the
acronyms.
Here are examples of some established Ukrainian abbreviations (they can be used without full forms):

English Ukrainian Full translation

RAM (+) ;

ROM (+)

OS (+)

PC (+) '

LAN (+)

50
Unlocalized Acronyms

Acronyms that do not have an established translation will be used as they are in English. The following
general rules apply:
No ending is added to the acronyms.
The gender of the acronym is determined by the main word in the full translation. In text normally use a
descriptor word (usually the main word from the translation) to provide for the declination, or otherwise use
neutral constructions. Descriptors can be omitted if there are length restrictions (for example in UI) or if the
translated text sounds awkward. The descriptor should not be omitted if it is impossible to determine the
grammatical form of the acronym (for example, its case) without it.
Please refer to the following table when translating word combinations that include English acronyms.
Translation of such complex words (the position of the acronym before or after the noun, and the presence of
a dash) depends on the noun.

Noun Rule Example

with a dash, after the acronym (+) IP-, IPv4-, URL-


with a dash, after the acronym (+) DHCP-

without a dash, before the acronym (+) DNS

without a dash, before the acronym (+) DNS, NetBIOS

(except when used with with a dash, after the acronym (+) RAS-, COM-
product names) Exception: COM+

(when used with product without a dash, before the acronym (+) UNIX
names)

with a dash, after the acronym (+) OSPF-

with a dash, after the acronym (+) IP-

without a dash, before the acronym (+) COM

with a dash, after the acronym (+) IP-, UDP-

without a dash, before the acronym (+) IP, DHCP

without a dash, before the acronym (+) WINS-, DNS-


(except when used with with a dash, after the acronym (+) DHCP-, RAS-,
product names) OLE-

(when used with without a dash, before the acronym (+) UNIX, Windows
product names)

without a dash, before the acronym (+) RAS, SNMP

without a dash, before the acronym (+) NTFS

without a dash, before the acronym (+) DOC, OSDX

51
Descriptors

In Ukrainian, you always need to add a descriptor before the names of objects, menus, commands, dialog
box elements, icons, etc as it provides for correct declension and number forms in the target text. Often such
descriptors are not found in English text.
In Ukrainian we use modifiers:
1) to avoid personification of programs, applications, tools, features etc.;
2) to standardize the translated text by declining the descriptor.
Example:

English Ukrainian
Click Save ()
(+)

Click Save ()
(+)

() Word [2]
Word is deleting file [2]
(+) Word [2]

Note: If the UI item is bold (or accented in other way, i.e. italic or underlined) there is no need to use the
quotation marks.

Here is the list of standard modifiers:

English Ukrainian

Windows or other operating system OR


Servers
Applications
Program
Tool

As a general rule, a product name should also have a descriptor in front of it to connect it grammatically with
the rest of the string/sentence. The extended descriptors listed in this table (like ,
etc) can be used optionally to avoid monotonous repetition of
and .

Product/Program Ukrainian product descriptor

Access

FrontPage / -

Internet Explorer -,

MS-DOS ,

52
Product/Program Ukrainian product descriptor

Office , ( is applicable to Office 2007 and


Office 2010 only!)

Outlook

PowerPoint

Project

Publisher ,

Visual Basic

Windows ,

Word

Still do not overuse mentioned above descriptors, they should be used mainly in marketing materials,
descriptions, welcome texts etc. In SW and DOC try to use the standard ones as they simplify the sentence
structure.

English Ukrainian

PowerPoint is saving the file () PowerPoint



(+) PowerPoint

The following rules should be used to choose a descriptor for a Microsoft Office product/component:
or descriptors should be used for standalone Microsoft Office applications
only. Examples of standalone Microsoft Office applications: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel,
Microsoft OneNote, etc.
descriptor should be used for Microsoft Office server products such as Office SharePoint
Server, Microsoft Office Project Server, etc.
or - descriptors should be used for Microsoft Office services such as
Microsoft Office Online, Microsoft Office Live Meeting, and Windows Live services etc.
- or - descriptors should be used for Microsoft Office web access
products. For example, Excel Web App and Word Web App.
or descriptors may be used for Microsoft Office editions/suites
such as Microsoft Office Professional and Microsoft Office for Small Business.

To reference the UI elements you should use the following standard descriptors:

53
English Ukrainian

Button
Command OR ()
Option
Checkbox
List item
Link

Descriptors may be omitted only in SW if there is not enough space.


Desriptors should not be omitted in Help and other materials.
If its impossible to define the type of UI item or UI item is changeable (f.e. in Office applications UI
items depend on window size), use the descriptor : .

Applications, Products, and Features


Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore
rarely translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense). Before translating
any application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any
way.

Unlocalized Feature Names

Microsoft product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in
the English language.
The rule is that product names are not translated if they include the word Microsoft and/or they are registered
as trademarks (e.g. Microsoft Draw or Microsoft Graph).
For the most current information on Microsoft trademarks refer to the Microsoft Trademarks web-page:
http://www.microsoft.com/About/Legal/EN/US/IntellectualProperty/Trademarks/EN-US.aspx

The preposition for is always translated, e.g. Word Windows.


In general we treat product names in this way: add the respective modifier and keep the name in English.
Example:

English Ukrainian

Use Word to work with documents, mailing lists etc. Word ,


.

By using SharePoint Team Services, anyone can SharePoint Team Services


create, author, and administer ad hoc team websites
that help a team finish the project. .

54
Localized Feature Names

Localized product names should be capitalized.

Example:
English Ukrainian
Calculator

File names and Extensions

Try to translate file names in examples or sample file names, if there are no specific instructions to leave in
English.
English Ukrainian
Elegant Letter.dot .dot
Solutions.mdb .mdb

File name and extension are always separated by a period (.).


Never place a period in front of the extensions and always capitalize them when they are mentioned
separately in a text.

English Ukrainian
Unable to delete the .doc file () .doc.
() DOC-.
(+) DOC.

NOTE! This rule does not apply to the file formats list in File Type box or similar list. See the
screenshots below

In similar context the extensions in parentheses should be left as is, with a period.

55
Frequent Errors
Below is the list of most conflictive words, word combinations and phrases for translators.

English Ukrainian

(Asian text) () (- )
(+) (- )

..., ..., ...

The usage of conjunction , has a stylistic coloring, so you you should use the conjunction ...,
, which is stylistically neutral in Ukrainian.

English Ukrainian

the application window is not maximized or () ,


minimized (+) ,

In similar constructions you should use . In sentences more than a 100 the word is used.

English Ukrainian

When the selection contains cells that extend across ()


more than one row... , ...
(+)
, ...

For such cases you should always use term .

English Ukrainian

Word cannot sort these numbers because it does () ,


not recognize the list separator, number format, or ,
currency format settings used in Windows. ,
Windows.
(+) ,
,
,
Windows.

56
(, )

Use for objects, menu items, UI elements etc. Use for abstact notions (method, way
etc.) or to choose between similar and peer options. The verb requires prepositions (//
choose from a list or set etc.; other cases /; if it's required by the nouns). The verb does
not require prepositions: select + noun in Accusative case.

English Ukrainian

Select Save from File menu

Select link in the Subject area

Select background image in the Picture tab

Select background color from list

Select background color for your page

Select tariff model

Select the file

The verb can be used instead of ; but its not recommended.

Please note that these nouns differ: ,


(). Solution in the meaning of troubleshooting process is .
NOTE! Solution in the context of Microsoft Visual Studio, sometimes .NET Framework and sometimes in
general context means project, technical product and should be translated as .

() () ()

In similar construction use such phrases as () or ().

English Ukrainian

If a dialog box appears, ensure that Microsoft () ' ,


Corporation is selected as the distributor before ,
clicking Yes to complete the download. , ,
.
(+) ' ,
,
,
.

57

Exception is an action that is not part of ordinary operations or standards


NB. Exception in the context of file procedures should be translated as .

English Ukrainian

The AutoCorrect Exception name contains invalid or () '


no characters. .
(+) '
.

Use to delete/discard from the set, f.e. (delete from the list).
The verb means remove the possibility, f.e.
.
Use in all other cases, f.e. (delete the file).

In Microsoft terminology it is considered to use , .

English Ukrainian

Do you want to enable the scripts or references? ()


?
(+)
?

In similar constructions the only correct usage is .

English Ukrainian

Column widths cannot be less than \x0005\0. ()


\x0005\0.
(+)
\x0005\0.

58

For such cases you should always use term "".

English Ukrainian

Mark to Download Message Copy ()



(+)

English Ukrainian

the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box is open ()



(+)

The usage of the word in this context is wrong, you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

Could not publish the view. It is possible you do not () .


have the necessary permissions to perform this .
action (+) . ,
.

() (, )

The adjective in Ukrainian means faithful not correct. Do not use this adjective in this meaning.
To denote the presense of errors, malfunction, wrong performance use . that
does correspond to some rules, restrictions, requirements etc.

English Ukrainian

The password entered is wrong. () .


(+) .

This is correct answer. () .


(+) .

59
,

In Ukrainian cant be used as participle. In such cases you should use or


.

English Ukrainian

The Pack and Go Wizard assists you in packing ()


your entire presentation--including linked files--and , ' ,
moving it to another computer. '.
(+)
, '
, '.

Use / for devices; for mode, function etc. use . The noun mode can
also be used with such verbs as and .

For the font use only .

English Ukrainian

To apply or remove bold, italic, or underline formats () ,


on selected text, press CTRL+B, CTRL+I, or ,
CTRL+U. CTRL+B, CTRL+I CTRL+U
.
(+)
, ,
CTRL+B, CTRL+I CTRL+U .

It is recommended to use the word , neither nor , since it's stylistically


better and more Ukrainian. Name of Details button should be translated as , Hide details
.

English Ukrainian

Click the Details button for more information. ()


.
(+)
.

60
Show Details >> () >>
(+) >>

Hide Details << () <<


(+) <<

When it's told about the low resources, you should use the word "" for such constructions.

English Ukrainian

System resources are critically low. Close some () .


windows. .
(+) .
.

, ,
. ,
. "allow" , "let"
. (. . ).

English Ukrainian

These permissions allow to import and save files. ()


.
(+)
.

[ProductName] is an intelligent and flexible software () [ProductName]


which lets you achieve powerful results faster and ,
easier than ever before. , .
(+) [ProductName]
,
, .

61

, . ,
.

() (+)

. .

Despite the fact that the superlative degree of adjectives can be formed in two ways, the
better variant is still to form a superlative degree using synthetic form.

English Ukrainian

For information on what to add, see your ()


documentation for this program.
(+)

In Microsoft terminology it is considered to use .

English Ukrainian

Danish ()
(+)

, .

62

: trust , trusted , trusting


. , .
(trust relationship). (, trusting domain
-) , (, trusted domain ).
, (, trusted certification ).

English Ukrainian

Allow additional attendees or users without trusted ()


user certificates to join the conference.
.
(+)

.

English Ukrainian

You may not have permission. () , .


(+) , .

, ( )

It is not allowed to use the words , , . Instead you should use the
word combinations , .

English Ukrainian

There is a circular reference in an open workbook, () ,


but the references that cause it cannot be listed for .
you. (+) ,
.

A resource conflict occurred. Another client may be () . ,


accessing your account. .
(+) . ,
.

, ()

The correct choices are () . Do not use , .

63
Note:
1. =.
2. .
3. () .
4. , .

English Ukrainian

Draw until you see a line stretch across to the place () ,


where you want your line to go
(+) ,

Do not show this message while this workbook is () ,


open. .
(+) ,
.

(, , ) , , ,

It is recommended to aviod the word .

English Ukrainian

The row or column value is too large or small for this ()


sheet of labels. .
(+)
.

Unable to display results because too many entries () ,


in the Internet Directory match your search criteria

(+) ,

Unable to add because AutoCorrect entry is too () .


long. (+) .

64

In this context it is recommended to use the word /.

English Ukrainian

The Office document is not valid. The item is () Office.


missing the attachment that contains the document , .
(+) Office.
, .

Russian , . There are no limitations for using , but you should


avoid using the adverb in this meaning.

English Ukrainian

When deleting items, Outlook normally does the ()


following: :
(+)
:

For parantheses should not be used, but / or .

English Ukrainian

\\b To bracket a single element in a size appropriate () \\b ,


to the element
(+) \\b ,

With inanimates correct variant is . With animates both variants can be used.

English Ukrainian

Replace with Antonym: () :


(+) :

65

, recording device, ,
--.
NB. Burner, Writer, Recorder .

English Ukrainian

Speech could not find any sound recording devices () -


(example: installed sound cards). (, ).
(+)
(, ).

English Ukrainian

The paper size options you select in the Page Setup () ,


dialog box (File menu) and the Printers dialog box ( )
(Control Panel) must match. ( ),
.
(+) ,
( )
( ), .

/ /

Correct is /.

English Ukrainian

Click to collapse and expand the properties of this () ,


type
(+) ,

66

You should avoid using the words , . Use of the other 4 variants is context dependent.
Concerning software we usually use . Noun is weaker and usually represents
translation of problem. Failure translates as , or .

English Ukrainian

An extension failed to initialize. (+) .

Network failure (+)

Hardware failure (+)

Power supply failure (+)

Fault tolerance (+)

You may be encountering memory problems (+) '


(+)

Do not use in the meaning of (to be located). Depending on the


context use , /, .

English Ukrainian

Click button "Next" in the "Connection" area. () ,


.
(+) ,
.

When the user is online () .


(+)

If it is about something temporary, the correct translation is , if not then . For such
cases you should always use .

English Ukrainian

Mixed Content ()
(+)

67

English Ukrainian

Keep existing driver (Recommended) () ()


(+) ()

(?),
(? ?, ? ?).

English Ukrainian

Database experts that ask you questions about a () ,


more advanced item you want to create, and then '
build it for you. .
(+) ,
'
.

In this meaning you should always use the word .

() (+)

, . , .

Correct choice ( )

English Ukrainian

because it does not accept conflicting meetings. ()


.
(+)
.

, ( ), .
, , , .

68
English Ukrainian

Dots per inch ()


(+)

Dot dot dash () 2


(+) 2

(,
). , : , ,
.

English Ukrainian

If you entered the phone number using letters, () ,


please change them to digits. .
(+) ,
.

, . ',
() , ,
' . - .

English Ukrainian

Copies the selection and puts it on the Clipboard as ()


a picture
(+)

is loan from Russian.

English Ukrainian

You have most likely attempted to view the calendar () ,


for a user who has one or more of the following , :
issues: (+) ,
, :

69

, .

English Ukrainian

Car Phone ()
(+)

, , (
).
.

English Ukrainian

Users must access the presentation using a () ,


Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path
UNC
(+) ,

UNC

How long should the Desktop Alert appear? ()


?
(+)
?

For such context you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

To create the new @, browse to or type the location () @, ,


to create the site on, then type a name for the site. , ,
' .
(+) @, ,
,
, ' .

70

English Ukrainian

Your speech profile does not support your current ()


Office Language Settings. Office.
(+)
Office.

The word combination you should use with legal documents, sertificates, in other cases
.

() (+)

, ,
. .

'

' .

English Ukrainian

An action must have a name before it can be saved. () .


(+) '.

( ) ( )

When the action names for buttons are meant better translations are and .

English Ukrainian

Bar with back and next links ()


(+)

The usage of the word in context is a mistake; you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

Used to show steps toward a goal () ,



(+) ,

71

Harsh error. The translation for during is only or /.

- '
,
.

English Ukrainian

The meeting was updated after the attendee sent () ,


this response. .
(+) ,
.

The word (following) is used in time and spatial meaning , ,


, .

English Ukrainian

Next Column

Next week

The name already exists. ' .

The following APPLET did not install properly. .

In Microsoft terminology it is considered to use .

English Ukrainian

This can also occur if Microsoft Office Outlook was () ,


started in Safe mode (achieved by pressing and Microsoft Office Outlook
holding the CTRL key while starting Outlook). (
CTRL).
(+) ,
Microsoft Office Outlook
(
CTRL).

72

You should try to formulate similar sentences in tha past tence since these messages in most cases are
about already failed procceses.

English Ukrainian

Cannot update the current sheet; it may be () :


protected. , .
(+) :
, .

You should avoid using in this meaning. It is considered to be a loan word from Russian. Instead
you should use . However, can be used in meaning .

English Ukrainian

A folder cannot be moved or copied to itself or to ()


one of its subfolders. .
(+)
, .

For such cases you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

An unexpected error has occurred. () .


(+) .

Correct choice .

English Ukrainian

Microsoft will never decrypt content protected by ()


this service unless required to do so by a valid court , , ,
order. .
(+)
,
, .

73
,

For such contexts the usage of the verbs and is incorrect. You should use the
verb .

English Ukrainian

The selected line or address is in use by another ()


program or device. Your call could not be placed at .
this time. .
(+)
.
.

The server was unable to process the request. () .


(+) .

Outlook cannot process this message with this () Outlook .


label. (+) Outlook
.

( ),
( )
.

English Ukrainian

Passive Alert () c
(+)

Its forbidden to use the word .

English Ukrainian

Be aware that this option makes your data less () .


secure. (+) .

74

English Ukrainian

Please quit Outlook before performing a scan with () Outlook,


the OST Integrity Check Tool.
OST.
(+) Outlook

OST.

The correct translation is .

English Ukrainian

To view the text of a footnote or endnote, double- () ,


click the note's reference mark .
(+) ,
.

. , , .

English Ukrainian

Toggles asking the user to confirm the conversion ()


when opening a file. .
(+)
.

The usage of the verb is incorrect; you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

Disassembles a grouped object into individual () ',


objects so each can be moved or changed
individually (+) ',

75

Correct choice .

English Ukrainian

To draw a perfect square, press SHIFT while you () ,


drag the rectangle SHFT
(+) ,
SHFT

The meaning of the noun is wider than the noun . The noun is used in
the meaning a problem, an issue, and the noun in the meaning a question.

() (+)

, . , .

( , )

Refer to connections with the following verbs: / and .

English Ukrainian

Open the network connection ()


(+)

Closing the network connection ()


(+)

...

If there is enough space a better translation is (unless the term is approved).

English Ukrainian

New Subfolder ()
(+)

, '-
.

76
English Ukrainian

You may be encountering memory problems. () '.


(+) '.

(, ) (, )

Nouns with preposition are to be used with ending.

English Ukrainian

Across multiple sites... ()


(+)

is loan from Russian. is correct.

English Ukrainian

Do you wish to take part in this program? () ?


(+) ?

, .

English Ukrainian

You can lengthen the timeout interval from the ()


advanced tab. .
(+)
.

The usage of the word is not stylistically justified.

English Ukrainian

Ask your system administrator to install this feature ()


for you. .
(+)
.

77

In this case you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

The file may be empty, or may be missing data () ,


tables or data ranges. .
(+) ,
.

. ,
, .

English Ukrainian

Items in this message are still loading. Please wait a ()


moment and then try again . ,
.
(+)
. .

/ /

/ / , () / .
/ .

English Ukrainian

Fill Right ()
(+)

In this context you should use the word . But: .

English Ukrainian

Map Network Drive... () ...


(+) ...

78

loan from Russian, correct choice .

English Ukrainian

Adjacent to another appointment on your Calendar. () .


(+) .

In this context you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

The hyperlink cannot be followed to the destination. ()


.
(+)
.

For problems use , for tasks .

English Ukrainian

Please contact your administrator to resolve this () '


issue. .
(+)
.

For this context a better translation is i.

English Ukrainian

Treat Ink as Drawing ()


(+)

79

In similar constructions the correct term is .

English Ukrainian

DisplayText cannot span more than one line! ()


, !
(+) ,
!

loan from Russian.

English Ukrainian

It is likely that you have system administrators who () ,


analyze the updates and then distribute them in ,
other ways. .
(+) ,

.

In this context you should use the word .

English Ukrainian

Drag the item to the top or bottom of the group and ()


pause until the correct folder scrolls into view. , ,
' .
(+)
, ,
' .

Correct choice , as the word does not exist.

English Ukrainian

Popup ()
(+)

80

In the meaning of fixed date you should use the word .


It is also recommended to use the word combination in the meaning of fixed date and
in the meaning of period of time.

English Ukrainian

Term expired yesterday () .


(+) .

Approbation term expired () C


(+)

, ,
, /, / .

English Ukrainian

... is using a security certificate that has expired or () ... ,


is not yet valid. .
(+) ... ,
.

.
should, must. , .

English Ukrainian

You must first select a name in the To or Cc box () '


.
(+) '
.

The only correct translation for such context is ; is the influence of Russian.

English Ukrainian

Two weeks ago ()


(+)

81
,

English Ukrainian

The file could not be installed because there was a ()


problem with the security certificate. .
(+)
.

To avoid potential problems with long paths, the ()


length of the new folder name will be limited. ,
.
(+)
,
.

English Ukrainian

In most cases, further information is available in a ()


synchronization log in the Sync Issues folder.
.
(+)

.

'

' .

,
, .
, .
, , ,
, .

English Ukrainian

This operation has been cancelled due to restrictions () '


in effect on this computer. , '.
(+) ,
'.

Data was obtained from application output ()

82
English Ukrainian
(+)

Widget stored the data in a session so that the data () ,


wasn't lost
(+) ,

The only correct translation is .

English Ukrainian

Make text consistence with the rest ()


(+)

is used only for management, administration. With IT terms use .

English Ukrainian

Too many nested control structures ()



(+)

. .

English Ukrainian

By clicking the Submit button, you consent to allow () ,


such third-party provider to use any personal
information you submit for other purposes, which
may include sending you promotional offers about ,
products or services. We appreciate your feedback. .
(+) ,


,
.

83

is the Russian influence and its usage is inadmissible. You should use the word .

English Ukrainian

Using Word as your E-mail Editor () Word



(+) Word

, ,
-. Installation ,
. ,
, ' ,
. , .

English Ukrainian

Feature installation is not complete ()


(+)

Set Database Password... (+) ...

Install printer (+)

Despite the fact that in Ukrainian both conjunctions are used, a better variant for localization is conjunction
. If in the source sentence there a few conjunctions or, you can use conjunction .

() (+)

' OLE . ' OLE .

BUT: ,

, ,

..., ... .

() (+)

, ,
. .

84

You should differentiate the words and . In such cases you should use .

English Ukrainian

The maximum number of characters allowed is 253. () : 253.


(+) :
253.

The usage of in similar constructions is the influence of Russian, you should avoid it.

English Ukrainian

created by merging () .
(+) .

In such cases you should use the word .

() (+)


. .

, , , ,

Now in Ukrainian there are no rules when to use the conjunctions , , , , . A


better variant is to use the word ..., since in this case a translation reads easier and perceived better.

() (+)

Microsoft Microsoft
Office, '; Office, ';
, , , ,
. .

The conjunction is recommended to use in this cases:


1. In complex sentences with a few attributive subordinate clauses.

() (+)

, , , ,
, , , ,
. .

85
2. In participial constructions when the usage of participle is impossible. You should take into consideration
that in Ukrainian the usage of participles is a rather problematic thing in spite of Russian.
In these cases you should use the conjunction .

() (+)

,
, , , ,
. .
, ', , ',
. .

In such cases the correct translation is .

English Ukrainian

If any of the exceptions are meetings, the attendees () ,


will not be notified. .
(+) ,
.

,
,

English Ukrainian

Download updates as soon as they are available. () ,


.
(+) ,
.

Fictitious Information

Fictitious content is legally sensitive material and as such cannot be handled as a pure terminology or
localization issue. Below is some basic information and contact points when dealing with fictitious content:
Vendors and Localizers are not allowed to create their own fictitious names.
Fictitious E-mail Address
One fictitious e-mail address is available for Ukrainian: abc@example.com (for your reference: it used to be
someone@microsoft.com.)

86
Fictitious URL
The sample Web site address http://abc.example.com/, used in documentation and Wizards, is to be left
unchanged.

Recurring Patterns
Not applicable to Ukrainian.

Standardized Translations
There are a number of standardized translations mentioned in all sections of this Style Guide. In order to find
them more easily, the most relevant topics and sections are compiled here for you reference.
The importance of standardization
Frequent Errors
Standardized Translation
Standard Phrases in Error and System Messages
Frequently used expressions
Standard legal text

Unlocalized Items

Trademarked names and the name Microsoft Corporation shouldnt be localized. A list of Microsoft
trademarks is available for your reference at the following location: http://www.microsoft.com/trademarks/t-
mark/names.htm.

Using the Word Microsoft

In English and Ukrainian, it is prohibited to use MS as an abbreviation for Microsoft (may only be used when
there is space restriction. So you can use, for instance, "MS Management Console" in these cases, and as
long as the whole name has been used beforehand.).
Unlocalized product names: The word "Microsoft" is not transliterated in unlocalized product names.
Localized product names: In localized product names we translate the word "Microsoft" using the following
pattern: <Translated product name in Ukrainian> (Microsoft).
Referencing Microsoft Corporation in text: The word "Microsoft" is translated as
when referring to Microsoft Corporation.
Legal documents: In the definition section include the following note: Microsoft Corporation (
) and use in the body of the document.
Referring products/programs/services etc.: When using the word Microsoft in combination with services,
products, web-sites etc. we do not transliterate Microsoft.

87
English Ukrainian

Microsoft Word () Word


(+) Microsoft Word
Microsoft Script Editor () ()
(+) (Microsoft)
Microsoft Corporation () Microsoft
(+)
Microsoft software ()
(+) Microsoft

88
Software Considerations
This section refers to all menus, menu items, commands, buttons, check boxes, etc., which should be
consistently translated in the localized product.

Refer to http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/aa511258.aspx for a detailed explanation of the Windows user


interface guidelines (English).

User Interface

Menus and Ribbon


Menu names and Ribbon tabs names should be consistently translated in all localized products; the same US
term should have identical translation in all localized applications.

Ribbon: tabs and groups

In general, you should always try to translate Ribbon tabs and groups using nouns in nominative case.

Below is the table with examples from the screenshot. Please note that verbs are substituted by verbal nouns
and the Home tab is translated as .

English Ukrainian

Home ()
(+)

Insert ()
(+)

Review ()
(+)

89
Where it is not possible to use a noun, use verb in the infinitive, or other parts of speech. For example, on the
screenshot below the group name Show/Hide is translated as two verbs (using verbal nouns would result in
a very long translation and possible truncation).

Menus and toolbars

The same rules apply to menus translation: In general, you should always try to translate menu names as
nouns in nominative case.

Here all the menus are translated as nouns.

Example of toolbar with items translated as nouns

Where it is not possible to use a noun, use verb (always infinitive) or any part of speech. For example below
is a screenshot of toolbar with UI items translated as verbs or verbal constructions.

Both ways are acceptable with one limitation: the translation should be consistent in one window and across
applications. For example, the screenshot below represents the wrong localization of toolbar (both verbs and
nouns used while it is possible to use the similar forms for all menus translations).

Referring to menus, ribbon tabs and groups and toolbar items

The preferred action to be performed with menu titles and menu items is (select), even if the
original ignores a similar recommendation given for English.

Commands

Command names should be consistently translated in all localized products; the same US term should have
identical translation in all localized applications.

90
Command names should be preferably translated as verbs, e.g., Save (), Cut (), Paste
(), always infinitive.

Many command names are translated as nouns, always nominative, e.g., List (). There are some
exceptions: About <program name> ( ), What is it? ( ?).

Pay attention to menu commands in the form of adjectives. Ukrainian adjectives, unlike the English ones,
have gender and number and it is impossible to localize single adjective correctly without having a context or
when the context require the adjective to be in masculine, feminine or neuter at the same time (this often
happens in menus). In these cases try to localize the adjective with verb or noun. See below example for
New command.

English

Ukrainian

When possible, try to use the following combinations of word classes in menus:

Menu title Menu items Example

A verb A noun or noun phrase

91
Menu title Menu items Example

A noun A verb or verb phrase

The word classes of the US term and the localized term do not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the
possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice versa, if that improves the result. Adjectives are used
relatively rarely and adverbs only in exceptional cases.

Referring to commands

The preferred action to be performed with commands is /, even if the original


ignores a similar recommendation given for English.

Dialog Box Components

When translating dialog box interface you should remember that you are expected to use consistent
terminology and language style in all dialog boxes, not only within currently localized application. You also
need to ensure that your translations are consistent with translations in other localized applications. Take also
into account that currently not localized applications may be localized in the future and solutions adopted now
must be usable there as well.
This is particularly important when localising common (identical dialog boxes) found in several applications.
For example, see below screenshots of Insert Hyperlink dialog box in Word and Excel.
Microsoft Word

92
Microsoft Excel

Dialog Box: Titles

The main titles of the dialog boxes should be the same as the names of the commands or buttons which
evoke them, for instance, if the command or button names were , or , the
dialog box titles should be as well , or .

Command Dialog box title

If the command is translated as a verb, the dialog box title should be changed to a noun.

Command Dialog box title

93
Dialog Box Tabs
Dialog box tabs should be treated similarly to dialog box titles (see above), plus obvious length constraints.
The dialog box tabs are either nouns, always nominative; or verbs, infinitive; seldom they can be adjectives.
See the examples of different forms below.
Please note that tabs can be horizontal or vertical, but in both cases they should be translated consistently
and referred to correctly (as to tabs, not list items or commands).
Pay attention to consistency with other tabs of the same dialog and with similar dialogs elsewhere. An
example of a common dialog box containing the same terminology the <Program name> Options dialog box
(Ukrainian):

Microsoft Word

Microsoft Excel

On the screenshots above see dialog boxes with vertical tabs:


Display, Proofing, Save, Customize, Add-ins, Trust Center, Resources nouns; Popular adjective;
Advanced adverb.)
94
Below is the example of dialog box with horizontal tabs: the same rules apply; the tabs are translated mostly
as nouns, only the last one as adverb.

Here is an example of tabs translated as verbs:

Referring to tabs

The preferred action to be performed with tabs is or , even if the


original ignores a similar recommendation given for English.

Group boxes

A group box is a labeled rectangular frame that surrounds a set of related control.

Example of three group boxes

Group box: titles


When translating the title of a group of control elements, nouns, adjectives and questions are translated as
nouns, adjectives and questions with no ending punctuation.
Noun

95
Verbal construction

Group titles usually are not grammatically connected to the options that follow. This means that the options
are capitalized as usual and their form does not depend on the form of the group title.

Group box: instructional text


When translating the instructional and it is a verb or verb phrase, note to whom it is addressed. Translate as
informal 2nd person if it is the system and polite 2nd person if it is the user.
User:

System:

Nouns, adjectives and questions are translated as nouns, adjectives and questions

The punctuation at the end of instructional text usually is a period.

96
Checkboxes and Radio Buttons

Check boxes and radio buttons that are verbs may be written as commands to the system or options
available for the user. Translate the former as normal commands and the latter noun

Check boxes and radio buttons that are nouns should normally be translated using the nominative case. Do
not try to make full sentences out of groups of check boxes.

In the case check boxes or radio button names form a list, they should not be capitalized:

In some cases check boxes names cannot be forming a list, in this case they can start with a capital letter.
For example:

Regardless of how US check boxes end with or without a period the Ukrainian translations never end with
a period unless they are complete sentences (unless it is a full sentence.)

Referring to checkboxes and radio buttons

The preferred actions to be performed with check boxes are (check) and (clear,
uncheck).

English Ukrainian

Select this check box. .

If the original does not mention the check box, and only refers to the item the check box applies to, then use
(check) and (uncheck) in reference to the items themselves.

English Ukrainian

Check all subfolders

Uncheck all subfolders

When referring to option buttons/radio buttons you should use .

97
Buttons

When possible, try to use verbs for command buttons. The word classes of the US term and the localised
term do not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice
versa, if that improves the result.
Generally if the button name is verb, translate as verb; if the name is a noun, translate as noun.

Three buttons on the screenshot: OK, Cancel (verb), Help (noun)

Adjectives and adverbs are used relatively rarely.

Do not use nouns and verbal nouns for buttons where you can use verbs!

() (+)

Standard translation of such phrases as Reset to default, Use default settings etc. is

The punctuation at the end of button names can be null or ellipsis.

Referring to buttons

When referring to buttons use verb (click)

English Ukrainian

Click the Save button ()


()
(+)

Dropdown lists/tables

The list titles and list elements usually cannot be grammatically connected and they do not take any inflection
to reflect connection between the list title and the elements of that list. Nevertheless try to make them as
grammatically connected as possible, for example, adjectives should have the same gender (feminine,
neutral or masculine) as the nouns they modify. F.e. on the screenshot below the adjectives in dropdown list
are agreed with the noun :
98
If the title of the list influences the list items translate accordingly:

Column and row titles in tables start with capital letters and do not end with any punctuation marks.
When the table items are complete sentences, each of them starts with a capital letter and ends with a
period. When the table items are not complete sentences, they normally start with small letters and do not
end with a period. However the whole column must be consistent, i.e. start with either small or capital letter.

Tooltips

Most of the buttons ToolTips have the names identical with the commands they represent. You should ensure
that this consistency is maintained in the localized software as well. If for some reason that rule doesn't apply
in English product, then the rule doesnt apply in Ukrainian either; you just translate the English text selecting
appropriate terminology.

Button translated as verbal construction tooltip translated as verbal construction.

UI item translated as noun tooltip translated as noun.

UI item translated as noun tooltip translated as verbal noun + noun (different US source)

99
Please note that so called SuperTooltips consist of two levels: title and description. In the case of
SuperTooltip the title should correspond to the command (f.e. ) and the description may
de translated as verbal noun, verbal construction etc. Please see the example below. The main requirement:
the descriptions forms should be used consistently, i.e. if you choose verbal construction use this form.

Regardless of how the US simple tooltips end with or without a period tooltips localized into Ukrainian do
not end with a period.
SuperTooltips: titles should be translated without the ending punctuation (as simple tooltips). The description
part should end with a period.

Messages

It is important to use the correct Ukrainian style in the localized messages, and not just translate the US
messages. Standardize!
Avoiding wordiness
Do not use extra words if they do not add to sentence/string meaning and are not needed to complete
grammatical structure of a string.

English example Ukrainian example

Do you want to save the current list of messages? ()


?
()
?
()
?

100
()
?
(+) ?

Continuous operations
Continuous operations are usually expressed in English with a gerund which should be translated into
Ukrainian by either a reflexive verb or verbal noun or a construction with the verb "":

English example Ukrainian example

Printing document (+)

Downloading page (+)


(+)

Converting file (+)

Please
The word "please" is often used in English sentences. In Ukrainian equivalents the literate translation "
" is out of place. Do not overuse it! If messages like "Please wait a minute" often appear on the
screen. They should be translated as "".

Welcome to
Translate as <application name> or omit and leave only the product
name as this string is usually a concatenated one and there might be a problem with grammar.

Status Messages
What is a Status Bar Message?

A status bar message is an informational message about the active document or a selected command as well
as about any active or selected interface item. Messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the
window when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. The
status bar messages refer to actions being performed or already complete (for example in Windows Live Mail
below).

Ukrainian Style in Status bar Messages

In English, the status bar messages have different forms dependent on the information they must convey. In
Ukrainian, the majority of menu and commands status bar messages should be translated using nouns. If it is
not possible/inappropriate to use a structure with noun, use alternative structures with verbs. In rare cases
(such as "Done" ) other parts of speech can be used.

101
English Status Bar Ukrainian Status Bar
Name Ukrainian Name Category
message message

Edit menu Contains editing commands (+)

(+)
Copy to Copies the selected items to
menu
Folder... a new location

(+)
New command Creates a new document

(+)
Word is converting the .
document. Press Esc to stop. Esc,
.

Datasheet View (+)

Done (+)

The importance of standardization


In the US product you can often find messages that are phrased differently even though they have the same
meaning. Try to avoid this in the localized Ukrainian version. Use one standard translation as in the examples
below:

English term Correct Ukrainian translation

Press F1 to get Help

If you want Help press F1 , F1.

To get Help press F1

Not enough memory

Insufficient memory .

There is not enough memory

Save changes to %1?


%1?
Do you want to save changes to %1?

Cannot find the file.

Could not find the file.


.
Unable to find the file.

Failed to find the file.

102
Placeholders in Status Bar Messages
Whenever you find status bar message with a placeholder try to use the best possible translation that will
correspond to the source and will not violate the Ukrainian grammar rules.
Strings with number placeholders may require different grammatical forms of words in this string with different
values of the placeholder. One of the following two options should be used:
1. Change sentence structure so that it is grammatically correct with all possible values.
For such messages as %d messages change the word order to be show in Ukrainian as :
%d. Otherwise the endings will not be agreed with number in all cases. For example:

English Correct Incorrect Comment


The string was literally
translated form English
with the same word
order. If the translator
would have changed the
string to :
<number> the string
would be correct for all
numbers.

2. Use abbreviation
English Ukrainian

The deadline for this task is in %d days %d


.

Error Messages
What Is An Error Message?
Here is an example:

Error messages are messages sent by the system or a program, informing the user that there is an error that
must be corrected in order for the program to keep running. For example, the messages can prompt the user
to take an action or inform the user of an error that requires rebooting the computer.

103
Ukrainian Style in Error Messages

It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just
translate as they appear in the US product. Try to standardize similar error messages.

Many error messages in English end with exclamation marks, but usually they should not be used in
Ukrainian. Exercise your discretion to decide whether exclamation mark is appropriate in Ukrainian translation
in each particular case.

Standard Phrases in Error and System Messages

When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express
the same thing.
In the table below you will find the most common constructions used in the error and system messages and
the recommended translations. These translations should be used in all new Microsoft translations and fixed
in legacy strings if such strings review is a part of the current translation/review project. There is no need to
request special/separate review to use the below translation in legacy materials as long as legacy translation
is correct.
Examples:

English Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian Example

An error occurred while An error occurred while


... formatting the media. .

An error was detected An error was detected


while accessing the
program configuration. .

Are you sure you want to ... Are you sure you want ?
to delete the file?

attempted An unsupported
operation was
attempted.
You have attempted to .
access an unconfigured
device.

Cannot Cannot configure... ...


Cannot determine... ...
Internet Explorer Internet Explorer
cannot find DLL: DLL.

Cannot Cannot divide by zero. .


() The file can not be ,
deleted as its open by
other user

104
English Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian Example

Congratulations! Congratulations! You


have successfully .
(not translated) installed the selected
device!

Device is already in use.


Do you want to Do you want to convert


this font to TrueType TrueType
(not translated) during installation? ?

Downloading Components are ,


... downloading, please .
wait.

day(s) Every X day(s)


hour(s)

Failure Equipment failure

Failed to ... Failed to find device


driver component: '%1'. : "%1".
Failed to open MAPI
Forms Manager MAPI

Fatal Error

In progress Search in progress


There is a remote mail
session in progress .

Insufficient disk space


Invalid 1) 1) You have an invalid 1)


version of the file on .
your computer.
2) One of the counter 2)
2) (
signatures is invalid. .

)

Make sure Now make sure nothing ,


is on the copyboard .

No system message is
available.

No error occurred.

Not available The DECnet protocol is DECnet

105
English Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian Example
not currently available. .

Out of memory detected. .

Please choose ... Please choose which ,


application should .
receive the image.

Please specify Please specify the new .


path to the file.

Restart Please restart the


system before .
proceeding.

Searching... ...

Select Select a specific


PrintServer type in the (.
Port Type list of the
Add Port dialog ).

The system was unable ... The system was unable


to to install your device .

There is not enough There is not enough


memory available to .
perform this task.

To complete ... To complete the


installation of your ,
scanner or camera, "".
click Finish.

Try Try saving the


messages to a different
file name. .

Unable to Unable to activate help. .


Unable to configure ...
Unable to install de to
the following error ...
Unable to process .

Valid // Please enter a valid


TCP/IP name. TCP/IP.

What do you want to do?



:

You can ... You can type a name

106
English Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian Example
for this device, or you
can use the name
supplied below. .

You may ... You may click a Rotate


button, click Enhance ,
or Transfer to use your .
picture.
You may change
camera settings, or
click tabs to manage
your pictures. .

Error Messages Containing Placeholders

When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder.
This is necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word
or phrase. Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:
%d, %ld, %u, and %lu means <number>
%c means <letter>
%s means <string>

Examples of error messages containing placeholders:


"Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web <number> of <number>".
"INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file "<string>" section".

English Example Placeholder Ukrainian Example

Cannot open %s %s file name


standard.doc.

Keys

The keyboard is the primary input device used for text input in Microsoft Windows. For accessibility and
efficiency, most actions can be performed using the keyboard as well. While working with Microsoft software,
you use keys, key combinations and key sequences.
In English, References to key names, like arrow keys, function keys and numeric keys, appear in normal text
(not in small caps).
Key names that are usually typed on keyboard are left in English. In this case capitalize only first letter in the
key name. Key names that are not visible on most keyboards should be translated into Ukrainian. Namely,
this is the Space bar, Tab key and arrow keys.

107
English Ukrainian

Enter Enter

Caps Lock Caps Lock

Page Up Pg Up

Page Down Pg Down

Tab

Space bar

Note that all letters in the key name are capitalized.

When referring to a key use a descriptor :

() (+)

Enter Enter

Alt Alt
OR
Alt

Access Keys/Hot keys

Sometimes, there are underlined or highlighted letters in menu options, commands or dialog boxes. These
letters refer to access keys (also known as hot keys) that allow you to run commands, perform tasks, etc.
more quickly.
Whenever possible access keys should be assigned to Cyrillic letters or numbers not to Latin letters (so that
users don't need to switch to other keyboard layout.)
.

Hot Key Special Options Usage: Is It Allowed? Notes

"Slim characters", such as I, l, t, r, n/a In Ukrainian Latin alphabet is not used


f can be used as hot key

Characters with downstrokes, No A hotkey can be assigned to a


such as ,, , , , , , , , character with a downstroke if there

108
Hot Key Special Options Usage: Is It Allowed? Notes
can be used as hotkeys are no other options (i.e. all other
character have hotkeys assigned to
them)

Extended characters can be used n/a Not applicable to Ukrainian


as hotkeys

An additional letter, appearing No


between brackets after item
name, can be used as hotkeys

A number, appearing between Yes This workaround should be used


brackets after item name, can be when only English words are available
used as hotkey for an access key, like in protocol
names:

A punctuation sign, appearing No


between brackets after item
name, can be used as hotkey

Duplicate hotkeys are allowed No


when no other character is
available

No hotkey is assigned when no Yes


more characters are available
(minor options only)

Additional notes:
1. Use the first character in the string (command, menu, label, etc.), e.g., .
2. In a string containing more than one word, use the first character of one of the following words, e.g.,
.
3. In compound words, use the first character of the second (or third, etc.) word element, e.g.,
.
4. In strings containing a rare or unusual character, use that character, e.g., .
5. Use the first available character, going from left to right, e.g., ("" is already taken by ).

Arrow Keys

The arrow keys move input focus among the controls within a group. Pressing the right arrow key moves
input focus to the next control in tab order, whereas pressing the left arrow moves input focus to the previous
control. Home, End, Up, and Down also have their expected behavior within a group. Users can't navigate out
of a control group using arrow keys.

109
English Ukrainian

Up

Down

Right

Left

The arrow keys can be translated using the descriptor or avoiding it:
(+)
(+)

Numeric Keypad

It is recommended that you avoid distinguishing numeric keypad keys from the other keys, unless it is
required by a given application. In case which keys to be pressed is not obvious, provide necessary
explanations. For example: Ins . Or you can use the abbreviation
. if there is shortage of space, e.g., 5 (.).

Shortcut Keys
Shortcut keys are keystrokes or combinations of keystrokes used to perform defined functions in a software
application. Shortcut keys replace menu commands and they are sometimes given next to the command they
represent. In opposition to the access keys, which can be used only when available on the screen, shortcut
keys can be used even when they are not accessible on the screen.

Standard Shortcut Keys

US US English Ukrainan Ukrainian


Command Shortcut Key Command Shortcut key

General Windows Shortcut keys

Help window F1 F1

Context-sensitive Help Shift+F1 Shift+F1

Display pop-up menu Shift+F10 Shift+F10


Cancel Esc Esc

Activate\Deactivate F10 F10


menu bar mode

Switch to the next Alt+Tab Alt+Tab


primary application

Display next window Alt+Esc Alt+Esc


110
US US English Ukrainan Ukrainian
Command Shortcut Key Command Shortcut key

Display pop-up menu Alt+Spacebar Alt+


for the window

Display pop-up menu Alt+- Alt+-


for the active child
window

Display property sheet Alt+Enter Alt+Enter


for current selection

Close active Alt+F4 Alt+F4


application window

Switch to next window Alt+F6 Alt+F6


within (modeless-
compliant) application

Capture active Alt+Prnt Scrn Alt + Prnt Scrn


window image to the
Clipboard

Capture desktop Prnt Scrn Prnt Scrn


image to the
Clipboard

Access Start button in Ctrl+Esc Ctrl+Esc


taskbar

Display next child Ctrl+F6 Ctrl+F6


window

Display next tabbed Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+Tab


pane (
)

Launch Task Manager Ctrl+Shift+Esc Ctrl+Shift+Esc


and system
initialization

File Menu

File New Ctrl+N Ctrl+N

File Open Ctrl+O Ctrl+O

File Close Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F4

File Save Ctrl+S Ctrl+S

File Save as F12 F12

File Print Preview Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F2

111
US US English Ukrainan Ukrainian
Command Shortcut Key Command Shortcut key

File Print Ctrl+P Ctrl+P

File Exit Alt+F4 Alt+F4

Edit Menu

Edit Undo Ctrl+Z Ctrl+Z

Edit Repeat Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Y

Edit Cut Ctrl+X Ctrl+X

Edit Copy Ctrl+C Ctrl+C

Edit Paste Ctrl+V Ctrl+V

Edit Delete Ctrl+Backspace Ctrl+Backspace

Edit Select All Ctrl+A Ctrl+A

Edit Find Ctrl+F Ctrl+F

Edit Replace Ctrl+H Ctrl+H

Edit Go To Ctrl+B Ctrl+B

Help Menu

Help F1 F1

Font Format

Italic Ctrl+I Ctrl+I

Bold Ctrl+G Ctrl+G

Underlined\Word Ctrl+U / Ctrl+U


underline

Large caps Ctrl+Shift+A Ctrl+Shift+A

Small caps Ctrl+Shift+K Ctrl+Shift+K

Paragraph Format

Centered Ctrl+E Ctrl+E

Left aligned Ctrl+L Ctrl+L

Right aligned Ctrl+R Ctrl+R

Justified Ctrl+J Ctrl+J

112
Key combinations and sequences

While working with Microsoft software, you use keys, key combinations and key sequences.

1. Key combination Key1+Key2


This term is used to underline, that the user is supposed to press the first key, hold it and press the second
key. Key names are combined with + character. For example the command
Alt+Esc
means, that the user should press Alt, hold it, press simultaneously Esc and then release both buttons.

Don't surround "+" sign with spaces, except one of the key names contains two words.
If key combination contains arrow key, write "" before key-combination, e.g.
Ctrl + .

If key combination contains sign key (+, -, *, etc.), put sign key name in quotas and surround "+" sign with
spaces, e.g. Ctrl + "-".

2. Key sequence Key1, Key2


This term is used to underline, that the user is supposed to press and release the given keys one after the
other. Key names are separated with a comma (,) and a hard space. For example the command
Alt, F
means, that the user is supposed to press Alt first, release it, then press and release the F key.

113
Document Translation Considerations
Document localization may require some specific considerations that are different from software localization.
This section covers a few of these areas.
General Guidelines

Show all hidden text, field codes, and nonprinting characters at all times when translating Help.
Do not translate, delete or in any way touch any hidden text or field codes.
Translate one paragraph at the time. Do not delete or replace paragraph marks, they contain
formatting information which is crucial to the building process.
Do not translate or in any way touch footnotes or footnote indicators (K#$ etc.) unless you are
specifically instructed to do so, and given tools with which to do it.
Do translate double or single underlined text unless specifically instructed not to do so.
Definitions, keywords, index entries etc. must be in concordance with references in documentation.

Language Guidelines

Write all instructions in Help in imperative language style.


All Help systems have a US name in the form "Microsoft XXX Help". The Ukrainian equivalent is
: Microsoft XXX, or Microsoft XXX. When the product name is translated into
Ukrainian always use a colon: : <Localized name>.

Titles

1. In English the titles for chapters usually begin with "How to " or with phrases such as "Working with
" or "Using ". In the Ukrainian version of Microsoft documentation, try to use nouns or verbal
nouns whenever possible.

English Ukrainian

How to find... () ...


(+)

Working with tables ()


(+) /

2. Headings for topics in Troubleshooting Help are often constructed after the pattern "I have done so
and so, but this or that does not happen". Translate these directly.
3. Headings in the form "XXX command, YYY menu" are translated in the form YYY,
XXX. These can often be longer, and parentheses are often used to separate the parts: "XXX check
box (YYY tab, ZZZ command, NNN menu)". This is translated as follows: XXX (
NNN, YYY, ZZZ). The parts within the parenthesis are always sorted in order of
action (first select menu, then command, subcommand and tab or button), even though the English
text is not always consistent in this respect.
4. The same form is used for Reference Help headings (e.g., for Visual Basic language reference).
Headings in the form "XXX method" are translated XXX, .

114
5. Example headings in reference help are as follows: "YYY function example" is translated
YYY.

English Ukrainian

Location of Document list box (Modify Location (


dialog, File Location Tab, Options command, Tools , ,
menu) ,
)

Print Property |

Print Property Example |

How? ?

Show me

What do you want to do? :

Link to Web or other sources.

Troubleshooting

Note(s)

To Press | Do this ()

See also .

For more information click [>>]


[>>]

[>>]

Leading Phrases and Triple Spaces

Where paragraphs start with a phrase in bold type, followed by three non-breaking spaces, use a similar
appearance in Ukrainian as well. If the phrase can be considered a part of the following sentence, treat it as
such (don't capitalize the word after the three spaces). If it can't (i.e. words like Note or Tip), then add a full
stop after the word, preserve the spaces as usual, and start the next sentence with normal sentence
capitalization. For consistency, make the full stop bold if the preceding word is bold.

English Ukrainian

Table format have been updated .. ...

Note Table format can be .. . ...

115
Typographic Conventions

Consistent use of typographic conventions in documentation helps users locate and interpret information
easily. The following guidelines present specific typographic conventions which will be used in US and
localized print and online documentation. The US format should be followed as closely as possible.
Please note that typographic conventions for Help localisation may differ from those for software.

Item Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian example


format

User Interface

Menu names Bold the File menu

Command names Bold the Page Setup


command

Dialog Box Titles Bold the Options dialog box

Dialog box elements: Bold the View tab


Tab names the Portrait option
Option names the Form field

Field names the OK button
Button names the Files of type list
List box names box
Text box names the Password text box []
Check box names the Read Only check
box

Icon names No formatting Click the Microsoft


Internet Explorer icon. Microsoft Internet
Explorer

Views Quotation Full Screen view


Windows marks the Print window

User Input

Literal Bold Type a:setup a:setup

Placeholder Italic Type password password

Key names and combinations Initial Caps press Enter ... Enter
press Shift+F2 ...
Shift+F2

Cross-References

Titles of manuals Italic see Chapter 12 in . 12


the Microsoft Word for Microsoft Word
Windows Users Guide. for Windows

Appendix, chapter, and section Quotation see "Special .


names marks Characters" in chapter , 4

116
Item Ukrainian English Example Ukrainian example
format
4, "Programming .
Fundamentals."

Miscellaneous

Acronyms All caps DDE, OLE DDE, OLE

Command-line Bold copy command copy


commands/switches /a switch /

Code samples Monospace Sub Main Sub Main


font (usually ' '
Courier, 10
' '
pts; ali Lucida
' '
Sans
Typewriter, 8 End Sub End Sub
pts)

Port names All caps LPT1, COM1 LPT1, COM1

References To User Interface Components

Always refer to UI components using the same form as appears in the UI, especially if the reference is
highlighted as bold text. This means that the UI component must not be declined, and a modifier must be
added. To select a suitable modifier, find out what kind of component is in question.

English Ukrainian

Click the Calendar ()


(+)

Click Current View in the View menu ()


(+)

On the Insert tab, in the Header & Footer group, ()


click Page Number. .
(+)
.

117
Use the correct verbs while referring to UI elements. Please see the table below for the most used verbs.

Object Action

(button) + noun in Accusativ

(checkbox) + noun in Accusativ

(link) + noun in Accusativ

(icon) + noun in Accusativ

, (command, item) + noun in Accusativ

(option) + noun in Accusativ

Word Order

As often opposed to English, when referring to a menu command first indicate the menu and then the
command

English Ukrainian

Click Save in the File menu ()


(+)

Frequently used expressions

Text type Ukrainian standard phrase

Menu command/item (menu name) /


(command name)
Alt+(underlined character).

OK OK.

Command button (button name)


Alt+(underlined character).

Toolbar button with attached command (toolbar name)


(button name)
Alt+(underlined character).

Toolbar button for tables/columns (toolbar name)


(button name),
.

Option button (option name)


Alt+(underlined character).

Check box (checkbox name)

118
Text type Ukrainian standard phrase
Alt+(underlined character).

Option in check box (option name)


(option group name)
Alt+(underlined character).

Option in list / (option) (list


name)
.

Scroll list to select (list name) (option),


,
.

Type in text box (text) (box name).

Push key (character).

Click icon (name).

Move to another document window (document window name)


CTRL+F6.

Scroll screen
Pg Up Pg Down.

Select character Shift + ().

Select word (word)


Ctrl + Shift + .

Drag -
, ,

.

For more information see Chapter... .

Copyright

Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression
from which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.
Translation of copyright text should be consistent both within the product being localized and across
Ukrainian versions of Microsoft products. Important things to remember:
No changes in copyright text are allowed until English text is different.

The word "Copyright" is omitted in the localized term, only the sign is preserved.

119
Standard legal text

English Ukrainian

Copyright Microsoft Corporation 1995-2001. All (Microsoft Corporation),


rights reserved. 1995-2001. .

Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Windows


Corporation. (Microsoft Corporation).

120