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G#|%TUB%F3V3<3|<#2011
C3P C3NT<# D33DUC%#P<#F|SS|#N%1 D3
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D3sd3 % c<|%# d# h#m3m s3nt3-s3 um% t3ndnc|% 3m c#mun|c%<-s3, 3 s3mp<3 g3<%m#s n#v%s 3
p#d3<#s%s f#<m%s p%<% n#ss% c#mun|c%# c#m # p%ss%< d# t3mp# f#<%m %p<|m#<%nd# %s t3cn#1#g|%
1946 f#| c<|%d# # p<|m3|<# c#mput%d#< d|g|t%1 313t<n|c# s3nd# # p<|m3|<# p%ss# p%<% 3ss% 3xt<%#<d|n<
<3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s qu3 t3m#s h#j3, %<P% c#m3#u % s3< c<|%d# n% dc%d% d3 40 3 3m 1962 f#| c<|%d%
p<|m3|<% <3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s d|g|t%1 3 313t<n|c% qu3 f|c#u c#nh3c|d% c#m# % <3d3 |nt3<g%1ct|c%, um
p<3cu<s#< d% %<P%N3T, % %<P% f3z % 1|g%# 3nt<3 d#|s g<%nd3s 1%b#<%t<|#s
3f3tu%nd# c1cu1#s
m%t3mt|c#s.

# 3stud# d3 |nst%1%# 3 C#nf|gu<%# d3 <3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s p<#p#<c|#n%< # 3g<3ss#


f#<m%# p<#f|ss|#n%1 c#m c#mp3tnc|%s n# s p%<% g%<%nt|< # c#nh3c|m3nt# 3 % ut|1|z%# d%s t#p#1#g
d3 <3d3s, |d3nt|f|c%# 3 c%<%ct3<|z%# d%s t3cn#1g|c%s d3 |nt3<c#n3x# 3 c#n3ct|v|d%d3 3nt<3 #s
3qu|p%m3nt#s, %s qu%|s n3c3ss|t%m ut|1|z%< %s t3cn#1#g|%s d3 <3d3s c#m# |nst<um3nt# d3 v%nt%g3m
c#mp3t|t|v%, # p<#f|ss|#n%1 3m tcn|c# 3m m%nut3n# 3 sup#<t3 3m |nf#<mt|c% 3st%< %pt# % m#nt%< 3
c#nf|gu<%< um% <3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s p%<% qu3 p#ss%m 3f3tu%< % c#mun|c%# 3nt<3 #s 3qu|p%m3nt#s.
#ut<%s c#mp3tnc|%s c#mp13m3nt%<3s, m%s n# m3n#s |mp#<t%nt3s, s# d3s3nv#1v|d%s %t<%vs d3 v|vnc|%
<3%|s 3 d3 s|mu1%# c#m 3stud#s d3 c%s#, c#m um% fund%m3nt%# t3<|c% %tu%1|z%d% 3 t|c% p<#f|ss|#n
p<#f|ss|#n%1 %p<3nd3< t%mbm % |d3nt|f|c%# 3 c%<%ct3<|z%# d#s p<|nc|p%|s p<#t#c#1#s ut|1|z%d#s p%
t<%nsm|ss# d3 d%d#s 3 su%s <3sp3ct|v%s c%m%d%s, %n%1|s%nd# %s p<|nc|p%|s t#p#1#g|%s d3 <3d3 3 #s p<
t|p#s d3 <3d3, s|st3m%s d3 3nd3<3%m3nt# |P, %ss|m s3nd# c%p%z d3 c#n3ct%< 3qu|p%m3nt#s d3 <3d3s
ut|1|z%nd# %s tcn|c%s 3sp3c|f|c%s n% n#<m% %NS| T|%/3|% 568%/B.
Sum<|#
<3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s...................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
C#m# Su<g|u?
...............................................................................................
3m qu3 c#ns|st3 um% <3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s?
......................................................................................................................................
C#m# Func|#n%?
.....................................................................................................................................................
C%b#s
C#n3ct#<3s............................................................................................................................................
T|p#s d3 <3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s....................................................................................................................
1%N .......................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
M#d#s d3 T<%nsm|ss#
M#d31# #S| ..............................................................................................................................................
3nd3<3%m3nt# |P......................................................................................................................................
DNS.....................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
C1%ss3s d3 3nd3<3#s
3th3<n3t 802.3 ...........................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................
T|p#s d3 t<%nsf3<nc|%:
.....................................................................................................................................
P%d<3s 3th3<n3t
<3d3 S3m F|# ...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
|nst%1%nd# # D3b|%n
.................................................................................................................................
|n|c|%nd# # CD-<#m
.................................................................................................................................
C#nf|gu<%nd# % <3d3
..............................................................................................................
3nd3<3# |P %ut#mt|c# v|% DHCP
......................................................................................................................
P%<t|c|#n%nd# # d|sc# <g|d#
...............................................................................................................................
|nst%1%# d# s|st3m% b%s3
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Usu<|#s 3 p%ssw#<ds
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Usu<|# n#<m%1
.......................................................................................................
C#nf|gu<%# d# g3st#< d3 p%c#t3s %pt"
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C#ncu<s# d3 p#pu1%<|d%d3
S313# d# s#ftw%<3........................................................................................................................
% |nst%1%<
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|nst%1%# d# g3st#< d3 %<<%nqu3 g<ub
..................................................................................
%g#<% s3< s#1|c|t% % 3sc#1h% d3 um n#m3 p%<% # g<up#:
................................................ 43
C#nt|nu3 c#m # qu3 %p%<3c3 n% t31%, #u c<|3 um g<up# d3 t<%b%1h# d# s3u |nt3<3ss3!
S3< s#1|c|t%d% % f#<m% d3 .......................................................................................................
%t<|bu|# |P:
................................................................................................................................
T3<m|n%< % |nst%1%#
# p<|m3|<# |nc|# d#.......................................................................................................................
s|st3m%
1#g|n ...................................................................................................................................................
S%mb%........................................................................................................................................................
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C%<%ct3<st|c%s
..................................................................................................................................
|nst%1%nd# # S%mb%
Sw%t.....................................................................................................................................................
<3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s
C#m# Su<g|u?
S3t3mb<# d3 1940, n% %<P% (%gnc|% d3 P3squ|s% d3 P<#j3t#s %v%n%d#s) G3#<g3 St|b|tz ut|1|z#u
um% mqu|n% d3 t313t|p# d3 N#v% H%mpsh|<3 p%<% um% c%1cu1%d#<% 3m N#v% |#<qu3.
3m 1962, f#| c<|%d# % "<3d3 |nt3<g%1ct|c%", um p<3cu<s#< d% %<P%N3T.

3m qu3 c#ns|st3 um% <3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s?

Um% <3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s c#ns|st3 3m |nt3<1|g%< m%|s d3 um 3qu|p%m3nt# (t313f#n3, c31u1%<,


c#mput%d#<, |mp<3ss#<%s 3 3tc.) 3m um% n|c% <3d3, p#d3nd# s3< 1|g%d# % um n|c# 3qu|p%m3nt# #u % m%
3qu|p%m3nt#s %t ch3g%< |nt3<n3t.

C#m# Func|#n%?
Um% <3d3 func|#n% c#m % 1|g%# d3 d#|s 3qu|p%m3nt#s p#< um m3|# fs|c# qu%1qu3<, s3nd# 313s:
c%b#s, #nd%s d3 <%d|#, |nf<%v3<m31h#, B1u3t##th, W|m%x 3 3tc.
D3p3nd3nd# d# m3|# qu3 f#< m#nt%nd# % <3d3, s3<# n3c3ss<|# 3qu|p%m3nt#s c#m# Hub, Sw|tch,
<#ut3< 3 3tc.

C%b#s
3x|st3m h#j3 v<|#s t|p#s d3 c%b#s p%<% c#n3x# 3m <3d3, # m%|s ut|1|z%d# p#< su% v|%b|1|d%d3 3
v31#c|d%d3 d3 t<%nsm|ss# # c%b# UTP (p%< t<%n%d#) c%t3g#<|% 53;

5
C%b# UTP

C%b# C%t3g#<|% 53.

C%b# C%t3g#<|% 6.

6
C%b# C#%x|%1
3st3 t|p# d3 c%b# c#nst|tud# p#< d|v3<s%s c%m%d%s c#ncnt<|c%s d3 c#ndut#<3s
c#%x|%1.

F|b<% pt|c%
3st3 c%b# # m3|# d3 t<%nsm|ss# m%|s <p|d# n% %tu%1|d%d3, %|nd% n# f#| 3nc#
v31#c|d%d3 d3 t<%nsm|ss# h#j3 j %t|ng|nd# % 1,6 T3<%byt3s p#< s3gund#. P#<m # 3qu|p%
ut|1|z%# t3m um v%1#< mu|t# 313v%d# p#< s3< um% t3cn#1#g|% n#v% 3 d3|x%nd# |nv|v

7
C#n3ct#<3s

C#n3ct#< mu|t# ut|1|z%d# 3m c%b#s c#%x|%|s, p#|s n# n3c3ss|t% d3 c#<t%< c%b# 3 c<|%< n#v% c#n3x
%p3n%s g<%mp3%m#s # c%b# c#m # c#n3ct#<.

C#n3ct#< c#%x|%1, c#m# # n#m3 j d|z 313 ut|1|z%d# 3m c%b# c#%x|%1. V%nt%g3m um% m%|#<
s3gu<%n% c#nt<% <ud#s.

8
<J45 h#j3 # m%|s ut|1|z%d# d3v|d# f%c|1|d%d3 d3 3nc#nt<%< 3<<#s 3 % f%c|1|d%d3 d3 m%nus3|#, n
n3c3ss|t% d3 c#nf|gu<%# %v%n%d% 3 p#d3 s3< f%c|1m3nt3 c#n3ct%d# % v<|#s c#mput%d#<3s.

P%d<3s

% |nst|tu|# <3sp#nsv31 p#< d3s3nv#1v|m3nt# d3 um p%d<# % |333 (|nst|tut# d3 3ng3nh3|<#s


313t<|c|st%s 3 313t<n|c#s) p%<% # c%b3%m3nt# d3 <3d3 f#| c<|%d# # |333 802 n313 c#nst% t#d#s #s d%d#s

.
<3f3<3nt3 % t#d#s #s t|p#s d3 1|g%#
%qu| v%m#s f%1%< s#b<3 # |33 802.3 3 # 802.11, qu3 s# <3sp3ct|v%m3nt3 <3d3 1#c%1 3 <3d3 s3m f|#

3qu|p%m3nt#s
%1|c%t3 d3 C<|mp%g3m:

9
%1|c%t3 d3 C#<t3:

T3st%d#< d3 C%b#s:

T|p#s d3 <3d3 d3 C#mput%d#<3s


1%N
<3d3 d3 %c3ss# 1#c%1 um% <3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s |nt3<1|g%d%s c#m 3qu|p%m3nt#s, p1%c%s,
p<#c3ss%d#<3s 3 3tc., c#m % f|n%1|d%d3 d3 t<#c% d3 d%d#s;
%s 1%ns s# d3f|n|d%s c#m# 1#c%|s p#< c#b<|<3m um% <3% d3 n# mx|m# 10 km;
%s 1%ns g3<%1m3nt3 s# ut|1|z%d%s p%<% c#mun|c%# 3m c%s%s, 3sc<|t<|#s, 3sc#1%s 3 3tc.

M%N
<3d3 d3 %c3ss# M3t<#p#1|t%n# |nt3<1|g% v<|%s 1%ns g3#g<%f|c%m3nt3 p<x|m%s;
10
F%z c#n3x# 3nt<3 d3z3n%s d3 qu|1m3t<#s, f%z c#mun|c%# 3nt<3 d#|s p#nt#s c#m# s3 f|z3ss3m
p%<t3 d3 um% m3sm% <3d3 1%N;
G3<%1m3nt3 ut|1|z%d# f|b<% pt|c%.

W%N
<3d3 d3 1#ng% D|stnc|%, #u s3j%, <3d3 g3#g<%f|c%m3nt3 d|st<|bud%s f%z 1|g%3s 3nt<3 p%s 3
c#nt|n3nt3s;
%s W%Ns s# n3c3ss<|%s d3v|d# d3m%nd% d3 |nf#<m%3s qu3 c|<cu1% n%s 1%Ns, d3v|d# % 3ss
d3m%nd% su<g|<%m %s W%Ns p%<% m31h#<%< % v31#c|d%d3 3 c#nf|%b|1|d%d3 d3 d%d#s.

W1%N
<3d3 1#c%1 d3 %c3ss# s3m F|# um% <3d3 1#c%1 qu3 s3 ut|1|z% d3 #nd%s d3 <d|# p%<% 3f3tu%< %
t<%nsm|ss# d3 d%d#s;
F#| |nc1ud% % p<|nc|p|# 3m f%cu1d%d3s, %3<#p#<t#s 3 <3%s pub1|c%s;
T<#ux3 # cust# b3n3f|c|#, p#< s3< d3 fc|1 |nst%1%# 3 um cust# m3n#s 313v%d#.

WM%N
um% <3d3 s3m f|# d3 m%|#< %1c%nc3 3m <31%# W1%N, |st# , c#b<3 c|d%d3s |nt3|<%s #u g<%n
<3g|3s m3t<#p#1|t%n%s 3 c3nt<#s u<b%n#s;
% WM%N um% <3d3 s3m f|# qu3 %1c%n% d3z3n%s d3 qu|1m3t<#s.

WW%N
um% <3d3 d3 m%|# %1c%nc3 3m <31%# W%N, p#d3 c#b<|< d|v3<s#s p%s3s %t|ng|nd# m|1h%<3
qu|1m3t<#s d3 d|st%nc|%;
3m 3x3mp1# s# c31u1%<3s qu3 c#b<3m d|v3<s%s <3g|3s d# g1#b#;
% d|st%nc|% |1|m|t%d% d3p3nd3nd# %p3n%s d% t3cn#1#g|% d3 t<%nsm|ss# 3 <3c3p# ut|1|z%d%

M#d#s d3 T<%nsm|ss#
%n%1g|c#
S|n%1 %n%1g|c# t<%nsm|t|d# p#< m3|# d3 #nd%s, 3 v%<|% 3m fun# d# t3mp#;
P#d3m %ssum|< qu%1qu3< v%1#< 3m um 3sp%# d3 t3mp#.

11
T<%nsm|ss# %n%1g|c%:

D|g|t%1

# S|n%1 d|g|t%1 n# v%<|% d3 %c#<d# c#m # t3mp#, p#d3 %ssum|< s#m3nt3 d#|s v%1#<3s 0 3 1;
um% <3p<3s3nt%# c#d|f|c%d% d% |nf#<m%# #<|g|n%1.

T<%nsm|ss# D|g|t%1:

T#p#1#g|%
B%<<%m3nt#
T#d#s #s c#mput%d#<3s s# 1|g%d#s % um n|c# m3|#;

Qu%nd# um c#mput%d#< t<%nsm|t3 # #ut<# 3scut%;


S3 h#uv3< du%s t<%nsm|ss# %# m3sm# t3mp#, % t<%nsm|ss# <3|n|c|%d%.

12
M#d31# B%<<%m3nt#:

%n31
#s d|sp#s|t|v#s s# c#n3ct%d#s 3m s3<|3, f#<m%nd# um c|<cu|t# f3ch%d#;
T#d%s %s m%qu|n%s <3c3b3m % |nf#<m%#, s#m3nt3 % d3st|n%t<|% p<#c3ss% 3 <3sp#nd3;
C#nf|%b|1|d%d3 z3<#.

M#d31# %n31:

13
3st<31%

% m%|s ut|1|z%d%, c#n3ct%d% v|% p%< t<%n%d# 3 p#ssu| um c3nt<%1|z%d#< (Sw|tch, hub #u <#t3%
M#d31# 3st<31%:

C<|mp%g3m

3|%/T|% 568%
P%<% 3f3tu%< % c#n3x# c#m % 3x|stnc|% d3 um c#mut%d#< (sw|tch, m#d3m, hub #u <#t3%d#<)
ut|1|z%-s3 3st3 p%d<# d3 c#<3s:

14
3|%/T|% 568B
3st3 p%d<# p#d3 s3< ut|1|z%d# c#m# d% m3sm% f#<m% d# %, m%s ut|1|z%d# 3m m%|#< p%<t3 p%
3f3tu%< c#n3x# (C<#ss#v3<) p#nt# % p#nt#, ut|1|z%nd# um% p#nt% c#m # p%d<# % 3 % #ut<% n# p%d<# B
s3 ut|1|z% 3st3 p%d<#:

M#d31# #S|
3st% %<qu|t3tu<% # m#d31# qu3 d|v|d3 % |nf#<m%# t<%nsm|t|d% 3m um% <3d3 d3 c#mput%d#<3s
c%m%d%s;

15
C%m%d% Fs|c%
% c%m%d% fs|c% % <3sp#nsv31 p31% t<%nsm|ss# d# d%d# 3m s|n%1 d|g|t%1, t<%nsm|t3 #s b|ts n%
f#<m% b<ut%;
N# 3f3tu% c#nt<#13 d3 p%c#t3s 3 n3m c#<<3# d3 3<<#s;
D3f|n3 % v31#c|d%d3 d3 su% <3d3;

C%m%d% d3 3n1%c3
N3ss% c%m%d% j f3|t% c#<<3# d3 3<<#s 3 p%c#t3s;
3f3tu% c#nt<#13 d3 f1ux#, p#ssu| Buff3< qu3 |nf#<m% %# t<%nsm|ss#< s3 p#d3 c#nt|nu%< t<%nsm|t|nd#
#u d3v3 %gu%<d%< # t3mp# d3 su% m3m<|% d3 p<#c3ss%m3nt#;

C%m%d% d3 <3d3
3f3tu% 3nd3<3%m3nt# d3 p%c#t3s, %t<|bu|nd# |P 3 M%C d3 f#<m% qu3 #s p%c#t3s c#ns|g%m ch3g%<
%# d3st|n#;
3f3tu% c%1cu1# d3 <#t% p%<% # d3st|n#, v3<|f|c%nd# c#nd|3s d3 t<%f3g# 3 p<|#<|d%d3s d% <3d3;
3st% c%m%d% s us%d% qu%nd# % <3d3 p#ssu| m%|s d3 um s3gm3nt#.

C%m%d% d3 T<%nsp#<t3
<3sp#nsv31 p31% d|v|s# d3 p%c#t3s 3nv|%d#s p31% c%m%d% d3 s3ss# qu3 s3<# t<%nsm|t|d#s p%<
c%m%d% d3 <3d3, 3 n# <3c3pt#< <3sp#nsv31 p31% <3m#nt%g3m d#s p%c#t3s d|v|d|d#s;
|nc1u| c#nt<#13 d3 f1ux#, 3 3nv|% |nf#<m%3s d3 <3c3b|m3nt#;
Qu%nd# % c%m%d% d3 <3d3 n# f#<n3c3 um s3<v|# c#nf|v31, % c%m%d% d3 t<%nsp#<t3 %ssum3 %
<3sp#ns%b|1|d%d3s 3 m31h#<% % qu%1|d%d3 d# s3<v|#.

C%m%d% d3 S3ss#
P3<m|t3 qu3 du%s %p1|c%3s 3m c#mput%d#<3s d|f3<3nt3s 3st%b313%m um% s3ss# d3 c#mun|c%

N3st% s3ss# %s %p1|c%3s d3f|n3m c#m# s3< f3|t% % t<%nsm|ss# d3 d%d#s;


3f3tu% m%<c%# n#s d%d#s qu3 3st# % s3< t<%nsm|t|d#s.
S3 p#<v3ntu<% % <3d3 f%1h%<, #s c#mput%d#<3s <3|n|c|%m % t<%nsm|ss# d#s d%d#s % p%<t|< d%
m%<c%#.

C%m%d% d3 %p<3s3nt%#
C#nv3<t3 # f#<m%t# d# d%d# <3c3b|d# p31% c%m%d% d3 %p1|c%# 3m um f#<m%t# c#mum % s3<
n# p<#t#c#1# d3f|n|d#.
% t<%nsm|ss#: #s d%d#s <3c3b|d#s d% c%m%d% 7 s3<# "3nc#1h|d#s" 3 3nv|%d#s c%m%d% 5.
P%<% %um3nt%< % s3gu<%n%, p#d3-s3 us%< %1gum 3squ3m% d3 c<|pt#g<%f|% n3st3 nv31.
31% t<%b%1h% t<%nsf#<m%nd# #s d%d#s 3m um f#<m%t# n# qu%1 % c%m%d% d3 %p1|c%# p#ss%

16
C%m%d% d3 %p1|c%#
% c%m%d% d3 %p1|c%# <3sp#nsv31 p#< d%< # n#m3, p<#g<%m% # qu%1 s3< ut|1|z%d# 3nt<3 %
mqu|n% d3st|n%t<|% 3 # usu<|#.
Tud# n3st% c%m%d% d|<3c|#n%d# %# h%<dw%<3.
%1guns p<#t#c#1#s ut|1|z%d#s n3st% c%m%d% s#: HTTP, SMTP, FTP, SSH, <TP, T31N3T, P#P,
|M%P, DNS, P|NG, 3tc.

3nd3<3%m3nt# |P
D3 f#<m% g3n<|c%, um 3nd3<3# qu3 |nd|c% # 1#c%1 d3 um d3t3<m|n%d# c#mput%d#< #u
3qu|p%m3nt#.
#s 3nd3<3#s |P s# c#nv3<t|d#s p%<% n#m3s, 3x: 64.233.163.104 www.g##g13.c#m.b<, 3ss%
c#nv3<s# c#nh3c|d% c#m# <3s#1u# d3 n#m3s (DNS).
# |P, v3<s# (|pv4), um num3<# d3 32 b|ts d3 4 #ct3t#s <3p<3s3nt%d# 3m d3c|m%1.

<3d3
% p<|m3|<% p%<t3 d3 um 3nd3<3# |P |d3nt|f|c% % <3d3 3 sub-<3d3, % s3gund% p%<t3 |d3nt|f|c% #s h#
# 3nd3<3# |P 3sp3c|f|c% um% <3d3 3 um h#st. P#< <3g<% um 3nd3<3# d3 <3d3 3sp3c|f|c% s3us h#sts
p#< b|ts |gu%|s % z3<#.
# 3nd3<3# d3 um% <3d3 d3s|gn% um% <3d3 (d|f3<3nt3 d3 3nd3<3# |P), 3 d3v3 s3< c#mp#st# p31# s3u
3nd3<3# 3 <3sp3ct|v% msc%<% d3 <3d3.

DNS
#s s|t3s d% |nt3<n3t s# c#nh3c|d#s p31#s n#m3s %ss#c|%d#s, G##g13, U#1, F%c3b#k 3 3tc.

# DNS (D#m%|n N%m3 Syst3m), um t<%dut#< d3 3nd3<3#, c#nv3<t3 n#m3s p%<% 3nd3<3#s |P. 3x:
64.233.163.104 www.g##g13.c#m.b<.

C1%ss3s d3 3nd3<3#s
# 3nd3<3# |P f#| d|v|d|d# 3m 3st<utu<%s d3 t%m%nh# f|x#, %s c1%ss3s d3 3nd3<3#s. %s p<|nc|p%|s
s# % c1%ss3 %, c1%ss3 B 3 c1%ss3 C.

T3m#s t%mbm %s c1%ss3s D 3 3. C1%ss3 D c#m# mu1t|c%st 3 c1%ss3 3 p%<% us# futu<#, %tu%1m3n
<3s3<v%d% % |3TF.

255.255.255.255 d3st|n%d# % b<#%dc%st.

17
<3d3 3 H#sts

C1%ss3 % <3D3 H#STS H#STS H#STS

C1%ss3 B <3D3 <3D3 H#STS H#STS

C1%ss3 C <3D3 <3D3 <3D3 H#STS

T%b31% d3 3nd3<3#s

3nd3<3# Num3<# d3
C1%ss3 3nd3<3# f|n%1M%sc%<%
|n|c|%1 3nd3<3#s

% 1.0.0.0 127.255.255.255 255.0.0.0 16.777.216

B 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255 255.255.0.0 65.536

C 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255 255.255.255.0 256

D 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 255.0.0.0 Mu1t|c%st

3 240.0.0.0 247.255.255.255 255.0.0.0 Us# Futu<#

Msc%<%
C#nh3c|d% t%mbm c#m# n3tm%sk, us%d% p%<% s3p%<%< 3m um |P % p%<t3 d3 <3d3 d% p%<t3 d
3nd3<3# 1g|c#.

# m31h#< j3|t# d3 3f3tu%< # c%1cu1# d3 <3d3 ut|1|z%nd# b|n<|#.

3nd3<3# d3 <3d3: qu3 |d3nt|f|c% % <3d3/sub-<3d3.


3nd3<3# d3 h#sts: qu3 |d3nt|f|c% % m%qu|n% #u %1gum% |nt3<f%c3 d% <3d3.
18
T%b31% d3 M%sc%<%:
M%sc%<% d3
C1%ss3 N#t%#
<3d3

% 255.0.0.0 /8

B 255.255.0.0 /16

C 255.255.255.0 /24

Sub-<3d3
% d|v|s# d3 um% <3d3. Ut|1|z%d# p%<% s3gu<%n% 3 p%<% c#nt<#13 d3 t<%f3g# n% <3d3.

N#t%#
M%sc%<% N d3 |Ps B|n<|#
C|D<

255.0.0.0 /8 16.777.216 11111111.000000000.00000000.00000000

255.255.0.0 /16 65.536 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

255.255.240.0 /20 4.096 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000

255.255.255.224 /27 32 11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000

255.255.255.240 /28 16 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000

255.255.255.255 /32 1 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111

19
C%1cu1# d3 <3d3 3 sub-<3d3
P%<% 3f3tu%< # c%1cu1# d3 <3d3 ut|1|z%< % #p3<%# %ND.

F#<mu1% p%<% c%1cu1# d3 h#st


n
Nm3<# d3 |Ps d3nt<# d3 c%d% sub-<3d3 -2.
=2
#nd3 n c#<<3sp#nd3 qu%nt|d%d3 d3 0 n# 3nd3<3# b|n<|#.

3th3<n3t 802.3
T|p#s d3 t<%nsf3<nc|%:
S|mp13x: % |nf#<m%# t<%nsm|t|d% 3m um n|c# s3nt|d#, #u s3j%, s#m3nt3 d# t<%nsm|ss#< p%<
<3c3pt#<. T313v|s# 3 <d|#.

H%1f-Dup13x: % |nf#<m%# t<%nsm|t|d% 3m %mb#s #s s3nt|d#s, 3mb#<% d3 f#<m% %1t3<n%


<d|# N3xt31 3 <%d|# %m%d#<.

Fu11-Dup13x: % |nf#<m%# t<%nsm|t|d% 3m %mb#s #s s3nt|d#s d3 f#<m% s|mu1tn3%, 3x: C3


3 p<#t#c#1# tcp/|p,

3th3<n3t
3f3tu% |nt3<c#n3x# d3 <3d3 1#c%|s (1%N) 3 b%s3%d% n# 3nv|# d3 p%c#t3s.
31% d3f|n3 c%b3%m3nt# 3 s|n%|s 31t<|c#s n% c%m%d% fs|c%, 3 p%d<# d3 p%c#t3s 3 p<#t#c#1#s p%
c%m%d% d3 c#nt<#13 d3 %c3ss# %# m3|# (M%C) d# m#d31# #S|.
F#| p%d<#n|z%d% p313 |333 c#m# 802.3, n#s %n#s 90 t#<n#u-s3 % t3cn#1#g|% m%|s ut|1|z%d% 3m <3d
1%N.
#ut<#s p%d<3s T#k3n <|ng, FDD| 3 %<CN3T.
20
Func|#n%m3nt#
fund%m3nt%d% 3m p#nt#s d3 <3d3 3nv|%nd# m3ns%g3ns, s3m31h%nt3 % um s|st3m% d3 <d|#;

F|x# 3nt<3 um c%b# c#mum #u c%n%1, s v3z3s ch%m%d# d3 t3< (n# #<|g|n%1, 3th3<).
P#ssu| 3m c%d% p#nt# um M%C, ch%v3 d3 48 b|ts, p%<% %ss3gu<%< qu3 t#d#s #s s|st3m%s 3m um%
3th3<n3t t3nh%m 3nd3<3#s d|st|nt#s.

M%C (M3d|% %cc3ss C#nt<#1)


# 3nd3<3# fs|c# d% mqu|n%, #u, m%|s 3sp3c|f|c%m3nt3 d% |nt3<f%c3 d3 <3d3, p#ssu| 48 b|ts.
# M%C <3sp#nsv31 p31# %c3ss# d3 c%d% 3st%# <3d3 3th3<n3t. 3f3tu%d# c#nt<#13 n% c%m%
d3 3n1%c3 d# m#d31# #S|.
3sc<|t# 3m 12 dg|t#s h3x%d3c|m%|s %g<up%d#s d#|s % d#|s, s3p%<%d#s p#< d#|s p#nt#s:
00:00:53:00:01:03
#s t<s p<|m3|<#s #ct3t#s s# d3st|n%d#s |d3nt|f|c%# d# f%b<|c%nt3, #s 3 p#st3<|#<3s s#
f#<n3c|d#s p31# f%b<|c%nt3.

3nc#nt<%< # M%C:
#bt3< # M%C 3m us#, n% p<p<|% m%qu|n%:
|n|c|#->C#nf|gu<%3s-> P%|n31 d3 c#nt<#13-> C#n3x3s d3 <3d3-> 3sc#1h3< % p1%c%-> P<#p<|3d%d
->sup#<t3->d3t%1h3s->3nd3<3# fs|c#.

#bt3< # M%C 3m um% m%qu|n% n% <3d3:


|n|c|# -> 3x3cut%< -> d|g|t%< cmd-> 3nt3<-> d|g|t%< %<p % 3nd3<3#_|p.

%1t3<%nd# um M%C
3m c#n3x3s d3 <3d3 f%% # s3gu|nt3 p<#c3d|m3nt#:
S313c|#n3 % N|C (C#nt<#1%d#<% d3 |nt3<f%c3 d3 <3d3) d3s3j%d% -> c1|qu3 c#m # b#t# d|<3|t# d#
m#us3 -> p<#p<|3d%d3s -> p<#p<|3d%d3s-> %v%n%d#->N3tw#<k %dd<3ss.

P%d<3s 3th3<n3t
#s p%d<3s %tu%|s d# p<#t#c#1# 3th3<n3t s# #s s3gu|nt3s:
10 M3g%b|ts/s3g: 10B%s3-T 3th3<n3t (|333 802.3)
100 M3g%b|ts/s3g: F%st 3th3<n3t (|333 802.3u)
1 g|g%b|ts/s3g: G|g%b|t 3th3<n3t (|333 802.3z)
10 g|g%b|ts/s3g: 10 G|g%b|t 3th3<n3t (|333 802.3%3)

10B%S3-T
21
V31#c|d%d3 d3 10Mb|t/s
D|st%nc|% mx|m% s3m <3p3t|d#< d3 100m.
#p3<% c#m 4 f|#s (d#|s c#njunt#s d3 p%< t<%n%d#) num c%b# d3 c%t-3 #u c%t-5.
Um hub #u sw|tch f|c% n# m3|# 3 t3m um% p#<t% p%<% c%d% n d% <3d3.
T#p#1#g|% fs|c% 3m B%<<%m3nt#-3st<31%

F%st 3th3<n3t (100B%s3-T)


V31#c|d%d3 d3 100Mb|t/s;
Us% d#|s p%<3s, m%s <3qu3< c%b# c%t-5;
Ut|1|z%-s3 # Sw|tch, p#< f%z3< c#nt<#13 d3 c#1|s# d3 p%c#t3s 3 d3 v31#c|d%d3 d3 t<%nsf3<nc|%;
P#d3 ut|1|z%< t%mbm % f|b<% pt|c%;
3qu|p%m3nt#s, Hub 3 Sw|tch, d3v3m s3< c#mp%tv3|s c#m % t3cn#1#g|%.

G|g%b|t 3th3<n3t
V31#c|d%d3 d3 1.000Mb|t/s #u 1Gb|t/s;
T<%nsm|ss# s#b<3 c%b3%m3nt# d3 c#b<3 c%t3g#<|% 53 #u 6;
P#d3 ut|1|z%<-s3 s#m3nt3 Sw|tch;
% <3d3 G|g%b|t 3th3<n3t t<%nsm|t3 n# m#d# H%1f-dup13x 3 Fu11-dup13x.
C#mp<|m3nt# d3 500 mts, 3m 3n1%c3 mu1tm#d#;
C#mp<|m3nt# d3 %t 3 Km, 3m 3n1%c3 m#n#m#d#;
C#mp<|m3nt# mx|m# d3 25m, 3m c#b<3 (3x: c#%x|%1).

10-G|g%b|t 3th3<n3t
V31#c|d%d3 d3 10Gb|t/s;
T<%nsm|ss# 3m f|b<% m#n#-m#d#;
P<#j3t%d% p%<% cu<t%s d|st%nc|%s, 26 % 86mts 3m mu1tm#d# 3 d3 10 % 40 km 3m m#n#-m#d#;
N# s3< p#ssv31 ut|1|z%< hubs.

<3d3 S3m F|#


<3d3 3m qu3 % c#n3x# c#m# #s d3m%|s c#mput%d#<3s 3 p3<|f<|c#s f3|t% p#< m3|# d3 #nd%s
313t<#m%gnt|c%s d|sp3ns%nd# # us# d3 c%b#s;
<d|# F<3qnc|%, |nf<%v3<m31h# (|<D%), B1#3t##th;
B%|x% S3gu<%n%;
Fc|1 c#nf|gu<%#.

|nf<%v3<m31h# (|<D%)
%ss#c|%# d3 D%d#s |nf<%v3<m31h#;

C#mun|c%# 3m cu<t# %1c%nc3 d3 m|c<#c#mput%d#<3s, c31u1%<3s, |mp<3ss#<%s, n#t3b##ks 3 PD%


T<%nsm|ss3s s# f3|t%s 3m h%1f-dup13x;
D|stnc|% mx|m% d3 4,5mts;
22
B1u3t##th
um% m%n3|<% d3 c#n3ct%< 3 t<#c%< |nf#<m%3s 3nt<3 d|sp#s|t|v#s c#m# t313f#n3s c31u1%<3s,
n#t3b##ks, c#mput%d#<3s, |mp<3ss#<%s, cm3<%s d|g|t%|s 3 c#ns#13s d3 v|d3#g%m3s d|g|t%|s;
Cu<t# %1c%nc3 g1#b%1m3nt3 n# 1|c3nc|%d% 3 s3gu<%;
%1c%nc3 mx|m# 100mts;
C#mun|c%# c#m %t s3t3 d|sp#s|t|v#s s|mu1t%n3%m3nt3;

W|m%x
P#ssu| <3cu<s#s m%|s %tu%1|z%d#s qu3 # W|-F|,t3nd# um m31h#< d3s3mp3nh#;
3m f%s3 d3 t3st3s n# B<%s|1 3nt<3 |nt31 3 un|v3<s|d%d3s;
S3gund# #s d%d#s d3 <31%t<|#s, p%<% s3 3st%b313c3< um% c#b3<tu<% n%c|#n%1 (<u<%1 3 u<b%n
n3c3ss<|%s 2511 3st%3s W|m%x (c#mp#st%s d3 3qu|p%m3nt#s d3 <d|#, t#<<3 3 %nt3n%) c#m um
|nv3st|m3nt# t#t%1 3 %p3n%s <$ 350 m|1h3s d3 <3%|s;

|nt3<f%c3 S3<|%1 3 P%<%131%

% |nt3<f%c3 S3<|%1
P3<|f<|c# qu3 c#nv3<t3 d%d#s 3m p%<%131# p%<% d%d#s s3<|%|s.
T<%nsf#<m% byt3s d3 |nf#<m%3s 3m b|ts |nd|v|du%|s p%ssv3|s d3 s3<3m t<%nsm|t|d#s.
% #p3<%# |nv3<s% t%mbm <3%1|z%d%:
#s b|ts <3c3b|d#s s# c#nv3<t|d#s p%<% byt3s n#v%m3nt3.

23
|nt3<f%c3s S3<|%|s
USB (Un|v3<s%1 S3<|%1 Bus): t%x%s d3 t<%nsm|ss# d% #<d3m d3 12 Mb|ts/s.

|nt3<f%c3 P%<%131%
N3c3ss|t% d3 um s|n%1 d3 st<#b3 (STB) - %v|s# qu3 t#d%s %s 1|nh%s d3 d%d#s 3st# n% t3ns# c#<<3t
(1 #u 0) 3 # <3c3pt#< p#d3 13< % |nf#<m%#.
V<|#s #s p3<|f<|c#s ut|1|z%m 3st% c#n3x#, 3x3mp1#s: sc%nn3<s, cm3<%s d3 vd3#, d|sc#s
<3m#vv3|s 3nt<3 #ut<#s;
Fu11-Dup13x;
%1t% t%x% d3 t<%nsf3<nc|%.

P%<%131%
C#n3ct#< d3 25 p|n#s;

24
|nst%1%nd# # D3b|%n

|n|c|%nd# # CD-<#m
3st3 tut#<|%1 b%s3%d# n# D3b|%n 13nny, 3 n3c3ss<|# qu3 # c#mput%d#< 3st3j% c#n3ct%d#
|nt3<n3t, p#|s s3< n3c3ss<|# f3|t# %ut#m%t|c%m3nt3 # d#wn1#%d d3 %<qu|v#s p%<% % |nst%1%# c#<<3t%

|ns3<|< # CD-<#M d3 |nst%1%# d# D3b|%n n# d<|v3 3 |n|c|%< #u <3|n|c|%< # s|st3m%. N# s3


3squ3c3< d3 c#nf|gu<%< # b##t % p%<t|< d# CD-<#m. P%<% |ss# v3<|f|qu3 %s d3f|n|3s d% B|#S.

P%<% |n|c|%< % |nst%1%# s313c|#n3 % #p# |nst%11 3 c%<<3g%< 3m [3NT3<].

%ps %1guns s3gund#s, d3v3< s3< 3sc#1h|d# % 1ngu% d3 |nst%1%#, qu3 s3< t%mbm % 1ngu%
ut|1|z%d% p31# s|st3m%. P%<% 3f3|t#s d3 c#mp%t|b|1|d%d3, |<3m#s s313c|#n%< 3ng1|sh:

25
3m s3gu|d%, d3v3< s3< |nd|c%d% % 1#c%1|z%# g3#g<f|c% d# s3<v|d#<. B%s3%nd#
n% 1ngu%
s313c|#n%d%, %p<3s3nt%d% % 1|st% d3 p%s3s, n#s qu%|s n# c#nst% P#<tug%1, 3nt# s313c|#n%m#s #th3<

26
S313c|#n%< % <3g|#:

3 # p%s:

27
3sc#1h3< t%mbm # t|p# d3 t3c1%d# ut|1|z%d#, %ps c1|c%< 313 |<% c%<<3g%< v<|#s %<qu|v#s:

C#nf|gu<%nd# % <3d3
% c#nf|gu<%# d3 <3d3 <3qu3<, b%s|c%m3nt3, % %t<|bu|# d3 um 3nd3<3# |P 3 # n#m3 d# s|st3m%.

# 3nd3<3# |P 3 d3m%|s p%<m3t<#s d3 <3d3 p#d3m s3< #bt|d#s %ut#m%t|c%m3nt3 % p%<t|< d3 um


s3<v|d#< DHCP #u c#nf|gu<%d#s m%nu%1m3nt3.

28
3nd3<3# |P %ut#mt|c# v|% DHCP

# |nst%1%d#< t3nt% #bt3< um 3nd3<3# |P %ut#m%t|c%m3nt3, % p%<t|< d3 um s3<v|d#< DHCP:

%p%<3c3< p%<% %d|c|#n%< # H#stn%m3:

29
%ps D#mn|#:

C#m# s313c|#n%m#s P#<tug%1, s313c|#n%<3m#s # h#<<|# 1#c%1 d3 1|sb#% p%<% n#ss# fus# h#<<|#

30
P%<t|c|#n%nd# # d|sc# <g|d#
# p%<t|c|#n%m3nt# c#ns|st3 3m #<g%n|z%< # d|sc# 3m v<|%s <3%s #u p%<t|3s, c%d% um% c#m um
#bj3t|v# #u t|p# d3 f|ch3|<#s 3sp3cf|c#. N3st3 c%s# #pt%m#s p#< d|v|d|< # d|sc# 3m t<s p%<t|3s, um% p%<% %
|nst%1%# d# s|st3m% (/) 3 #ut<% p%<% %<m%z3n%< d%d#s (/h#m3). Um% t3<c3|<% p%<t|# d3 m3m
v|<tu%1 (sw%p) s3< t%mbm c<|%d%.

% #p# P%<t|c|#n%m3nt# gu|%d# p3<m|t3 c<|%< d3 um m#d# fc|1 3 <p|d# %s p%<t|3s d3 %c#<d
c#m # p<3t3nd|d#:

3sc#1h3< # d|sc# #nd3 c<|%< %s p%<t|3s. 3m 1|nux, #s d|sc#s c#m |nt3<f%c3 SCS| #u S%T% s#
n#m3%d#s sd%, sdb, 3tc, 3nqu%nt# qu3 #s d|sc#s c#m |nt3<f%c3 |D3 (#u P%T%) s# n#m3%d#s hd%, hdb, 3

31
3sc#1h3< % #p# P%<t|# /h#m3 s3p%<%d%:

32
3m <3sum#, s3<# c<|%d%s 3 p%<t|3s:

/ (<##t): #nd3 s3<# |nst%1%d#s #s f|ch3|<#s d3 s|st3m%;


sw%p: M3m<|% v|<tu%1;
/h#m3: #nd3 s3<# %<m%z3n%d#s #s f|ch3|<#s d#s ut|1|z%d#<3s;

%s p%<t|3s s3<# f#<m%t%d%s 3 t#d#s #s d%d#s 3x|st3nt3s s3<# 31|m|n%d#s.

33
% f#<m%t%# d%s p%<t|3s p#d3 d3m#<%< %1gum t3mp#, d3p3nd3nd# d# t%m%nh# d# d|sc# 3 t|p#
h%<dw%<3.

34
|nst%1%# d# s|st3m% b%s3
# |nst%1%d#< |< p<#c3d3< 3m s3gu|d% |nst%1%# d#s p%c#t3s n3c3ss<|#s p%<% c<|%< um s|st3m
b%s3. 3st3 p<#c3ss# p#d3 d3m#<%< %1gum t3mp#.

Num% p<|m3|<% f%s3 s# d3sc%<<3g%d#s #s p%c#t3s n3c3ss<|#s:

D3p#|s #s p%c#t3s b%s3 s# |nst%1%d#s:

35
3 f|n%1m3nt3, |nst%1%d# # k3<n31 1|nux:

Usu<|#s 3 p%ssw#<ds
S3<# s#1|c|t%d%s du%s c#nt%s d3 usu<|#, % p<|m3|<% s3< % <##t qu3 s#1|c|t%< %p3n%s % s3nh%
qu3 s3j% um% s3nh% d|fc|1 d3 c<%qu3%<. # <##t um% c#nt% 3sp3c|%1, p<|v|13g|%d# 3 c#m p13n#s p#d3
s3gund% s3< % d3 um ut|1|z%d#< n#<m%1, c#m p#d3<3s 1|m|t%d#s p#< s3gu<%n%.

36
S3< s#1|c|t%d% % c#nf|<m%# d% s3nh% <##t p%<% v3<|f|c%< qu3 n# h#uv3 3<<#s %# d|g|t%<:

Usu<|# n#<m%1
Usu<|# n#<m%1, s3m p<|v|1g|#s 3sp3c|%|s, d3v3 t%mbm s3< c<|%d#. |nd|c%< # n#m3 c#mp13t# d3ss3
usu<|#:

37
|nd|c%< # 1#g|n d# usu<|#:

3sc#1h3< um p%ssw#<d:

38
3 c#nf|<m%< # p%ssw#<d:

C#nf|gu<%# d# g3st#< d3 p%c#t3s %pt"


% d|st<|bu|# D3b|%n t3m um p#d3<#s# s|st3m% d3 g3st# d3 p%c#t3s d3 s#ftw%<3, ch%m%d# %pt
qu3 f%c|1|t% % %tu%1|z%# #u |nst%1%# d3 n#v#s p%c#t3s % p%<t|< d3 v<|%s f#nt3s, n#m3%d%m3nt3 %
<3p#s|t<|#s 3x|st3nt3s n% |nt3<n3t.

P%<% um% |nst%1%# 3f|c|3nt3 d3 p%c#t3s % p%<t|< d% |nt3<n3t, d3v3-s3 s313c|#n%< # <3p#s|t<|#
g3#g<%f|c%m3nt3 m%|s p<x|m#, ut|1|z%nd# um m|<<#<:
3m p<|m3|<# 1ug%<, d3v3-s3 3sc#1h3< # p%s:

39
3m s3gu|d%, 3sc#1h3< # m|<<#< m%|s p<x|m#:

40
C%s# s3 ut|1|z3 um p<#xy p%<% %c3ss%< % |nt3<n3t, |nd|c%< # 3nd3<3# d# P<#xy, c%s# c#nt<%
3m b<%nc#:

F|n%1m3nt3, c#nf|gu<%d# # %pt:

41
C#ncu<s# d3 p#pu1%<|d%d3
% c#mun|d%d3 D3b|%n m%ntm um c#ncu<s# d3 p#pu1%<|d%d3 |nt3<n#, c#m# m3|# p%<% #bt3<
3st%tst|c%s d#s s|st3m%s |nst%1%d#s. C%s# s3 qu3|<% c#nt<|bu|<, s313c|#n%< Y3s:

S313# d# s#ftw%<3 % |nst%1%<


%p%<3c3<% um% 1|st% d3 s#ftw%<3s % s3< |nst%1%d#, p%<% # s3<v|d#< s%mb% s313c|#n3:

42
|nst%1%# d# g3st#< d3 %<<%nqu3 g<ub
# s|st3m% 3st p<%t|c%m3nt3 |nst%1%d#, m%s p%<% qu3 p#ss% %<<%nc%<, d3v3 s3< |nst%1%d# # g
%<<%nqu3 g<ub n# m%st3< b##t <3c#<d d# d|sc#:

%g#<% s3< s#1|c|t% % 3sc#1h% d3 um n#m3 p%


C#nt|nu3 c#m # qu3 %p%<3c3 n% t31%, #u c<|3 um g<up# d3 t<%b%1h# d# s3u |nt3<3ss3!

43
S3< s#1|c|t%d% % f#<m% d3 %t<|bu|# |P:

T3<m|n%< % |nst%1%#
% |nst%1%# 3st t3<m|n%d%. <3t|<%< # CD-<#m d3 |nst%1%# d# d<|v3 3 3sc#1h3< c#nt|nu%<
t3<m|n%< % |nst%1%# 3 |n|c|%< c#m # n#v# s|st3m% D3b|%n 13nny:

44
# p<|m3|<# |nc|# d# s|st3m%
S3 3st3 sc<%n f#< m#st<%d#, p%<%bns, % |nst%1%# f#| b3m suc3d|d%!

1#g|n
# p<|m3|<# 1#g|n:

45
S%mb%
C%<%ct3<st|c%s
C#m # S3<v|d#< S%mb%, p#ssv31 c#mp%<t|1h%< %<qu|v#s, c#mp%<t|1h%< |mp<3ss#<%s 3 c#nt<#1
%c3ss# % d3t3<m|n%d#s <3cu<s#s d3 <3d3 c#m |gu%1 #u m%|#< 3f|c|nc|% qu3 s3<v|d#<3s b%s3%d#s 3m s|st3m
#p3<%c|#n%|s d% M|c<#s#ft. M%s, n3st3 c%s#, # s|st3m% #p3<%c|#n%1 ut|1|z%d# # 1|nux.

# S%mb% c#mp%tv31 c#m p<%t|c%m3nt3 qu%1qu3< v3<s# d# W|nd#ws, %1m d3 m%qu|n%s 1|nu

T#d# t<%b%1h# f3|t# p31# S%mb% p<#v|d# d3 g<%nd3 s3gu<%n%, um% v3z qu3 h g<%nd3 <|g#< n
c#nt<#13s d#s <3cu<s#s #f3<3c|d#s. T%nt# qu3 3x|st3m 3mp<3s%s qu3 us%m # S%mb% c#m# s#1u# p%<%
c#nf1|t#s 3x|st3nt3s 3nt<3 d|f3<3nt3s v3<s3s d# W|nd#ws.

C#m# n# p#d3<|% d3|x%< d3 s3<, # S%mb% t%mbm p3<m|t3 qu3 su% c#nf|gu<%# s3j% f3|t% p#< m
d3 c#mput%d#<3s <3m#t#s. P%<% #s c%s#s m%|s c<t|c#s, # %dm|n|st<%d#< d% <3d3 p#d3 %t s3< n#t|f|c%d# d
%n#<m%1|d%d3s p#< 3m%|1.

|nst%1%nd# # S%mb%

# S%mb% um s#ftw%<3 1|v<3 qu3 3st d|sp#nv31 s#b % 1|c3n% GNU (GNU's n#t Un|x). C%s#
qu3|<% |nst%1-1#, 3 n# p#ssu| n% 3xt3ns# qu3 3st% ut|1|z%nd#, p#ssv31 b%|x-1# d# s|t3 #f|c|%1 -
www.s%mb%.#<g. N3st3, h p%c#t3s 3sp3cf|c#s p%<% %s d|st<|bu|3s m%|s f%m#s%s, c#m# F3d#<%, M%nd<
SuS3, D3b|%n, 3nt<3 #ut<#s. |ss# s|gn|f|c% qu3 % |nst%1%# d3p3nd3 d# t|p# d3 p%c#t3 ut|1|z%d# (t%<.gz, <PM
d3b, 3nt<3 #ut<#s). %ss|m, c#m# 3x3mp1#, #s usu<|#s d# D3b|%n d3v3m us%< # s3gu|nt3 c#m%nd# p%<%
|nst%1% # s%mb% qu3 s3 3nc#nt<% n# s|st3m%:

N# D3b|%n c#m%nd# p%<% |nst%1%< # S%mb%:

%pt-g3t |nst%11 s%mb%

|nst%1%nd# # c#nt<#1%d#< S%mb%:

1 |<3m#s s%1v%< # %<qu|v# p%<% c%s# #c#<<% 3<<#s p#d3<m#s c#<<|g|< p#st3<|#<m3nt3:

mv /3tc/s%mb%/smb.c#nf /3tc/s%mb%/smb.c#nf.d3fu%1t

C<|%nd# # %<qu|v#:

n%n# /3tc/s%mb%/smb.c#nf

C#1%< 3st3s c#m%nd#s d3nt<# d# %<qu|v#:

# %qu| |n|c|% % c#nf|gu<%# d# S%mb%:

[g1#b%1]
w#<kg<#up = WTS3<V3<2
n3tb|#s n%m3 = WTS3<V3<
s3<v3< st<|ng = WTS3<V3<
s3cu<|ty = SH%<3
p%sswd p<#g<%m = /us</b|n/p%sswd %u
46
1#g f|13 = /v%</1#g/s%mb%/%m.1#g
m%x 1#g s|z3 = 0
s#ck3t #pt|#ns = TCP_N#D31%Y |PT#S_1#WD31%Y S#_<CVBUF=8192
S#_SNDBUF=8192 S#_K33P%1|V3
d3%d t|m3 = 15
g3twd c%ch3 = y3s
dns p<#xy = N#
us3 s3ndf|13 = y3s
st<|ct 1#ck|ng = n#
<3%d <%w = y3s
w<|t3 <%w = y3s
#p1#cks = y3s
m%x xm|t = 65535
d3%dt|m3 = 15
g3twd c%ch3 = y3s

# %qu| |n|c|% # c#mp%<t|1h%m3nt# d3 p%st%s/%<qu|v#s:

[s|st3m%]
c#mm3nt = C#mp%<t|1h%m3nt#
p%th = /s|st3m%
<3%d #n1y = N#
c<3%t3 m%sk = 0777
f#<c3 c<3%t3 m#d3 = 0777
d|<3ct#<y m%sk = 0777
f#<c3 d|<3ct#<y m#d3 = 0777
gu3st #n1y = Y3s
gu3st #k = Y3s

P%<% |n|c|%< # s3<v|d#< S%mb%:

/3tc/|n|t.d/s%mb% st%<t

P%<% p%<%<:

/3tc/|n|t.d/s%mb% st#p

C<|%nd# usu<|#:

%ddus3< n#m3_us3<

Smbp%sswd % n#m3_us3<

%nt3<|#<m3nt3 f#| v|st# c#m# f3|t# % c#nf|gu<%# d# s%mb% p%<% c#mp%<t|1h%m3nt# d3 %<qu|v
s3m n3nhum t|p# d3 <3st<|#, f#| 3f3tu%d# %p3n%s % c<|%# d3 p%st% 3 c#mp%<t|1h%m3nt#, p#<3m % s3gu
|<3m#s c<|%< # c#mp%<t|1h%m3nt# p%<% um% p%st% 3sp3c|f|c% 3 |nc1u|< s#1|c|t%# d3 s3nh%:

[mus|c%s]
c#mm3nt = um c#m3nt<|#
p%th = /h#m3/j#%#/mp3
v%1|d us3<s = j#%# %n% %1f<3d#
47
pub1|c = n#
w<|t%b13 = y3s
p<|nt%b13 = n#
c<3%t3 m%sk = 0765

[d#wns]
c#mm3nt = #ut<# c#m3nt<|#
p%th = /h#m3/j#%#/d#wn1#%ds
pub1|c = y3s
w<|t%b13 = y3s
p<|nt%b13 = n#
c<3%t3 m%sk = 0765

#u

[G<up#]
c#mm3nt = G<up# d3 T<%b%1h# d# <H
p%th = /h#m3/<H
pub1|c = n#
b<#ws3%b13 = y3s
v%1|d us3<s = b<un#
w<|t3%b13 = y3s
w<|t3 1|st = b<un#
f#<c3 c<3%t3 m#d3 = 0777
f#<c3 d|<3ct#<y m#d3 = 0777
gu3st #n1y = n#

# %<qu|v# smb.c#nf

% c#nf|gu<%# f3|t% 3m um n|c# %<qu|v#: # smb.c#nf. 3ss3 %<qu|v# g3<%1m3nt3 f|c% 1#c%1|z%d#
n# d|<3t<|# d3 |nst%1%# d# S%mb%.

# %<qu|v# smb.c#nf 3st<utu<%d# d% s3gu|nt3 m%n3|<%: #s p%<m3t<#s d3 c#nf|gu<%# s#


%g<up%d#s 3m s33s. C%d% s3# |d3nt|f|c%d% p#< um n#m3 3nt<3 c#1ch3t3s, p#< 3x3mp1#, [g1#b%1]. %
s3gu|<, s3gu3 % d3sc<|# d3 t<s 3x3mp1#s d3 s33s p<-d3f|n|d%s n# S%mb%:

{g1#b%1] - c#m# # n#m3 |nd|c%, c#ntm c#nf|gu<%3s qu3 %f3t%m t#d# # S%mb%. P#< 3x3mp1#
n#m3 d# s3<v|d#<;

[h#m3s] - c#ntm %s c#nf|gu<%3s d# d|<3t<|# h#m3 p%<% c%d% usu<|#;

[p<|nt3<s] - c#ntm %s c#nf|gu<%3s qu3 c#nt<#1%m |mp<3ss#<%s c#mp%<t|1h%d%s.

%b%|x# s3gu3 um 3x3mp1# d3 um %<qu|v# smb.c#nf c#m um% c#nf|gu<%# b%st%nt3 s|mp13s, p#|s
s3<v3 %p3n%s p%<% 3xp1|c%< % 3st<utu<% d# %<qu|v#. S3us p%<m3t<#s s# 3xp1|c%d#s 3m s3gu|d%. % nu
n# |nc|# d%s 1|nh%s n# us%d% n# %<qu|v# 3 f#| |ns3<|d% p31# |nf#W3st3< %p3n%s p%<% f%c|1|t%< % 1#c%
d#s p%<m3t<#s:

1 [g1#b%1]

48
2 # n#m3 d# s3<v|d#< d3 %<qu|v#s

3 n3tb|#s n%m3 = |nf#w3st3<

4 # n#m3 d# g<up# d3 t<%b%1h# #u d# d#mn|#

5 w#<kg<#up = |w

6 s3<v3< st<|ng = S3<v|d#< S%mb%

7 s3cu<|ty = us3<

8 [<3d3]

9 # d|<3t<|# c#mp%<t|1h%d#

10 p%th = /|w/%<t|g#s

11 pub1|c = y3s

12 b<#ws3%b13 = y3s

13 w<|t%b13 = n#

3xp1|c%nd#:

- %s 1|nh%s 1 3 8 c#ntm #s n#m3s d%s s33s;

- %s 1|nh%s 2, 4 3 9 s# c#m3nt<|#s. V#c p#d3 |ns3<|< # t3xt# qu3 qu|s3< n31%s 3 # S%mb% |<
|gn#<-1%s. #s c#m3nt<|#s s# us%d#s p%<% d#cum3nt%< func|#n%1|d%d3s #u f%z3< #bs3<v%3s. 3ss3 <3cu
t%mbm p#d3 s3< |ns3<|d# n# f|n%1 d3 qu%1qu3< #ut<% 1|nh%, b%st%nd# |ns3<|< # smb#1# # %nt3s d# c#m3n

- % 1|nh% 3 - n3tb|#s n%m3 - c#ntm # n#m3 N3tB|#S d# s3<v|d#< S%mb%;

- % 1|nh% 5 - w#<kg<#up - <3c3b3 # n#m3 d# g<up# d3 t<%b%1h# #u d# d#mn|# n# qu%1 # s3<v|d#<


S%mb% f%z p%<t3;

- % 1|nh% 6 - s3<v3< st<|ng - um% |d3nt|f|c%# qu3 # s3<v|d#< S%mb% 3nv|% %#s d3m%|s
c#mput%d#<3s d% <3d3;

- % 1|nh% 7 - s3cu<|ty - c#ntm # nv31 d3 %c3ss# 3 p#d3 <3c3b3< v<|#s "sub-p%<m3t<#s". N3st3
c%s#, us3< |nd|c% qu3 p%<% %c3ss%< # s3<v|d#< n3c3ss<|# qu3 usu<|# f%% us# d3 um% c#nt% n# 1|nux q
p#< su% v3z, t%mbm d3v3 s3< us%d% n# W|nd#ws;

- % 1|nh% 10 - p%th - |nd|c% qu%1 # d|<3t<|# c#mp%<t|1h%d#, s3 f#< 3ss3 # c%s#;

- % 1|nh% 11 - pub1|c - p3<m|t3 # %c3ss# %# d|<3t<|# s3m % n3c3ss|d%d3 d3 s3nh% (s3 p<33nch|d# c#m
"y3s");

- % 1|nh% 12 - b<#ws3%b13 - |nf#<m% s3 # d|<3t<|# v|sv31 #u n#. S3 n# f#<, m3sm# %ss|m


p#ssv31 %c3ss-1#;

49
- % 1|nh% 13 - w<|t%b13 - s3 t|v3< # t3<m# "n#", |nd|c% qu3 # usu<|# %p3n%s p#d3 13< # c#nt3d# d#
d|<3t<|# c#mp%<t|1h%d#, m%s n# p#d3 %1t3<-1#.

Sw%t

# S%mb% p#d3 s3< c#nf|gu<%d# %t<%vs d3 |nt3<f%c3s g<f|c%s. Mu|t#s %dm|n|st<%d#<3s d3 <3d3
c#ns|d3<%m 3ss3 m3|# m%|s 3f|c|3nt3 d# qu3 3d|t%< # %<qu|v# smb.c#nf %t<%vs d3 um 3d|t#< d3 t3xt#s. #
Sw%t # m3|# m%|s us%d# p%<% |ss#. T<%t%-s3 d3 um% f3<<%m3nt% qu3 p3<m|t3 % c#nf|gu<%# d# S%mb
%t<%vs d3 n%v3g%d#<3s d3 |nt3<n3t, f%c|1|t%nd#, |nc1us|v3, # %c3ss# <3m#t# %# %<qu|v# d3 c#nf|gu<%#.

P%<% |nst%1-1#, v#c p#d3 v3<|f|c%< s3 s3u p%c#t3 d3 |nst%1%# 3st n# CD d3 su% d|st<|bu|#. S3
t|v3< um s|st3m% (b%s3%d# n#) D3b|%n, p#d3-s3 us%< # s3gu|nt3 c#m%nd# p%<% p<#cu<-1#:

%pt-c%ch3 s3%<ch sw%t

T%mbm p#ssv31 p<#cu<-1# 3m s|t3s c#m# # www.<pmf|nd.n3t (p%<% %<qu|v#s n# f#<m%t# <PM)
N3st3 c%s#, us%-s3 # s3gu|nt3 c#m%nd# d3p#|s d3 b%|x%< # p%c#t3:

<pm -|vh sw%t-3.0.10-1.|386.<pm

#bv|%m3nt3, v#c d3v3 |nf#<m%< # n#m3 d# p%c#t3 d3p#|s d3 -|vh. N# 3x3mp1# d3st3 t3xt# # n#m3
sw%t-3.0.10-1.|386.<pm.

C#nc1ud% % |nst%1%#, # %c3ss# %# S%mb% p31# Sw%t f3|t# %t<%vs d# n#m3 #u d# |P d# s3<v|
s3gu|d# d% p#<t% 901, c#m# m#st<% # 3x3mp1# %b%|x#:

http://192.168.10.10:901

% |m%g3m % s3gu|< m#st<% um% t31% d# Sw%t:

# s3<v|d#< S%mb% um s#ftw%<3 p#d3<#s# 3 b%st%nt3 3f|c|3nt3. %1guns 3sp3c|%1|st%s n# %ssunt# %


# c#ns|d3<%m m%|s s3gu<# 3 c#nf|v31 qu3 %s s#1u3s b%s3%d%s n# W|nd#ws. Su% c#mp<33ns# n# d|fc|
m%s <3qu3< c3<t# t3mp# d3 %p<3nd|z%d#, p#|s su% c#nf|gu<%# b%st%nt3 %b<%ng3nt3

50