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Basic Routing Concepts

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Contents

Part I Basic Routing Concepts


Part II Static Route
Part III Dynamic Routing Overview

Estimated time
03:00:00

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Part I
Basic Routing
Concepts

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Basic Routing Concepts

IP Routing is the process of delivering packets from


one network to another.

Routers do not concern about HOSTS , the only


thing is important to routers , is NETWORKS.

Routing process is based on Layer 3 addresses.

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Basic Routing Concepts

Routers should be aware of some issues for the


routing process:

Destination IP address. (mandatory)


Neighbor routers and IP address of the next hop. (mandatory)
All the possible Paths to all the existing networks. (Dynamic)
The best path chosen to reach each network. (Dynamic)

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Basic Routing Concepts

Generic Enterprise Network Diagram

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Basic Routing Concepts

More Detailed Cabling Diagram for the Same Enterprise Network

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Basic Routing Concepts

WIC2T V35 Serial Cable

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Basic Routing Concepts

Photos of a Model 1841 Cisco Integrated Services Router (ISR)

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Basic Routing Concepts
Routing Table

Q. How Does a router learn Paths to other networks ?


A. They know their connected networks.

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Basic Routing Concepts

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Basic Routing Concepts

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Basic Routing Concepts

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Basic Routing Concepts
Routing Table

Other paths should be taught to routers:

Static
Dynamic

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Part II
Static Route

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Static Route

Connected subnet has been learnt automatically with


the "C" pointer (Directly connected).

In the Static Routing , all the records should be add to


the router's routing table manually and will be shown
with the "S" pointer (Static).

Router(config)# ip route <Network ID> <Mask> <Outgoing-interface> |


<Next-hop-IP-address>

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Static Route

For example, To add the route to the network


192.168.3.0 trough the interface S1/0 and the
next hop address of 10.10.10.2:

Router(config)# ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 serial 1/0 10.10.10.2


Router# show ip route

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Static Route

Network ID
Subnet Mask
Out going interface
Next hope address

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Static Route
Network ID
(Mandatory)

Routers compare destination IP of the packet with


network ID on the Routing table for the routing
decision.

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Static Route
Subnet Mask
(Mandatory)

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Static Route
Out going interface & Next hope address

Are the two of above mandatory for the routing


decision ?

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Static Route
Out going interface & Next hope address
Point to Point Networks

One of the Out going interface or the Next hope


address is necessary and enough.

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Static Route
Out going interface & Next hope address
Multi-Access Networks

The Next hope address is necessary and enough.

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Static Route

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Static Route

Note
If a static route fails , it will remove from the
routing table.

Q. What is a Loopback Interface ?

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Static Route
Default Route

Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <Outgoing-interface> |


<Next-hop-IP-address>

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Static Route
Default Route

Note
If a destination IP address in a packet matches with
more that a record in the routing table , it will be
forwarded through the route witch has the higher
mask number or more specific subnet mask.

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Static Route
Default Route

Example
Destination IP : 80.80.80.70

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Static Route
Default Route

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Static Route
Manual Summarization

With out manual summarization


R1 should learn 5 new subnets
R2 should learn 8 new subnets
R3 should learn 5 new subnets

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Static Route
Manual Summarization

With manual summarization


R1 should learn 2 new subnets
R2 should learn 2 new subnets
R3 should learn 2 new subnets

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Static Route
Manual Summarization

So Manual summarization help us:


Routing table records reduction.
Path selection time reduction in the routing table
lookup.

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Q. Which of the following commands correctly
configures a static route?

a. ip route 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.130.253


b. ip route 10.1.3.0 serial 0
c. ip route 10.1.3.0 /24 10.1.130.253
d. ip route 10.1.3.0 /24 serial 0

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Q. Which of the following must be true for a static
route to be installed in a routers IP routing table?
(Choose two answers.)

a. The outgoing interface associated with the route


must be in an up and up state.
b. The router must receive a routing update from a
neighboring router.
c. The ip route command must be added to the
configuration.
d. The outgoing interfaces ip address command
must use the special keyword.

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Part III
Dynamic Routing
Overview

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Dynamic Routing Overview

Dynamically update routing tables.


Dynamically best path election.
Dynamically Route elimination in case
of failing a path.
Adding another path ( if exists) incase
of failing a route.

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Dynamic Routing Overview

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Dynamic Routing Overview

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Dynamic Routing Overview

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Dynamic Routing Overview

Routing protocols must be Loop free .


Q. What dose "Routing loop" mean ?

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Dynamic Routing Overview

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Q. Which of the following routing protocols are
considered to use distance vector logic?
(Choose two answers.)

a. RIP
b. IGRP
c. EIGRP
d. OSPF

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I don't love studying. I hate studying.
I like learning. Learning is beautiful.
Natalie Portman

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