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Types of public enterprises

1.departmental undertaking- refer ppt or recent material

2.public corporation(central and state) refer ppt

3.governemnt companies refer ppt

4.limited companies

a)public limited

blprivate limited

5.subsidiary companies

6.joint stock companies

4. limited companies(public and private)

A limited company is a business owned by a group of people (shareholders)

who do not want to have unlimited personal liability for the debts of the

business. This is because the company has its own legal identity, separate and

distinct from the owners. A limited company can buy assets, borrow money and

enter into contracts in its own name. Liability is defined as limited because the

maximum that the owners can lose is the money that they have invested in the

business. The owners are not personally responsible for the debts of the business

so personal assets such as homes and personal bank accounts are safe.

a)Public limited companies

It is a limited liability company whose shares may be freely sold and traded to the public

(although a plc may also be privately held, often by another plc), with a minimum share

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capital of 50,000 and the letters PLC after its name. Similar companies in the United States

are called publicly traded companies. Public limited companies will also have a separate legal

identity.

b.private limited companies

It has shareholders with limited liability and its shares may not be offered to the general

public, unlike those of a public limited company

5.subsidiary compaies

A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a


company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is
called the parent company , or holding company The subsidiary can be
a company, corporation, or limited liability company . In some cases it is
a government or state owned enterprises .

In the United States railroad industry, an operating subsidiary is a


company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity,
locomotives and rolling stock. In contrast, a non-operating subsidiary
would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation)
and would use the identity of the parent company.

Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life, and all multinational


organize their operations in this way , Examples include holding
companies such as BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY, Leucadia national
corporation, Time Warner, or Citigroup; as well as more focused
companies such as IBM or Xerox. These, and others, organize their
businesses into national and functional subsidiaries, often with multiple
levels of subsidiaries.In India BHEL Has Its own subsidiary company in
trichy and thirumayam

6. joint stock companies

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A joint-stock company is a business entity in which different stocks can be

bought and owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in

proportion, evidenced by their shares (certificates of ownership). That allows

for the unequal ownership of a business with some shareholders owning more of

a company than others. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others

without any effects to the continued existence of the company.

In modern-day corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is often

synonymous with incorporation (possession of legal personality separate from

shareholders) and limited liability (shareholders are liable for the company's

debts only to the value of the money they invested in the company). Therefore,

joint-stock companies are commonly known as corporations or limited

companies.

Some jurisdictions still provide the possibility of registering joint-stock

companies without limited liability. In the United Kingdom and other countries

that have adopted its model of company law, they are known as unlimited

companies. In the United States, they are known simply as joint-stock

companies.