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MA 101 (Mathematics I)

Hints/Solutions for Examples/Exercises in Lectures

Sequence

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ((1)n n1 ) is convergent. Also, find the limit if it exists.
Solution: Given > 0, there exists n0 N such that n0 > 1 . For all n n0 , we have
|(1)n n1 0| = n1 n10 < . Hence the given sequence is convergent with limit 0.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (1, 2, 1, 2, ...) is convergent.


Solution: If possible, let the given sequence (xn ) (say) be convergent with limit `. Then there
exists n0 N such that |xn `| < 21 for all n n0 |1 `| < 21 and |2 `| < 12 1 =
|(1 `) (2 `)| |1 `| + |2 `| < 1, which is a contradiction. Therefore the given sequence
is not convergent.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ((1)n (1 n1 )) is convergent.


Solution: If possible, let the given sequence (xn ) (say) be convergent with limit `. Then there exists
m N such that |xn `| < 14 for all n m |x2m `| < 14 and |x2m+1 `| < 14 |1 2m 1
`| < 41
1
and |1 + ` 2m+1 | < 14 2 ( 2m 1 1
+ 2m+1 ) < 12 32 < 2m 1 1
+ 2m+1 12 + 21 = 1, which is a
contradiction. Therefore the given sequence is not convergent.
n+1
Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ( 2n+3 ) is convergent. Also, find the limit if it ex-
ists.
n+1
Solution: Let > 0. For all n N, we have | 2n+3 12 | = 4n+6
1 1
< 4n . There exists n0 N such
1 n+1 1 1
that n0 > 4 . Hence | 2n+3 2 | < 4n0 < for all n n0 and so the given sequence is convergent
with limit 21 .

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (n + 32 ) is convergent.


Solution: If possible, let (n + 32 ) be convergent. Then there exist ` R and n0 N such that
|n + 23 `| < 1 for all n n0 n < ` 12 for all n n0 , which is not true. Therefore the given
sequence is not convergent.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (n3 + 1) is convergent.


Solution: If possible, let (n3 + 1) be convergent. Then there exist ` R and n0 N such that
|n3 + 1 `| < 1 for all n n0 n3 < ` for all n n0 , which is not true. Therefore the given
sequence is not convergent.

Exercise: If || < 1, then examine whether the sequence (n ) is convergent. Also, find the
limit if it exists.
Solution: If = 0, then n = 0 for all n N and so (n ) converges to 0. Now we assume that
1 1
6= 0. Since || < 1, || > 1 and so || = 1 + h for some h > 0. For all n N, we have
(1 + h)n = 1 + nh + n(n1)
2!
1
h2 + + hn > nh ||n = (1+h) 1
n < nh for all n N. Given > 0, we
1
choose n0 N satisfying n0 > h . Then |n 0| = ||n < n10 h < for all n n0 and hence (n )
converges to 0.
log
Alternative solution: Given > 0, we choose n0 N satisfying n0 > log ||
. Then for all n n0 ,
n n n0 n
we have | 0| = || || < and hence ( ) converges to 0. (This solution assumes the
definition of logarithm.)
3n+2
Example: The sequence ( 2n+5 ) is bounded.
Proof: For all n N, | 3n+2
2n+5
|= 3n+2
2n+5
< 3n+2
2n
= 3
2
+ 1
n
52 . Hence the given sequence is bounded.

Exercise: If (xn ) and (yn ) are non-convergent sequences in R, then show that it is possible
for the sequence (xn + yn ) to be convergent or non-convergent.
Solution: The sequences (xn ) = (1, 2, 1, 2, ...) and (yn ) = (2, 1, 2, 1, ...) are non-convergent, but the
sequence (xn + yn ) = (3, 3, 3, ...) is convergent.
Again, the sequences (xn ) = (1, 2, 1, 2, ...) and (yn ) = (0, 1, 0, 1, ...) are non-convergent and the
sequence (xn + yn ) = (1, 3, 1, 3, ...) is also non-convergent.

Exercise: If xn x and x 6= 0, then show that there exists n0 N such that xn 6= 0 for
all n n0 .
Solution: Since xn x and |x| > 0, there exists n0 N such that |xn x| < 21 |x| for all n n0 .
If for some n n0 , xn = 0, then we obtain |x| < 12 |x|, which is not possible. Hence xn 6= 0 for all
n n0 .
2
Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( 3n2n2 +5n+3
3n
) and find the limit (if possible).
3
2n2 3n 2 n 1
Solution: We have 3n2 +5n+3
= 5
3+ n + 3 for all n N. Since n
0, the given sequence is convergent
n2
20
with limit 3+0+0
= 23 .

Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( n + 1 n) and find the limit (if possi-
ble).
1
1
Solution: For all n N, n + 1 n = n+1+ n
= n
1
. Since n1 0, the given sequence is
1+ n +1
convergent with limit 0 = 0.
1+0+1

Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( 4n2 + n 2n) and find the limit (if
possible). n
Solution: For all n N, 4n2 + n 2n = 4n2 +n+2n = 1 1 . Since n1 0, the given sequence
4+ n +2
is convergent with limit 1 = 41 .
4+0+2

Example: The sequence ( n1 sin2 n) converges to 0.


Proof: We have 0 n1 sin2 n n1 for all n N. Since both the sequences (0, 0, ...) and ( n1 ) converge
to 0, by sandwich theorem, ( n1 sin2 n) converges to 0.
1
Example: The sequence ((2n + 3n ) n ) converges to 3.
1 1
Proof: We have 3n < 2n + 3n < 2.3n for all n N 3 < (2n + 3n ) n < 2 n .3 for all n N. Since
1 1
2 n 1, both the sequences (3, 3, ...) and (2 n .3) converge to 3. Hence by sandwich theorem, the
given sequence converges to 3.
1 1 1
Alternative proof: Since (2n +3n ) n = 3[1+( 23 )n ] n for all n N, we have 3 < (2n +3n ) n 3[1+( 23 )n ]
for all n N. Since ( 23 )n 0, both the sequences (3, 3, ...) and (3[1 + ( 23 )n ]) converge to 3. Hence
by sandwich theorem, the given sequence converges to 3.

Example: The sequence ( n12 +1 + + n12 +n ) converges to 1.


Proof: We have nn2 +n n12 +1 + + n12 +n nn2 +1 for all n N. Also, n
n2 +n
= 1 1
1
1+ n
and n = q 1 1. Hence by sandwich theorem, the given sequence converges to 1.
n2 +1 1+ 1
n2
1
Exercise: If > 0, then show that the sequence ( n ) converges to 1.
1
Solution: We first assume that 1 and let xn = n 1 for all n N. Then xn 0 and
= (1 + xn )n = 1 + nxn + n(n1)
2!
x2n + + xnn > nxn for all n N. So 0 xn < n for all n N.
1
Since n 0, by sandwich theorem, it follows that xn 0. Consequently n 1. If < 1, then
1 1 1

> 1 and as proved above, ( 1 ) n 1. It follows that n 1.


Alternative Solution: We first assume that 1. For each n N, applying the A.M. G.M.
1
inequality for the numbers 1, ..., 1, (1 is repeated n 1 times), we get 1 n 1 + 1
n
. Since
1 1
n
0, by sandwich theorem, it follows that n 1. The case for < 1 is same as given in
the above solution.
1
Exercise: Show that the sequence (n n ) converges to 1.
1
Solution: For all n N, let an = n n 1. Then for all n N, n = (1 + an )n = 1 + nan + n(n1)
2!
a2n +
+ ann > n(n1)
2!
2
a2n 0 a2n < n1 2
for all n N. Since n1 0, by sandwich theorem, it follows
1
2
that an 0 and so an 0. Consequently n n 1.
n
Example: If R, then the sequence ( n! ) is convergent.
n
Proof: Let xn = n! for all n N. If = 0, then xn = 0 for all n N and so (xn ) converges to 0.
||
If 6= 0, then lim | xxn+1
n
| = lim n+1 = 0 < 1 and so (xn ) converges to 0.
n n
k
Example: If || > 1 and k > 0, then the sequence ( nn ) converges to 0.
k
Proof: If xn = nn for all n N, then lim | xxn+1
n
| = lim (1 + n1 )k ||
1 1
= || < 1. Hence (xn ) converges
n n
to 0.
n
Example: The sequence ( 2n4 ) is not convergent.
n
Proof: If xn = 2n4 for all n N, then lim | xxn+1 | = lim 2
1 4 = 2 > 1. Therefore the sequence
n n n (1+ n )
(xn ) is not convergent.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (1 n1 ) is monotonic.


1
Solution: For all n N, n+1 < n1 and so 1 n+1
1
> 1 n1 for all n N. Therefore the given
sequence is increasing and hence monotonic.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (n + n1 ) is monotonic.


1
Solution: For all n N, (n + 1 + n+1 ) (n + n1 ) = 1 n(n+1)
1
>0n+1+ 1
n+1
>n+ 1
n
for all
n N. Therefore the given sequence is increasing and hence monotonic.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence (cos n 3


) is monotonic.
Solution: Since cos 3 = 12 , cos 3
3
= 1 and cos 6
3
= 1, we have cos 3 > cos 3
3
< cos 6
3
and hence
the given sequence is neither increasing nor decreasing. Consequently the given sequence is not
monotonic.

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ((1 + n1 )n ) is monotonic.


Solution: For each n N, applying the A.M. > G.M. inequality for the numbers a1 = 1,
a2 = a3 = = an+1 = 1 + n1 , we get (1 + n+1
1 n+1
) > (1 + n1 )n . Therefore the given sequence is
increasing and hence monotonic.
1
Example: Let x1 = 1 and xn+1 = 3
(xn + 1) for all n N. Then (xn ) is convergent and
lim xn = 12 .
n
Proof: For all n N, we have xn xn+1 = 31 (2xn 1). Also, x1 > 12 and if we assume that
xk > 12 for some k N, then xk+1 = 13 (xk + 1) > 31 ( 12 + 1) = 12 . Hence by the principle of
mathematical induction, xn > 12 for all n N. So (xn ) is bounded below and from above, we get
xn xn+1 > 0 for all n N xn+1 < xn for all n N (xn ) is decreasing. Therefore (xn ) is
convergent. Let ` = lim xn . Then lim xn+1 = ` and since xn+1 = 13 (xn + 1) for all n N, we get
n n
` = 31 (` + 1) ` = 12 .
1 1 1
Exercise: Let xn = n+1 + n+2 + + n+n for all n N. Is (xn ) convergent?
1 1 1 2 1
Solution: For all n N, we have xn+1 xn = 2n+1 + 2n+2 n+1 2n+2 n+1 = 0 xn+1 xn
1 1 1
for all n N (xn ) is increasing. Also, xn n + n + + n = 1 for all n N (xn ) is bounded
above. Therefore (xn ) is convergent.

Exercise: Let xn = 1 + 1!1 + 2!1 + + n!1 for all n N. Show that (xn ) is convergent.
1 1 1
Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | = (n+1)! + (n+2)! + + m!
1
2n
+ 2n+1 + + 2m1 = 2n (1 2mn ) < 2n < n . Given > 0, we choose n0 N satisfying n0 > 2 .
1 1 2 1 2 2

Then for all m, n n0 , we get |xm xn | < n20 < . Consequently (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence in R
and hence (xn ) is convergent.

Exercise: Let 0 < < 1 and let (xn ) satisfy the condition |xn+1 xn | n for all n N.
Show that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.
Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | |xn xn+1 | + |xn+1 xn+2 | + +
n n
|xm1 xm | n + n+1 + + m1 = 1 (1 mn ) < 1 . Since 0 < < 1, n 0 and
n0
so given any > 0, we can choose n0 N such that 1 < . Hence for all m, n n0 , we have
n0
|xm xn | < 1 < . Therefore (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.

Exercise: Let 0 < < 1 and let (xn ) satisfy the condition |xn+2 xn+1 | |xn+1 xn | for
all n N. Show that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.
Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | |xn xn+1 | + |xn+1 xn+2 | + +
n1 n1
|xm1 xm | (n1 + n + + m2 )|x2 x1 | = 1 (1 mn )|x2 x1 | 1 |x2 x1 |. Since
n0 1
0 < < 1, n1 0 and so given any > 0, we can choose n0 N such that 1 |x2 x1 | < .
n0 1
Hence for all m, n n0 , we have |xm xn | 1 |x2 x1 | < . Therefore (xn ) is a Cauchy
sequence.
1
Exercise: Let x1 = 1 and let xn+1 = xn +2
for all n N. Show that (xn ) is convergent and
find lim xn .
n
|xn+1 xn |
Solution: For all n N, we have |xn+2 xn+1 | = | xn+11 +2 xn1+2 | = |xn+1 +2||xn +2|
. Now, x1 > 0 and if
1
we assume that xk > 0 for some k N, then xk+1 = xk +2 > 0. Hence by the principle of mathemat-
ical induction, xn > 0 for all n N. Using this, we get |xn+2 xn+1 | 14 |xn+1 xn | for all n N.
It follows that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence in R and hence (xn ) is convergent. Let ` = lim xn .
n
Then lim xn+1 = ` and since xn+1 = xn1+2 for all n N, we get ` = `+2 1
` = 1 2. Since
n
xn > 0 for all n N, we have ` 0 and so ` = 2 1.

Example: If xn = (1)n (1 n1 ) for all n N, then xn 6 1. In fact, (xn ) is not conver-


gent.
1 1
Proof: Since x2n1 = (1)2n1 (1 2n1 ) = 2n1 1 1, xn 6 1. Again, since x2n =
2n 1 1
(1) (1 2n ) = 1 2n 1 6= 1, (xn ) is not convergent.

Exercise: Let (xn ) be a sequence in R such that x2n ` R and x2n1 `. Show that
xn `.
Solution: Let > 0. Since x2n ` and x2n1 `, there exist n1 , n2 N such that |x2n `| <
for all n n1 and |x2n1 `| < for all n n2 . Taking n0 = max{2n1 , 2n2 1} N, we find
that |xn `| < for all n n0 . Hence xn `.

Example: The sequence (1, 21 , 1, 23 , 1, 34 , ...) converges to 1.


n 1
Proof: If (xn ) denotes the given sequence, then x2n = n+1 = 1
1+ n
1 and x2n1 = 1 1.
Therefore (xn ) converges to 1.

Exercise: Can you find a convergent subsequence of ((1)n n2 )?


Solution: If possible, let the given sequence have a convergent subsequence ((1)nk n2k ). Then
((1)nk n2k ) must be bounded. So there exists M > 0 such that |(1)nk n2k | M for all k N
n2k M for all k N, which is not possible, since (nk ) is a strictly increasing sequence of positive
integers. Therefore the given sequence cannot have any convergent subsequence.

Example: If x R, then there exists a sequence (rn ) of rationals converging to x. Similarly, if


x R, then there exists a sequence (tn ) of irrationals converging to x.
Proof: For each n N, there exist rn Q and tn R \ Q such that x n1 < rn < x + n1 and
x n1 < tn < x + n1 . Since x n1 x and x + n1 x, by sandwich theorem, the sequence (rn ) of
rationals converges to x and the sequence (tn ) of irrationals also converges to x.

Series

P

Example: The geometric series arn1 (where a 6= 0) converges iff |r| < 1.
n=1
Proof: If r = 1, then the given series becomes a+a+ , which is not convergent, since (sn ) = (na)
Pn
a
does not converge as a 6= 0. We now assume that r 6= 1. Then sn = ari1 = 1r (1 rn ) for
i=1
a
all n N. If |r| < 1, then lim rn = 0 and so (sn ) converges to 1r
. Therefore the given series
n
a n
converges (with sum 1r ) if |r| < 1. If |r| 1, then the sequence (r ) does not converge and since
a 6= 0, it follows that (sn ) does not converge. Hence in this case the given series is not convergent.
P

1
Example: The series n(n+1)
is convergent with sum 1.
n=1
P
n
1
P
n
Proof: Here sn = k(k+1)
= ( k1 k+1
1 1
) = 1 n+1 1
for all n N. Since lim sn = lim (1 n+1 )=
k=1 k=1 n n
1, the given series is convergent with sum 1.

Example: The series


1 1 + 1 1 + is not convergent.
0 if n is even,
Proof: Here sn =
1 if n is odd,
and so the sequence (sn ) is not convergent. Therefore the given series is not convergent.

Exercise: If a, b R, then show that the series a + (a + b) + (a + 2b) + is not conver-


gent unless a = b = 0.
Solution: Here sn = n[a + 12 (n 1)b] for all n N. If b 6= 0, then the sequence (a + 12 (n 1)b) is
not bounded and so the sequence (sn ) is not bounded, which implies that (sn ) is not convergent.
If b = 0, then the sequence (sn ) = (na) is not bounded and hence is not convergent if a 6= 0. Thus
the given series is not convergent (i.e. (sn ) is not convergent) if a 6= 0 or b 6= 0.
If a = b = 0, then the series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent.
P

1
Example: The series n2
is convergent.
n=1
P
n
1
P
n
1
P
n
1
Proof: For all n 2, we have sn = k2
1+ k(k1)
=1+ ( k1 k1 ) = 2 1
n
< 2. Hence
k=1 k=2 k=2
the sequence (sn ) is bounded above and consequently by monotonic criterion for series, the given
series is convergent.
P

1
Example: The series n
is not convergent.
n=1
Proof: If possible, let the given series be convergent. Then by Cauchy criterion for series, there
1 1
exists n0 N such that n+1 + n+2 + + m1 < 21 for all m > n n0 . In particular, we get
1
n0 +1
+ n01+2 + + 2n1 0 < 12 . But n01+1 + n01+2 + + 2n1 0 2n1 0 + 2n1 0 + + 2n1 0 = 12 , and so we
get a contradiction. Hence the given series is not convergent.
P

n2 +1
Example: The series (n+3)(n+4)
is not convergent.
n=1
1
n2 +1 1+ n2 +1
n2
Proof: Since (n+3)(n+4)
= 3 4
(1+ n )(1+ n )
1, we have (n+3)(n+4)
6 0 and so the given series is not
convergent.
P

n
Example: The series (1)n n+2 is not convergent.
n=1
n n 1 n
Proof: Since |(1)n n+2 |= n+2
= 2
1+ n
1, we have (1)n n+2 6 0 and so the given series is not
convergent.
P

1
Example: For p R, the series np
is convergent iff p > 1.
n=1
1
Proof: If p 0, then 6 0 and so the given series is not convergent. Now, let p > 0. Then ( n1p )
np
P
P

is a decreasing sequence of non-negative real numbers. Also, 2n (2n1 )p = 1
( 2p1 )n , being a
n=1 n=1
1
geometric series, converges iff 2p1 < 1, i.e. iff p > 1. Hence by Cauchys condensation test, the
given series converges iff p > 1.
P

1
Example: For p R, the series n(log n)p
is convergent iff p > 1.
n=2
1
Proof: Let f (x) = x(log x)p
for all x > 1. Then f : (1, ) R is differentiable and
p1 (log x+p)
f 0 (x) = (log x)
x2 (log x)2p
0 for all x > max{1, ep } = a (say). Hence f is decreasing on
(a, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n n0 , where n0 N is chosen to satisfy n0 > a.
1
Thus the sequence n(log n)p of non-negative real numbers is decreasing. Since the series
n=n0
P n
P
P

2 2n (log1 2n )p = 1
(log 2)p np
is convergent iff p > 1, by Cauchys condensation test, 1
n(log n)p
n=n0 n=n0 n=n0
is convergent iff p > 1. Consequently the given series is convergent iff p > 1.
P

1+sin n
Exercise: Examine whether the series 1+n2
is convergent.
n=1
1+sin n 2
P

2
Solution: We have 0 1+n2
n2
for all n N. Since n2
is convergent, by comparison test,
n=1
the given series is convergent.
P

1
Exercise: Examine whether the series 2n +n
is convergent.
n=1
1 1
P

1
Solution: We have 0 < 2n +n
< 2n
for all n N. Since 2n
is convergent, by comparison test,
n=1
the given series is convergent.
P

Exercise: Examine whether the series 1
is convergent.
n=2 n(n1)
P

Solution: Since 1
> 1
n
> 0 for all n 2 and since is not convergent, by comparison test,
n(n1) n=1
the given series is not convergent.
P
Exercise: Examine whether the series ( n + 1 n) is convergent.
n=1
1
Solution: Let xn = n + 1 n = n+1+ n
and yn = 1n for all n N. Then xn , yn > 0 for all

n P

n N and lim xynn = lim n+1+ = lim 1
n 1
= 1
2
=
6 0. Since yn is not convergent, by
n n n 1+ n +1 n=1
P

limit comparison test, xn is not convergent.
n=1
P

1
Exercise: Examine whether the series n!
is convergent.
n=1
1 1
P

1
Solution: We have 0 < n!
2n1
for all n N. Since 2n1
is convergent, by comparison test,
n=1
the given series is convergent.
P

n
Exercise: Examine whether the series 4n3 2
is convergent.
n=1
n 1
Solution: Let xn = 4n3 2
and yn = n2
for all n N. Then xn , yn > 0 for all n N and
n3
P

lim xn = lim 3 = lim 1
2 = 1
6 0. Since
= yn is convergent, by limit comparison test,
n yn n 4n 2 n 4 n3 4
n=1
P
xn is convergent.
n=1
P

n
Example: The series 2n
is convergent.
n=1
Proof: Taking xn = 2nn for all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1
n
| = lim 12 (1 + n1 ) = 1
2
< 1. Hence by
n n
the ratio test, the given series is convergent.
P

n!
Example: The series nn
is convergent.
n=1
Proof: Taking xn = nn!n for all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1
n
n n
| = lim ( n+1 ) = lim (1+11 )n = 1
e
< 1.
n n n n
Hence by the ratio test, the given series is convergent.
P

(2n)!
Example: The series (n!)2
is not convergent.
n=1
(2n)!
Proof: Taking xn = (n!)2
all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1
for | = lim 4n+2 = 4 > 1. Hence by the
n n n n+1
ratio test, the given series is not convergent.
P

xn
Exercise: Find all real values of x for which n!
converges.
n=1
Solution: For x = 0, the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which clearly converges. We now assume
xn+1 |x| P n
that x 6= 0. Then lim | (n+1)! xn!n | = lim n+1 = 0 < 1. So by the ratio test, x
n!
is absolutely
n n n=1
convergent and hence convergent. Therefore the given series converges for all x R.
P

(n!)n
Example: The series nn2
is convergent.
n=1
(n!)n 1
Proof: Taking xn = nn2 for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim nn!n = 0 < 1 (since
n n
(n+1)! nn 1 1
lim (n+1)n+1 n!
= lim 1 n = e
< 1). Hence by the root test, the given series is convergent.
n n (1+ n )
P

n n 2
Example: The series ( n+1 ) is convergent.
n=1
n n2 1
Proof: Taking xn = ( n+1for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim (1+11 )n =
) 1
e
< 1. Hence by
n n n
the root test, the given series is convergent.
P

nn
Example: The series 2n2
is convergent.
n=1
nn 1 n
Proof: Taking xn = 2n2
for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim n = 0 < 1 (since
n n 2
2n
lim n+1
n+1 = 1
< 1). Hence by the root test, the given series is convergent.
n 2 n 2

P

5n
Example: The series 3n +4n
is not convergent.
n=1
5n 1 5 5
Proof: Taking xn = 3n +4n
for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim 1 = 4
> 1 (since
n n (3n +4n ) n
1
lim (3n + 4n ) = 4, as shown earlier). Hence by the root test, the given series is not convergent.
n
n

Exercise: Test the convergence of the series 1 + 2x + x2 + 2x3 + x4 + 2x5 + x6 + 2x7 + ,


where x R.
P

Solution: Taking the given series as an , we have a2n = 2x2n1 and a2n1 = x2n2 for all n N.
n=1
1 1 1
Since lim |a2n | 2n = |x| = lim |a2n1 | 2n1 , we get lim |an | n = |x|. Hence by the root test, the
n n n
given series is absolutely convergent (and hence convergent) if |x| < 1 and is not convergent if
|x| > 1. If |x| = 1, then lim |a2n | = lim 2|x|2n1 = 2 6= 0 and so an 6 0. Consequently the given
n n
series is not convergent if |x| = 1.
P

Example: For p R, the series (1)n+1 n1p is convergent iff p > 0.
n=1
Proof: For p 0, |(1)n+1 n1p | = n1p 6 0 and so (1)n+1 n1p 6 0. Hence the given series is not
convergent if p 0. If p > 0, then ( n1p ) is a decreasing sequence of positive real numbers with
1
np
0 and hence the given series converges by Leibnizs test.
P

Example: The series (1)n+1 n3n+1 is convergent.
n=1
3
Proof: Let f (x) = x3x+1 for all x 1. Then f : [1, ) R is differentiable with f 0 (x) = (x12x
3 +1)2 0

for all x [1, ). Hence f is decreasing on [1, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n N. Thus
1
the sequence ( n3n+1 ) is decreasing. Also, n
n3 +1
= n2
1+ 13
0. Therefore by Leibnizs test, the given
n
alternating series is convergent.
n 1
P

1
Alternative proof: Since 0 < n3 +1
< n2
for all n N and since the series n2
converges, by
n=1
P
P
P

comparison test, the series |(1)n+1 n3n+1 | = n
n3 +1
converges. Thus (1)n n3n+1 is an ab-
n=1 n=1 n=1
solutely convergent series and hence it is convergent.
P

n+1
Example: The series (1)n+1 n+1
is convergent.
n=1
x+1
Proof: Let f (x) = x+1
for all x 1. Then f : [1, ) R is differentiable and f 0 (x) =

1x2 x

2 x(x+1)2
0 for all x 1. Hence f is decreasing on [1, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n N.
1 + 1
n+1 n+1 n
Consequently the sequence n+1 is decreasing. Also, n+1 = 1+ n
1 0. Hence by Leibnizs
n
test, the given series converges.

Example: If 1 21 + 13 14 + 15 61 + = s, then 1 + 13 12 + 15 + 17 14 + 19 + = 32 s.
Proof: We first note that by Leibnizs test, the series 1 12 + 13 14 + converges.
Let 1 12 + 13 14 + = s. (i)
Then the series 21 14 + 16 = 21 (1 12 + 13 ) converges to 12 s. It follows that the series
0 + 12 0 14 + 0 + 16 0 18 + (ii)
also converges to 2 s. Hence the series (1 + 0) + ( 21 + 12 ) + ( 31 0) + ( 14 14 ) + ( 51 + 0) + ,
1

which is the sum of the series (i) and (ii), converges to s + 12 s = 32 s. Therefore it follows that
1 + 13 12 + 15 + 17 14 + 19 + = 32 s.
P

xn
Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series n!
.
n=0
Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. If
xn+1 |x|
x(6= 0) R, then since lim | (n+1)! xn!n | = lim n+1 = 0 < 1, by ratio test, the given series con-
n n
verges (absolutely). Therefore the radius of convergence of the given power series is .
P

Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series n!xn .
n=0
Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let
x(6= 0) R and let an = n!xn for all n N. Then lim | an+1
an
| = and so there exists n0 N such
n
that | an+1
an
| > 2 for all n n0 . This gives |an | > 2nn0 |an0 | for all n n0 and hence lim an 6= 0.
n
P

Consequently an is not convergent. Therefore the radius of convergence of the given power
n=1
series is 0.
P

Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series xn .
n=0
Solution: We know that the given series (which is a geometric series) converges if |x| < 1 and
diverges if |x| > 1. Hence the radius of convergence of the given power series is 1.
P

xn
Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n
.
n=1
Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let
n P

x(6= 0) R and let an = xn for all n N. Then lim | an+1
an
| = |x|. Hence by ratio test, an
n n=1
is convergent (absolutely) if |x| < 1, i.e. if x (1, 1) and is not convergent if |x| > 1, i.e. if
P
P
1
x (, 1) (1, ). If x = 1, then an = n
is not convergent. Again, if x = 1, then
n=1 n=1
P
P

(1)n
an = n
is convergent by Leibniz test, since ( n1 ) is a decreasing sequence of positive real
n=1 n=1
1
numbers and lim = 0. Therefore the interval of convergence of the given power series is [1, 1).
n n
P

xn
Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n2
.
n=0
Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let
n P

x(6= 0) R and let an = xn2 for all n N. Then lim | an+1
an
| = |x|. Hence by ratio test, an
n n=1
is convergent (absolutely) if |x| < 1, i.e. if x (1, 1) and is not convergent if |x| > 1, i.e. if
P
P

1
P
x (, 1) (1, ). If |x| = 1, then |an | = n 2 is convergent and hence an is also
n=1 n=1 n=1
convergent. Therefore the interval of convergence of the given power series is [1, 1].
P

(1)n
Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n4n
(x 1)n .
n=1
Solution: If x = 1, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let
n
x(6= 1) R and let an = (1)
n.4n
(x 1)n for all n N. Then lim | an+1 | = 14 |x 1|. Hence by ratio
n an
P

test, an is convergent (absolutely) if 41 |x 1| < 1, i.e. if x (3, 5) and is not convergent if
n=1
1
P
P

1
4
|x 1| > 1, i.e. if x (, 3) (5, ). If x = 3, then an = n
is not convergent.
n=1 n=1
P
P

(1)n
Again, if x = 5, then an = n
is convergent by Leibniz test, since ( n1 ) is a decreasing
n=1 n=1
1
sequence of positive real numbers and lim = 0. Therefore the interval of convergence of the
n n
given power series is (3, 5].

Continuity

Exercise: Define the notions lim f (x) = ` and lim f (x) = .


x xx0
Solution: Let f : D R, where D R such that (a, ) D for some a > 0. We write
lim f (x) = ` if for each > 0, there exists M > 0 such that |f (x) `| < for all x D satisfying
x
x > M.
Again, let f : D R, where D R such that (x0 h, x0 + h) \ {x0 } D for some h > 0. We
write lim f (x) = if for each M > 0, there exists > 0 such that f (x) < M for all x D
xx0
satisfying 0 < |x x0 | < .

n+1 n)
Example: lim sin(n+1
n
=1

n 1 sin x
Proof: Since n + 1 n =
n+1+ n
0, using the fact that lim x
= 1, we obtain
x0
n+1 n)
lim sin(n+1
n
= 1.
n

3x + 2 if x < 1,
Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =
4x2 if x 1,
is not continuous at 1.
Proof: Since lim f (x) = lim (3x + 2) = 5 6= 4 = f (1), f is not continuous at 1.
x1 x1

x sin x1 if x 6= 0,
Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =
0 if x = 0,
is continuous at 0.
Proof: For all x(6= 0) R, |f (x) f (0)| = |x sin x1 | |x| and hence given any > 0, choosing
= > 0, we get |f (x) f (0)| < for all x R satisfying |x 0| < . Therefore f is continuous
at 0.

sin x1 if x 6= 0,
Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =
0 if x = 0,
is not continuous at 0.
2
Proof: If xn = (4n+1) for all n N, then the sequence (xn ) converges to 0, but f (xn ) =

sin(4n + 1) 2 = 1 for all n N and so f (xn ) 1 6= 0 = f (0).

1 if x Q,
Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =
0 if x R \ Q,
is not continuous at any point of R.
Proof: If x0 Q, then there exists a sequence (tn ) in R \ Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = 0
for all n N, f (tn ) 0 6= 1 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Again, if x0 R \ Q,
then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q such that rn x0 . Since f (rn ) = 1 for all n N,
f (rn ) 1 6= 0 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 .

x if x Q,
Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =
x if x R \ Q,
is continuous only at 0.
Proof: Given any > 0, choosing = > 0, we have |f (x) f (0)| = |x| < for all x R
satisfying |x 0| < . Therefore f is continuous at 0. If x0 (6= 0) Q, then there exists a sequence
(tn ) in R \ Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = tn for all n N, f (tn ) x0 6= x0 = f (x0 ).
Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Again, if x0 R \ Q, then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q
such that rn x0 . Since f (rn ) = x0 for all n N, f (rn ) x0 6= x0 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not
continuous at x0 .

Exercise: If both f, g : R R are discontinuous at 0, then show that it is possible for the
product function f g : R R to be continuous or discontinuous
at 0.
1 if x Q, 0 if x Q,
Solution: Let f (x) = and g(x) =
0 if x R \ Q, 1 if x R \ Q,
2
Then both f, g : R R are discontinuous at 0, f = f is discontinuous at 0 and since (f g)(x) = 0
for all x R, f g is continuous at 0.

Exercise: If f : D R is continuous at x0 D and if f (x0 ) 6= 0, then show that there


exists > 0 such that f (x) 6= 0 for all x D (x0 , x0 + ).
Solution: Since |f (x0 )| > 0, by the continuity of f at x0 , there exists > 0 such that |f (x)
f (x0 )| < 21 |f (x0 )| for all x D (x0 , x0 + ). If f (x) = 0 for some x D (x0 , x0 + ),
then from above, we get |f (x0 )| < 12 |f (x0 )|, which is not possible. Therefore f (x) 6= 0 for all
x D (x0 , x0 + ).

Example: The equation x2 = x sin x + cos x has at least two real roots.
Proof: Let f (x) = x2 x sin x cos x for all x R. Then f : R R is continuous and
f () = 2 + 1 > 0, f (0) = 1 < 0 and f () = 2 + 1 > 0. Hence by the intermediate value
theorem, the equation f (x) = 0 has at least one root in (, 0) and at least one root in (0, ).
Thus the equation f (x) = 0 has at least two real roots.

Example: If f : [0, 1] [0, 1] is continuous, then there exists c [0, 1] such that f (c) = c.
Proof: Let g(x) = f (x) x for all x [0, 1]. Since f is continuous, g : [0, 1] R is continuous.
If f (0) = 0 or f (1) = 1, then we get the result by taking c = 0 or c = 1 respectively. Otherwise
g(0) = f (0) > 0 and g(1) = f (1) 1 < 0 (since it is given that 0 f (x) 1 for all x [0, 1]).
Hence by the intermediate value theorem, there exists c (0, 1) such that g(c) = 0, i.e. f (c) = c.

Exercise: Let f : [0, 2] R be continuous such that f (0) = f (2). Show that there exist
x1 , x2 [0, 2] such that x1 x2 = 1 and f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).
Solution: Let g(x) = f (x + 1) f (x) for all x [0, 1]. Since f is continuous, g : [0, 1] R is
continuous. Also, g(0) = f (1) f (0) and g(1) = f (2) f (1) = g(0), since f (0) = f (2). If
g(0) = 0, then f (1) = f (0) and we get the result by taking x1 = 1 and x2 = 0. If g(0) 6= 0,
then g(0) and g(1) are of opposite signs and hence by the intermediate value theorem, there exists
c (0, 1) such that g(c) = 0, i.e. f (c+1) = f (c). We get the result by taking x1 = c+1 and x2 = c.

Exercise: Let x R, n N. Show that


(i) if n is odd, then there exists unique y R such that y n = x.
(ii) if n is even and x > 0, then there exists unique y > 0 such that y n = x.
Solution: Let f (t) = tn x for all t R, so that f : R R is continuous.
(i) We first assume that n is odd. Then lim f (t) = and lim f (t) = . So there exist x1 > 0
t t
and x2 < 0 such that f (x1 ) > 0 and f (x2 ) < 0. By the intermediate value property of continuous
functions, there exists y (x2 , x1 ) such that f (y) = 0, i.e. y n = x. If possible, let there exist
u R such that u 6= y and un = x. Clearly either both u and y must be non-negative or both u
and y must be negative. We consider the case 0 y < u. (Other cases can be handled similarly.)
Then x = y n < un = x, which is a contradiction. Thus the uniqueness of y is proved.
(ii) We now assume that n is even and x > 0. Then f (0) < 0 and lim f (t) = . So there exists
t
x1 > 0 such that f (x1 ) > 0. By the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there
exists y (0, x1 ) such that f (y) = 0 i.e. y n = x. If possible, let there exist u > 0 such that
u 6= y and un = x. Without loss of generality, let u > y. Then x = un > y n = x, which is a
contradiction. This proves the uniqueness of y.

Example: There does not exist any continuous function from [0, 1] onto (0, ).
Proof: If f : [0, 1] (0, ) is continuous, then f must be bounded and hence f cannot be onto.

Exercise: Does there exist a continuous function from (0, 1) onto (0, )?
x
Solution: Yes, the function f : (0, 1) (0, ), defined by f (x) = 1x for all x (0, 1), is contin-
y
uous and onto. (We note that if y (0, ), then x = 1+y (0, 1) such that f (x) = y.)

Differentiation


x sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,
Example: Let f (x) =
0 if x = 0.
Then f : R R is not differentiable at 0.
Proof: Since lim f (x)f
x0
(0)
= lim sin x1 does not exist, f is not differentiable at 0.
x0 x0
(To see that lim sin x1 does not exist, we apply the sequential criterion for existence of limit. If
x0
2 1
xn = (4n+1)
and yn = n
for all n N, then xn 0 and yn 0, but sin x1n 1 and sin y1n 0.)

x2 sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,
Example: Let f (x) =
0 if x = 0.
Then f : R R is differentiable but f 0 : R R is not continuous at 0.
Proof: Clearly f is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 2x sin x1 cos x1 for all x(6= 0) R.
Also, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0
(0)
| = |x sin x1 | |x| < for all
x R satisfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim f (x)f x0
(0)
= 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0
x0
with f 0 (0) = 0. Thus f : R R is differentiable.
1 1
Again, since 2n 0 but f 0 ( 2n ) 1 6= f 0 (0), f 0 : R R is not continuous at 0.
3
x sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,
Example: Let f (x) =
0 if x = 0.
Then f : R R is differentiable, f : R R is continuous, but f 0 is not differentiable at 0.
0

Proof: Clearly f is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 3x2 sin x1 x cos x1 for all x(6= 0) R.

Also, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0
(0)
| = |x2 sin x1 | |x|2 < for all
x R satisfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim f (x)f x0
(0)
= 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0
x0
with f 0 (0) = 0. Thus f : R R is differentiable.
Clearly f 0 : R R is continuous at all x(6= 0) R. Also, since lim x2 sin x1 = 0 and lim x cos x1 = 0
x0 x0
(similar to what we have shown earlier), we obtain lim f 0 (x) = 0 = f 0 (0), which shows that f 0 is
x0
continuous at 0. Thus f 0 : R R is continuous.
0 0 (0)
Again, lim f (x)f
x0
= lim (3x sin x1 cos x1 ) does not exist, because if xn = 1
2n
and yn =
x0 x0
1
(2n+1)
for all n N, then xn 0 and yn 0, but lim (3xn sin x1n cos 1
xn
) = 1 and
n
lim (3yn sin y1n cos y1n ) = 1. Therefore f 0 is not differentiable at 0.
n

x2 if x Q,
Example: Let f (x) =
0 if x R \ Q.
Then f : R R is differentiable only at 0 and f 0 (0) = 0.
Proof: If x0 (6= 0) Q, then there exists a sequence (tn ) in R\Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = 0
for all n N, f (tn ) 0 6= x20 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Also, if u0 R \ Q,
then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q such that rn u0 . Since f (rn ) = rn2 u20 6= 0 = f (u0 ), f
is not continuous at u0 . Thus f is not continuous at any x(6= 0) R and therefore f cannot be
differentiable at any x(6= 0) R.
Again, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0
(0)
| |x| < for all x R sat-
f (x)f (0)
isfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim x0 = 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0 with f 0 (0) = 0.
x0

Exercise: Let f (x) = x2 |x| for all x R. Examine the existence of f 0 (x), f 00 (x) and f 000 (x),
where x R. 3
x if x 0,
Solution: Here f (x) =
x3 if x < 0.

0 3x2 if x > 0,
Clearly f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =
3x2 if x < 0.
Also, lim f (x)f
x0
(0)
= lim x2 = 0 and lim f (x)f
x0
(0)
= lim (x2 ) = 0.
x0+ x0+ x0 x0
0 f (x)f (0)
Hence f (0) = lim x0 = 0.
x0
0 00 6x if x > 0,
Again, it is clear that f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =
6x if x < 0.
f 0 (x)f 0 (0) f 0 (x)f 0 (0)
Also, lim x0
= lim 3x = 0 and lim x0
= lim (3x) = 0.
x0+ x0+ x0 x0
00 f 0 (x)f 0 (0)
Hence f (0) = lim x0
= 0.
x0
00 000 6 if x > 0,
Finally, it is clear that f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =
6 if x < 0.
f 00 (x)f 00 (0) f 00 (x)f 00 (0)
Also, lim x0
= lim 6 = 6 and lim x0
= lim (6) = 6.
x0+ x0+ x0 x0
f 00 (x)f 00 (0) 000
Hence lim x0
does not exist, i.e. f (0) does not exist.
x0

Example: The equation x2 = x sin x + cos x has exactly two (distinct) real roots.
Proof: Let f (x) = x2 x sin x cos x for all x R. Then f : R R is differentiable (and hence
continuous) with f 0 (x) = x(2 cos x) for all x R. Since cos x 6= 2 for any x R, the equation
f 0 (x) = 0 has exactly one real root, viz. x = 0. As a consequence of Rolles theorem, it follows that
the equation f (x) = 0 has at most two real roots. Also, since f () = 2 + 1 > 0, f (0) = 1 < 0
and f () = 2 + 1 > 0, by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, the equation
f (x) = 0 has at least one root in (, 0) and at least one root in (0, ). Thus the equation f (x) = 0
has exactly two (distinct) real roots and so the given equation has exactly two (distinct) real roots.

Exercise: Find the number of (distinct) real roots of the equation x4 + 2x2 6x + 2 = 0.
Solution: Taking f (x) = x4 + 2x2 6x + 2 for all x R, we find that f : R R is twice
differentiable with f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 4x 6 and f 00 (x) = 12x2 + 4 for all x R. Since f 00 (x) 6= 0 for all
x R, as a consequence of Rolles theorem, it follows that the equation f 0 (x) = 0 has at most one
real root and hence the equation f (x) = 0 has at most two real roots. Again, since f (0) = 2 > 0,
f (1) = 2 < 0 and f (2) = 14 > 0, by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, the
equation f (x) = 0 has at least one real root in (0, 1) and at least one real root in (1, 2). Therefore
the given equation has exactly two (distinct) real roots.
3
Example: sin x x x6 for all x [0, 2 ].
3
Proof: Let f (x) = sin x x + x6 for all x [0, 2 ]. Then f : [0, 2 ] R is infinitely differentiable
2
and f 0 (x) = cos x 1 + x2 , f 00 (x) = sin x + x and f 000 (x) = 1 cos x for all x [0, 2 ]. Since
f 000 (x) 0 for all x [0, 2 ], f 00 (x) f 00 (0) = 0 for all x [0, 2 ] f 0 (x) f 0 (0) = 0 for all
3
x [0, 2 ] f (x) f (0) = 0 for all x [0, 2 ] sin x x x6 for all x [0, 2 ].

Exercise: If f (x) = x3 + x2 5x + 3 for all x R, then show that f is one-one on [1, 5]


but not one-one on R.
Solution: f : R R is differentiable with f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2x 5 for all x R. Clearly f 0 (x) 6= 0
for all x (1, 5) and hence f is one-one on [1, 5]. Again, since f (0) = 3, f (1) = 0 and f (2) = 5,
by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there exist x1 (0, 1) and x2 (1, 2)
such that f (x1 ) = 1 = f (x2 ). Therefore f is not one-one on R.

Exercise: Let f : R R be differentiable such that f (1) = 5, f (0) = 0 and f (1) = 10.
Prove that there exist c1 , c2 (1, 1) such that f 0 (c1 ) = 3 and f 0 (c2 ) = 3.
Solution: By the mean value theorem, there exist (1, 0) and (0, 1) such that f 0 () =
f (0)f (1)
0(1)
= 5 and f 0 () = f (1)f
10
(0)
= 10. Hence by the intermediate value property of deriva-
tives, there exist c1 , c2 (, ) (and so c1 , c2 (1, 1)) such that f 0 (c1 ) = 3 and f 0 (c2 ) = 3.

Exercise: Find the local maxima and local minima of f , where f (x) = 1 x2/3 for all x R.
Solution: f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 32 x1/3 6= 0 for all
x(6= 0) R. Hence f does not have local maxima or local minima at any x(6= 0) R. Again,
since f (x) 1 = f (0) for all x R, f has a local maximum at 0 and the local maximum value is
f (0) = 1.
Alternative method for showing local maximum at 0: Since f 0 (x) > 0 for all x < 0 and f 0 (x) < 0
for all x > 0, f has a local maximum at 0.

1+x1 1
Example: lim x
= 2
x0
d
1+x1 ( 1+x1)|x=0
Proof: Applying LHopitals rule, we obtain lim x
= dx
d
(x)|x=0
= 21 .
x0 dx

1sin x 1
Example: lim =
x 2 1+cos 2x 4
1sin x cos x sin x
Proof: Applying LHopitals rule twice, we obtain lim = lim = lim = 14 .
x 2 1+cos 2x x 2 2 sin 2x x 2 4 cos 2x
x2 sin x1
Example: lim =0
x0 sin x 2 1
x sin
Proof: For all x(6= 0) R, we have 0 sin x x | sinx x ||x|. Since lim = 1, we get sin x
x
2 1 x0
x x sin
lim | sin x ||x| = 0 and so by the sandwich theorem (for limit of functions), we get lim sin x x = 0.
x0 x0
x2 sin 1
It follows that lim sin x x = 0.
x0
1
Example: lim ( sinx x ) x = 1
x0
1
Proof: Let f (x) = ( sinx x ) x for all x(6= 0) R. Then f (x) > 0 for all x (1, 1) \ {0} and
log( sinx x ) x cos xsin x x sin x
we have lim log f (x) = lim x
= lim x sin x
(applying LHopitals rule) = lim
x0 x0 x0 x0 sin x+x cos x
sin x sin x
(applying LHopitals rule again) = lim sin x = 0 (since lim x
= 1). By the continuity of
x0 x +cos x x0
0
the exponential function, it follows that lim f (x) = e = 1.
x0

Example: lim ( sin1 x x1 )


x0
Proof: We have lim ( sin1 x x1 ) = lim xsin x
= lim 1cos x
(using LHopitals rule)
x0 x0 x sin x x0 sin x+x cos x
sin x
= lim (using LHopitals rule again) = 0.
x0 2 cos xx sin x
xsin x
Example: lim = 12
x 2x+sin x
Proof: Since | sinx x | x1 for all x(6= 0) R and since lim 1
= 0, we get lim sin x
= 0. Consequently
x x x x
1 sinx x
lim xsin x = lim 2+ sinx x
= 12 .
x 2x+sin x x
2
e1/x
Example: lim x
=0
x0
1/x2 1/x 1/x2 1
Proof: We have lim e x = lim 2 = lim 2 2 (applying LHopitals rule) = lim 12 xe x2 = 0.
x0 x0 e1/x x0 x3 e1/x x0
2
Example: 1 + x2 x8 1 + x 1 + x2 for all x > 0.

Proof: If f (x) = 1 + x for all x [0, ), then f : [0, ) R is twice differentiable and
1 1
f 0 (x) = 21+x , f 00 (x) = 4(1+x) 3/2 for all x [0, ). If x > 0, then by Taylors theorem, there ex-
2 2
ists c (0, x) such that f (x) = f (0)+xf 0 (0)+ x2! f 00 (c) = 1+ x2 x8 (1+c)
1
3/2 . Since 0 <
1
(1+c)3/2
< 1,
x x2
x
we get 1 + 2 8 1 + x 1 + 2 .

Example: The Maclaurin series for ex converges to ex for all x R.


Proof: If f (x) = ex for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (n) (x) = ex
P
n
x
for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series for ex is the series 1 + n!
, where
n=1
x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of ex becomes 1 + 0 + 0 + , which clearly converges
to e0 = 1. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder term in the Taylor expansion of ex about the point
xn+1 (n+1) xn+1 cn
0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ) = (n+1)! e , where cn lies between 0 and x. Since ecn < ex
|x|n+1 x |x|n+1
if x > 0 and ecn < 1 if x < 0, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!
e if x > 0 and |Rn (x)| (n+1)!
if x < 0.
|x|n+2 (n+1)! |x| |x|n+1
Also, since lim |x|n+1
= lim = 0 < 1, we get lim = 0 and hence it follows that
n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!
lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of ex converges to ex .
n

Example: The Maclaurin series for sin x converges to sin x for all x R.
Proof: If f (x) = sin x for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (2n1) (x) =
(1)n+1 cos x, f (2n) (x) = (1)n sin x for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series
P
x2n1
for sin x is the series (1)n+1 (2n1)! , where x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of sin x
n=1
becomes 0 0 + 0 , which clearly converges to sin 0 = 0. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder
xn+1 (n+1)
term in the Taylor expansion of sin x about the point 0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ),
|x|n+1
where cn lies between 0 and x. Since | sin cn | 1 and | cos cn | 1, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!
. Also,
n+2 n+1
since lim |x| (n+1)!
|x|n+1
= lim |x| = 0 < 1, we get lim |x| = 0 and hence it follows that
n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!
lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of sin x converges to sin x.
n

Example: The Maclaurin series for cos x converges to cos x for all x R.
Proof: If f (x) = cos x for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (2n1) (x) =
(1)n sin x, f (2n) (x) = (1)n cos x for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series
P
x2n
for cos x is the series 1 + (1)n (2n)! , where x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of cos x
n=1
becomes 1 0 + 0 , which clearly converges to cos 0 = 1. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder
xn+1 (n+1)
term in the Taylor expansion of sin x about the point 0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ),
|x|n+1
where cn lies between 0 and x. Since | sin cn | 1 and | cos cn | 1, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!
. Also,
|x|n+2 (n+1)! |x| |x|n+1
since lim |x|n+1
= lim = 0 < 1, we get lim = 0 and hence it follows that
n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!
lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of cos x converges to cos x.
n

Exercise: Find all the local maximum and local minimum values of f , where f (x) = x5
5x4 + 5x3 + 12 for all x R.
Solution: f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f 0 (x) = 5x2 (x 1)(x 3), f 00 (x) = 10x(2x2
6x + 3), f 000 (x) = 30(2x2 4x + 1) for all x R. Since f 0 (x) = 0 iff x = 0, 1, or 3, f has neither a
local maximum nor a local minimum at any point of R \ {0, 1, 3}. Again, since f 00 (1) = 10 < 0,
f 00 (3) = 90 > 0, f 00 (0) = 0 and f 000 (0) = 30 6= 0, f has a local maximum at 1 with local maximum
value f (1) = 13, f has a local minimum at 3 with local minimum value f (3) = 15 and f has
neither a local maximum nor a local minimum at 0.

Integration

Exercise: Let f (x) = x4 4x3 + 10 for all x [1, 4]. Calculate U (f, P ) and L(f, P ) for the
partition P = {1, 2, 3, 4} of [1, 4].
Solution: Since f 0 (x) = 4x2 (x3) for all x [1, 4], we have f 0 (x) < 0 for all x (1, 3) and f 0 (x) > 0
for all x (3, 4). Hence f is strictly decreasing on [1, 3] and strictly increasing on [3, 4]. Conse-
quently sup{f (x) : x [1, 2]} = f (1) = 7, sup{f (x) : x [2, 3]} = f (2) = 6, sup{f (x) : x
[3, 4]} = f (4) = 10 and inf{f (x) : x [1, 2]} = f (2) = 6, inf{f (x) : x [2, 3]} = f (3) = 17,
inf{f (x) : x [3, 4]} = f (3) = 17. Therefore U (f, P ) = 7(2 1) + (6)(3 2) + 10(4 3) = 11
and L(f, P ) = (6)(2 1) + (17)(3 2) + (17)(4 3) = 40.

Example: Let k R and let f (x) = k for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann
R1
integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = k.
0
Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Clearly
P
n
Mi = k = mi for i = 1, ..., n and hence U (f, P ) = L(f, P ) = k(xi xi1 ) = k. Consequently
i=1
R1 R1 R1
f (x) dx = k =f (x) dx. Therefore f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = k.
0 0 0

0 if x (0, 1],
Example: Let f (x) =
1 if x = 0.
R1
Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 0.
0
Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Then
R1
mi = 0 and Mi 0 for i = 1, ..., n and so L(f, P ) = 0 and U (f, P ) 0. Hence f (x) dx = 0
0
R1
and f (x) dx 0. Again, if 0 < < 1, then considering the partition P1 = {0, 2 , 1} of [0, 1], we
0
R1
R1
get 0 f (x) dx U (f, P1 ) = 2
< and consequently f (x) dx = 0. Therefore f is Riemann
0 0
R1
integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 0.
0

1 if x [0, 1] Q,
Example: Let f (x) =
0 if x [0, 1] (R \ Q.
Then f : [0, 1] R is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].
Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Since
every interval contains a rational as well as an irrational number, we get Mi = 1 and mi = 0 for
P
n R1
i = 1, ..., n and hence U (f, P ) = (xi xi1 ) = 1 and L(f, P ) = 0. Consequently f (x) dx = 1
i=1 0
R1 R1 R1
and f (x) dx = 0. Since f (x) dx 6= f (x) dx, f is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].
0 0 0

Example: Let f (x) = x for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on
R1
[0, 1] and f (x) dx = 21 .
0
Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. For each n N, Pn = {0, n1 , ..., nn = 1} is a partition of [0, 1].
Also, L(f, Pn ) = n1 (0 + n1 + + n1
n
) = 12 2n
1
12 and U (f, Pn ) = n1 ( n1 + + nn ) = 12 + 2n
1
12 .
R1
Hence by the following exercise, f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 21 .
0
2
Example: Let f (x) = x for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on
R1
[0, 1] and f (x) dx = 31 .
0
Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. For each n N, Pn = {0, n1 , ..., nn = 1} is a partition of [0, 1].
2 2
Also, L(f, Pn ) = n1 (0 + n12 + + (n1)
n2
) = (1 n1 )( 13 6n
1
) 31 and U (f, Pn ) = n1 ( n12 + + nn2 ) =
(1 + n1 )( 13 + 6n
1
) 13 . Hence by the following exercise, f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and
R1
f (x) dx = 31 .
0

Exercise: Let f : [a, b] R be bounded. Let there exist a sequence (Pn ) of partitions of
Rb
[a, b] such that L(f, Pn ) and U (f, Pn ) . Show that f R[a, b] and that f = .
a
Rb Rb
Solution: We have L(f, Pn ) f (x) dx f U (f, Pn ) for all n N. Since L(f, Pn ) and
a a
Rb Rb Rb Rb
U (f, Pn ) , we get f (x) dx f f (x) dx = = f . Hence f R[a, b] and
a a a a
Rb
f = .
a

x if x [0, 1] Q,
Exercise: Let f (x) =
0 if x [0, 1] (R \ Q.
R1
Examine whether f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1]. Also, find f , if it exists.
0
Solution: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Since
between any two distinct real numbers, there exist a rational as well as an irrational number, it
follows that Mi = xi and mi = 0 for i = 1, ..., n. (Note that Mi cannot be less than xi , because
otherwise we can find a rational number ri between Mi and xi and so f (ri ) = ri > Mi , which is not
P
n Pn P
n Pn
possible.) Hence L(f, P ) = 0 and U (f, P ) = xi (xi xi1 ) = x2i xi xi1 12 (x2i x2i1 )
i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1
R1 R1
(since x2i + x2i1 2xi xi1 for i = 1, ..., n) = 12 . Consequently f (x) dx 1
2
and f (x) dx = 0.
0 0
R1 R1
Since f (x) dx 6=
f (x) dx, f is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].
0 0

1 if x = n1 for some n N,
Exercise: Let f : [0, 1] R be defined by f (x) =
0 otherwise.
R1
Examine whether f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1]. Also, find f , if it exists.
0
R1
Solution: f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f = 0. The justification is exactly similar to the
0
solution provided for Ex.18 of Tutorial Problem Set.
R1 2
Exercise: Show that 31 2 x1+x dx 13 .
0
2 2
Solution: Since 1 1 + x 2 for all x [0, 1], we get x 2 x1+x x2 for all x [0, 1].
Since all the given functions are continuous and hence Riemann integrable on [0, 1], we get
R1 x2 R1 x2 R1 2 1
R1 x2
dx
2

1+x
dx x dx
3 2

1+x
dx 13 .
0 0 0 0

Exercise: If f : [a, b] R is continuous, then show that there exists c [a, b] such that
Rb
f (x) dx = (b a)f (c).
a
Rn
Solution: Since f is continuous on [a, b], f R[a, b] and so m(b a) f (x) dx M (b a),
a
where m = inf{f (x) : x [a, b]} and M = sup{f (x) : x [a, b]}. Since f is continuous on [a, b],
Rb
f (x) dx
there exist , [a, b] such that f () = m and f () = M . Hence f () a ba f (). By
the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there exists c between and (both
Rb
f (x) dx Rb
inclusive) such that f (c) = a
ba
, i.e. f (x) dx = (b a)f (c).
a

Exercise: Let f : [a, b] R and g : [a, b] R be continuous and let g(x) 0 for all x [a, b].
Rb Rb
Show that there exists c [a, b] such that f (x)g(x) dx = f (c) g(x) dx.
a a
Solution: Since f is continuous on [a, b], f is bounded on [a, b] and there exist , [a, b] such
that f () = inf{f (x) : x [a, b]} and f () = sup{f (x) : x [a, b]}. We have f () f (x) f ()
for all x [a, b] f ()g(x) f (x)g(x) f ()g(x) for all x [a, b] (since g(x) 0 for all
Rb
x [a, b]). Since f, g are continuous on [a, b], g, f g R[a, b] and hence we obtain f () g(x) dx
a
Rb Rb Rb Rb
f (x)g(x) dx f () g(x) dx. If g(x) dx = 0, then f (x)g(x) dx = 0 and so we can choose
a a a a
Rb
Rb Rb f (x)g(x) dx
any c [a, b]. If g(x) dx 6= 0, then g(x) dx > 0 and hence we get f () a
Rb
f ().
a a g(x) dx
a
By the intermediate value property of the continuous function f , there exists c between and
Rb
f (x)g(x) dx Rb Rb
(both inclusive) such that f (c) = a
Rb
, i.e. f (x)g(x) dx = f (c) g(x) dx.
g(x) dx a a
a
1 1 1
Exercise: Evaluate lim [ n+1 + n+2
+ + n+n
].
n
1
Solution: Let f (x) for all x [0, 1]. Considering the partition Pn = {0, n1 , n2 , ..., nn = 1} of
= 1+x
P
n P
n
[0, 1] for each n N, we find that S(f, Pn ) = f ( ni )( ni i1
n
) = 1
n+i
. Since f : [0, 1] R is
i=1 i=1
1
P
n R1
continuous, f R[0, 1] and hence lim = lim S(f, Pn ) = f = log(1 + x)|1x=0 = log 2.
n i=1 n+i n 0
R 1
Example: tp
dt converges iff p > 1.
1
Rx 1 1
Rx 1
Proof: For all x > 1, we have tp
dt = 1p
(x1p 1) if p 6= 1 and t
dt = log x. Hence
1 1
Rx 1 1
Rx 1
R 1
lim tp
dt = 1p
if p > 1 and lim tp
dt = if p 1. Therefore tp
dt converges iff p > 1.
x 1 x 1 1
R
Exercise: Examine whether the improper integral et dt converges.

R R0 R
Solution: In order that the improper integral et dt converges, both et dt and et dt must
0
R Rx
converge. However, et dt does not converge, because lim et dt = lim (ex 1) = . Hence
0 x 0 x
R
et dt does not converge.

R 1
Exercise: Examine whether the improper integral 1+t2
dt converges.
0
1
Rx
Solution: Since lim 2 dt = lim tan1 x = 2 , the given improper integral converges.
x 0 1+t x
R cos t
Example: 1+t2
dt converges.
0
R1 cos t
R cos t R cos t
Proof: Since 1+t2
dt exists (in R) as a Riemann integral, 1+t2
dt converges iff 1+t2
dt con-
0 0 1
cos t 1
R 1 R cos t
verges. Now | 1+t 2| t2
for all t 1 and t2
dt converges. Hence by comparison test, | 1+t 2 | dt
1 1
R cos t R cos t
converges and consequently 1+t2
dt converges. By our remark at the beginning, 1+t2
dt con-
1 0
verges.
R1 1
Example: tp
dt converges iff p < 1.
0
R1 1
Proof: tp
dt exists (in R) as a Riemann integral if p 0. So let p > 0. Then for 0 < x < 1, we
0
R1 1 1
R1 1
R1
1 1
have tp
dt = 1p
(1 x1p ) if p 6= 1 and t
dt = log x. Hence lim p dt = if p < 1 and
x x x0+ x t 1p

R1 1
R1 1
lim tp
dt = if p 1. Therefore tp
dt converges iff p < 1.
x0+ x 0
2 2
Exercise: Find the perimeter of the ellipse xa2 + yb2 = 1.
Solution: The parametric equations of the given ellipse are x = a cos t, y = b sin t, where
R2
0 t 2. Hence the perimeter of the given ellipse is a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t dt. (This inte-
0
gral does not have a simple expression in terms of a and b.)

Exercise: Find the length of the curve x = et sin t, y = et cos t, 0 t 2 .



R2 p
Solution: The required length is (et cos t + et sin t)2 + (et cos t et sin t)2 dt = 2(e 2 1).
0

Exercise: Find the length of the cardioid r = 1 cos .


R p
Solution: By symmetry, the length of the given cardioid is 2 (1 cos )2 + sin2 d = 8.
0

Exercise: Find the area above the x-axis which is included between the parabola y 2 = ax
and the circle x2 + y 2 = 2ax, where a > 0.
Solution: Solving y 2 = ax and x2 + y 2 = 2ax, we obtain the x-coordinates of the common points
on the given parabola and the circle as 0 and a. Therefore the required area is
Ra Ra
( 2ax x2 ax) dx = ( 38 12
)a2
. (The integral 2ax x2 dx can be evaluated by the sub-
0 0
stitution x = 2a sin2 .)
Exercise: A solid lies between planes perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 0 and x = 4. The
cross sections perpendicular
to the axis on the interval
0 x 4 are squares whose diagonals run
from the parabola y = x to the parabola y = x. Find the volume of the solid.
Solution:
The length of the diagonal of the cross-sectional square at a distance x from the origin
is 2 x and hence the cross-sectional area at a distance x from the origin is 2x. Therefore the
R4
volume of the solid is 2x dx = 16.
0

Exercise: Find the volume of a sphere of radius r.


Solution: The volume of a sphere of radius r is same as the
volume of the solid generated by
revolving the semi-circular area bounded by the curve y = r2 x2 between x = r and x = r
Rr
about the x-axis. Hence the required volume is (r2 x2 ) dx = 34 r3 .
r

Exercise: A round hole of radius 3 is bored through the centre of a solid sphere of radius
2. Find the volume of the portion bored out.
Solution: The required volume is V1 V2 , where V1 is the volume of the solid sphere of radius 2
and V2 isthe volume of the solid generated by revolving the plane region common to x2 + y2 4
and y 3 about the x-axis. We know that V1 = 32 3
. Also, solving x2 + y 2 = 4 and y = 3, we
R1
get x = 1, 1 and so V2 = (4 x2 3) dx = 43 . Therefore the required volume is 28 3
.
1

Exercise: Consider the funnel formed by revolving the curve y = x1 about the x-axis, between
x = 1 and x = a, where a > 1. If Va and Sa denote respectively the volume and the surface area
of the funnel, then show that lim Va = and lim Sa = .
a a
Ra Ra q Ra 2
Solution: For each a > 1, we have Va = x2 dx = (1 a1 ) and Sa = 2x
1 + 1
x2
dx x
dx =
1 1 1
2 log a. Hence lim Va = and since lim log a = , we get lim Sa = .
a a a

Exercise: Find the volume and area of the curved surface of a paraboloid of revolution formed
by revolving the parabola y 2 = 4ax about the x-axis, and bounded by the section x = x1 .
Rx1
Solution: The required volume is 4ax dx = 2ax21 and the required surface area is
0
Rx1 p dy 3 3
2 4ax 1 + xa dx (since dx
= 2a
y
) = 83 a((a + x1 ) 2 a 2 ).
0