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Sequence

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ((1)n n1 ) is convergent. Also, find the limit if it exists.

Solution: Given > 0, there exists n0 N such that n0 > 1 . For all n n0 , we have

|(1)n n1 0| = n1 n10 < . Hence the given sequence is convergent with limit 0.

Solution: If possible, let the given sequence (xn ) (say) be convergent with limit `. Then there

exists n0 N such that |xn `| < 21 for all n n0 |1 `| < 21 and |2 `| < 12 1 =

|(1 `) (2 `)| |1 `| + |2 `| < 1, which is a contradiction. Therefore the given sequence

is not convergent.

Solution: If possible, let the given sequence (xn ) (say) be convergent with limit `. Then there exists

m N such that |xn `| < 14 for all n m |x2m `| < 14 and |x2m+1 `| < 14 |1 2m 1

`| < 41

1

and |1 + ` 2m+1 | < 14 2 ( 2m 1 1

+ 2m+1 ) < 12 32 < 2m 1 1

+ 2m+1 12 + 21 = 1, which is a

contradiction. Therefore the given sequence is not convergent.

n+1

Exercise: Examine whether the sequence ( 2n+3 ) is convergent. Also, find the limit if it ex-

ists.

n+1

Solution: Let > 0. For all n N, we have | 2n+3 12 | = 4n+6

1 1

< 4n . There exists n0 N such

1 n+1 1 1

that n0 > 4 . Hence | 2n+3 2 | < 4n0 < for all n n0 and so the given sequence is convergent

with limit 21 .

Solution: If possible, let (n + 32 ) be convergent. Then there exist ` R and n0 N such that

|n + 23 `| < 1 for all n n0 n < ` 12 for all n n0 , which is not true. Therefore the given

sequence is not convergent.

Solution: If possible, let (n3 + 1) be convergent. Then there exist ` R and n0 N such that

|n3 + 1 `| < 1 for all n n0 n3 < ` for all n n0 , which is not true. Therefore the given

sequence is not convergent.

Exercise: If || < 1, then examine whether the sequence (n ) is convergent. Also, find the

limit if it exists.

Solution: If = 0, then n = 0 for all n N and so (n ) converges to 0. Now we assume that

1 1

6= 0. Since || < 1, || > 1 and so || = 1 + h for some h > 0. For all n N, we have

(1 + h)n = 1 + nh + n(n1)

2!

1

h2 + + hn > nh ||n = (1+h) 1

n < nh for all n N. Given > 0, we

1

choose n0 N satisfying n0 > h . Then |n 0| = ||n < n10 h < for all n n0 and hence (n )

converges to 0.

log

Alternative solution: Given > 0, we choose n0 N satisfying n0 > log ||

. Then for all n n0 ,

n n n0 n

we have | 0| = || || < and hence ( ) converges to 0. (This solution assumes the

definition of logarithm.)

3n+2

Example: The sequence ( 2n+5 ) is bounded.

Proof: For all n N, | 3n+2

2n+5

|= 3n+2

2n+5

< 3n+2

2n

= 3

2

+ 1

n

52 . Hence the given sequence is bounded.

Exercise: If (xn ) and (yn ) are non-convergent sequences in R, then show that it is possible

for the sequence (xn + yn ) to be convergent or non-convergent.

Solution: The sequences (xn ) = (1, 2, 1, 2, ...) and (yn ) = (2, 1, 2, 1, ...) are non-convergent, but the

sequence (xn + yn ) = (3, 3, 3, ...) is convergent.

Again, the sequences (xn ) = (1, 2, 1, 2, ...) and (yn ) = (0, 1, 0, 1, ...) are non-convergent and the

sequence (xn + yn ) = (1, 3, 1, 3, ...) is also non-convergent.

Exercise: If xn x and x 6= 0, then show that there exists n0 N such that xn 6= 0 for

all n n0 .

Solution: Since xn x and |x| > 0, there exists n0 N such that |xn x| < 21 |x| for all n n0 .

If for some n n0 , xn = 0, then we obtain |x| < 12 |x|, which is not possible. Hence xn 6= 0 for all

n n0 .

2

Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( 3n2n2 +5n+3

3n

) and find the limit (if possible).

3

2n2 3n 2 n 1

Solution: We have 3n2 +5n+3

= 5

3+ n + 3 for all n N. Since n

0, the given sequence is convergent

n2

20

with limit 3+0+0

= 23 .

Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( n + 1 n) and find the limit (if possi-

ble).

1

1

Solution: For all n N, n + 1 n = n+1+ n

= n

1

. Since n1 0, the given sequence is

1+ n +1

convergent with limit 0 = 0.

1+0+1

Exercise: Examine the convergence of the sequence ( 4n2 + n 2n) and find the limit (if

possible). n

Solution: For all n N, 4n2 + n 2n = 4n2 +n+2n = 1 1 . Since n1 0, the given sequence

4+ n +2

is convergent with limit 1 = 41 .

4+0+2

Proof: We have 0 n1 sin2 n n1 for all n N. Since both the sequences (0, 0, ...) and ( n1 ) converge

to 0, by sandwich theorem, ( n1 sin2 n) converges to 0.

1

Example: The sequence ((2n + 3n ) n ) converges to 3.

1 1

Proof: We have 3n < 2n + 3n < 2.3n for all n N 3 < (2n + 3n ) n < 2 n .3 for all n N. Since

1 1

2 n 1, both the sequences (3, 3, ...) and (2 n .3) converge to 3. Hence by sandwich theorem, the

given sequence converges to 3.

1 1 1

Alternative proof: Since (2n +3n ) n = 3[1+( 23 )n ] n for all n N, we have 3 < (2n +3n ) n 3[1+( 23 )n ]

for all n N. Since ( 23 )n 0, both the sequences (3, 3, ...) and (3[1 + ( 23 )n ]) converge to 3. Hence

by sandwich theorem, the given sequence converges to 3.

Proof: We have nn2 +n n12 +1 + + n12 +n nn2 +1 for all n N. Also, n

n2 +n

= 1 1

1

1+ n

and n = q 1 1. Hence by sandwich theorem, the given sequence converges to 1.

n2 +1 1+ 1

n2

1

Exercise: If > 0, then show that the sequence ( n ) converges to 1.

1

Solution: We first assume that 1 and let xn = n 1 for all n N. Then xn 0 and

= (1 + xn )n = 1 + nxn + n(n1)

2!

x2n + + xnn > nxn for all n N. So 0 xn < n for all n N.

1

Since n 0, by sandwich theorem, it follows that xn 0. Consequently n 1. If < 1, then

1 1 1

Alternative Solution: We first assume that 1. For each n N, applying the A.M. G.M.

1

inequality for the numbers 1, ..., 1, (1 is repeated n 1 times), we get 1 n 1 + 1

n

. Since

1 1

n

0, by sandwich theorem, it follows that n 1. The case for < 1 is same as given in

the above solution.

1

Exercise: Show that the sequence (n n ) converges to 1.

1

Solution: For all n N, let an = n n 1. Then for all n N, n = (1 + an )n = 1 + nan + n(n1)

2!

a2n +

+ ann > n(n1)

2!

2

a2n 0 a2n < n1 2

for all n N. Since n1 0, by sandwich theorem, it follows

1

2

that an 0 and so an 0. Consequently n n 1.

n

Example: If R, then the sequence ( n! ) is convergent.

n

Proof: Let xn = n! for all n N. If = 0, then xn = 0 for all n N and so (xn ) converges to 0.

||

If 6= 0, then lim | xxn+1

n

| = lim n+1 = 0 < 1 and so (xn ) converges to 0.

n n

k

Example: If || > 1 and k > 0, then the sequence ( nn ) converges to 0.

k

Proof: If xn = nn for all n N, then lim | xxn+1

n

| = lim (1 + n1 )k ||

1 1

= || < 1. Hence (xn ) converges

n n

to 0.

n

Example: The sequence ( 2n4 ) is not convergent.

n

Proof: If xn = 2n4 for all n N, then lim | xxn+1 | = lim 2

1 4 = 2 > 1. Therefore the sequence

n n n (1+ n )

(xn ) is not convergent.

1

Solution: For all n N, n+1 < n1 and so 1 n+1

1

> 1 n1 for all n N. Therefore the given

sequence is increasing and hence monotonic.

1

Solution: For all n N, (n + 1 + n+1 ) (n + n1 ) = 1 n(n+1)

1

>0n+1+ 1

n+1

>n+ 1

n

for all

n N. Therefore the given sequence is increasing and hence monotonic.

) is monotonic.

Solution: Since cos 3 = 12 , cos 3

3

= 1 and cos 6

3

= 1, we have cos 3 > cos 3

3

< cos 6

3

and hence

the given sequence is neither increasing nor decreasing. Consequently the given sequence is not

monotonic.

Solution: For each n N, applying the A.M. > G.M. inequality for the numbers a1 = 1,

a2 = a3 = = an+1 = 1 + n1 , we get (1 + n+1

1 n+1

) > (1 + n1 )n . Therefore the given sequence is

increasing and hence monotonic.

1

Example: Let x1 = 1 and xn+1 = 3

(xn + 1) for all n N. Then (xn ) is convergent and

lim xn = 12 .

n

Proof: For all n N, we have xn xn+1 = 31 (2xn 1). Also, x1 > 12 and if we assume that

xk > 12 for some k N, then xk+1 = 13 (xk + 1) > 31 ( 12 + 1) = 12 . Hence by the principle of

mathematical induction, xn > 12 for all n N. So (xn ) is bounded below and from above, we get

xn xn+1 > 0 for all n N xn+1 < xn for all n N (xn ) is decreasing. Therefore (xn ) is

convergent. Let ` = lim xn . Then lim xn+1 = ` and since xn+1 = 13 (xn + 1) for all n N, we get

n n

` = 31 (` + 1) ` = 12 .

1 1 1

Exercise: Let xn = n+1 + n+2 + + n+n for all n N. Is (xn ) convergent?

1 1 1 2 1

Solution: For all n N, we have xn+1 xn = 2n+1 + 2n+2 n+1 2n+2 n+1 = 0 xn+1 xn

1 1 1

for all n N (xn ) is increasing. Also, xn n + n + + n = 1 for all n N (xn ) is bounded

above. Therefore (xn ) is convergent.

Exercise: Let xn = 1 + 1!1 + 2!1 + + n!1 for all n N. Show that (xn ) is convergent.

1 1 1

Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | = (n+1)! + (n+2)! + + m!

1

2n

+ 2n+1 + + 2m1 = 2n (1 2mn ) < 2n < n . Given > 0, we choose n0 N satisfying n0 > 2 .

1 1 2 1 2 2

Then for all m, n n0 , we get |xm xn | < n20 < . Consequently (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence in R

and hence (xn ) is convergent.

Exercise: Let 0 < < 1 and let (xn ) satisfy the condition |xn+1 xn | n for all n N.

Show that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.

Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | |xn xn+1 | + |xn+1 xn+2 | + +

n n

|xm1 xm | n + n+1 + + m1 = 1 (1 mn ) < 1 . Since 0 < < 1, n 0 and

n0

so given any > 0, we can choose n0 N such that 1 < . Hence for all m, n n0 , we have

n0

|xm xn | < 1 < . Therefore (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.

Exercise: Let 0 < < 1 and let (xn ) satisfy the condition |xn+2 xn+1 | |xn+1 xn | for

all n N. Show that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence.

Solution: For all m, n N with m > n, we have |xm xn | |xn xn+1 | + |xn+1 xn+2 | + +

n1 n1

|xm1 xm | (n1 + n + + m2 )|x2 x1 | = 1 (1 mn )|x2 x1 | 1 |x2 x1 |. Since

n0 1

0 < < 1, n1 0 and so given any > 0, we can choose n0 N such that 1 |x2 x1 | < .

n0 1

Hence for all m, n n0 , we have |xm xn | 1 |x2 x1 | < . Therefore (xn ) is a Cauchy

sequence.

1

Exercise: Let x1 = 1 and let xn+1 = xn +2

for all n N. Show that (xn ) is convergent and

find lim xn .

n

|xn+1 xn |

Solution: For all n N, we have |xn+2 xn+1 | = | xn+11 +2 xn1+2 | = |xn+1 +2||xn +2|

. Now, x1 > 0 and if

1

we assume that xk > 0 for some k N, then xk+1 = xk +2 > 0. Hence by the principle of mathemat-

ical induction, xn > 0 for all n N. Using this, we get |xn+2 xn+1 | 14 |xn+1 xn | for all n N.

It follows that (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence in R and hence (xn ) is convergent. Let ` = lim xn .

n

Then lim xn+1 = ` and since xn+1 = xn1+2 for all n N, we get ` = `+2 1

` = 1 2. Since

n

xn > 0 for all n N, we have ` 0 and so ` = 2 1.

gent.

1 1

Proof: Since x2n1 = (1)2n1 (1 2n1 ) = 2n1 1 1, xn 6 1. Again, since x2n =

2n 1 1

(1) (1 2n ) = 1 2n 1 6= 1, (xn ) is not convergent.

Exercise: Let (xn ) be a sequence in R such that x2n ` R and x2n1 `. Show that

xn `.

Solution: Let > 0. Since x2n ` and x2n1 `, there exist n1 , n2 N such that |x2n `| <

for all n n1 and |x2n1 `| < for all n n2 . Taking n0 = max{2n1 , 2n2 1} N, we find

that |xn `| < for all n n0 . Hence xn `.

n 1

Proof: If (xn ) denotes the given sequence, then x2n = n+1 = 1

1+ n

1 and x2n1 = 1 1.

Therefore (xn ) converges to 1.

Solution: If possible, let the given sequence have a convergent subsequence ((1)nk n2k ). Then

((1)nk n2k ) must be bounded. So there exists M > 0 such that |(1)nk n2k | M for all k N

n2k M for all k N, which is not possible, since (nk ) is a strictly increasing sequence of positive

integers. Therefore the given sequence cannot have any convergent subsequence.

x R, then there exists a sequence (tn ) of irrationals converging to x.

Proof: For each n N, there exist rn Q and tn R \ Q such that x n1 < rn < x + n1 and

x n1 < tn < x + n1 . Since x n1 x and x + n1 x, by sandwich theorem, the sequence (rn ) of

rationals converges to x and the sequence (tn ) of irrationals also converges to x.

Series

P

Example: The geometric series arn1 (where a 6= 0) converges iff |r| < 1.

n=1

Proof: If r = 1, then the given series becomes a+a+ , which is not convergent, since (sn ) = (na)

Pn

a

does not converge as a 6= 0. We now assume that r 6= 1. Then sn = ari1 = 1r (1 rn ) for

i=1

a

all n N. If |r| < 1, then lim rn = 0 and so (sn ) converges to 1r

. Therefore the given series

n

a n

converges (with sum 1r ) if |r| < 1. If |r| 1, then the sequence (r ) does not converge and since

a 6= 0, it follows that (sn ) does not converge. Hence in this case the given series is not convergent.

P

1

Example: The series n(n+1)

is convergent with sum 1.

n=1

P

n

1

P

n

Proof: Here sn = k(k+1)

= ( k1 k+1

1 1

) = 1 n+1 1

for all n N. Since lim sn = lim (1 n+1 )=

k=1 k=1 n n

1, the given series is convergent with sum 1.

1 1 + 1 1 + is not convergent.

0 if n is even,

Proof: Here sn =

1 if n is odd,

and so the sequence (sn ) is not convergent. Therefore the given series is not convergent.

gent unless a = b = 0.

Solution: Here sn = n[a + 12 (n 1)b] for all n N. If b 6= 0, then the sequence (a + 12 (n 1)b) is

not bounded and so the sequence (sn ) is not bounded, which implies that (sn ) is not convergent.

If b = 0, then the sequence (sn ) = (na) is not bounded and hence is not convergent if a 6= 0. Thus

the given series is not convergent (i.e. (sn ) is not convergent) if a 6= 0 or b 6= 0.

If a = b = 0, then the series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent.

P

1

Example: The series n2

is convergent.

n=1

P

n

1

P

n

1

P

n

1

Proof: For all n 2, we have sn = k2

1+ k(k1)

=1+ ( k1 k1 ) = 2 1

n

< 2. Hence

k=1 k=2 k=2

the sequence (sn ) is bounded above and consequently by monotonic criterion for series, the given

series is convergent.

P

1

Example: The series n

is not convergent.

n=1

Proof: If possible, let the given series be convergent. Then by Cauchy criterion for series, there

1 1

exists n0 N such that n+1 + n+2 + + m1 < 21 for all m > n n0 . In particular, we get

1

n0 +1

+ n01+2 + + 2n1 0 < 12 . But n01+1 + n01+2 + + 2n1 0 2n1 0 + 2n1 0 + + 2n1 0 = 12 , and so we

get a contradiction. Hence the given series is not convergent.

P

n2 +1

Example: The series (n+3)(n+4)

is not convergent.

n=1

1

n2 +1 1+ n2 +1

n2

Proof: Since (n+3)(n+4)

= 3 4

(1+ n )(1+ n )

1, we have (n+3)(n+4)

6 0 and so the given series is not

convergent.

P

n

Example: The series (1)n n+2 is not convergent.

n=1

n n 1 n

Proof: Since |(1)n n+2 |= n+2

= 2

1+ n

1, we have (1)n n+2 6 0 and so the given series is not

convergent.

P

1

Example: For p R, the series np

is convergent iff p > 1.

n=1

1

Proof: If p 0, then 6 0 and so the given series is not convergent. Now, let p > 0. Then ( n1p )

np

P

P

is a decreasing sequence of non-negative real numbers. Also, 2n (2n1 )p = 1

( 2p1 )n , being a

n=1 n=1

1

geometric series, converges iff 2p1 < 1, i.e. iff p > 1. Hence by Cauchys condensation test, the

given series converges iff p > 1.

P

1

Example: For p R, the series n(log n)p

is convergent iff p > 1.

n=2

1

Proof: Let f (x) = x(log x)p

for all x > 1. Then f : (1, ) R is differentiable and

p1 (log x+p)

f 0 (x) = (log x)

x2 (log x)2p

0 for all x > max{1, ep } = a (say). Hence f is decreasing on

(a, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n n0 , where n0 N is chosen to satisfy n0 > a.

1

Thus the sequence n(log n)p of non-negative real numbers is decreasing. Since the series

n=n0

P n

P

P

2 2n (log1 2n )p = 1

(log 2)p np

is convergent iff p > 1, by Cauchys condensation test, 1

n(log n)p

n=n0 n=n0 n=n0

is convergent iff p > 1. Consequently the given series is convergent iff p > 1.

P

1+sin n

Exercise: Examine whether the series 1+n2

is convergent.

n=1

1+sin n 2

P

2

Solution: We have 0 1+n2

n2

for all n N. Since n2

is convergent, by comparison test,

n=1

the given series is convergent.

P

1

Exercise: Examine whether the series 2n +n

is convergent.

n=1

1 1

P

1

Solution: We have 0 < 2n +n

< 2n

for all n N. Since 2n

is convergent, by comparison test,

n=1

the given series is convergent.

P

Exercise: Examine whether the series 1

is convergent.

n=2 n(n1)

P

Solution: Since 1

> 1

n

> 0 for all n 2 and since is not convergent, by comparison test,

n(n1) n=1

the given series is not convergent.

P

Exercise: Examine whether the series ( n + 1 n) is convergent.

n=1

1

Solution: Let xn = n + 1 n = n+1+ n

and yn = 1n for all n N. Then xn , yn > 0 for all

n P

n N and lim xynn = lim n+1+ = lim 1

n 1

= 1

2

=

6 0. Since yn is not convergent, by

n n n 1+ n +1 n=1

P

limit comparison test, xn is not convergent.

n=1

P

1

Exercise: Examine whether the series n!

is convergent.

n=1

1 1

P

1

Solution: We have 0 < n!

2n1

for all n N. Since 2n1

is convergent, by comparison test,

n=1

the given series is convergent.

P

n

Exercise: Examine whether the series 4n3 2

is convergent.

n=1

n 1

Solution: Let xn = 4n3 2

and yn = n2

for all n N. Then xn , yn > 0 for all n N and

n3

P

lim xn = lim 3 = lim 1

2 = 1

6 0. Since

= yn is convergent, by limit comparison test,

n yn n 4n 2 n 4 n3 4

n=1

P

xn is convergent.

n=1

P

n

Example: The series 2n

is convergent.

n=1

Proof: Taking xn = 2nn for all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1

n

| = lim 12 (1 + n1 ) = 1

2

< 1. Hence by

n n

the ratio test, the given series is convergent.

P

n!

Example: The series nn

is convergent.

n=1

Proof: Taking xn = nn!n for all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1

n

n n

| = lim ( n+1 ) = lim (1+11 )n = 1

e

< 1.

n n n n

Hence by the ratio test, the given series is convergent.

P

(2n)!

Example: The series (n!)2

is not convergent.

n=1

(2n)!

Proof: Taking xn = (n!)2

all n N, we find that lim | xxn+1

for | = lim 4n+2 = 4 > 1. Hence by the

n n n n+1

ratio test, the given series is not convergent.

P

xn

Exercise: Find all real values of x for which n!

converges.

n=1

Solution: For x = 0, the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which clearly converges. We now assume

xn+1 |x| P n

that x 6= 0. Then lim | (n+1)! xn!n | = lim n+1 = 0 < 1. So by the ratio test, x

n!

is absolutely

n n n=1

convergent and hence convergent. Therefore the given series converges for all x R.

P

(n!)n

Example: The series nn2

is convergent.

n=1

(n!)n 1

Proof: Taking xn = nn2 for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim nn!n = 0 < 1 (since

n n

(n+1)! nn 1 1

lim (n+1)n+1 n!

= lim 1 n = e

< 1). Hence by the root test, the given series is convergent.

n n (1+ n )

P

n n 2

Example: The series ( n+1 ) is convergent.

n=1

n n2 1

Proof: Taking xn = ( n+1for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim (1+11 )n =

) 1

e

< 1. Hence by

n n n

the root test, the given series is convergent.

P

nn

Example: The series 2n2

is convergent.

n=1

nn 1 n

Proof: Taking xn = 2n2

for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim n = 0 < 1 (since

n n 2

2n

lim n+1

n+1 = 1

< 1). Hence by the root test, the given series is convergent.

n 2 n 2

P

5n

Example: The series 3n +4n

is not convergent.

n=1

5n 1 5 5

Proof: Taking xn = 3n +4n

for all n N, we have lim |xn | n = lim 1 = 4

> 1 (since

n n (3n +4n ) n

1

lim (3n + 4n ) = 4, as shown earlier). Hence by the root test, the given series is not convergent.

n

n

where x R.

P

Solution: Taking the given series as an , we have a2n = 2x2n1 and a2n1 = x2n2 for all n N.

n=1

1 1 1

Since lim |a2n | 2n = |x| = lim |a2n1 | 2n1 , we get lim |an | n = |x|. Hence by the root test, the

n n n

given series is absolutely convergent (and hence convergent) if |x| < 1 and is not convergent if

|x| > 1. If |x| = 1, then lim |a2n | = lim 2|x|2n1 = 2 6= 0 and so an 6 0. Consequently the given

n n

series is not convergent if |x| = 1.

P

Example: For p R, the series (1)n+1 n1p is convergent iff p > 0.

n=1

Proof: For p 0, |(1)n+1 n1p | = n1p 6 0 and so (1)n+1 n1p 6 0. Hence the given series is not

convergent if p 0. If p > 0, then ( n1p ) is a decreasing sequence of positive real numbers with

1

np

0 and hence the given series converges by Leibnizs test.

P

Example: The series (1)n+1 n3n+1 is convergent.

n=1

3

Proof: Let f (x) = x3x+1 for all x 1. Then f : [1, ) R is differentiable with f 0 (x) = (x12x

3 +1)2 0

for all x [1, ). Hence f is decreasing on [1, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n N. Thus

1

the sequence ( n3n+1 ) is decreasing. Also, n

n3 +1

= n2

1+ 13

0. Therefore by Leibnizs test, the given

n

alternating series is convergent.

n 1

P

1

Alternative proof: Since 0 < n3 +1

< n2

for all n N and since the series n2

converges, by

n=1

P

P

P

comparison test, the series |(1)n+1 n3n+1 | = n

n3 +1

converges. Thus (1)n n3n+1 is an ab-

n=1 n=1 n=1

solutely convergent series and hence it is convergent.

P

n+1

Example: The series (1)n+1 n+1

is convergent.

n=1

x+1

Proof: Let f (x) = x+1

for all x 1. Then f : [1, ) R is differentiable and f 0 (x) =

1x2 x

2 x(x+1)2

0 for all x 1. Hence f is decreasing on [1, ) and so f (n + 1) f (n) for all n N.

1 + 1

n+1 n+1 n

Consequently the sequence n+1 is decreasing. Also, n+1 = 1+ n

1 0. Hence by Leibnizs

n

test, the given series converges.

Example: If 1 21 + 13 14 + 15 61 + = s, then 1 + 13 12 + 15 + 17 14 + 19 + = 32 s.

Proof: We first note that by Leibnizs test, the series 1 12 + 13 14 + converges.

Let 1 12 + 13 14 + = s. (i)

Then the series 21 14 + 16 = 21 (1 12 + 13 ) converges to 12 s. It follows that the series

0 + 12 0 14 + 0 + 16 0 18 + (ii)

also converges to 2 s. Hence the series (1 + 0) + ( 21 + 12 ) + ( 31 0) + ( 14 14 ) + ( 51 + 0) + ,

1

which is the sum of the series (i) and (ii), converges to s + 12 s = 32 s. Therefore it follows that

1 + 13 12 + 15 + 17 14 + 19 + = 32 s.

P

xn

Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series n!

.

n=0

Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. If

xn+1 |x|

x(6= 0) R, then since lim | (n+1)! xn!n | = lim n+1 = 0 < 1, by ratio test, the given series con-

n n

verges (absolutely). Therefore the radius of convergence of the given power series is .

P

Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series n!xn .

n=0

Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let

x(6= 0) R and let an = n!xn for all n N. Then lim | an+1

an

| = and so there exists n0 N such

n

that | an+1

an

| > 2 for all n n0 . This gives |an | > 2nn0 |an0 | for all n n0 and hence lim an 6= 0.

n

P

Consequently an is not convergent. Therefore the radius of convergence of the given power

n=1

series is 0.

P

Exercise: Find the radius of convergence of the power series xn .

n=0

Solution: We know that the given series (which is a geometric series) converges if |x| < 1 and

diverges if |x| > 1. Hence the radius of convergence of the given power series is 1.

P

xn

Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n

.

n=1

Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let

n P

x(6= 0) R and let an = xn for all n N. Then lim | an+1

an

| = |x|. Hence by ratio test, an

n n=1

is convergent (absolutely) if |x| < 1, i.e. if x (1, 1) and is not convergent if |x| > 1, i.e. if

P

P

1

x (, 1) (1, ). If x = 1, then an = n

is not convergent. Again, if x = 1, then

n=1 n=1

P

P

(1)n

an = n

is convergent by Leibniz test, since ( n1 ) is a decreasing sequence of positive real

n=1 n=1

1

numbers and lim = 0. Therefore the interval of convergence of the given power series is [1, 1).

n n

P

xn

Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n2

.

n=0

Solution: If x = 0, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let

n P

x(6= 0) R and let an = xn2 for all n N. Then lim | an+1

an

| = |x|. Hence by ratio test, an

n n=1

is convergent (absolutely) if |x| < 1, i.e. if x (1, 1) and is not convergent if |x| > 1, i.e. if

P

P

1

P

x (, 1) (1, ). If |x| = 1, then |an | = n 2 is convergent and hence an is also

n=1 n=1 n=1

convergent. Therefore the interval of convergence of the given power series is [1, 1].

P

(1)n

Exercise: Find the interval of convergence of the power series n4n

(x 1)n .

n=1

Solution: If x = 1, then the given series becomes 0 + 0 + , which is clearly convergent. Let

n

x(6= 1) R and let an = (1)

n.4n

(x 1)n for all n N. Then lim | an+1 | = 14 |x 1|. Hence by ratio

n an

P

test, an is convergent (absolutely) if 41 |x 1| < 1, i.e. if x (3, 5) and is not convergent if

n=1

1

P

P

1

4

|x 1| > 1, i.e. if x (, 3) (5, ). If x = 3, then an = n

is not convergent.

n=1 n=1

P

P

(1)n

Again, if x = 5, then an = n

is convergent by Leibniz test, since ( n1 ) is a decreasing

n=1 n=1

1

sequence of positive real numbers and lim = 0. Therefore the interval of convergence of the

n n

given power series is (3, 5].

Continuity

x xx0

Solution: Let f : D R, where D R such that (a, ) D for some a > 0. We write

lim f (x) = ` if for each > 0, there exists M > 0 such that |f (x) `| < for all x D satisfying

x

x > M.

Again, let f : D R, where D R such that (x0 h, x0 + h) \ {x0 } D for some h > 0. We

write lim f (x) = if for each M > 0, there exists > 0 such that f (x) < M for all x D

xx0

satisfying 0 < |x x0 | < .

n+1 n)

Example: lim sin(n+1

n

=1

n 1 sin x

Proof: Since n + 1 n =

n+1+ n

0, using the fact that lim x

= 1, we obtain

x0

n+1 n)

lim sin(n+1

n

= 1.

n

3x + 2 if x < 1,

Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =

4x2 if x 1,

is not continuous at 1.

Proof: Since lim f (x) = lim (3x + 2) = 5 6= 4 = f (1), f is not continuous at 1.

x1 x1

x sin x1 if x 6= 0,

Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =

0 if x = 0,

is continuous at 0.

Proof: For all x(6= 0) R, |f (x) f (0)| = |x sin x1 | |x| and hence given any > 0, choosing

= > 0, we get |f (x) f (0)| < for all x R satisfying |x 0| < . Therefore f is continuous

at 0.

sin x1 if x 6= 0,

Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =

0 if x = 0,

is not continuous at 0.

2

Proof: If xn = (4n+1) for all n N, then the sequence (xn ) converges to 0, but f (xn ) =

sin(4n + 1) 2 = 1 for all n N and so f (xn ) 1 6= 0 = f (0).

1 if x Q,

Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =

0 if x R \ Q,

is not continuous at any point of R.

Proof: If x0 Q, then there exists a sequence (tn ) in R \ Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = 0

for all n N, f (tn ) 0 6= 1 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Again, if x0 R \ Q,

then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q such that rn x0 . Since f (rn ) = 1 for all n N,

f (rn ) 1 6= 0 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 .

x if x Q,

Example: The function f : R R, defined by f (x) =

x if x R \ Q,

is continuous only at 0.

Proof: Given any > 0, choosing = > 0, we have |f (x) f (0)| = |x| < for all x R

satisfying |x 0| < . Therefore f is continuous at 0. If x0 (6= 0) Q, then there exists a sequence

(tn ) in R \ Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = tn for all n N, f (tn ) x0 6= x0 = f (x0 ).

Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Again, if x0 R \ Q, then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q

such that rn x0 . Since f (rn ) = x0 for all n N, f (rn ) x0 6= x0 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not

continuous at x0 .

Exercise: If both f, g : R R are discontinuous at 0, then show that it is possible for the

product function f g : R R to be continuous or discontinuous

at 0.

1 if x Q, 0 if x Q,

Solution: Let f (x) = and g(x) =

0 if x R \ Q, 1 if x R \ Q,

2

Then both f, g : R R are discontinuous at 0, f = f is discontinuous at 0 and since (f g)(x) = 0

for all x R, f g is continuous at 0.

exists > 0 such that f (x) 6= 0 for all x D (x0 , x0 + ).

Solution: Since |f (x0 )| > 0, by the continuity of f at x0 , there exists > 0 such that |f (x)

f (x0 )| < 21 |f (x0 )| for all x D (x0 , x0 + ). If f (x) = 0 for some x D (x0 , x0 + ),

then from above, we get |f (x0 )| < 12 |f (x0 )|, which is not possible. Therefore f (x) 6= 0 for all

x D (x0 , x0 + ).

Example: The equation x2 = x sin x + cos x has at least two real roots.

Proof: Let f (x) = x2 x sin x cos x for all x R. Then f : R R is continuous and

f () = 2 + 1 > 0, f (0) = 1 < 0 and f () = 2 + 1 > 0. Hence by the intermediate value

theorem, the equation f (x) = 0 has at least one root in (, 0) and at least one root in (0, ).

Thus the equation f (x) = 0 has at least two real roots.

Example: If f : [0, 1] [0, 1] is continuous, then there exists c [0, 1] such that f (c) = c.

Proof: Let g(x) = f (x) x for all x [0, 1]. Since f is continuous, g : [0, 1] R is continuous.

If f (0) = 0 or f (1) = 1, then we get the result by taking c = 0 or c = 1 respectively. Otherwise

g(0) = f (0) > 0 and g(1) = f (1) 1 < 0 (since it is given that 0 f (x) 1 for all x [0, 1]).

Hence by the intermediate value theorem, there exists c (0, 1) such that g(c) = 0, i.e. f (c) = c.

Exercise: Let f : [0, 2] R be continuous such that f (0) = f (2). Show that there exist

x1 , x2 [0, 2] such that x1 x2 = 1 and f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).

Solution: Let g(x) = f (x + 1) f (x) for all x [0, 1]. Since f is continuous, g : [0, 1] R is

continuous. Also, g(0) = f (1) f (0) and g(1) = f (2) f (1) = g(0), since f (0) = f (2). If

g(0) = 0, then f (1) = f (0) and we get the result by taking x1 = 1 and x2 = 0. If g(0) 6= 0,

then g(0) and g(1) are of opposite signs and hence by the intermediate value theorem, there exists

c (0, 1) such that g(c) = 0, i.e. f (c+1) = f (c). We get the result by taking x1 = c+1 and x2 = c.

(i) if n is odd, then there exists unique y R such that y n = x.

(ii) if n is even and x > 0, then there exists unique y > 0 such that y n = x.

Solution: Let f (t) = tn x for all t R, so that f : R R is continuous.

(i) We first assume that n is odd. Then lim f (t) = and lim f (t) = . So there exist x1 > 0

t t

and x2 < 0 such that f (x1 ) > 0 and f (x2 ) < 0. By the intermediate value property of continuous

functions, there exists y (x2 , x1 ) such that f (y) = 0, i.e. y n = x. If possible, let there exist

u R such that u 6= y and un = x. Clearly either both u and y must be non-negative or both u

and y must be negative. We consider the case 0 y < u. (Other cases can be handled similarly.)

Then x = y n < un = x, which is a contradiction. Thus the uniqueness of y is proved.

(ii) We now assume that n is even and x > 0. Then f (0) < 0 and lim f (t) = . So there exists

t

x1 > 0 such that f (x1 ) > 0. By the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there

exists y (0, x1 ) such that f (y) = 0 i.e. y n = x. If possible, let there exist u > 0 such that

u 6= y and un = x. Without loss of generality, let u > y. Then x = un > y n = x, which is a

contradiction. This proves the uniqueness of y.

Example: There does not exist any continuous function from [0, 1] onto (0, ).

Proof: If f : [0, 1] (0, ) is continuous, then f must be bounded and hence f cannot be onto.

Exercise: Does there exist a continuous function from (0, 1) onto (0, )?

x

Solution: Yes, the function f : (0, 1) (0, ), defined by f (x) = 1x for all x (0, 1), is contin-

y

uous and onto. (We note that if y (0, ), then x = 1+y (0, 1) such that f (x) = y.)

Differentiation

x sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,

Example: Let f (x) =

0 if x = 0.

Then f : R R is not differentiable at 0.

Proof: Since lim f (x)f

x0

(0)

= lim sin x1 does not exist, f is not differentiable at 0.

x0 x0

(To see that lim sin x1 does not exist, we apply the sequential criterion for existence of limit. If

x0

2 1

xn = (4n+1)

and yn = n

for all n N, then xn 0 and yn 0, but sin x1n 1 and sin y1n 0.)

x2 sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,

Example: Let f (x) =

0 if x = 0.

Then f : R R is differentiable but f 0 : R R is not continuous at 0.

Proof: Clearly f is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 2x sin x1 cos x1 for all x(6= 0) R.

Also, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0

(0)

| = |x sin x1 | |x| < for all

x R satisfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim f (x)f x0

(0)

= 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0

x0

with f 0 (0) = 0. Thus f : R R is differentiable.

1 1

Again, since 2n 0 but f 0 ( 2n ) 1 6= f 0 (0), f 0 : R R is not continuous at 0.

3

x sin x1 if x(6= 0) R,

Example: Let f (x) =

0 if x = 0.

Then f : R R is differentiable, f : R R is continuous, but f 0 is not differentiable at 0.

0

Proof: Clearly f is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 3x2 sin x1 x cos x1 for all x(6= 0) R.

Also, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0

(0)

| = |x2 sin x1 | |x|2 < for all

x R satisfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim f (x)f x0

(0)

= 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0

x0

with f 0 (0) = 0. Thus f : R R is differentiable.

Clearly f 0 : R R is continuous at all x(6= 0) R. Also, since lim x2 sin x1 = 0 and lim x cos x1 = 0

x0 x0

(similar to what we have shown earlier), we obtain lim f 0 (x) = 0 = f 0 (0), which shows that f 0 is

x0

continuous at 0. Thus f 0 : R R is continuous.

0 0 (0)

Again, lim f (x)f

x0

= lim (3x sin x1 cos x1 ) does not exist, because if xn = 1

2n

and yn =

x0 x0

1

(2n+1)

for all n N, then xn 0 and yn 0, but lim (3xn sin x1n cos 1

xn

) = 1 and

n

lim (3yn sin y1n cos y1n ) = 1. Therefore f 0 is not differentiable at 0.

n

x2 if x Q,

Example: Let f (x) =

0 if x R \ Q.

Then f : R R is differentiable only at 0 and f 0 (0) = 0.

Proof: If x0 (6= 0) Q, then there exists a sequence (tn ) in R\Q such that tn x0 . Since f (tn ) = 0

for all n N, f (tn ) 0 6= x20 = f (x0 ). Hence f is not continuous at x0 . Also, if u0 R \ Q,

then there exists a sequence (rn ) in Q such that rn u0 . Since f (rn ) = rn2 u20 6= 0 = f (u0 ), f

is not continuous at u0 . Thus f is not continuous at any x(6= 0) R and therefore f cannot be

differentiable at any x(6= 0) R.

Again, for each > 0, choosing = > 0, we find that | f (x)f x0

(0)

| |x| < for all x R sat-

f (x)f (0)

isfying 0 < |x| < . Hence lim x0 = 0 and consequently f is differentiable at 0 with f 0 (0) = 0.

x0

Exercise: Let f (x) = x2 |x| for all x R. Examine the existence of f 0 (x), f 00 (x) and f 000 (x),

where x R. 3

x if x 0,

Solution: Here f (x) =

x3 if x < 0.

0 3x2 if x > 0,

Clearly f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =

3x2 if x < 0.

Also, lim f (x)f

x0

(0)

= lim x2 = 0 and lim f (x)f

x0

(0)

= lim (x2 ) = 0.

x0+ x0+ x0 x0

0 f (x)f (0)

Hence f (0) = lim x0 = 0.

x0

0 00 6x if x > 0,

Again, it is clear that f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =

6x if x < 0.

f 0 (x)f 0 (0) f 0 (x)f 0 (0)

Also, lim x0

= lim 3x = 0 and lim x0

= lim (3x) = 0.

x0+ x0+ x0 x0

00 f 0 (x)f 0 (0)

Hence f (0) = lim x0

= 0.

x0

00 000 6 if x > 0,

Finally, it is clear that f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f (x) =

6 if x < 0.

f 00 (x)f 00 (0) f 00 (x)f 00 (0)

Also, lim x0

= lim 6 = 6 and lim x0

= lim (6) = 6.

x0+ x0+ x0 x0

f 00 (x)f 00 (0) 000

Hence lim x0

does not exist, i.e. f (0) does not exist.

x0

Example: The equation x2 = x sin x + cos x has exactly two (distinct) real roots.

Proof: Let f (x) = x2 x sin x cos x for all x R. Then f : R R is differentiable (and hence

continuous) with f 0 (x) = x(2 cos x) for all x R. Since cos x 6= 2 for any x R, the equation

f 0 (x) = 0 has exactly one real root, viz. x = 0. As a consequence of Rolles theorem, it follows that

the equation f (x) = 0 has at most two real roots. Also, since f () = 2 + 1 > 0, f (0) = 1 < 0

and f () = 2 + 1 > 0, by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, the equation

f (x) = 0 has at least one root in (, 0) and at least one root in (0, ). Thus the equation f (x) = 0

has exactly two (distinct) real roots and so the given equation has exactly two (distinct) real roots.

Exercise: Find the number of (distinct) real roots of the equation x4 + 2x2 6x + 2 = 0.

Solution: Taking f (x) = x4 + 2x2 6x + 2 for all x R, we find that f : R R is twice

differentiable with f 0 (x) = 4x3 + 4x 6 and f 00 (x) = 12x2 + 4 for all x R. Since f 00 (x) 6= 0 for all

x R, as a consequence of Rolles theorem, it follows that the equation f 0 (x) = 0 has at most one

real root and hence the equation f (x) = 0 has at most two real roots. Again, since f (0) = 2 > 0,

f (1) = 2 < 0 and f (2) = 14 > 0, by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, the

equation f (x) = 0 has at least one real root in (0, 1) and at least one real root in (1, 2). Therefore

the given equation has exactly two (distinct) real roots.

3

Example: sin x x x6 for all x [0, 2 ].

3

Proof: Let f (x) = sin x x + x6 for all x [0, 2 ]. Then f : [0, 2 ] R is infinitely differentiable

2

and f 0 (x) = cos x 1 + x2 , f 00 (x) = sin x + x and f 000 (x) = 1 cos x for all x [0, 2 ]. Since

f 000 (x) 0 for all x [0, 2 ], f 00 (x) f 00 (0) = 0 for all x [0, 2 ] f 0 (x) f 0 (0) = 0 for all

3

x [0, 2 ] f (x) f (0) = 0 for all x [0, 2 ] sin x x x6 for all x [0, 2 ].

but not one-one on R.

Solution: f : R R is differentiable with f 0 (x) = 3x2 + 2x 5 for all x R. Clearly f 0 (x) 6= 0

for all x (1, 5) and hence f is one-one on [1, 5]. Again, since f (0) = 3, f (1) = 0 and f (2) = 5,

by the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there exist x1 (0, 1) and x2 (1, 2)

such that f (x1 ) = 1 = f (x2 ). Therefore f is not one-one on R.

Exercise: Let f : R R be differentiable such that f (1) = 5, f (0) = 0 and f (1) = 10.

Prove that there exist c1 , c2 (1, 1) such that f 0 (c1 ) = 3 and f 0 (c2 ) = 3.

Solution: By the mean value theorem, there exist (1, 0) and (0, 1) such that f 0 () =

f (0)f (1)

0(1)

= 5 and f 0 () = f (1)f

10

(0)

= 10. Hence by the intermediate value property of deriva-

tives, there exist c1 , c2 (, ) (and so c1 , c2 (1, 1)) such that f 0 (c1 ) = 3 and f 0 (c2 ) = 3.

Exercise: Find the local maxima and local minima of f , where f (x) = 1 x2/3 for all x R.

Solution: f : R R is differentiable at all x(6= 0) R and f 0 (x) = 32 x1/3 6= 0 for all

x(6= 0) R. Hence f does not have local maxima or local minima at any x(6= 0) R. Again,

since f (x) 1 = f (0) for all x R, f has a local maximum at 0 and the local maximum value is

f (0) = 1.

Alternative method for showing local maximum at 0: Since f 0 (x) > 0 for all x < 0 and f 0 (x) < 0

for all x > 0, f has a local maximum at 0.

1+x1 1

Example: lim x

= 2

x0

d

1+x1 ( 1+x1)|x=0

Proof: Applying LHopitals rule, we obtain lim x

= dx

d

(x)|x=0

= 21 .

x0 dx

1sin x 1

Example: lim =

x 2 1+cos 2x 4

1sin x cos x sin x

Proof: Applying LHopitals rule twice, we obtain lim = lim = lim = 14 .

x 2 1+cos 2x x 2 2 sin 2x x 2 4 cos 2x

x2 sin x1

Example: lim =0

x0 sin x 2 1

x sin

Proof: For all x(6= 0) R, we have 0 sin x x | sinx x ||x|. Since lim = 1, we get sin x

x

2 1 x0

x x sin

lim | sin x ||x| = 0 and so by the sandwich theorem (for limit of functions), we get lim sin x x = 0.

x0 x0

x2 sin 1

It follows that lim sin x x = 0.

x0

1

Example: lim ( sinx x ) x = 1

x0

1

Proof: Let f (x) = ( sinx x ) x for all x(6= 0) R. Then f (x) > 0 for all x (1, 1) \ {0} and

log( sinx x ) x cos xsin x x sin x

we have lim log f (x) = lim x

= lim x sin x

(applying LHopitals rule) = lim

x0 x0 x0 x0 sin x+x cos x

sin x sin x

(applying LHopitals rule again) = lim sin x = 0 (since lim x

= 1). By the continuity of

x0 x +cos x x0

0

the exponential function, it follows that lim f (x) = e = 1.

x0

x0

Proof: We have lim ( sin1 x x1 ) = lim xsin x

= lim 1cos x

(using LHopitals rule)

x0 x0 x sin x x0 sin x+x cos x

sin x

= lim (using LHopitals rule again) = 0.

x0 2 cos xx sin x

xsin x

Example: lim = 12

x 2x+sin x

Proof: Since | sinx x | x1 for all x(6= 0) R and since lim 1

= 0, we get lim sin x

= 0. Consequently

x x x x

1 sinx x

lim xsin x = lim 2+ sinx x

= 12 .

x 2x+sin x x

2

e1/x

Example: lim x

=0

x0

1/x2 1/x 1/x2 1

Proof: We have lim e x = lim 2 = lim 2 2 (applying LHopitals rule) = lim 12 xe x2 = 0.

x0 x0 e1/x x0 x3 e1/x x0

2

Example: 1 + x2 x8 1 + x 1 + x2 for all x > 0.

Proof: If f (x) = 1 + x for all x [0, ), then f : [0, ) R is twice differentiable and

1 1

f 0 (x) = 21+x , f 00 (x) = 4(1+x) 3/2 for all x [0, ). If x > 0, then by Taylors theorem, there ex-

2 2

ists c (0, x) such that f (x) = f (0)+xf 0 (0)+ x2! f 00 (c) = 1+ x2 x8 (1+c)

1

3/2 . Since 0 <

1

(1+c)3/2

< 1,

x x2

x

we get 1 + 2 8 1 + x 1 + 2 .

Proof: If f (x) = ex for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (n) (x) = ex

P

n

x

for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series for ex is the series 1 + n!

, where

n=1

x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of ex becomes 1 + 0 + 0 + , which clearly converges

to e0 = 1. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder term in the Taylor expansion of ex about the point

xn+1 (n+1) xn+1 cn

0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ) = (n+1)! e , where cn lies between 0 and x. Since ecn < ex

|x|n+1 x |x|n+1

if x > 0 and ecn < 1 if x < 0, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!

e if x > 0 and |Rn (x)| (n+1)!

if x < 0.

|x|n+2 (n+1)! |x| |x|n+1

Also, since lim |x|n+1

= lim = 0 < 1, we get lim = 0 and hence it follows that

n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!

lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of ex converges to ex .

n

Example: The Maclaurin series for sin x converges to sin x for all x R.

Proof: If f (x) = sin x for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (2n1) (x) =

(1)n+1 cos x, f (2n) (x) = (1)n sin x for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series

P

x2n1

for sin x is the series (1)n+1 (2n1)! , where x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of sin x

n=1

becomes 0 0 + 0 , which clearly converges to sin 0 = 0. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder

xn+1 (n+1)

term in the Taylor expansion of sin x about the point 0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ),

|x|n+1

where cn lies between 0 and x. Since | sin cn | 1 and | cos cn | 1, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!

. Also,

n+2 n+1

since lim |x| (n+1)!

|x|n+1

= lim |x| = 0 < 1, we get lim |x| = 0 and hence it follows that

n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!

lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of sin x converges to sin x.

n

Example: The Maclaurin series for cos x converges to cos x for all x R.

Proof: If f (x) = cos x for all x R, then f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f (2n1) (x) =

(1)n sin x, f (2n) (x) = (1)n cos x for all x R and for all n N. Hence the Maclaurin series

P

x2n

for cos x is the series 1 + (1)n (2n)! , where x R. For x = 0, the Maclaurin series of cos x

n=1

becomes 1 0 + 0 , which clearly converges to cos 0 = 1. Let x(6= 0) R. The remainder

xn+1 (n+1)

term in the Taylor expansion of sin x about the point 0 is given by Rn (x) = (n+1)! f (cn ),

|x|n+1

where cn lies between 0 and x. Since | sin cn | 1 and | cos cn | 1, we get |Rn (x)| (n+1)!

. Also,

|x|n+2 (n+1)! |x| |x|n+1

since lim |x|n+1

= lim = 0 < 1, we get lim = 0 and hence it follows that

n (n+2)! n n+2 n (n+1)!

lim Rn (x) = 0. Therefore the Maclaurin series of cos x converges to cos x.

n

Exercise: Find all the local maximum and local minimum values of f , where f (x) = x5

5x4 + 5x3 + 12 for all x R.

Solution: f : R R is infinitely differentiable and f 0 (x) = 5x2 (x 1)(x 3), f 00 (x) = 10x(2x2

6x + 3), f 000 (x) = 30(2x2 4x + 1) for all x R. Since f 0 (x) = 0 iff x = 0, 1, or 3, f has neither a

local maximum nor a local minimum at any point of R \ {0, 1, 3}. Again, since f 00 (1) = 10 < 0,

f 00 (3) = 90 > 0, f 00 (0) = 0 and f 000 (0) = 30 6= 0, f has a local maximum at 1 with local maximum

value f (1) = 13, f has a local minimum at 3 with local minimum value f (3) = 15 and f has

neither a local maximum nor a local minimum at 0.

Integration

Exercise: Let f (x) = x4 4x3 + 10 for all x [1, 4]. Calculate U (f, P ) and L(f, P ) for the

partition P = {1, 2, 3, 4} of [1, 4].

Solution: Since f 0 (x) = 4x2 (x3) for all x [1, 4], we have f 0 (x) < 0 for all x (1, 3) and f 0 (x) > 0

for all x (3, 4). Hence f is strictly decreasing on [1, 3] and strictly increasing on [3, 4]. Conse-

quently sup{f (x) : x [1, 2]} = f (1) = 7, sup{f (x) : x [2, 3]} = f (2) = 6, sup{f (x) : x

[3, 4]} = f (4) = 10 and inf{f (x) : x [1, 2]} = f (2) = 6, inf{f (x) : x [2, 3]} = f (3) = 17,

inf{f (x) : x [3, 4]} = f (3) = 17. Therefore U (f, P ) = 7(2 1) + (6)(3 2) + 10(4 3) = 11

and L(f, P ) = (6)(2 1) + (17)(3 2) + (17)(4 3) = 40.

Example: Let k R and let f (x) = k for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann

R1

integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = k.

0

Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Clearly

P

n

Mi = k = mi for i = 1, ..., n and hence U (f, P ) = L(f, P ) = k(xi xi1 ) = k. Consequently

i=1

R1 R1 R1

f (x) dx = k =f (x) dx. Therefore f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = k.

0 0 0

0 if x (0, 1],

Example: Let f (x) =

1 if x = 0.

R1

Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 0.

0

Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Then

R1

mi = 0 and Mi 0 for i = 1, ..., n and so L(f, P ) = 0 and U (f, P ) 0. Hence f (x) dx = 0

0

R1

and f (x) dx 0. Again, if 0 < < 1, then considering the partition P1 = {0, 2 , 1} of [0, 1], we

0

R1

R1

get 0 f (x) dx U (f, P1 ) = 2

< and consequently f (x) dx = 0. Therefore f is Riemann

0 0

R1

integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 0.

0

1 if x [0, 1] Q,

Example: Let f (x) =

0 if x [0, 1] (R \ Q.

Then f : [0, 1] R is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].

Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Since

every interval contains a rational as well as an irrational number, we get Mi = 1 and mi = 0 for

P

n R1

i = 1, ..., n and hence U (f, P ) = (xi xi1 ) = 1 and L(f, P ) = 0. Consequently f (x) dx = 1

i=1 0

R1 R1 R1

and f (x) dx = 0. Since f (x) dx 6= f (x) dx, f is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].

0 0 0

Example: Let f (x) = x for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on

R1

[0, 1] and f (x) dx = 21 .

0

Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. For each n N, Pn = {0, n1 , ..., nn = 1} is a partition of [0, 1].

Also, L(f, Pn ) = n1 (0 + n1 + + n1

n

) = 12 2n

1

12 and U (f, Pn ) = n1 ( n1 + + nn ) = 12 + 2n

1

12 .

R1

Hence by the following exercise, f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f (x) dx = 21 .

0

2

Example: Let f (x) = x for all x [0, 1]. Then f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable on

R1

[0, 1] and f (x) dx = 31 .

0

Proof: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. For each n N, Pn = {0, n1 , ..., nn = 1} is a partition of [0, 1].

2 2

Also, L(f, Pn ) = n1 (0 + n12 + + (n1)

n2

) = (1 n1 )( 13 6n

1

) 31 and U (f, Pn ) = n1 ( n12 + + nn2 ) =

(1 + n1 )( 13 + 6n

1

) 13 . Hence by the following exercise, f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and

R1

f (x) dx = 31 .

0

Exercise: Let f : [a, b] R be bounded. Let there exist a sequence (Pn ) of partitions of

Rb

[a, b] such that L(f, Pn ) and U (f, Pn ) . Show that f R[a, b] and that f = .

a

Rb Rb

Solution: We have L(f, Pn ) f (x) dx f U (f, Pn ) for all n N. Since L(f, Pn ) and

a a

Rb Rb Rb Rb

U (f, Pn ) , we get f (x) dx f f (x) dx = = f . Hence f R[a, b] and

a a a a

Rb

f = .

a

x if x [0, 1] Q,

Exercise: Let f (x) =

0 if x [0, 1] (R \ Q.

R1

Examine whether f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1]. Also, find f , if it exists.

0

Solution: Clearly f is bounded on [0, 1]. Let P = {x0 , x1 , ..., xn } be any partition of [0, 1]. Since

between any two distinct real numbers, there exist a rational as well as an irrational number, it

follows that Mi = xi and mi = 0 for i = 1, ..., n. (Note that Mi cannot be less than xi , because

otherwise we can find a rational number ri between Mi and xi and so f (ri ) = ri > Mi , which is not

P

n Pn P

n Pn

possible.) Hence L(f, P ) = 0 and U (f, P ) = xi (xi xi1 ) = x2i xi xi1 12 (x2i x2i1 )

i=1 i=1 i=1 i=1

R1 R1

(since x2i + x2i1 2xi xi1 for i = 1, ..., n) = 12 . Consequently f (x) dx 1

2

and f (x) dx = 0.

0 0

R1 R1

Since f (x) dx 6=

f (x) dx, f is not Riemann integrable on [0, 1].

0 0

1 if x = n1 for some n N,

Exercise: Let f : [0, 1] R be defined by f (x) =

0 otherwise.

R1

Examine whether f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1]. Also, find f , if it exists.

0

R1

Solution: f is Riemann integrable on [0, 1] and f = 0. The justification is exactly similar to the

0

solution provided for Ex.18 of Tutorial Problem Set.

R1 2

Exercise: Show that 31 2 x1+x dx 13 .

0

2 2

Solution: Since 1 1 + x 2 for all x [0, 1], we get x 2 x1+x x2 for all x [0, 1].

Since all the given functions are continuous and hence Riemann integrable on [0, 1], we get

R1 x2 R1 x2 R1 2 1

R1 x2

dx

2

1+x

dx x dx

3 2

1+x

dx 13 .

0 0 0 0

Exercise: If f : [a, b] R is continuous, then show that there exists c [a, b] such that

Rb

f (x) dx = (b a)f (c).

a

Rn

Solution: Since f is continuous on [a, b], f R[a, b] and so m(b a) f (x) dx M (b a),

a

where m = inf{f (x) : x [a, b]} and M = sup{f (x) : x [a, b]}. Since f is continuous on [a, b],

Rb

f (x) dx

there exist , [a, b] such that f () = m and f () = M . Hence f () a ba f (). By

the intermediate value property of continuous functions, there exists c between and (both

Rb

f (x) dx Rb

inclusive) such that f (c) = a

ba

, i.e. f (x) dx = (b a)f (c).

a

Exercise: Let f : [a, b] R and g : [a, b] R be continuous and let g(x) 0 for all x [a, b].

Rb Rb

Show that there exists c [a, b] such that f (x)g(x) dx = f (c) g(x) dx.

a a

Solution: Since f is continuous on [a, b], f is bounded on [a, b] and there exist , [a, b] such

that f () = inf{f (x) : x [a, b]} and f () = sup{f (x) : x [a, b]}. We have f () f (x) f ()

for all x [a, b] f ()g(x) f (x)g(x) f ()g(x) for all x [a, b] (since g(x) 0 for all

Rb

x [a, b]). Since f, g are continuous on [a, b], g, f g R[a, b] and hence we obtain f () g(x) dx

a

Rb Rb Rb Rb

f (x)g(x) dx f () g(x) dx. If g(x) dx = 0, then f (x)g(x) dx = 0 and so we can choose

a a a a

Rb

Rb Rb f (x)g(x) dx

any c [a, b]. If g(x) dx 6= 0, then g(x) dx > 0 and hence we get f () a

Rb

f ().

a a g(x) dx

a

By the intermediate value property of the continuous function f , there exists c between and

Rb

f (x)g(x) dx Rb Rb

(both inclusive) such that f (c) = a

Rb

, i.e. f (x)g(x) dx = f (c) g(x) dx.

g(x) dx a a

a

1 1 1

Exercise: Evaluate lim [ n+1 + n+2

+ + n+n

].

n

1

Solution: Let f (x) for all x [0, 1]. Considering the partition Pn = {0, n1 , n2 , ..., nn = 1} of

= 1+x

P

n P

n

[0, 1] for each n N, we find that S(f, Pn ) = f ( ni )( ni i1

n

) = 1

n+i

. Since f : [0, 1] R is

i=1 i=1

1

P

n R1

continuous, f R[0, 1] and hence lim = lim S(f, Pn ) = f = log(1 + x)|1x=0 = log 2.

n i=1 n+i n 0

R 1

Example: tp

dt converges iff p > 1.

1

Rx 1 1

Rx 1

Proof: For all x > 1, we have tp

dt = 1p

(x1p 1) if p 6= 1 and t

dt = log x. Hence

1 1

Rx 1 1

Rx 1

R 1

lim tp

dt = 1p

if p > 1 and lim tp

dt = if p 1. Therefore tp

dt converges iff p > 1.

x 1 x 1 1

R

Exercise: Examine whether the improper integral et dt converges.

R R0 R

Solution: In order that the improper integral et dt converges, both et dt and et dt must

0

R Rx

converge. However, et dt does not converge, because lim et dt = lim (ex 1) = . Hence

0 x 0 x

R

et dt does not converge.

R 1

Exercise: Examine whether the improper integral 1+t2

dt converges.

0

1

Rx

Solution: Since lim 2 dt = lim tan1 x = 2 , the given improper integral converges.

x 0 1+t x

R cos t

Example: 1+t2

dt converges.

0

R1 cos t

R cos t R cos t

Proof: Since 1+t2

dt exists (in R) as a Riemann integral, 1+t2

dt converges iff 1+t2

dt con-

0 0 1

cos t 1

R 1 R cos t

verges. Now | 1+t 2| t2

for all t 1 and t2

dt converges. Hence by comparison test, | 1+t 2 | dt

1 1

R cos t R cos t

converges and consequently 1+t2

dt converges. By our remark at the beginning, 1+t2

dt con-

1 0

verges.

R1 1

Example: tp

dt converges iff p < 1.

0

R1 1

Proof: tp

dt exists (in R) as a Riemann integral if p 0. So let p > 0. Then for 0 < x < 1, we

0

R1 1 1

R1 1

R1

1 1

have tp

dt = 1p

(1 x1p ) if p 6= 1 and t

dt = log x. Hence lim p dt = if p < 1 and

x x x0+ x t 1p

R1 1

R1 1

lim tp

dt = if p 1. Therefore tp

dt converges iff p < 1.

x0+ x 0

2 2

Exercise: Find the perimeter of the ellipse xa2 + yb2 = 1.

Solution: The parametric equations of the given ellipse are x = a cos t, y = b sin t, where

R2

0 t 2. Hence the perimeter of the given ellipse is a2 sin2 t + b2 cos2 t dt. (This inte-

0

gral does not have a simple expression in terms of a and b.)

R2 p

Solution: The required length is (et cos t + et sin t)2 + (et cos t et sin t)2 dt = 2(e 2 1).

0

R p

Solution: By symmetry, the length of the given cardioid is 2 (1 cos )2 + sin2 d = 8.

0

Exercise: Find the area above the x-axis which is included between the parabola y 2 = ax

and the circle x2 + y 2 = 2ax, where a > 0.

Solution: Solving y 2 = ax and x2 + y 2 = 2ax, we obtain the x-coordinates of the common points

on the given parabola and the circle as 0 and a. Therefore the required area is

Ra Ra

( 2ax x2 ax) dx = ( 38 12

)a2

. (The integral 2ax x2 dx can be evaluated by the sub-

0 0

stitution x = 2a sin2 .)

Exercise: A solid lies between planes perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 0 and x = 4. The

cross sections perpendicular

to the axis on the interval

0 x 4 are squares whose diagonals run

from the parabola y = x to the parabola y = x. Find the volume of the solid.

Solution:

The length of the diagonal of the cross-sectional square at a distance x from the origin

is 2 x and hence the cross-sectional area at a distance x from the origin is 2x. Therefore the

R4

volume of the solid is 2x dx = 16.

0

Solution: The volume of a sphere of radius r is same as the

volume of the solid generated by

revolving the semi-circular area bounded by the curve y = r2 x2 between x = r and x = r

Rr

about the x-axis. Hence the required volume is (r2 x2 ) dx = 34 r3 .

r

Exercise: A round hole of radius 3 is bored through the centre of a solid sphere of radius

2. Find the volume of the portion bored out.

Solution: The required volume is V1 V2 , where V1 is the volume of the solid sphere of radius 2

and V2 isthe volume of the solid generated by revolving the plane region common to x2 + y2 4

and y 3 about the x-axis. We know that V1 = 32 3

. Also, solving x2 + y 2 = 4 and y = 3, we

R1

get x = 1, 1 and so V2 = (4 x2 3) dx = 43 . Therefore the required volume is 28 3

.

1

Exercise: Consider the funnel formed by revolving the curve y = x1 about the x-axis, between

x = 1 and x = a, where a > 1. If Va and Sa denote respectively the volume and the surface area

of the funnel, then show that lim Va = and lim Sa = .

a a

Ra Ra q Ra 2

Solution: For each a > 1, we have Va = x2 dx = (1 a1 ) and Sa = 2x

1 + 1

x2

dx x

dx =

1 1 1

2 log a. Hence lim Va = and since lim log a = , we get lim Sa = .

a a a

Exercise: Find the volume and area of the curved surface of a paraboloid of revolution formed

by revolving the parabola y 2 = 4ax about the x-axis, and bounded by the section x = x1 .

Rx1

Solution: The required volume is 4ax dx = 2ax21 and the required surface area is

0

Rx1 p dy 3 3

2 4ax 1 + xa dx (since dx

= 2a

y

) = 83 a((a + x1 ) 2 a 2 ).

0

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