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A LIBRARY OF PROTESTANT THOUGHT eee EDITORIAL BOARD eee JOHN DILLENBERGER, Chiirmn Graduste Theological Union, Berkeley SYDNEY E, AHLSTROM Yale University ROBERT T. HANDY Union Theological Seminary WINTHROP S. HUDSON Colgete Rocberter Divinity School PAUL L. LEHMAN Union Theological Seminary JAMES H. NICHOLS Princeton Theclogical Seminary ALBERT C. OUTLER Soutbern Metbedise Univesity JAROSLAV J. PELIKAN Yale University LEONARD J. TRINTERUD ‘Sen Francireo Tbeologies! Seminary CLAUDE WELCH University of Penmsyleanie eee REFORMED DOGMATICS J. WOLLEBIUS + G. VOETIUS + F. TURRETIN Edited and translated by JOHN W. BEARDSLEE IIT \ New York OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1965 106 JOHANNES WOLLEBIUS not pray for the world (Jn. 17:9) Those who oppose us argue from passages in which there iy/reference to the whole frorld, or to all men, 1 Timofhy 2:4 and 1 Jofn 2:2, in/which all men fn general are named ing of/“the whole world” is, by metonymy, Jghiout the whole worl” dnd in 1 Timothy 2:4 rt, whether genti f or Jevis, kings ot privat citizens, and so Hot individuals in a class, but basses of individual, as the Words that follow make plain. The word “st” is used jn the same tense ip Genesis 6-19 at Joel 218 | 1. The other aspect of Christ’ satisfaction jf the perfect righteousness whict, by his conform Ie not ony i for and inclination, of righteobsness ur also incl a The orig righteousness formed for us. reasons are: (1) The law topil conformity to itself; othe sin. (2) Because everything al did, and was in/our place. ade, did, and was, he was mai “The actual righteousness“Of Christ isthe obedience by witch, in his own act, he fulfilled the 4s with absolute perfection. In schools, this is called active obedience. Joo ia oe en see hi -ROPOSIEIONS 1. Just as the passion of Christ is necessary for the expiation of sin, so his active obedience and righteousness are necessary for the gaining of cxernal life. s “The reasonsare: (1) The law binds us both to punishment and to obedi- ence. To punishment, because it places a curse on anyone who does not perform all the words of the law (Deut. 27:26). To obedience, because 45: See F. Tacrein, Locus TV, Question XVI, in this volume. ‘HE HUMILIATION oF cits it promises life only to those who keep it completely (Lev, ever does these things shall live by them’; Lk. 10:28: “Do ths and live”). ‘The distinction berween legal and evangelical righteousness does not in- validate this statement, for the gospel, in Christ, exhibits the same right- cousness that the law demands. (2) This twofold satisfaction corresponds to our twofold misery; namely, the guilt of sin and damnation, and the absence of righteousness (Rom. 3:23: “All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God”), (3) Righteousness, in the true and accurate meaning of the word, consists of actual obedience (Deut. 6:25: “Ie will be right- eousness for us, if we observe these precepts in their erticety before Jehovah”). () Christ fulfilled this actual obedience either for himself or in our place (nostro Jaco}. But it was not for himself; therefore, ie was in four place. This is evident from Chris’ relation to us. Whatever he was or did in the course of his complete obedience, he was and did in our place. [Some theologians} object to this statement on the ground that only Christ's pasive obedience contributes to satisfaction and merit. They ‘grant that the active obedience hes a place in our redemption and salva- tion, bur only a something required [of Christ] and neccesary for his work. It was required for two reasons: the law of creation, and the need for his sacrifice to be acceptable to God and for him to be a holy priest. “The first element in this conception is false because at this point Christ is not to be compared to other men, but, just as the Son of God was made ‘a creature not for his sake but for ours, 0 also he was subjected to the law not for his own sake but for ours. The second element in tye above con- ception confuses holiness or innocence with obedience or actual right- eousness, which differ no less than do privation [privatio} and [positive] disposition [habitus]. Innocence is indeed a necessary condition for Christ's sacrifice, but actual obedience is not only a necesary condition of the Christ as priest, but also a part of his satisfaction and mest. Ifthe actual disobedience of Adam is a cause of meriting damnation, why is not the actual obedience of the second Adam a cause of meriting salvation? “The conclusion that we reject would only be possible if we were willing to say that the first Adam is more important for our damnation than is the second for our salvation, 1 The commandment of the Father, which Christ obeyed, was both special and genera. e was special with respect to its purpose, in that he obeyed not for himself but for us. It was general with respect to the object: he was subject to the same law which was presetibed for us, and in all those marers to which the law bound us. 108 JOHANNES wouLenus Those who teach that only the passive obedience of Christ has merit, ‘maintain that his obedience was only to a special commandment of the Father to die for us. However, this was not a special commandment, bnt Part of the commandment; in fac, the obedience of Christ extends to all the requirements of the law. Therefore, since the law bound us to both Punishment and obedience, he satisfied cach of is requirements. unt, Eternal life may be considered in itself, as participation in the full: ness of heavenly joys or as the opposite of damnation, that is, as deliver- ance from damnation, In the frst sense, the cause of eternal life is the perfect righteousness of Christ; in the second sense it is his bearing of punishment. eis one tl ig to describe eternal life in terms of what must be over- ‘come [privative], and another to describe it in terms of what it really is [positive]. Properly speaking, the only cause of eternal life is perfect righteousness according to the law: “Do this, and you shall live.” Bue the death of Christ is called the cause of eternal life, inasmuch as it brings deliverance from all evil Deliverance from damnation and heavenly joy are not diferent pars of life, but merely different relations. The sense in which Christ offers his flesh “for the life of the world” (Jn. 6:51) is evident from this. Two objections are offered: (1) If the active obedience of Chuist i the cause of eternal life, then the passive obedience is useless (2) If Christ obeyed for us, then obedience is not necessary on our part. But the first statement is a conclusion that does not follow from the premise: hut purpose which is common to both parts of satisfaction, ‘namely our salvation, is one thing, but that which is distinctive of each is {quite another; the purpose of his sufering [passive obedience] was libera- tion from punishment; that of his righteousness [active obedience] was the gaining of the privilege of eternal life. The second argument against the merit of the active obedience is similar to that of Socinus against the merit of the passive obedience. If, he said, Christ died in ou place, then swe do not have to die. But in neither case is there any such consequence. ‘The death of Christ is of one kind, that of the redeemed of another. The first is joined with a curse, the second with blessing. Chhrise died as the price for our sins; we die as the transition from this life to the heavenly one. Likewise, Christ's obedience and ours are of different sorts, his is perfect righteousness, which is fulfilled instead of us and as a means of deserving life, whereas ours is imperfect, and a means of showing grati- tude for redemption. wv. The active righteousness of Chrise was foreshadowed in the Old THE HUMILIATION oF citRIST 109 ‘Testament by the regal nature of the adornment of the high priest. Those who deny the merit of active obedience ask by what “type” it ‘was foreshadowed. They want to know, if itis part of the priestly ofice, in what article the high priest bore its type. Bue for what purpose was that most magnificent adornment of the priest in which he appeared be- fore God, if it was not a shadow of Chris's garment of righteousness? ‘Thus we read that not only were the filthy garments of Joshus the priest taken away a8 a sign of the removal of sin, but new ones were given him, and a tiara placed upon him for a crown (Zech. 324-5). G) So much for, the satisfaction of Christ. His intercession, in the state of humiliation, es in that Christ offered to the Fathen.on our behalf, prayers and supplications with groans and tear. Gospel history, which witnesses that Christ even went obt for entire nights to pray, abounds in examples [of his intercession]. He was espe- cially engaged in this office atthe time of his passion (Jn 17, and Heb. 5:7: "Who in the days of his flesh offered prayers and supplications, with joud cries and tears, to him who was able to save from death”). \ PROPOSITION { Those who lool to the other “mediators of intercession,” as they call them, besides Chris, destroy his intercesion. ‘The papists distinguish between the mediator of redemption and the mediator of intefcession. They further attribute this lager office to the deceased stints, Now really, to associate, the intercession of Christ secondary intertessors is no less sacrilegious than co associate his sacrifice with secondary) stcrficers. And since they teach that the saints help us not only by intercession, but also by merit, they overthrow their own distinction; indéed, they divide the glory of redemption between Chrise and the saints when they teach that the saints’ merits, as an additional ‘work, porge away the defilement 6f our sins and make good that whi thas not been done. { 2) So much for the priestly office. (Christ) performs [his] royal office inthe state of humiliation by so gathering and preserving the church by [his] word and spirit that no external royal authority is visible in it.