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# Student: Victor J.

Pugliese Manotas
R#: 11492336
Course: Production Facilities and Processes
Homework #3

## Question 1 (2.5 points): Adding methanol to decrease the hydrate

formation temperature
Flowing temperature
60F Gas specific
gravity = 0.6
Oil specific gravity = 0.8
Oil fow rate 50 bbl/MMscf
Methanol specific gravity = 0.8
Flowline inlet pressure and temperature = 3000
psig & 60F Water fow rate = 300 lb/MMscf
Calculate

Solution:
From the chart, at 3000 psig the hydrate formation temperature is 72F

Therefore, the formation temperature has to be reduced from 72F to 58F (2F
below the fowing temperature)
T =14 F
1) The %wt of methanol to be used so that the flowing temperature will be 2F
above the hydrate temperature.
KW 100 M w T
T= W =
100 M w M w W Mw T +K
10032.04 lbmol14 F
W= =17
32.04 lbmol14 F +2335
The concentration of methanol required will be 17%.

## 2) Amount of methanol that will be in water phase, in lb/MMscf

lb lb
Methanol water=0.17300 =51
MMscf MMscf
lb
The desire methanol in water phase is 51
MMscf
3) Amount of methanol that will be in liquid hydrocarbon, in lb/MMscf (assume 0.5%
as in the lecture)
For oil specific gravity of 0.8, we have:
0.5 lb bbl lb
Methanol oil =
100 (
0.8350.5066
bbl
50 )
MMscf
=70.1
MMscf
lb
The desire methanol in liquid hydrocarbon is 70.1
MMscf

## From the methanol in vapor phase graph we have a ratio of

l bmethanol
MMscf
=1.4
W T methanol water phase

lb lb
The desire methanol in vapor phase is 1.417 =23.8
MMscf MMscf

## 5) Amount of methanol in gal/MMscf

lb lb lb
Methanol water + Methanol oil + Methano l vapor =51 + 70.1 +23.8
MMscf MMscf MMscf
lb
The total amount of methanol is 144.9
MMscf

1 ga l methanol
Methanol [ gal
MMscf
=144.9] lb
MMscf 0.88.3378lb
=22 (gal
MMscf )
Question 2 (2.5 points):
For a gas pipeline with the inner diameter of 12.0 inch. The actual velocity of the
gas fow in the pipe is
30 ft/s. The natural gas consist of 97 %v/v methane and 3 %v/v ethane. The
actual pressure and temperature inside the pipe is 1000 psig and 100F.

Calculate
1) The gas flow rate at the standard condition in the unit of MMSCFD when the
standard condition is defined as 14.7 psig and 60F
Molecular weight of gas
M g=0.97 M C H +0.03 M C H =16.46 lbmol
4 2 6

Compressibility factor
With the composition, the critical pressure and temperature are:
Pc =674 psia
T C =350 R
z a=0. 89
Number of moles in 1 actual cubic feet
3
1 f t 1014.7 psia
n= 3
=0.1897 lbmol
f t psia
0.8910.73159 560 R
lbmol R
Volume of 0.1897 lbmol is standard conditions
3
f t psia
0.1897 lbmol( 0.9978 ) 10.73159 520 R
lbmol R
V sc [ f t 3 ] = =71.86 f t 3
14.7 psia

## Actual volumetric fow

[ ]
2
ft ( 1 ft ) f t3
Q=30 =23.562
s 4 s
Standard volumetric fow
f t 3 71.86 scf
Q [ MMSCFD ] =23.562
s ( 1 f t3 )( 86400 s 1 MMscf
1 day )( 10 scf )
6
=146.29 MMSCFD

2) The gas flow rate at the standard condition in the unit of MMSCFD when the
standard condition
is defined as 101325 Pa and 15.0C
The standard condition is equivalent at the standard condition in question
number 1.
Q=146.29 MMSCFD
3) Gas density at the operating pressure and temperature (1000 psig and
100F) in the unit of kg/m3, lb/ft3, and lb/gallon
psia16.46 lb
1014,7
P Mg lbmol lb
= = =3.123 3
zRT 3
f t psia ft
0.8910.73159 560 R
lbmol R
3
kg
[ ]
3 =3.123 3
m
lb 0.4535924 kg
ft 1lb ( 1 ft
0.3048 m
3
kg
)(
=50 3
m )
[ lb
]
gallon
lb
=3.123 3
ft
1f t
7.48052 (
gal
=0.4175
lb
gal )
4) The weight % composition of this natural gas
Component Molecular Volumetric Mass in 1 lb- %Weight
weight [lb/mol] fraction mol [lb]
Methano 16.04 0.97 15.5588 0.9452
Ethano 30.07 0.03 0.9021 0.0548
16.4609

5) Compressibility factor of this gas at 1000 psig and 100F. Attach the z-factor
graph to be the part of your answer and show how you get the value of z
1.05

0.95

0.9
z
60F
0.85 100F

0.8

0.75
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Pressure [psia]

Compressibility factor
With the composition, the critical pressure and temperature are:
Pc =674 psia
T C =350 R
z a=0.89

6) The average molecular weight of this gas (report the unit of the molecular
weight too)
Molecular weight of gas
M g=0.97 M C H +0.03 M C H =16.46 lb/mol
4 2 6
7) Question 3 (5 points): Sizing the line heater (single-pass coil)
heat first, choke after heating
8)
9) Given information
10)
11) Gas fow rate = 5.0 MMscfd
12) Contain no CO2
13) Standard condition is 14.7 psia and 60F
14) Gas specific gravity of 0.7
15) The inlet fowing pressure (before the choke) = 2000 psig
16) The outlet pressure (after the
choke) is 1000 psig Well shut-in
pressure = 3000 psig
17) Outlet required temperature (after the choke) = 5F above the hydrate
formation temperature Inlet temperature (before the choke) = 1F above
the hydrate formation temperature
18) Bath temperature = 190 F
19)
that graph as part of the answer
21)
22) Do the following calculation
23)

61

70

24)
1) What is the inlet temperature (before the choke) in F?
25) T inlet =T hydrate @2000 psi +1 F=70 F +1 F=71 F
26)
2) What is the outlet temperature (after the choke) in F?
27) T outlet=T hydrate @1000 psi +5 F=61 F +5 F=66 F
28)
3) From the chart, get the required change in enthalpy to allow the outlet
temperature to be 5F
29) above the hydrate temperature in the unit of BTU/lb-mol

120

71

30)

31) h
[ BTU
lbmol]=h2 h1=3100
BTU
lbmol
2300
BTU
lbmol
=800
BTU
lbmol
4) From the chart, get the required change in enthalpy to allow the outlet
temperature to be 5F
32) above the hydrate temperature in the unit of Joule/k-mol
J

( )
2,32601
33) h [ ]
J
kmol
=800
BTU
lbmol
1
BTU
mol 1 J /kmol
( 0.001 J /mol ) =1,860,808
J
kmol
lbmol
5) How much is the heat required in BTU/hr for that 5,0 MMscfd of this line heater
outlet temperature requirement (use Q = 110,0524 G (2 1
to meet the
)) dont use chart
3
34) Q [ ]
BTU
h
=5106
f t 1 day
Day 24 h (
800
BTU 1 lbmol
)
lbmol 379.62 f t 3 (
=439,035
BTU
h )
6) What is the firebox rating that should be used (select from Sivalls book chapter
2, Table 5). The firebox rating from Sivalls book is available for a certain size
not every size.
35)
BTU
36)The firebox rating that should be used is . 500,000
hr
7) How much is the log-mean temperature difference ( T M in the lecture)? In F
( 190 F71 F ) (190 F120 )
TM= T M =92.34 F
37)
ln
190 F71 F
190 F120 [ ]
8) What is the smallest pipe size that should be selected, based on the erosional
velocity calculation? (heat before choke so that the line heater pipe will expose
to the pressure of 2000 psig and the temperature changing from the inlet
temperature to whatever temperature that you will heat the gas to)
2.7P [ psi ] S
38) actual conditions =
T [ R ] z
Ve []
ft
s
=
C
39)

[ ]
lbm
f t3
40)The smallest size should be taken such as the following relation is
accomplished,

[ ]
3
ft
Q
C s
41) >
A [f t 2]

42)
actual
[ ]
lbm
f t3

[ ]
f t3 2.7P [ psi ] S
43) 4Q
s T [ R] z
d [ ]> 12
C
3
44)It is necessary determine how many actual f t are in a standard cubit feet.
14.7 psia ( 1 f t 3 )
45) 14.7 psia ( 1 f t 3) =nR520 R n[lbmol ]=
R520 R
3
14.7 psia ( 1 f t ) z a T a
46) Pa V a=n z a R T a V a [ f t 3 ]=
520 R Pa
47)Then,

za T a [ R ]

]( )( )
0.02827
Pa [ psia ] 2.7P a [ psi ] S
48)

d [ ]> 12
4Q [ MMscf
day 1 scf
1 day
86400 s T a [ R ] za
C
49)
50)
51)Analyzing the equation above, the smallest pipe diameter will be obtained
using the highest temperature (120F)

52)
53) z @2000 psi71 F =0.75
54)Assuming a non-corrosive, no solids condition; we have:
55) C=300
56)

0.75580 [ R ]

[ ]( )(
0.02827
57)
d [ ]> 12
45106
scf
day
2000 [ psia ]
1 scf
1 day
86400 s ) 2.72000 [ psi ]0.7
580 [ R ]0.75
300
58)
59) d [ ]> 0.8
60)Based on the erosional velocity calculation, the smallest pipe size should be 1
inch.
61)
9) What is the pressure drop in the line heater for the pipe that you select in
question 8?
0,5
62) P=P 1P2=P1 P 21( P21P22 )
[ Le
100 ]
63)
64)

65)
0,5

[ 2
66) P=2000 (2000 ) 1,000,000
93.2
100 ] =248 psi
67)
10) If the pressure drop in question 9 is larger than 20 psig, select 1 size
larger pipe and do the calculation again until you find the pipe that has the
pressure drop less than 20 psig and has no erosion problem.
68) Tube 69) Line 70) Equival 71) 72) P
size Heater ent Length P21P22
73) 2 X 74) 30 X 75) 68.3 ft 76) 22,000 77) 3,76
6 psi2 psi
78) 2 X 79) 30 X 80) 100.3 81) 22,000 82) 5,53
10 ft psi2 psi
83) 2 X 84) 36 X 85) 177.7 86) 22,000 87) 9,8 psi
10 ft psi2
88)
11) What is the pipe size that you recommend for the line heater in this
situation?
89)The pipe size that I recommend for the line heater in this situation is a 2X
pipe.
90)
12) How much is the coil area required in sq ft based on the required heat
duty (not coil area available, not from Table 5)

2
91) A [ f t ]=
Q
[ ]
BTU
h

Uo
[
BTU
h ft 2 F ]
TM [ F ]

92)

93)
BTU
439,035
2 h 2
94) A [ f t ]= =43,23 f t
BTU
110 2
92.34 F
h ft F
95)
13) Which model of the line heater that you select for this application (stated
the diameter x length, BTU/hr rating, tube size, coil area)
96) Size Diameter x Length: 30 X 10
97) Firebox Rating: 500,000 Btu/hr
98) Tube size: 2X
99) Coil area: 48,8 ft2
100)
14) Does the selected model provide enough coil area compared to the
required coil area calculated earlier in the previous question (if not change you
answer in question 10, until it provide enough area)
101) The selected model provides enough coil area.