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SCADA & EMS

Anil Kumar Sinha

SCADA

Supervisory
Control
And
Data
Acquisition

Anil Kumar Sinha


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EMS

Energy
Management
System

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Power System

Anil Kumar Sinha

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Power System
Constituents
Generation
To produce Power, with minimum inputs
Transmission
To transport bulk power economically
Distribution
To satisfactorily cater to end-consumers
needs
The sum-total of the three is the Grid

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Power System

Other Important Functionaries are:


Ministry of Power
Central Electricity Authority
State Load Despatch Centres
National/ Regional Load Despatch Centres
Central/ state Electricity Regulatory Commissions
Power Finance Corporation
Power Trading Corporation
Public/ Private-sector Power-sector Companies

Anil Kumar Sinha


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General

Anil Kumar Sinha

SCADA & EMS: Why?

Real Time Monitoring and control of the Power


Equipments and Systems
Load Management and Schedule Management
Early warning and early recovery
Minimum Interruption in the event of unforeseen
Improved Power quality
Planning for the future growth
Safety of the Manpower and the Equipment

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA & EMS: Sub-
Sub-
systems
Load Dispatch System/ Plant Control System
Load Management/ Energy Management
Abnormality Monitoring/ Management
Load-flow Studies/ Planning
Interface to other systems
Energy/ Plant/ Grid management, IT systems
Automation, Scheduling
Voltage Management/ Power-factor Management
Energy Audit/ Energy Accounting/ Billing

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA Schematic

POWER SYSTEM (GRID/ PLANT/ NETWORK)

(Multiple
Locations/
TRANSDUCERS/ SENSORS/ CONTACTS/ ETC. Nos.)
OPTION-1 OPTION-2

PROGRAMMABLE REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT (RTU)


LOGIC
CONTROLLERS
(PLC) FRONTEND PROCESSOR
(May be integrated with the SCADA Servers)

OTHER
SCADA SERVERS (Redundant Configuration) (Distributed Servers) SERVERS FOR
ADD-ON FNs

Human-Machine INTERFACE 1 HMI 2 (More HMIs)


..

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Data Acquisition

Anil Kumar Sinha

Logical Data Flow

Field Equipment (Many)

Sensor/ Actuator (Many)

(A Few)
Bi-Directional Data Movement RTU/ PLC/ DCS
- Information from Field to SCADA System
- Commands from SCADA System to Field

Comm. Server

Conceptual Architecture of
SCADA Server
a Plant Automation Scheme
HMI

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Terminology

Sensor/ Transducer
Converts Process parameter for automated processing
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)/ Remote
Terminal Unit (RTU)/ Distributed Control System
(DCS)
Processes/ Multiplexes multiple process information & routes
it over one link to the Servers
Server
Optimized Computer & Software for Central Functions, e.g.
Database
Human-Machine Interface (HMI/MMI)
Operators Interface to the Servers

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Process Data

Represents the current status of the process


Binary: status of a process parameter
Circuit Breaker, Isolator, Limit switch, Gate status
Fleeting: Temporary change of state
Process alarms
Analog: Current value of a process parameter
Linier: Voltage, Current, Power, Frequency, RPM
Non-linier: Temperature, Flow
Count: Cumulative value of process parameter
Energy, Production Inventory, Fuel Consumption
One-of-N: One selection out of multiple options
Transformer Tap Position

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Transducer/ Sensor/
Contact
Interface to Process Data
Sensors/ Transducers for Analog Process
Values
Relays/ Contacts for status or limits
Temperature Sensors: e.g. Bimetallic, RTD
Position Sensors: e.g. Micro-switch, Capacitive
Proximity Sensors: e.g. Magnetic, Hall-effect
Flow Transducers: e.g. Rotary wheel,
Manometer
Motion/ Acceleration Sensors: e.g. Inductive
Others: e.g. echo based, induction based,
Venturi

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Telemetry

To communicate specific Process


Data, from:
Field Equipment to Sensors
Sensors to Data Concentrator
Data Concentrator to Central Control
Requires:
Accuracy of Data transmission
Reliability of Communication
Error Avoidance

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Acquiring Local Field
Data
Remote Terminal Units (RTU)
Data acquisition at a remote location
Limited Connectivity
Generally lower speeds/ less data

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)


Located logically close to the SCADA Servers
Data interface for SCADA System & other independent
Functions
Generally High Speed Processing

Distributed Control System


Specific Function modules & Data Acquisition for SCADA
System

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Interfaces

Field Equipment to Sensor


Direct wiring for Analog Signals (e.g. CT/ PT)
Current Loop for Binary Signals (e.g. Reley)
Wiring Consideration
Electrical/ Mechanical Shielding
Impedence Matching
Length Restriction

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication
Interface

Sensor to Local Data Interface (e.g. PLC)


Direct Copper Cable for Analog Signals/
Current Loops
Shielding/ Impedence/ Length
Direct/ Bus/ Ring Cabling for Digitised
Information
Length/ Impedence/ Shielding
Limit on number of bus nodes
Protocol and Speed Considerations

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Sending Data

HEADER
Sending form ADDRESS
SEQUENCING
Packet/ Datagram HANDSHAKE

Header/ Tail
DATAGRAM

Validation
Sequencing
Handshake DATA/ INFORMATION

Sending Procedure
Cyclic Transmission
Spontaneous Transmission
Polling
TAIL/ VALIDATION

Anil Kumar Sinha


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RTU

Anil Kumar Sinha

REMOTE TERMINAL UNITS

Low Data Volume


Low Data Transmission Speed
Long Physical or Logical Distances
Need for Reliable Transmission
Geographically Scattered Data
acquisition
No local processing required

Anil Kumar Sinha


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RTU Block Diagram

PROCESS ELEMENTS (& TRANSDUCERS/ SENSORS/ CONTACTS/ ETC.)

Digital Input Digital Output Analog Input Analog Output Other Inputs Other Outputs

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

COMMUNICATION PROCESSOR PROCESS DATA IMAGE

COMMUNICATION MODULE

Anil Kumar Sinha


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RTU Communication
Modes
Point-to-Point
Point-to-Multipoint
Polling Method
Allows use of common connecting cable
Concentrator/ Multiplexer
Communicating on one side with Multiple RTUs
Other direction goes to SCADA Server
Master RTU/ Front-end
To reduce communication load on the server

Anil Kumar Sinha


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PLC

Anil Kumar Sinha

Programmable Logic
Controller
Relatively Higher Data Sampling Rate
Higher Acquisition Rate
Relatively Limited Area of Influence
Possible Need for Independent Local
Processing
Need of Intermediate or Final Results
Subject only to Supervision by SCADA
System
Modes: Fail-safe, Basic/ Standby Operation

Anil Kumar Sinha


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PLC Block Diagram

PROCESS ELEMENTS (& TRANSDUCERS/ SENSORS/ CONTACTS/ ETC.)

Digital Input Digital Output Analog Input Analog Output Other Inputs Other Outputs

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

LOCAL PROGRAMME MEMORY LOCAL DATABASE

COMMUNICATION/ PROCESSOR

Anil Kumar Sinha


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PLC: Configurations

Independent Master PLC


Simplest
Independent Master with Remote I/O
More efficient layout
Duplicated Masters (Standby/ Hot-standby)
For Redundancy/ better availability
Combinations of the above
Addresses Real-Life situations
Process Monitoring Stations
To serve as local HMI

Anil Kumar Sinha


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PLC: Basic Functions

Data Acquisition: Sampling, quantisation


Data Conversion: Modify range & domain
Logic Control Function: Binary equations
Open Loop Control/ Closed Loop Control
Integration/ Differentiation based Control
Look-up table based Control
Plausibility check: Is the information
valid?

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Uses of PLC (examples)

Automatic start/stop of the unit auxiliaries


Automatic start/stop of the units and checking
of Interlocks
Automatic synchronizing, loading/unloading of
the units.
Data monitoring and acquisition on real time
basis.
Emergency operation from unit control boards.
Bi-directional communication with SCADA
system.

Anil Kumar Sinha


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DCS

Anil Kumar Sinha

Distributed Control System

Originally developed for Generating


Units as fast Analog Control Modules,
before the era of Microprocessors
Were near the controlled equipment for
shorter cable-lengths
Hence distributed in the Power Plant
Needed unique communication bus to
interconnect the modules
Present designs are Microprocessor-
based

Anil Kumar Sinha


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DCS

The present day DCS functions are a


carry-over from the earlier days
Some Venders consider DCS more
reliable, as compared to PLC, others
differ
Very little now to distinguish the
traditional DCS from a distributed
instance of multiple PLCs

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication

Anil Kumar Sinha

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Modes of
Communication

Base-band Communication
The frequency range starts at zero
The signal has a DC component
The communication link must have Galvanic connectivity
Modulated Communication
The real signal is shifted higher in frequency space
(modulated) at the starting point, and shifted back to
the original frequency space (de-modulated) at the
receiving point
The modulated signal does not have any DC component
Galvanic connectivity is not required
The modulated signal is suitable for multiplexing

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Modes

BASEBAND
AMPLITUDE ->

MODULATED, DOUBLE SIDE BAND

CARRIER FREQUENCY
MODULATED, SINGLE SIDE BAND

0 Hz
FREQUENCY ->

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Link:
SERIAL

Serial Connection Data Acquisition Unit


Point-to-Point connection
Data Acquisition Unit is,
logically, directly connected Direct
to the SCADA server Cable
Represents a single channel
Usually, but not always, a
galvanic wire connection

SCADA Server

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Link: BUS

Bus Based
DA Unit 1
Communication
Multiple Units
connected on the
DA Unit 1
same logical bus
BUS

Enables Any-to-Any
communication DA Unit 1
Addition of new units
on the Bus is Possible

SCADA Server

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Link: Ring

Ring Based
SCADA Server
Communication
Multiple Units
connected in a ring
form
DA UNIT 1 DA UNIT 3
Communication from
any unit to any other,
goes along the ring
Every unit gets DA UNIT 2
opportunity to use the
ring in turn

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Link: Star

Similar to BUS SCADA SERVER

Addition of new (EMS SERVER)


DA Unit 1
Links is Simple
Failure of one
Link does not HUB
affect the other
Links
DA Unit .. DA Unit 2

DA Unit 3

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Link:
Hybrid
Different Network Topologies can be
combined for site-specific solution
The Combination may be Lateral or
Hierarchical
Multiple Busses/ Multiple Rings may be
connected in Hierarchy

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication Links

Copper Cable, Cat. 1-7


Fiber Optic Cable
Leased Telephone Lines with Modem
PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication)
GSM/ CDMA Dial-up Modem
Wireless/ Radio
Microwave
V-SAT
Inmarsat

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Fiber-
Fiber-Optic
Communication
Two types: Mono mode/ Multi-mode
Mono mode fiber dia. 9 micron
Multi-mode/ Graded Index fiber dia. 50/62.5
micron
Multi-mode/ fiber: varying op. density
Multi-mode fiber: LED source
Mono mode fiber: Laser source
Multi-mode: 2 km practical length
Mono mode: practical lengths > 50 km
WDM: Wave Division Multiplexing

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Communication
Standards
RS 232/ RS 422/ RS 485
DNP (Distributed Network Protocol)
Stated with 60870.5. series, developed separately
IEC 60870.5.101/.104 series
Current Open Standard for Serial or LAN link
IEC 61850 standard for Protection Devices
Being included in other equipment, as well
OPC (OPen Connectivity via open standards)
Upcoming New Standard from OPC-foundation

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA Functions

Anil Kumar Sinha

Basic SCADA Tasks

Input/ Output
Data Acquisition/ Commands
Alarms
Acknowledgement
Including Events
Displays (Real-Time Process Information)
Reports
Scheduled/ Event-driven/ On Demand
Trends (Monitoring of Data over a time period)

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA Functions

Conversion to physical quantities


e.g. amp, kV, MW
Limit checks
Usually two lower/ two upper limits
Gradient check
Rate of change of data
Summations
e.g. sum of power flow over all the feeders
Averaging over data points
Improves reliability of data

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA Functions

Averaging over time


Reduces jitters in data presentation
Accumulation over time
Pseudo-integrated value, e.g. Power to Energy
Manual entry
Manually substitute missing field data
Blocking/ de-blocking
Manage work permits/ maintenance schedules
Active/ not active
Integrate system changes/ new configuration

Anil Kumar Sinha


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SCADA Functions

Count processing
Server-level energy metering, if energy pulse is
available
Integration of units to get total quantity
Command Output for Process operation
Check-before-execute function; Result monitoring
Calculation and logical tasks
Automation of control functions; Execution of multiple
steps
Facility for SCADA data analysis
Data Interface to Higher Functions
Trending based on Past Data
Interface to Other Corporate Systems

Anil Kumar Sinha


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EMS and Add-ons

Anil Kumar Sinha

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ABT/ UI Functions

Availability Based Tariff Software


System
Daily Schedules and tracking
ABT Schedule Updation
Real Time Display
Alarms/ Events
ABT Reports
Trends and short-term estimation
Grid Frequency Monitoring for Unscheduled
Interchange

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Energy Management
Functions

Load-Frequency Control: match generation & load


State Estimation/ Power system modeling
Generation Scheduling (forecast & availability
based)
Transmission Optimisation (T&D losses/ cost)
Load Forecasting (time-of-day, weather, historic)
Machine Parking (maintenance/ forecast)
Spinning reserves (keep machine ready for action)
Asset Management (organising & cost reduction)
Multi-Tariff billing/ Time-of-Day Metering

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Power System
Management
Power system model & Short Circuit studies
Voltage - Var control
Fault location; fault isolation; Service
restoration
Predictive failure analysis
Contingency Planning
Power flow & network analysis
Operator Training/ simulation

Anil Kumar Sinha


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Related Systems

Asset Management (organising & cost reduction)


Customer Relations Management (CRM) system
Staff Deployment System
Work Order Management System
Material Management System (MMS)
Engineering & planning systems
Communications Network Management Systems
Automated Meter Reading System
Data warehouse

Anil Kumar Sinha


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THANK YOU
[anilkumarsinha@hotmail.com]

Anil Kumar Sinha

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