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HODDER GCSE HISTORY FOR EDEXCEL

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HODDER GCSE HISTORY FOR EDEXCEL

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Acknowledgements
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PART 1: Crime and punishment in Britain, c.1000-present

H ow m u ch do you k n ow a b o u t cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent? 2


C h a pter 1 C ri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry fro m c.1 000- p resent 4
C h a pter 2 C ri m e and p u n i s h m ent i n m e d i eval E n g l a n d , c.1 000-c.1 500 12
C h a pter 3 C ri m e and p u n i s h m ent i n ea rly m o d e rn E n g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700 32
C h a pter 4 C ri m e and p u n i s h m ent i n e i g hteenth- and n i n eteenth -centu ry B rita i n 56
C h a pter 5 C ri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent i n m o d e rn B rita i n , c.1 900-present 84
C h a pter 6 C ri m e and p u n i s h m ent i n B rita i n : Revisiti n g t h e b i g sto ries 1 06

PART 2: The historic environment: Whitechape1,


c.1870-c.1900: Crime, policing and the inner city 114

PART 3: Writing better history 164

Glossary 179

Index 182
PART 1: Crim.e and punishm.ent in
Britain, c.IOOO-present

How muc h do you know about cri me


and punis h ment?
Crime sells. It sells newspapers,
magazines, books, films and video
games. It is often featured in the
news. People seem both shocked and
fascinated by crime and it can lead to
heated debates.
Is crime becoming more violent?
Should punishments be harsher or
easier?
Does prison make a difference ?
Should w e send criminals t o prison for longer?
Should we bring back ca pital punishm ent (the death penalty) ?
Attitudes have had a huge effect in shaping the history of crime and punishment.
So let's find out about the attitudes of the different people in your history class. Work
through the survey below and share any differences of opinion you might have. You might
find that you have your own heated debate !

What are your attitudes to crime and punishment?

1 . What s h o u l d be the m a i n reason b e h i n d p u n i s h i n g 2. S h o u l d c a p i t a l p u n i s h ment (the d e a t h pena lty) be


cri m i n a l s ? b ro u g h t back?

a) Retri b u t i o n - reve n ge to b) Deterre nce - t o warn a) Yes, for a l l m u rd e rs b) Yes, for some m u rd e rs
satisfy the vict i m or t h e i r others not to co m m it t h e
fa m i l ies s a m e cri m e

c) Refo rm - to h e l p the d) Remova l - to keep c) Yes, for certa i n types of d) No


cri m i n a l i m p rove t h e i r cri m i n a l s off t h e streets s e r io us cri m e
behavi o u r

3. S h o u l d physical p u n i s h m ents, such as w h i p p i ng, be


4 . S h o u l d t h e p o l i ce carry g u ns?
used a g a i nst cri m i n a l s ?

a) Yes b) No a) Yes, all t h e t i m e b) No, u n less t h e re i s a


d a n g erous situation to
d e a l with

c ) O n ly i n s o m e a reas d) Neve r
1 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry from c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Often people simply voice their ideas and opinions without really knowing the facts about
something. This course should help you to avoid that. By studying the ideas and attitudes
of people in the past, you can come to a better informed view of the issues surrounding
crime and punishment that affect us today. So what do you know, or think you know,
about crime and punishment today? Carry out the crime survey below. Then check the
answers on page 182 to see if you were correct.

a) Risen d ra b) Stayed rou g h ly t h e s a m e a) A fe m a l e p e n s i o n e r b) A m a l e p e n s i o n e r

c ) A fe m a l e u n d e r 2 9 d) A m a l e u n d e r 2 9

4. In the l a s t t e n yea rs, car cri me (theft of ca rs a n d


3. Yearly n u m bers o f m u rders a n d ki l l i n gs a re :
possess i o n s f r o m ca rs) has:

a) S l i g htly h i g h e r t h a n t h ey b) Considerably h ig h e r than a) I ncreased d ra m atica l ly b) I ncreased a l itt l e


were ten ye a rs a g o they were ten years ag o

c) S l i g htly lower t h a n t h ey d) C o n s i d e ra b ly lower t h a n c) Decreased d) Decreased d ra m atica l ly


were ten ye a rs a g o t h ey w e r e ten years a g o

5. Women a re more l ikely t h a n m e n to be attacked


6. B u rg l a ry is:
by a stra nger.

a) True b) F a l se a) I ncrea s i n g d ra m atica l ly b) I ncrea s i n g a l itt l e

c) Decreasi n g d) Decreasi n g d ra m atica l ly

7. What percentage of crimes a re violent?

b) 35 per cent

d) 3 per ce nt

Societies and law makers have struggled with the issues of crime and punishment for
thousands of years - it is no wonder that you may not be sure about things at this early
stage ! When you get to the end of this book, try answering these survey questions again.
You may find that you have changed your mind about some of your earlier answers.
1 Crim.e and punishm.ent in Britain:
The Big Story from. c.IOOO-present

There is over a thousand years of history in the of a violent crime. You can also decide your own
next 160 pages. But don't worry- by the end of this religious beliefs (or lack of them), without running
chapter you will be able to tell, in outline, the whole the risk of being burnt at the stake.
story of crime and punishment from AD 1000 until
On the other hand, some things seem to stay
the present day. Once you have that clear outline in
the same. You, or perhaps someone you know,
your mind, you can start to build up more detailed
may have had a mobile phone or a laptop stolen.
knowledge as you progress through the book.
Although these particular items were only
The history of crime and punishment reveals a invented in the late twentieth century, petty theft
tremendous amount of information about what has remained the most common type of crime for
people in different societies in the past thought and the last thousand years! So, it would appear that
how they lived. On the one hand, things seem to the story of crime and punishment is one of both
have changed. Today, you are far less likely than dramatic change but also significant continuity.
someone living in medieval England to be a victim

1.1 Becoming a master of c hronology


Lots of things you learned in Key Stage 3 history lessons are
going to be useful during your GCSE course. One example 0
is your knowledge of chronology - the names and sequence
of different historical periods. As you are going to study
such a long period - a thousand years - you will have to talk
and write confidently about a variety of historical periods.
Tom the 'tea- leaf'

IDENTIFYING HISTORICAL PERIODS


1 P l a ce the fo u r h isto rica l periods b e l ow in c h ro n o l og i c a l - d iffe re nt types of cri m e
o rder: - m ethods used to enfo rce the law
The twentieth ce ntu ry The M id d l e Ages The early - m ethods used to p u n ish cri m i n a l s.
m o d e rn period The eig hteenth a n d n i n eteenth centu ries 4 Pa rt of l e a rn i n g a bout h i story is h avi n g the confi d e n ce to
2 Ro u g h ly what d ates d oes each period cove r? co m e u p with yo u r own hypoth esis, which you later test

3 Loo k the pictu res on this page. Which pictu re (A- D)


a g a i nst the evi d e n ce. Loo k at the g ra p h above. Based
on what you know so fa r, w h e n do you t h i n k was the best
co mes fro m which ch ro n o l o g i c a l period? G ive o n e reason
time to be a cri m i n a l ? P l ot yo u r thoug hts o n yo u r own
fo r each cho ice.
a) What seems to be h a p p e n i n g i n each pictu re?
copy of the g ra p h . Don't worry if you a re n ot s u re - we wi l l

b) What can you work out fro m each pictu re about cri m e
co m e back t o this l ate r o n !

a n d p u n is h m ent a t that ti m e? Th i n k a bout w h a t they


m ig ht reve a l a bout o n e or m o re of the fo l l owi n g :
1 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry from c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

CHRONOLOGY .,

1 Loo k at the t i m e l i n e b e l ow a n d work out the m issi n g d ates.

11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th
1100-99 1400-99 1700-99

2 Is 1 829 in the eig hteenth or n i n eteenth centu ry? Can you exp l a i n why?
3 The tabard s b e l ow a re in the wro n g seq u e n ce. What is the correct ch ro n o l og i c a l seq u e n ce?

The B l ack Death The Rena issance The I n d u st r i a l Revo l u t i o n

The No r m a n C o n q u est The F i rst Wo rld Wa r The E n g l i s h C iv i l Wa r

4 Look at the two boxes b e l ow - Period A a n d Period B .

Tudors and Stuarts The Renaissance The age of the Black Death Early modern period

The Victorian age The twentieth century The Industrial Revolution The nineteenth century

a) O n e n a m e in each box is the odd o n e out. Exp l a i n which is the odd o n e out in each box,
a n d why.
b) The th ree re m a i n i n g n a m es in each box a re g iven to ro u g h ly the s a m e h isto rica l period,
but they m e a n s l i g htly d iffe rent t h i n g s . Exp l a i n the d iffe ren ces between th e m . You can
use dates to help you a n d check the tim e l i n e a b ove if it h e l ps.
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

G etti n g bette r at histo ry - why we a re m a ki n g l ea rn i n g


visi b l e
We'll come back to chronology later o n - i f you take a look at the activity box o n page 7,
you'll see plenty more chronology activities. However, these two pages are only partly about
chronology, and are actually part of a much bigger topic - what do you have to do to get
better at history?
You have to build up your knowledge and understanding of the history of crime
and punishment. That might sound straightforward, but you will keep meeting new
information and sometimes you are going to feel puzzled, maybe even totally confused.
What do you do when you feel puzzled and confused? You have two choices :

Th i n k a bo u t w h y yo u're
p u zzled a nd identify the prob l e m .
M ud d l e o n , try to i g n o re o r
h id e t h e p r o b l e m a n d d o n't t e l l yo u r
T h e n a d m it t h e re's s o m eth i n g you d o n't
tea c h e r. Y o u may l o s e confid e n c e
u n d e rsta n d a n d t e l l yo u r tea c h e r.
a n d sto p wo rki n g h a rd .
T h e res u l t - yo u r tea c h e r h e l p s you s o rt
T h e res u lt - you m a ke m i sta kes i n
o u t t h e p ro b l e m , yo u r c o n f i d e n c e i n c reases
yo u r exa m s a n d d o bad ly.
and you d o we l l i n yo u r exa m s .

00 0 00 0
Choice A Choice B

Visible learning
Choice B is a lot smarter than the Choice A ! With Choice B you are taking responsibility for
your own learning and your own success. It may sound strange, but one crucial way to get
it's O K to get th i n g s better at history is to admit when you're confused and getting things wrong - then you can
wro n g . W e a l l d o . A n d start to put things right.
ofte n the th i n g s w e g et
wro n g i n itia l l y a n d t h e n We emphasised one very important word in Choice B - identify. You cannot get better at
co rrect a re t h e t h i n g s w e history unless you and your teacher identify exactly what you don't know and understand.
re m e m be r b e s t because To put that another way, you have to make that problem visible before you can put it right.
we've h a d to th i n k h a rd e r
Throughout this book we will identify common mistakes that students make and make
a b o u t t h e m . Say i n g ' I
d o n 't u n d e rsta n d ' i s t h e
them visible so that you can see them. Then you have a much better chance of avoiding
fi rst s t e p tow a rd s g etti n g those mistakes yourself
it right.
T h e i m p o rta n ce of g etti n g the c h ro n o l o gy r i g h t
O n e of those very common and very important mistakes - a n issue that confuses students
every year- is chronology. It's so important that we decided it had to be made visible at the
very beginning of this book. If you get the chronology wrong you can end up writing about
completely the wrong things in an exam. There are plenty of examples of students being
asked about developments in one period of history but writing about an entirely different
period of history because they've confused the name or dares of the period. As an example,
lots of students have been asked about changes in crime and punishment in the nineteenth
century and written about events between 1 9 0 0 and 1999. That's a big mistake and a lot of
marks to lose.
Why is the chronology confusing? It's because the history of crime and punishment covers
a thousand years and so includes a number of different periods of history. What you need
to do is:
get the periods of history in the right sequence
know the approximate dates and centuries of the periods
e know that some periods have more than one name.
So the purpose of the activity on page 7 is to help you identify [that word again ! ] what you
know, what you get wrong and what confuses you. That makes those mistakes visible and
you can put them right as soon as possible .


1 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry from c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1.2 The Big Story of cri me and punis h ment


On the next two pages you can read about the entire history
of crime and punishment ! We are starting the book with
this Big Story to help solve another problem some students
have. Those students know the detail of individual events
and periods but they cannot 'see' the whole story - the overall
pattern of changes and continuities in the history of crime
and punishment.
The four boxes outline the Big Story. Each box has the same
sub -headings - and these sub-headings are in the triangle.
The triangle is hugely important because it shows the link
between what people thought about crime and how they
tried to enforce the laws and punish criminals. Ideas about
the causes and threat from crime are very important,
because they influence the methods used to enforce the law
and punish criminals.

IDENTIFYING THE KEY FEATURES OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT



1 Read the fo u r boxes on pages 8-9 te l l i n g you a bout each Methods used to punish criminals
ti m e period to g et a fi rst i m p ression of the overa l l sto ry.
2 Create a n ew d ocu m e n t fo r each of the fo u r periods, then
What was the m a i n idea or p u rpose of p u n i s h m e nts?

n ote d own the m aj o r featu res of cri m e i n each period e Retri bution - reve n g e to satisfy the victi m or t h e i r fa m i l ies.
under the t h ree b o l d headings b e l ow. Th i n k about the e Dete rre n ce - to warn oth e rs n ot to co m m it the s a m e
q u estio n s u n d e rn eath the headings to help yo u : cri m e .
Refo rm - t o h e l p the cri m i n a l i m p rove t h e i r behavi o u r.
Criminal activity Rem ova l - to kee p cri m i n a l s off the streets.
Com pensatio n - the victim o r society is paid back fo r the
What was the n atu re of cri m e in each period?
tro u b l e caused by the cri m i n a l .

3 Across the t o p o f each p a g e write d own two o r th ree
C ri m es a g a i nst the person - fo r exa m p l e : m u rd e r, assau lt,
rape.
Cri m es a g a i nst p ro p e rty - fo r exa m p l e : th eft, ro bbe ry,
s h o rt ph rases that s u m up cri m e a n d p u n is h m ent in that
period. Use at least o n e of th ese words in yo u r p h rases fo r
b u rg l a ry, poach i n g , s m u g g l i n g .
C ri m es a g a i nst authority - fo r exa m p l e : h e resy, treason,
each period :

i l l e g a l p rotest. ch a n g e conti n u ity t u rn i n g point p rog ress


4
Methods used to enforce the law
This is the core activity on this page. Yo u h ave up to two
m i n utes to te l l the outl i n e story of cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent.
What was the ro l e of authority a n d local com m u n ities in law Wo rk i n a g ro u p of t h ree to plan and te l l you r sto ry.
enfo rce m e nt? 5 After you h ave to l d yo u r sto ry, write it down. This is
What p o l i c i n g m ethods were used? i m portant to help it stick i n yo u r m i n d . Th i n k about h ow to
What tri a l s were used to esta b l ish g u i lt o r i n n oce n ce? m a ke it m e m o ra b l e by:
u s i n g h e a d i n g s u s i n g co l o u rs to ide ntify ch a n g es a n d
conti n u ities a d d i n g d rawi n g s
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN MEDIEVAL CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN EARLY


ENGLAND, C.1000-C.1500 MODERN ENGLAND, C.1500-C.1700

Criminal activity Criminal activity


M ost cri m e was petty th eft - t h e stea l i n g of m o n ey, food M ost cri m e was petty th eft.
and b e l o n g i n g s . Violent cri mes a g a i n st people were j u st V i o l e n t cri m es a g a i n st tcubor 'tCimes
Wagnmt
a s m a l l m i n o rity of cases. The cri mes reg a rd e d as m ost p e o p l e re m a i n ed a s m a l l
men nee
serious were those that were a d i rect th reat to the k i n g 's m i n o rity o f cases. Re l i g i o u s
a u t h o rity such as re be l l i o n , p rotest o r atta cki n g c h a n g es m a d e b y H e n ry VI I I
roya l officia l s . i n t h e 1 530s l e d to p rotest
a n d re be l l i o n a g a i n st t h e
Methods used to enforce the law a u t h o rities. Peo p l e w h o
T h e re was n o p o l ice fo rce . d i s a g reed w i t h the re l i g i o u s
Law enfo rce m e nt was views of t h e m o n a rch were p e rsecuted, a ccused of he resy
based a ro u n d t h e l o c a l or treason, a n d s o m et i m e s ki l l e d . Witchcraft a l so beca m e
co m m u n ity. Victi m s of a cri m i n a l offe n ce.
c ri m e ca l l ed on t h e i r fe l l ow Desp ite a d ro p i n t h e l ate 1 600s, m ost p e o p l e b e l i eved
vi l l a g e rs to h e l p catch t h e cri m e was i n crea s i n g , a n d concern a b o u t vagabondage
c ri m i n a l - t h ey r a i s e d t h e i n c reased . S o m e cri m e s and cri m i n a l s beca m e we l l - k n ow n
h u e a n d cry. d u e to p u b l i city fro m pa m p h l ets a n d broadsh eets (a type
Ad u lt m e n were g ro u ped i nto te n s ca l l ed tithings. If o n e of news p a p e r that had n ot existed i n the M i d d l e Ages) .
o f t h e m b ro ke t h e l a w t h e n t h e oth e rs h a d t o b ri n g h i m to
Methods used to enforce the law
j u stice.
T h e re was sti l l n o p o l ice fo rce. T h e use of pa rish co n sta b l es
At fi rst, local j u ries decided g u i lt o r i n n ocence. If t h e j u ry a n d t h e h u e a n d cry conti n u e d . I n t h e early 1 700s thief
co u l d n ot a g ree, t h e n G o d was a s ked to d e c i d e u s i n g t h e takers e a r n e d a l iv i n g fro m t h e rewa rd s t h ey received fo r
m ethod o f tria l by ordea l . b ri n g i n g cri m i n a l s to j u stice. H oweve r, t h e i r effo rts were
A s t i m e went o n , parish consta bles were chosen fro m m a i n ly confi n e d to Lo n d o n , so c ri m i n a l s h a d l ittle fea r of
l e a d i n g v i l l a g e rs to h e l p kee p o rd e r. M aj o r cri m e s were b e i n g ca u g h t by th e m .
i nvestig ated by coroners a n d she riffs, a n d t h e accused T h e cou rt syste m w a s m a d e m o re efficient a n d t h e speed
wou l d be b ro u g h t befo re roya l j u d g e s w h o trave l led at w h i c h cases we re h e a rd was i m p rove d . Roya l j u d g e s
a ro u n d t h e co u ntry. Each m a n o r h a d its own co u rt h e l d conti n u e d to to u r t h e cou ntry h e a r i n g serious c a s e s a n d
b y t h e l o c a l l o rd , ofte n o n ce a week, d ea l i n g with less manor cou rts sti l l d e a l t w i t h l o c a l , m i n o r cri m e s .
serious cases.
Methods used to punish criminals
Methods used to punish criminals
N e a rly eve ryo n e b e l i eved that t h e best way of d eterri n g
At fi rst, o n ly a few offe n ces carried t h e death p e n a lty. cri m i n a l s w a s t o h ave savage, terrifyi n g p u n i s h m ents that
C ri m i n a l s p a i d com pensation to t h e i r victi m s or t h e i r wou l d fri g hten people away fro m cri m e, so co rpora l a n d
fa m i l i es. T h i s w a s ca l l ed werg ild . By 1 1 00, p u n i s h m ents c a p ita l p u n is h m e n t were sti l l w i d e l y u s e d .
were m o re about retribution and deterrence, with
executi o n s and corpora l punishments used m o re
freq u e ntly. P riso n s were n ot used a n d peo p l e were o n ly
l o cked u p w h i l e awaiti n g tria l .



1 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry from c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN MODERN


EIGHTEENTH- AND NINETEENTH BRITAIN, C.1900-PRESENT
CENTURY BRITAIN, C.1700-C.1900
Criminal activity
Criminal activity T h e re was a b i g i n crease in cri m e fro m t h e 1 950s to 1 995.
T h e re was a rise i n cri m e fro m 1 750 to 1 850, w h i c h is S i n ce then, the ove ra l l cri m e rate h a s s l owly d e c l i n e d .
exp l a i n ed by t h e huge i n crease i n t h e p o p u l ation fro m N ew tech n o l og y h a s h e l ped t o create n ew types o f cri m e,
1 1 m i l l i o n i n 1 750 to 42 m i l l i o n in 1 900. By 1 851 , t h e s u c h as d rivi n g offe n ces. Race crime a n d d rug crime h ave
m aj o rity o f t h e B ritish p o p u l ation l ived i n u rb a n a reas, a l so e m e rg e d as n ew types of cri m e . T h e re a re a l so n ew
w h e re t h e re was m o re o p p o rt u n ity fo r cri m e . Petty th eft o p p o rtu n ities fo r o l d cri m es, i n c l u d i n g n ew fo rms of th eft
re m a i n ed t h e m ost co m m o n type of cri m e . H oweve r, t h e and smuggling.
a u t h o rities were n ow less co ncerned a b o u t va g a bo n d a g e,
Methods used to enforce the law
witc h c raft a n d h e resy. I n stead t h ey beca m e m o re worried
about cri m e s that d isru pted tra d e such a s hig hway F i n g e r printi n g was i ntro d u ced i n 1 901 a n d m o re
robbery a n d s m u g g l i n g. recently t h e use of D N A s a m p les h a s h e l ped t h e p o l ice
to i nvesti g ate crimes and track down cri m i n a l s . The use
Methods used to enforce the law of ra d i o s and c a rs h a s a l l owed t h e p o l ice to res p o n d
T h e g rowth of tow n s created n ew o p p o rtu n ities fo r m o re q u ickly t o eve nts. Speci a l ist u n its with i n the p o l ice
c ri m e, wh ich ch a l l e n g ed existi n g p o l i c i n g m et h o d s . A fo rce con centrate on
h u g e ch a n g e ca m e i n 1 82 9 with t h e setti n g u p of t h e d iffe re nt types of cri m e .
M etropol ita n Police- the co u n t ry's fi rst p rofess i o n a l A t a l o c a l co m m u n ity
p o l ice fo rce . Alth o u g h u n po p u l a r at fi rst, b y t h e 1 850s t h e l eve l , Neig h bou rhood
p o l ice p l ayed a n i m po rta nt ro l e i n ca ptu ri n g cri m i n a l s a n d Watch d eve l o ped to
i nvesti g ati n g cri m e s . e n co u ra g e co m m u n ities
to work togeth e r to h e l p
Methods used to punish criminals d eter cri m e a n d a nti-soci a l
b e h avi o u r.
T h e i d e a of refo rm - that
cri m i n a l s co u l d beco m e Methods used to punish criminals
l a w a b i d i n g - beca m e
F i n es a re t h e m ost w i d e l y used p u n i s h m ent, especi a l ly
m o re w i d e s p read i n t h i s
fo r d rivi n g offe n ces. P riso n s a re used fo r m o re serious
period . H oweve r, t h e re
c r i m e s and fo r re peat offe n d e rs, and d iffe re nt types of
were s o m e w h o b e l i eved
prison h ave d eve l o ped such a s open prisons and you n g
in a recog n i s a b l e 'cri m i n a l
offe nders' institutions. De bate h a s conti n u e d ove r the
type', w h o h a d ce rta i n
p u rpose of and effective n ess of p riso n s . S i n ce t h e 1 990s
physica l cha ra cte ristics a n d
e l ectro n i c ta g g i n g h a s been used a s a way of m o n ito r i n g a
were s o m e h ow l e s s evo lved t h a n oth e r p e o p l e . An oth e r
cri m i n a l 's m ove m e nts a n d as a n a ltern ative to priso n . T h e
b i g ch a n g e i n t h i s period w a s t h e i n crea s i n g use o f prisons.
d eath p e n a lty was a b o l is h e d i n 1 96 5 .
T h i s g e n e rated m u ch d e bate t h ro u g h o ut t h e n i n eteenth
centu ry. Some fe lt t h e p u rpose of p riso n s was to d eter
oth e rs fro m tu rn i n g to cri m e . Oth e rs wanted to refo rm
convicted c ri m i n a l s t h ro u g h m a k i n g i n m ates work h a rd .

THIS IS A SIMPLE OUTLINE. IT IS NOT THE COMPLETE STORY.


YOU Will lEARN MORE IMPORTANT DETAILS LATER IN THE BOOK.


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1.3 W hy c hanges happened - and didn't happen


The Big Story on pages 7-9 gave you some idea of the changes and continuities in the
history of crime and punishment. However, it did not say much to explain those changes
and continuities. This page introduces the factors that explain them.
Each factor is shown in one of the factor diamonds below. You will see and work with these
Fa ctors
diamonds throughout the book because explaining why crime and punishment has changed
Factors are the reasons or
causes of changes in crime
or stayed the same is central to its history. It is also central to doing well in your exams !
and punishment or of crime
In the diagram below we have shown two groups of factors :
a) The factors above the triangle have had the most impact on crime and punishment
and punishment staying\
the same.
throughout history.
b) The factors below the triangle have been important in particular periods of history, but
not so consistently through time as the factors above the triangle .


1 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : T h e B i g Sto ry from c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

STARTING TO THINK ABOUT THE ROLE OF FACTORS .,


1 it's ti m e to m a ke good use of yo u r Key Stag e 3 h i story M a ke s u re you a re c l e a r about cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent
know l e d g e a g a i n . i n each period (see pages 8 and 9) and wheth e r each
a) Wo rk with a pa rtn e r a n d choose two o f the fa cto rs i n period saw a l ittl e or a l ot of c h a n g e .
the d i a g ra m . c) N ow s u g g est w h e n e a c h o f yo u r facto rs p robably h a d
b) F o r each facto r, decide when you th i n k i t h a d t h e m ost the m ost i m pact a n d wheth e r they h e l ped cri m e a n d
effect o n cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent. Choose fro m : p u n is h m ent ch a n g e o r stay the s a m e .
2 B e l ow a re th ree i m portant m o m ents i n the h i story of
The M i d d l e Ages, c.1 000-c.1 500
The early m o d e rn period, c.1 500-c.1 700 cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent. Which facto rs a re infl u e n c i n g the
The eig hteenth a n d n i n eteenth centu ries, peo p l e and eve nts described i n each one? ( D o n 't worry if
c.1 700-c.1 900 you 're n ot certa i n - you wi l l fi n d out exactly why each one
c.1 900-present. too k p l a ce l ater i n the co u rse.)
A good way to d o this is to b ra i n storm what you 3 N ow you h ave a n idea of the big pictu re, l et's return
a l ready know about each period i n g e n e ra l . For to To m the 'tea- l eaf' who we m et back o n page 4. Yo u
exa m p l e, who g ove rned the co u ntry, what you know a l ready p l otted h ow risky it was to be a cri m i n a l in each
a bout living and worki n g cond iti ons, etc. d iffe re nt period . Loo k back at yo u r choices. Do you want
to revise the g ra p h i n a ny way?

THE GUNPOWDER PLOT, 1605

M a ny Cath o l i cs h a d h o p e d that the K i n g J a m es I wou l d be to l e ra n t of t h e i r re l i g i o n , but


i n stead h e d e c l a red h i s 'utte r d etestation of [th e Cath o l ic] s u p e rstitious re l i g i o n '. I n 1 605,
a g ro u p of Cath o l i c p l otte rs atte m pted to b l ow u p Ki n g J a m es I and h i s m i n iste rs d u ri n g
t h e o p e n i n g o f P a r l i a m ent. The p l otters were a n g ry t h a t J a m es h a d n ot a l l owed Cath o l ics
fre e d o m of wors h i p and made them pay h eavy fi n e s . T h e p l otters were ca ptu red a n d
p u b l icly p u n i s h e d i n t h e m ost b ruta l way possi b l e . T h ey we re h a n g e d , befo re b e i n g t a ke n
d ow n a l ive a n d t h e n castrated a n d disem bowelled . T h e i r b o d i e s we re cut i nto q u a rte rs
a n d sent to d iffe re nt tow n s to be d is p l ayed .

THE FIRST POLICE FORCE IS SET UP IN LONDON, 1829

I n 1 829, t h e g ove r n m ent esta b l is h e d t h e fi rst p o l ice fo rce i n Lo n d o n fo r seve ra l rea s o n s .


T h e re was a w i d e s p read b e l ief that c ri m e a n d especi a l l y v i o l e n t cri m e was o u t o f co ntro l . I n
Lo n d o n t h e re were t o o m a ny p e o p l e cra m m e d i nto closely packed h o uses a n d streets. T h i s
m a d e t h e o l d syste m o f pa rish consta b l es a n d watc h m e n seem i n a d e q u ate . M o reove r, i n
t h e yea rs afte r 1 8 1 5 t h e re were m a ny p rotests a bo u t u n e m p l oy m e n t a n d h i g h b read prices,
so t h e g ove r n m ent and rich l a n d ow n e rs wanted to p reve nt t h e poss i b i l ity of riot beco m i n g
revo l utio n . F i n a l ly, t h e g overn m ent h a d b e e n ra i s i n g m o re m o n ey i n taxes w h i c h m a d e a
fu l l -t i m e p o l ice fo rce affo rd a b l e .

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT I S ABOLISHED I N BRITAIN, 1965

By 1 965 m a ny peo p l e wa nted a n e n d to ca pita l p u n i s h m ent. O p i n i o n h a d been d ivided but


t h e to p i c was reg u l a rly d e bated o n te l evision a n d i n t h e n ews p a p e rs . Opinion polls were
r u n to m e a s u re t h e views of t h e p u b l ic. O n e a rg u m e nt was that execution was ba rba ric,
u n civi l ised and u n - C h risti a n ; a n ot h e r was that execution was n ot rea l ly a d eterre nt as m ost
m u rd e rs h a p p e n o n the s p u r of the m o m ent.
Crim.e and punishm.ent in m.edieval
England, c.IOOO-c.l500

2.1 Understanding medieval England , c.1000-c.1500


To understand crime and punishment in the Middle Ages, and the factors affecting it, we
need a clear picture of medieval society, as shown in the boxes below.

The ki n g The n o b l es
M e d i eva l p e o p l e b e l i eved t h e i r k i n g s T h e n o b l e s were t h e
were c h o s e n b y G o d . T h e k i n g was t h e m ost i m po rta nt k i n g 's m a i n s u p p o rters
person i n t h e cou ntry a s h e contro l l e d t h e land a n d and advisers. In ret u r n fo r
decided h ow t o s h a re i t o u t . T h e m a i n tasks fa ci n g l a n d , t h e n o b l e s p rovided
m e d i eva l k i n g s were d efe n d i n g the cou ntry fro m attack t h e k i n g with k n i g hts a n d
and e n s u ri n g t h e i r s u bjects we re p rotected by t h e l aw. m i l it a ry service i n t i m e s
o f w a r. T h ey were a l so
expected to kee p law a n d
o rd e r i n t h e i r o w n l a n d s .
The Ch u rch
Peo p l e i n t h e M i d d l e Ages
saw this l i fe as p re p a ration The peasa nts
fo r the etern a l afte rl ife
afte r death . They b e l i eved M ost peo p l e i n m e d i eval
fi r m l y in H eaven a n d H e l l . E n g l a n d were peasants
T h e refo re, t h e C h u rch was - fa r m e rs w h o worked
a n i m po rta nt o rg a n isati o n the l a n d and l ived in
beca use it offe red ways to h e l p a p e rso n 's so u l g et vi l l a g e s . For pa rt of each
to H eave n . T h e re was a p riest i n every vi l l a g e a n d week t h ey worked o n t h e
eve ryo n e w a s expected t o atte n d ch u rch a n d l ive by l a n d of t h e l o c a l l o rd . I n
its ru l es . T h e C h u rch ra n its own co u rts fo r c h u rch m e n their re m a i n i n g t i m e peasants wo rked o n their own
a n d offe red sa nctu a ry t o c ri m i n a l s w h o t o o k refu g e i n land to fe ed their fa m i l i es. Peo p l e l ived i n close-knit
a ch u rch b u i l d i n g . T h i s s o m et i m e s b ro u g h t t h e Ch u rch co m m u n ities and knew their n e i g h b o u rs we l l . As t h e re
i nto confl i ct with kings w h o wanted to enfo rce roya l was n o p o l ice fo rce, t h ey were expected to l o o k o u t fo r
j u stice on eve ryo n e without i n te rfe re n ce. o n e a n ot h e r a n d e n s u re t h e vi l l a g e was a l awfu l p l a ce.

Medieval society
1 Who was responsible for upholding the laws in medieval England?
2 Why might the Church and the king have argued over upholding the law?
3 What advantages do you think criminals had in medieval England?

Visible learning
When were the Middle Ages?
This book d e a l s with a thousand yea rs of h isto ry. By fa r, the b i g g est ch u n k of this time was
taken up by the med ieva l period. Alth o u g h the m e d i eva l period beg a n a ro u n d c.400, w h e n
the Ro m a n s l eft B rita i n , w e focus o n the yea rs c . 1 OOO-c.1 500. H oweve r, 500 yea rs is sti l l a
l o n g ti m e ! The refo re, to m a ke t h i n g s clea re r, we d ivide the period i nto An g l o-Saxon E n g l a n d
(befo re 1 066), N o r m a n E n g l a n d (c.1 066-c.1 1 00) a n d the l ate r M i d d l e Ages (c.1 1 00-c.1 500).
And o n e m o re t h i n g - h istorians a l s o ca l l the med ieva l period the M i d d l e Ag es !
2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE


MIDDLE AGES
Lea r n i n g to ask good q u esti o n s is an i m portant h istorica l s ki l l . S o m e q u esti ons a re ' b i g g e r'
m o re i m portant - th a n oth e rs.
1 Which of these fo u r q u esti o n s a re the b i g g e r o n es fo r u n d e rsta n d i n g the h i story of cri m e
a n d p u n i s h m e nt? W h a t m a kes t h e m b i g g e r?
a) Who was the m ost powe rfu l person in m e d i eva l soci ety?
b) H ow can we exp l a i n the increase in h a rsh p u n i s h m ents d u ri n g the ea rly modern period?
c) What yea r was the fi rst pol ice fo rce set u p?
d) Why d i d it take so l o n g fo r the fi rst pol ice fo rce to be set u p?
2 M a ke a l ist of the q u estions you want to ask a bout cri m e a n d p u n is h m ent in the M i d d l e
Ag es. Divide yo u r l ist i nto ' b i g ' a n d 'l ittle' q u estions. U s e t h e q u esti o n sta rte rs b e l ow to
h e l p yo u .

When . . . ? H ow . . . ? What effects . . . ? Who . . . ? What . . . ?

What h a ppened . . . ? H ow s i g n ificant . . . ? Did they . . . ? Why . . . ?

W h e re . . . ? Did it rea l ly . . . ?

You r E n q u i ry Question
Like you, we thought of lots o f questions about crime and Who had the m o st
punishment in the Middle Ages. However, the one i nfl u e n c e o n law a n d
we settled on was : o rd e r i n t h e M id d l e A ges
- th e C h u rc h , the k i n g o r
We chose this question for three reasons. First, it's a 'big'
loca l c o m m u n ities?
question because it helps you understand a period of 500
years, half of all the chronology we cover in this course.
Second, it helps you to understand how medieval society
functioned and the different roles people played.
Good historians usually start answering a question by suggesting an initial hypothesis - a
first draft answer. A hypothesis helps you to stay on track as you continue working, but
remember that you can change it or add to it as you learn more.
1 Based on what you have found out so far using pages 4-12, who do you think would have
had the most influence on law and order in the Middle Ages - the Church, the king or
the local community?
The next step is to research this topic and collect evidence that helps you to answer the
Enquiry Question. We are going to use a Knowledge Organiser. This is to help you avoid
the common mistake of making notes so detailed that you cannot see the main points that
you need.
2 Make your own large copy of the chart below. You will be instructed to add detail to it
as you work through the rest of this section on the Middle Ages.

I nfluence from the I nflue nce from the I nflue nce from
C h u rch king loca l com m u n ities
Enfo rc i n g the l a w :
p o l i c i n g m et h o d s
Enfo rc i n g t h e l a w : tri a l s

P u n is h m e n t o f cri m i n a l s
Pa rt 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

2.2 Cri minal moment in ti me : Saxon village, c.1000


After t h e Ro m a n s with d rew fro m E n g l a n d i n c.400, waves of sett l e rs fro m G e rm a ny
beg a n to sett l e . Th ese A n g les a n d Saxo n s b ro u g h t t h e i r own l aws a n d custo m s as t h ey
esta b l i s h e d l oca l k i n g d o m s a cross E n g l a n d . Th ese ea rly An g l o-Saxon k i n g s a l l owed
victi m s of cri m e to p u n i s h t h e c ri m i n a l s t h e m s e lves. I f s o m e o n e was m u rd e red, the
fa m i ly of t h e victi m had t h e right to track d ow n and ki l l t h e m u rd e re r. This syste m , k n own
as 'blood feud ', was a l l about retri bution and ofte n l e d to m o re vio l e n ce . Fu rth e r m o re, it
offe red n o j u stice fo r those u n a b l e o r u n wi l l i n g to use vio l e n ce t h e m s e lves.

Yo u r G C S E stu dy beg i n s i n c.1 000, by which time E n g l a n d had been u n ited i nto a s i n g l e
A n g l o-Saxon ki n g d o m a n d b l ood fe u d h a d l o n g b e e n re p l a ced b y m o re effe ctive ways
of u p h o l d i n g the l aw. An g l o-Saxon society was based on close-knit fa rm i n g co m m u n ities
who s h a red respo n s i b i l ity fo r m a i n ta i n i n g law and o rd e r i n t h e vi l l a g e . By fa r t h e m ost
co m m o n c r i m e s were a g a i n st prope rty, u su a l ly in the fo rm of petty th eft.

M aybe t h i s w i l l tea c h you to


sto p stea l i n g . T h i s is t h e fifth
t i m e you h a ve been c a u g h t !
May t h i s be a l e s s o n to a l l o f
yo u n ot to stea l .

'

0
2 Cri m e''a n d p u nis h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 00 0 - c . 1 50 0

Saxon law and order: A n overview


1 Work in pairs or small groups. You have five minutes.
What evidence can you find in the picture of:
a) different types of crime (against the person,
property or authority; see page 7)
b) different punishments
c) different forms of policing and/or crime prevention
d) different trials.

Let's return to the Enquiry Question we came up with


on page 13. Revisit the hypothesis you made in answer
If someone shouted ' Thief! '
un.p.o"'-'h'- ' they raised the 'hue and
to the Enquiry Question. Do you want to make any
cry' and everyone in the
changes to it in light of the evidence you have found?
village had to stop what
they were doing and chase List any questions that these two pages raise about

after the criminal or they the nature of Anglo-Saxon law enforcement and

would have to pay a fine . punishment. You will be able to answer these as you
work through the next few pages.

Each man over the age of twelve had to belong to a


group of ten men . They were responsible for keeping
each other out of trouble . If one of them broke the law,
they all had to make sure he went to court .
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2.3 Was Anglo-Saxon justice violent and superstitious?


Novels, films and television often depict medieval justice as violent, cruel and
superstitious, based only around retribution and deterrence. They give the impression of
savage punishments based on 'an eye for an eye' and terrifying public executions to set
an example. On these pages you will investigate Anglo-Saxon methods of enforcing the
law and punishing criminals. Once you have made a judgement about whether these were
violent and superstitious, we can return to the Enquiry Question on page 13 and use the
information to formulate an answer.

MAKING A JUDGEMENT ?,
You a re g o i n g to use a Rational
j u d g e m e n t m atrix to h e l p
y o u decide h ow h a rsh a n d
s u p e rstitio u s A n g l o-Saxon
j u stice rea l ly was. This is
a n other effective Know l e d g e
O rg a n iser which h e l ps
you s u m m a rise i m portant
information and show yo u r
t h i n k i n g i n a visu a l way.
1 D raw yo u r own l a rg e r copy
of the m atrix on the right.
2 Use the i nfo rmation o n
p a g e s 1 7-1 9 t o m a ke yo u r
own s u m m a ry ca rds o n Superstitious
each of t h e m ethods the
A n g l o-Saxo n s used to
kee p law a n d o rd e r (tith i n g s ; h u e a n d cry; tri a l by loca l j u ry; tri a l by o rdea l ; werg i l d ; capita l
a n d co rpora l p u n i s h m ent) . S u m m a ry card s a re meant to be clear a n d to the point. Loo k at
the exa m p l e b e l ow fo r g u i d a n ce.

Tithings

How it worked

Why they used it

3 Discuss each card ca refu l ly with a pa rtn e r. Where s h o u l d it be p l a ced on the j u d g e m ent
matrix?


2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

Tith i n g s
Anglo-Saxon England lacked anything that we would describe a s a police force. People

lived in small villages and knew their neighbours well. Law enforcement was based around What do you think

the local community. the advantages and


disadvantages of the
By the tenth century, Anglo-Saxon kings had set up a self-help system known as a tithing. tithing system were? Why
Every male over the age of twelve was expected to join a tithing. This was group of ten men might it be difficult to use
who were responsible for each others' behaviour. If one of them broke the law, the other such a system today?
members of the tithing had to bring him to court, or pay a fine.

H u e a n d cry
If a crime was committed the victim or witness was expected to raise the 'hue and cry'. This
was more than just calling out for help. The entire village was expected to down tools and
join the hunt to catch the criminal. If a person did not join the hue and cry then the whole
village would have to pay a heavy fine.

Tri a l by l oca l j u ry
The Anglo-Saxons used two types of trial. The first of these relied on the local community
and used a form of trial by jury. The jury was made up of men from the village who knew
both the accuser and the accused.
The accuser and the accused would give their version of events and it was up to the jury to
decide who was telling the truth. If there was no clear evidence such as an eyewitness to the
crime, the jury decided guilt or innocence based on their knowledge of the people
concerned. If the jury felt that the accuser was more honest than the accused, they would
swear an oath that the accused was guilty. This oath taking was called com p u rgation .

H e l o o k s l i ke a g o o d l a d . Yes, u n l i k e s o m e o n e e l s e I c o u ld n a m e .

W e s h o u l d be a bl e t o H e's g o i n g to ca u s e tro u bl e s o o n if we
d o n't keep a c l o s e eye on h i m .

..A. The tithing system in action


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Tri a l by o rd e a l
The Saxons were a very religious society. I f a local jury could not decide guilt o r innocence,
then the Saxons turned to trial by ordeal in the hope that God would help them. The
diagram below helps you understand the different types of trial by ordeal and the role
religion played in the process.

T r i a l b y h o t i ron
Usua l ly taken by wom e n .
T h e accused p icked u p a red -hot wei g ht
and wa l ked t h ree paces with it
The h a n d was bandaged and
u nwrapped th ree days late r .
The accused w a s i n n ocent if the wo u n d
was hea l i n g clea n ly or g u i lty if it was
fester i n g .

Trial by blessed bread


Ta ken by priests .
Trial by hot water A priest prayed that the accused wo u l d
U s u a l ly taken by m e n . choke on bread if they lied .
T h e accused put h i s h a n d i nto boi l i n g The accused ate b read a n d was fo u n d
water to pick up an object . g u i lty if he choked .
T h e h a n d or arm w a s banda ged a n d
u nwra pped three days later.
The accused was i n n ocent if the wo u n d
was hea l i n g clea n ly, but g u i lty if it was
fester i n g .

Trial by cold water


U s u a l ly taken by m e n .
T h e accused was t i e d w i t h a knot above
the wa ist a n d lowered i nto the water
on the end of a ro pe.
If the accused sa n k below God's ' p u re
water' then he was j u d ged i n n ocent.
If the accused floated, then he had
been ' rejected ' by the p u re water a n d
w a s fo u n d g u i lty .



2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

We rg i l d
The Saxons relied heavily o n a system o f fines called wergild. Wergild was compensation
paid to the victims of crime or to their families. The level of fine was carefully worked out
and set through the king's laws.
Wergild, unlike blood feud, was not about retribution and so made further violence less likely.
However, it was an unequal system. The wergild for killing a noble was 300 shillings; the
wergild for killing a freeman was 100 shillings; while the fine for killing a peasant was even
lower. Perhaps most outrageously, the wergild paid for killing a Welshman was lower still !
Wergild was also used to settle cases of physical injury, with different body parts given their
own price. For example, the loss of an eye was worth SO shillings, whereas a broken arm
could be settled with payment of only 6 shillings to the victim.

Ca p ita l a n d co rpora l p u n is h m ent


Some serious crimes carried the death
penalty in Anglo-Saxon England - treason
against the king or betraying your lord.
This harsh capital punishment was
intended to deter others and show people
the importance ofloyalty to the king, who
Saxons believed was chosen by God.
Re-offenders were also punished
harshly if they were caught. Corporal
punishment for regular offenders
included mutilation, such as cutting off
a hand, ear or nose or 'putting out' the
eyes. This was intended to deter them
from further offences.

USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ?


ORGANISER
We l l d o n e so fa r! You h ave lea rnt a l ot
about An g l o-Saxon j u stice but that d oes
n ot m e a n you can fo rget a bout o u r
E n q u i ry Qu esti o n . U s e you r co m p l eted
j u d g e m ent m atrix a n d the i nfo rmation
o n pages 1 7-1 9 to start to add key
poi nts to yo u r Know l e d g e O rg a n iser.
You may want to reconsider o r revise
yo u r o rig i n a l hypoth esis.

Prisons were rarely used in


Anglo-Saxon England because they
were expensive to build and to run .
Gaolers would have to be paid and
prisoners fed. This was impossible at a
time when kings only collected taxes for
war. Therefore , prisons were only used
for holding serious criminals before trial
so that they could not escape.
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2.4 How far did t he Normans c hange Anglo-Saxon


justice?
Put yourself in the shoes of William, Duke of Normandy. It is 1066 and, victorious after
the Battle of Hastings, you have replaced King Harold as ruler of England. The diagram
below gives you an idea of the main issues that you, as the new king, have to consider.

I have the s u p po rt
I n eed m o n ey afte r of the Po pe a n d tha n k
my victory a n d m u st God fo r m y victo ry ! I wa nt
T h e people of
c o m e u p with new ways to e n s u re t h a t E n g l a n d
E n g l a n d have l i ved u nd e r
of ra i s i n g reve n u e . re m a i n s a g od ly rea l m a n d I
S a x o n contro l fo r m a ny yea rs.
wi l l trust i n the Lord
I m u st s h o w t h e m I a m the I h a ve o n ly
rig htf u l heir to Edwa rd the 7, 000 N o r m a n s in a
Co nfessor* a n d that c o u ntry of n ea rly 2 m i l l io n
I res pect h i s legacy. E n g l i s h . I m u st f i n d ways o f

kee p i n g the w h o l e c o u ntry


u n d e r contro l .

I wa s t o u g h o n
la wbrea kers ba c k i n
N o r m a n dy. I bel i eve that
crimes a re c o m m itted * Edward t h e C o n fess o r
( Ki n g Edwa rd )
King of Engl and from 1 042
a g a i n st the k i n g 's peace
rat h e r than a g a i n st
to 1 06 6 .
t h e i n d ivid u a l . Wil liam claimed that H arold
took the throne i l l egal ly
and he was Edward's
rightful successor.


WHAT SHOULD THE NORMANS DO?
H ow m ig ht the issues faci n g Wi l l i a m h ave affected the way the N o r m a n s d e a l t with j u stice?
1 Loo k back at the ca rds and j u d g e m ent m atrix that you m a d e o n page 16 s h ow i n g the
A n g l o-Saxon syste m of j u stice. D iscuss what Wi l l i a m m i g ht h ave wa nted to ch a n g e and
what h e m i g ht h ave wa nted to kee p the s a m e . G ive yo u r reaso n s .
2 M a ke a p red ictio n (yo u wi l l fi n d out if you were right later o n ) a bout the a m o u nt of ch a n g e
the N o r m a n s m a d e t o Saxon j u stice :
a) C o m p l ete c h a n g e : the N o rm a n s wiped out the o l d syste m .
b) S o m e c h a n g e b u t a l so some i m portant conti n u ities.
c) C o m p l ete conti n u ity: the N o rm a n s l eft the old syste m u n ch a n g e d .
d) Yo u r o w n m o re deta i l e d theory.

What d i d the N o rm a n s actua l ly do?


There is n o doubt that the Normans made lasting changes t o England. Castles sprung up
all over England and many churches were built or rebuilt in the Norman style. Even the
language changed. However, when it came to crime and punishment things were not quite
so clear.

S o u rce A : Fro m t h e Laws of W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e ro r, 1 0 6 6


I command that a l l shall obey the laws of King Edward with the addition of those decrees I have
ordained for the welfare of the English people .


2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

The following boxes 1-10 give a n outline o f the Norman approach t o justice.
So how far did the Normans change existing definitions of crime, adapt law How does Source A on page 20 give the
impression of both change and continuity?
?
enforcement and alter punishments ? Read the information carefully to help
you with the tasks on page 22.

1 . T h e N o r m a n s b u i lt many castles to 2. William 3. Loca l co m m u n ities


h e l p contro l t h e l a n d . S o m et i m e s A n g l o decided t o kee p were a l ready effective
Saxon h o m es were destroyed t o m a ke t h e m aj o rity of at p o l i c i n g t h e m s e l ves.
roo m . T h e re was m u ch a n g e r a n d s o m e A n g l o -Saxon T h e refo re, t h e
Saxo n s fo u g ht b a c k , ki l l i n g N o r m a n l aws as t h ey N o r m a n s kept t h e
s o l d i e rs . W i l l i a m m a d e a law that if a were. T h e tith i n g s a n d t h e h u e
N o rm a n was m u rd e red, a l l t h e peo p l e of tra d iti o n a l l aws a n d c ry.
that reg i o n h a d to j o i n tog eth e r a n d pay of p revi o u s
an expen sive M u rd r u m fine. Saxon k i n g s we re reta i n e d .

4. Wi l l ia m i ntro d u ced the m u ch - h ated 5. T h e N o r m a n s kept t h e re l i g i o u s


Forest Laws. This c h a n g e d the defi n ition of ritu a l o f tri a l b y o rd e a l , but a l so
cri m e a n d m a d e p revi ously l e g a l activities i ntrod u ced trial by com bat. The
i nto serious offe n ces. Trees co u l d n o l o n g e r accused fo u g h t with t h e accuser u nt i l
be c u t d own fo r fu e l o r fo r b u i l d i n g a n d o n e was ki l l ed o r u n a b l e t o fi g h t o n .
p e o p l e i n fo rests were fo rbid d e n t o own The loser was t h e n h a n g e d , a s G o d
d o g s or bows and a rrows. Anyo n e c a u g h t h a d j u d g e d h i m t o be g u i lty.
h u nting d e e r w a s p u n ished b y h avi n g
t h e i r fi rst two fi n g e rs chopped off. Repeat
offe n d e rs were b l i n d e d .
8. W i l l i a m used fi n e s fo r l esser cri m es.
H oweve r, t h e N o r m a n s ended werg i l d
- i n stead W i l l i a m o rd e red that fi nes
6. Wi l l i a m u s e d c a p ita l p u n i s h m ent fo r 7. N o r m a n - Fre n ch
s h o u l d n o l o n g e r be p a i d to t h e
serious c r i m e s a n d fo r re-offe n d e rs . beca m e t h e offi c i a l
victi m o r t h e i r fa m i ly, but to the ki n g 's
l a n g u a g e used i n
officia l s .
co u rt p roce d u res
a n d a l l co u rt reco rds
were kept in Lati n .
M ost E n g l is h p e o p l e
u n d e rstood n e i t h e r.

9. T h e A n g l o-Saxo n s 1 0. T h e 1 1 . Med ieva l ch ron icles say


g ave wo m e n a l m ost Normans E n g l a n d was a safe r a n d m o re law
e q u a l rig hts in law i ntro d u ced a b i d i n g p l a ce afte r the N o r m a n
with m e n . N o rm a n l aw Ch u rch cou rts Co n q u est. H oweve r, m a ny
was m u ch h a rs h e r o n (see p a g e o rd i n a ry people were p repared to
wo m e n . A N o r m a n 2 8 ) . These b reak the Fo rest Laws. This is what
l e g a l text s a i d , were sepa rate h istorians ca l l a 'social crime'. The
'Wo m e n 's a u t h o rity n i l . cou rts used fo r loca l co m m u n ity we re w i l l i n g to
Let h e r i n a l l th i n g s b e ch u rch m e n a n d turn a b l i n d eye to peo p l e h u nting
s u bject t o t h e ru l e of te n d e d t o b e o r co l l ecti n g fi re wood from the
m e n .' m o re l e n ient. Ki n g 's fo rests as they reg a rded the
law as u nfa i r.
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IDENTIFYING CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES


1 D raw yo u r own l a rg e version of the Ve n n d i a g ra m b e l ow. Read the boxes on page 21 a n d
m a ke n otes o n t h e d i a g ra m showi n g t h e t h i n g s t h e N o r m a n s d i d . Be ca refu l, s o m e o f the
things they d i d were pa rtly ch a n g e and p a rtly conti n u ity. Put these i n the ove r l a p .

2 N ow it is ti m e t o weig h - u p the ove ra l l a m o u nt o f c h a n g e versus conti n u ity. This is n ot as


easy as s i m p ly co u nting the n u m be r of exa m p les i n each p a rt of yo u r Ve n n d i a g ra m .
S o m e exa m p l es a re m o re i m portant t h a n oth e rs. P u t a n other way, s o m e exa m p les ca rry
m o re 'we ig ht'.
a) D raw yo u r own l a rg e copy of the sca les b e l ow.

b) Loo k a g a i n at yo u r co m p l eted Ven n d i a g ra m . U n d e r l i n e the d iffe re nt exa m p l es on


yo u r d i a g ra m u s i n g the key b e l ow :

USING YOUR
l aws p o l i c i n g m ethods tri a l s p u n i s h m ents

KNOWLEDGE c) N ow you m ust decide h ow m u ch we ight you wi l l assign to the fo u r a reas a b ove. For
ORGANISER exa m p l e, the N o r m a n s ke pt the traditi o n a l l aws of p revi ous Saxon kings. This was a
big a n d i m portant conti n u ity so you m i g ht g ive LAWS a wei g h t of 5 befo re p l a c i n g it
What key d eta i l s about the on the l eft side of the sca les. H oweve r, some l aws such as the Forest Laws were n ew.
Normans co u l d you add to H ow m u ch weight wo u l d assign to LAWS o n the ch a n g e side of the sca l es? M a ke s u re
the Know l e d g e O rg a n iser you a n n otate each we ight on each side of the sca les to exp l a i n yo u r t h i n k i n g .
you sta rted o n page 13 to d) Write a s h o rt co ncl usion to the q u esti o n : H ow fa r d i d the N o r m a n s ch a n g e A n g l o
h e l p you with the E n q u i ry Saxon j u stice? Use yo u r a n n otated weig h i n g sca les t o h e l p y o u m a ke a d ecisi o n . Don't
Qu esti o n ? sit on the fe n ce !
2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

2.5 How far did kings c hange justice during later


medieval England?
As we have seen, Anglo-Saxon and Norman kings had two main responsibilities during the
Middle Ages. These were to keep the country safe from invasion and protect the people
from lawbreakers. During later medieval England (c. l lO O to c.lSOO), medieval kings took
an even closer interest in laws, policing, trials and punishments. Let's start with a murder
and find out what happened next ...

Murder in a medieval village


John the Shepherd's house looked empty. Roger Ryet had already walked past it once, glancing
through the shutter, just out of curiosity. There wasn't much to see - a well swept floor, a
couple of benches, a table. Hanging over the benches was a piece of cloth. 'Nice piece of cloth,'
thought Roger. 'It will make someone a nice tunic.' He continued his journey, hoping that
today he would get work on the lord of the manor's land and be able to buy his own
new tunic.

Roger failed to find work that day. There were many idle hands in his village that year, all
clamouring for work. By the time he arrived, others were already turning away disappointed.
Roger cursed, knowing that his own scrap of land did not produce enough food for him to
live on.

Now Roger was walking back past the John the Shepherd's house. The shucter stood invitingly
open, the cloth still hung on the bench. There was no one nearby. The cloth was within arm's
reach. Roger leant in, grabbed the cloth and started running.

'Thief! ' shouted a man's voice. Roger reeled in shock. Where had the man come from? He had
been sure there was no one about.

The man blocked Roger's path, and now he heard the footsteps of a woman at his heels. Roger
hesitated as he gripped the cloth tightly. He had to move. He had to get away. In his other
hand he held his knife. He moved forward, desperate to escape . . .

Seconds later, John the Shepherd lay dead. His wife, Isobel, knelt screaming by his side.

WHAT HAPPENED NEXT?



1 This story a b ove is based on a rea l m u rd e r that too k p l a ce in N o rfo l k in the early
1 300s. You r fi rst task is to specu l ate o n what h a ppened after Rog e r Ryet ki l l ed John the
S h e p h e rd . The state m e nts b e l ow l ist some poss i b l e ways that Rog e r m i g ht h ave been
ca u g ht, put o n tri a l and p u n is h e d . O n ly some of them a re co rrect. M a ke yo u r p red iction
by choos i n g the state m ents you th i n k a re true. Keep a n ote of th ese, as the n ext few
pages wi l l revea l if you were right.
a) The local m e n chased Rog e r i n the hue and cry led by the pa rish con sta b l e .
b) The N o rfo l k co ro n e r h e l d a n i n q u i ry i nto the d eath a n d the j u ry d e c i d e d there was
e n o u g h evi d e n ce to accuse Rog e r i n cou rt.
c) A m essage was sent to the local s h e riff who too k Rog e r off to priso n .
d ) When t h e king's j u d g es a rrived i n N o rfo l k, Rog e r went befo re t h e cou rt.
e) Rog e r fa ced tri a l by o rd e a l , p l u n g i n g his h a n d i nto boi l i n g water.
f) Rog e r paid lsobel the werg i l d of 200 s h i l l i n g s fo r h e r h u s b a n d .
g) Rog e r w a s h a n g ed b y o rd e r o f the j u d g es.
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FINDING OUT ABOUT THE LATER MEDIEVAL ENGLAND .,



1 Extra cting d eta i l fro m written accou nts is an i m portant ski l l fo r G C S E . You can m a ke
this easier by worki n g in g ro u ps of th ree a n d d ecid i n g who is res p o n s i b l e fo r fi n d i n g
i nfo rmation i n the story about:
D p o l i c i n g m ethods
D tri a l s
D p u n i s h m ents.
As you read t h ro u g h the rest of the story o n pages 24-27, write each piece of re l evant
information you fi n d o n a sepa rate slip of paper o r sticky n ote.
2 Co m p a re yo u r g ro u p's fi n d i n g s with oth e rs i n the class. Who extracted the m ost
information in the time ava i l a b le?

Escape
'Keep running, don't stop, can't breathe . . . must breathe, got to keep on running,' thought
Roger. He didn't know how long he'd been running, but it seemed like a very long time.
Looking down he saw the cloth, still gripped tightly in his hand, but now spattered with the
drying blood of John the Shepherd. He stopped to catch his breath in the woods north of the
village. How had it come to this?

Hue and cry


Roger already knew what would be happening back in the village. Isobel's screams would have
alerted others and the hue and cry would have been raised. Every villager would have downed
tools immediately in order to join the hunt for him. No one wanted to risk the fine for not
joining in. They all knew Roger. These people were his neighbours; they lived and worked
alongside both Roger and John.

The parish constable


Now deeper into the woods and leaning against a large oak tree, Roger stopped to catch his
breath. He could hear the sounds of the villagers now, the crack of branches underfoot and
voices raised in anger. One voice could be heard above the rest - it was Waiter, the parish
constable. Waiter was a blacksmith by trade but had volunteered to be constable for that year.
He was well-respected in the village and people looked up to him - the right man for the job.
Waiter had to keep the peace in his spare time, keeping an eye out for any crime that might
take place, leading the hue and cry when it was needed. Roger's spirits sank. Waiter took
these responsibilities seriously, even though constables were unpaid. Roger knew it was only a
matter of time before he would be caught.

But Roger was lucky. He heard the hue and cry start to move off in the wrong direction. He
relaxed a little and sensed, for the first time, the deep hunger that had been with him these
past few days. How could he have been so stupid? If only he hadn't acted in haste, he might be
sitting down to a modest meal at home.

The coroner and the sheriff


Back at the village, eating was not a priority for Waiter. The hue and cry had failed to track
down Roger so now he had to inform the coroner about John the Shepherd's death (since
1 190 all unnatural deaths had to be reported to the coroner). In this case it was clear what had
happened and the coroner would be able to confirm events with Isobel, who had witnessed the
whole thing. The coroner would then have to inform another royal official, the sheriff of the
county, that a man had been murdered. If the hue and cry had still not found Roger then the
sheriff would organise a posse to track down and capture him.
2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

<1111 A painting thought t o b e


o f King Edward I , c. l300.
Edward I introduced
parish constables in
1 2 8 5 . The parish was
the smallest unit of
local government in the
country. Every parish was
centred on a church.

Sanctuary
The sun was beginning to set and the daylight sounds of the woods gave way to the hoots
of owls and other signs of approaching darkness. Roger had a plan. His best hope of escape
was to reach the cathedral in Norwich. He would reach the church door and bang on the
sanctuary knocker. Once a criminal had reached sanctuary, even the sheriff could not take
him by force from a church. Roger would then have the choice to stand trial for his crime or
leave the country within 40 days. He'd go to France he thought. Yes, that is what he'd do.

Sleep
On the second day Roger hid until nightfall. He moved slowly so no one could hear him,
avoiding the country paths, crossing ditches and fields under the cover of darkness. The
landscape seemed unfamiliar on this moonlit night and Roger soon felt himself hopelessly
lost. Regrets flooded his mind. If only he had more land to grow enough food. If only he
hadn't drawn his knife. If only he hadn't seen the damned cloth in the first place. There in the
bracken Roger drifted off into a fitful sleep.

Rude awakening
'Get up cur! On your feet! He's over here - come quick!' Roger woke with a start. Looking up,
he saw a finely dressed man, who must be the sheriff, cowering above him. He was accompanied
by several other men who had been summoned as part of the sheriff's posse to track Roger down.
He recognised one of them as his cousin, a lanky boy of 15. Roger smiled to himself. He couldn't
blame the lad - all men of that age could be summoned to join a posse.

It was light as they took Roger away, his hands bound with rope. On the horizon Roger
spotted the tell-tale spire of Norwich Cathedral. He'd been so close ro claiming sanctuary!
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The royal court


Roger was accused of murder. After
a week in the local gaol he was taken,
by his tithing, before the royal court.
The royal court dealt with the most
serious crimes. As he walked in he saw
a row of five judges raised up high
and dressed in fine red robes. Just
below them were the scribes, writing
everything down on long scrolls of
parchment. To his left Roger spotted
the jury. Their faces were known to
him as they had been selected from
the villages in the local area.

'If only she'd not seen me,' thought


Roger as he spotted Isobel weeping
in the courtroom. Roger had been
well-liked and trusted by his fellow
villagers. Without any evidence
against him they might have sworn
an oath of innocence based on his
good character. Isobel now stood and
gave her eyewitness testimony. It was
not surprising that the jury trusted
!so bel's description of events. Some
of them even recalled hearing !so bel's
screams when Roger had stabbed her
husband. The jury swore an oath that
Roger was guilty.

<Ill Royal courts like this one would


have been similar to the one Roger
attended. Royal judges were
appointed by the king and visited
each county two or three times
a year to hear the most serious
cases . Most other cases continued
to be heard in manor courts before
local juries who usually set fines as
punishment (see page 8) .


2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

The noose
As a boy, Roger had listened to his grandfather scare him with stories of boiling cauldrons of
water and God's divine judgement. Trial by ordeal had finally been abolished in 1 2 1 5 . 'At least
I avoided that,' thought Roger. Then reality came crashing back into Roger's thoughts. Just
last year he had witnessed one acquaintance being whipped and another placed in the pillory
just for being drunk! Selling weak beer could land you a night in the stocks so what hope did
he, a murderer, have? Roger knew he was bound to swing for his crime, to set an example and
serve as a warning to others.

Of course, there were some ways of avoiding death but Roger could not afford to buy a pardon
from the king. Nor was he able to read, which made claiming benefit of the clergy (see page
28) impossible. That would have involved him reading a verse from the Bible and being tried
by the Church courts, who never executed people. 'If only there was a war on. I could avoid
all of this by fighting in the army as my punishment,' thought Roger as the hangman tied the
noose around his neck.

It was his very last thought before he convulsed, legs kicking into thin air at the end of the rope.

CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES IN LATER MEDIEVAL ENGLAND


1 Look back at the p red ictio n s you m a d e on page 23. We re you correct?
2 Law enfo rce m e n t a n d p u n is h m ent clea rly d i d ch a n g e d u ri n g the later M i d d l e Ag es.
U s i n g the i nfo rmation that you co l l ected fro m the activity o n page 24, sort th ese i nto
ch a n g es a n d conti n u ities a n d use them to fi l l in yo u r own co py of the table b e l ow.

No p o l ice fo rce
Tith i n g s were o rg a n ised to b r i n g a ccused to co u rt
H u e a n d cry used to catch c ri m i n a l s
Loca l j u ries decided g u i l t o r i n n oce n ce
If j u ry co u l d n ot d e c i d e t h e n o rd e a l was used - G o d
was j u d g e
Roya l cou rts fo r serious cases. M a n o r co u rts fo r
oth e rs
T h e N o r m a n s e n d e d we rg i l d a n d fi nes were p a i d to
king
S e r i o u s c r i m e s a n d re-offe n d e rs were p u n i s h e d by
death

3 Which of the state m e nts b e l ow d o you think best s u m s u p h ow fa r law enfo rcement and
p u n is h m ent changed d u ri n g the l ater M i d d l e Ages?
a) By the end of the M i d d l e Ag es law enfo rcement and p u n is h m ent had c h a n g e d very
l ittle s i n ce 1 1 00.
b) Key pa rts of l aw enfo rce ment a n d p u n i s h m ent h a d re m a i n ed the s a m e s i n ce 1 1 00 .
H oweve r, tri a l s a n d p o l i c i n g m ethods h a d been i m p rove d .
c) B y the e n d o f the M i d d l e Ag es law enfo rcement a n d p u n is h m ent h a d been a l m ost
tota l ly ch a n g e d . They were u n recog n i s a b l e .
4 W h a t key d eta i l s about the l ate M i d d l e A g e s co u l d y o u a d d to the K n o w l e d g e O rg a n iser
you sta rted o n page 13 to help you with the E n q u i ry Qu esti o n ? Refe r back to yo u r i n itial
hypothesis a n d decide w h ether you need to revise it i n any way.
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2.6 Case study: Did t he Churc h help or hinder justice in


t he early t hirteent h century?
You have already begun to discover how the Church and religious beliefs played an
important part in medieval law and order. God was firmly at the centre of trial by ordeal
(see page 29) but this was not the only way in which the Church influenced justice. This
influence had previously brought the Church into conflict with the king. The most
infamous example of this came in 1 1 70 with the brutal murder of Archbishop of
Canterbury Thomas Becket. Becket had fallen out with King Henry II over the issue of
Church courts, which Henry believed were allowing criminals to get off too lightly.

A d e s c r i p t i o n of eve n t s
i n J u ly 1 1 74 , w r i t t e n a
few yea rs later by t h e
m o n k R a l p h D i ceto :
King Henry made a
hastyjourney across
England. When he reached
Canterbury he leaped from
his horse and took off his
royal clothes. He put on
simple clothes and went
into Canterbury Cathedral.
There he lay down and
prayed for a long time. Then
King Henry allowed each of
the bishops to whip him five
times. And after that the
monks who were there [and
there were a large number)
each whipped the king
three times.

As you can see from the illustration above, Henry was eventually forced to seek forgiveness
for the death of Becket and the power and influence of the Church continued. In the eyes of
Henry and some later kings, this challenged royal authority and hindered effective justice.
How far was this still true in the early thirteenth century?

Ch u rch cou rts


The Church claimed the right to try any churchman accused of a crime in its own courts.
This would be presided over by the local bishop. Unlike ordinary courts, Church courts
never sentenced people to death, no matter how serious the crime committed. Church
courts also dealt with a range of moral offe nces including failure to attend church,
drunkenness, adultery and playing football on a Sunday.

Benefit of the clergy


B enefit of the clergy was when an accused person claimed the right to be tried in the more
lenient Church courts. In theory, this right was intended only for priests. In practice,
anyone loosely connected with the Church, such as church doorkeepers or gravediggers,
used it to escape tougher punishments. To get around this problem, the Church used a test
requiring the accused to read a verse from the Bible. The idea was to weed out the non
churchmen who, unlike priests, were usually unable to read. However, others learnt the
verse by heart and it soon became known as the 'neck verse' because it could literally save
your neck from the hangman's noose !



2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

Sa nctu a ry <11111 The sanctuary knocker


at Durham Cathedral . A
If someone on the run from the law criminal would grasp the
could reach a church, he or she could knocker and hammer on
claim sanctuary. Once a criminal the door to be let in. A
reached sanctuary, they were under church bell would be rung
the protection of the Church. Even the to alert the townspeople
county sheriff could not remove them that someone had claimed
by force. The criminal then had 40 days sanctuary.
to decide either to face trial or to leave
the country. Those choosing to leave
had to make their way, barefoot and
carrying a wooden cross, to the nearest
port and board the first ship heading
abroad.

Tri a l by o rdea l
Although it was ended by Pope
Innocent Ill in 1215, trial by ordeal
had long been used to judge guilt or
innocence in the eyes of God (see page
18). It was used when juries could not
reach a verdict and was based on the
legally unreliable idea that God would
decide a case. As such, it was possible
that some guilty men and women
escaped punishment while some
innocent people were found guilty.

HELPED OR HINDERED?
D raw yo u r own copy of the spectr u m b e l ow to s h ow h ow m u ch of a h e l p or h i n d ra n ce to
med ieva l j u stice each type of C h u rch i nvolvement was. We h ave d o n e trial by ordeal fo r you
as an exa m p l e to g et you starte d . Use the information o n these two pages to m a rk a n d
a n n otate Church cou rts, benefit o f t h e clergy a n d sanctua ry.

T r i a l by o r d e a l

HINDERED H E LP E D

Tri a l by ordeal p rovi ded a n o u tco m e if


a l oca l j u ry co u l d not reach a verd ict.
H owever, this o utco m e seemed to be
based o n l uck rat h e r than real g u i lt o r
i n n oce nce. T h e refore, g u i l ty cri m i n a l s
sometimes esca ped p u n i s h m e n t w h i l e
i n n oce nt peo p l e co u l d be p u n i s h e d .

USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER ?


What key d eta i l s about the C h u rch co u l d you a d d to the
Know l e d g e O rg a n iser you sta rted o n page 13 to help you
with the E n q u i ry Qu esti o n ?


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2.7 Com municating your answer


Now it's time to write your answer to the Enquiry Wo rd Wa l l
Question and ...
A Word Wall identifies words that are useful for writing
STOP ! We have forgotten something very important. an answer. They also help you to think and talk about
Revise your hypothesis and get your summary answer clear your answer. Add to your Word Wall each time you finish
in your mind before you begin writing. studying a new time period. This helps you to :
understand the meaning of technical words and phrases
e
This is a vital stage because a big mistake students make is communicate clearly and precisely when you describe or
starting to write without having the answer clear in their explain historical events - this definitely helps you do
minds. The activities below help to clarify your thinking
well in your exams

and work better if you do them with a partner.
spell these important words correctly (marks are lost in
1 Compare the information in your Knowledge Organiser exams for poor spelling) .
(page 13) with your partner's. Make any necessary
additions. Here are some words and phrases to help you think about
2 Rank the Church, kings and local communities in order the Enquiry Question and medieval England. Make your
of the influence they had in each of the following areas : own copy on a large sheet of paper and leave plenty of space
enforcing the law: policing methods
so you can add to it.
enforcing the law: trials Red - words re l ated to the history of cri m e a n d
e punishing criminals. p u n is h m e nt.
Blue - h isto rica l periods.
N ow it's time to write yo u r a n swe r
Now it's time to write an answer to our question. Black - wo rds that m a ke you r a rg u m ents a n d
ideas answers c l e a r t o a rea d e r
Who had the most influence on law and order in the
Middle Ages - the Church, kings or local communities ? Golden - words that help you t o u s e evidence, explain and
link your answer to the question being asked.
Use the following plan t o help you structure your answer:
Paragraph 1 - Describe how policing methods worked
and explain what, ifany, role the Church, kings and local
Practice q u estions
communities played. 1 Exp l a i n why the Ch u rch s o m et i m e s h i n d e red j u stice i n

Paragraph 2 - As above but consider trials.


t h e period c.1 000-c.1 500.
2 'The N o rm a n Con q u est saw l ittl e c h a n g e to law
Paragraph 3 - As above but consider punishments. enfo rce m e n t and p u n is h m e n t i n E n g l a n d .' H ow fa r d o
Paragraph 4 - Your conclusion should weigh up which y o u a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swe r.
group had the most influence overall. Some of you r exa m questions (such as q uestion 4, 5 and 6
in the exa m paper) will suggest two topics you cou l d use in
you r answer. You can see exam ples on page 1 65. We have n ot
incl uded topics in the practice questions in this book to g ive
teachers the opportun ity to change th ese from yea r to yea r.

I I I
An g l o -Saxon tith i n g - -.tria !,E.y, ordeal :anct u a ry consta b l e coro n e r
Norman h u e a n d cry Ch u rch cou rts benefit of m a n o r cou rt she riff
the clergy
med ieva l 4
Mi dle ges
-
l itt l e l very i m porta .nt cont i n u ity fa ctor
) I I rr _D;:
q u ite cha n g e influential reason
fo r exa m p l e m o reove r t h is meant t h is led to ove ra l l
seco n d ly fu rt hermore t h is s u g g ests this resu lted i n


2 Cri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l En g l a n d , c.1 0 0 0 - c . 1 50 0

2 .9 Visi b le lea rn i n g : Revise a n d re m e m b e r


Just when you thought you might relax after answering the Enquiry Question, you
discover there is something just as important still to do ! The most successful
students realise that revision is not something that you only do towards the end of the
course and the start of your exams. By getting ready for revision now, you make life much
easier for yourself later on. Here are some ideas how to revise so you can get started.

Tech n i q u e 1 : Using m em o ry m a ps Tech n i q u e 2 :


A m e m o ry m a p is a n ot h e r fo rm of K n ow l e d g e O rg a n i ser that h e l ps you focus Test you rself
o n t h e key featu res with o u t g etti n g l ost i n too m u ch u n n ecessa ry d eta i l .
M a ki n g a m e m o ry m a p is itse lf
Step 1 : U s e p l a i n A 3 p a p e r ( o r b i g g e r if yo u h ave it) . Tu rn i t l a n dscape t o a l low a way of revi s i n g , but you can
s o m e space and to sto p t h e w h o l e t h i n g l o o k i n g cra m pe d . a l so use it to test yo u rself. Try
cove ri n g up pa rts of t h e m e m o ry
Step 2 : Ad d i nfo rmation to Policing
m a p . T h e n try to d raw that
t h e map u s i n g yo u r n otes a n d methods Trials
m is s i n g p a rt of t h e m e m o ry m a p
l o o ki n g back at pages 1 2-29 if
n ecessa ry. Use p e n c i l so you '\_ fro m m e m o ry. Check t h i s a g a i n st
t h e orig i n a l a n d see what you
ca n m a ke corrections late r.
h ave m isse d .
\.
Re m e m ber:
e Use key words o r ph rases.
Do n ot write i n fu l l
sente n ces.
e Use p i ctu res/i m a g es/ Tech n i q u e 4: Writi n g
d i a g r a m s to re p l a ce or the Big Sto ry
e m phasise word s . T h i s
h e l ps t h e i nfo rmation to it's rea l ly i m p o rtant that you
'stick'. kee p t h e B i g Sto ry of cri m e
e P R I N T i m po rta nt words to a n d p u n is h m e n t c l e a r i n yo u r
m a ke t h e m sta n d out. m i n d , as t h i s is a g reat h e l p i n
t h e exa m . U s e t h e n otes i n yo u r
Step 3 : W h e n you h ave
b o o k o r l o o k back ove r pages
fi n is h e d , red raft yo u r m e m o ry
Big idea 1 2-29 and w rite a b rief story of
m a p to m a ke s u re eve ryth i n g
is c l e a r. 7
/ """ 7
cri m e and p u n i s h m e nt i n the
M i d d l e Ag es. Yo u s h o u l d i n c l u d e
t h e words u s e d i n Tech n i q u e 3 a s
we l l a s the fo l l owi n g :

C h a n g e An g l o-Saxo n s
Tech n i q u e 3 : Playi n g a g a m e T h i s m e a n t that . . . Conti n u ity

I n t h i s g a m e t h e contesta nt i s g iven a n a n swe r a n d t h e i r task i s t o co m e u p


with t h e m atch i n g q u esti o n . We h ave p rovided s o m e a n swers b e l ow b u t it
i s yo u r job to co m e u p with s u i ta b l e m atch i n g q u esti o n s . Try to m a ke each
q u esti o n a s d eta i l ed as possi b l e so that you a re u s i n g yo u r k n ow l e d g e to h e l p
y o u word it.

Tithing Benefit of S h e riff Trial by Coroner


the clergy ordea l

The We rg ild Oath of 1 1 00 Sanctuary


Normans compurgation
The period 1500-1700 saw some important changes to society, the way the country was ruled and in
people's religious beliefs. First, this was a time of increasing wealth but also of increasing poverty for
different groups of people. Second, rich landowners wanted a bigger say in the way the country was
being run and had a growing influence on the making of laws. Consequently, there were tougher laws
for crimes against property. Third, England became a Protestant country and this caused much conflict
and confusion- having the wrong religious beliefs could lead to execution . As a result, tougher laws
emerged dealing with crimes against royal and Church authority. As you work through the chapter you
will understand how and why these changes had a big effect on crimes, punishments, trials and policing.

3.1 Cri minal moments in ti me, 1600

The law of trea son had been strengthened.


lt was treasonable to rebel, speak out
or write against the m o n a rc h . The
pun ishment for treason was h a n g i n g ,
d rawi ng a n d qua rteri n g . T h e victi m's body
pa rts were di s played as a wa rn i n g .
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

c ry sti l l existed i n s m a l l e r
c o m m u n ities but were less
effective i n town s w h e re
The stocks were used for there were m o re people.
those who could not afford
to pay fines, often i m posed
for m i n o r crimes. The pillory
wa s used to p u n i s h crimes
such as selling u nderweight
or rotten goods or
cheating at ca rds. Both

LAW AND ORDER 1 60 0 - 1 7 0 0 : OVERVIEW


Wo rk in p a i rs or s m a l l g ro u ps . Yo u h ave five m i n utes. 2 What c h a n ges and conti n u ities can you see w h e n you
What evid e n ce can you fi n d i n the pictu re of: co m p a re this cri m i n a l m o m e nt i n time with the A n g l o
a) d iffe rent types of cri m e (agai nst the perso n , Saxon sce n e o n p a g e s 1 4-1 5?
p roperty o r autho rity) 3 List a ny q u esti ons that th ese two pages ra ise about
b) d iffe rent p u n i s h m ents
c) d iffe rent fo rms of policing a n d /o r cri m e
the n atu re of law enfo rce ment a n d p u n i s h m ent i n the
period 1 500-1 700. Kee p th ese safe and tick them off
p reve ntion
d) d iffe rent trials?
w h e n you a n swer them as you work t h ro u g h the rest
of this cha pte r.
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3.2 W hic h social c hanges affected cri me and


punis h ment, c.1500-c.1700?
Many aspects of crime and punishment had not changed since the Middle Ages. The theft
of food, money or low-value belongings remained the most common crimes. No police
force existed and there was a continued belief that savage, terrifying corporal and capital
punishments deterred people from committing crime. However, there were also some
important changes in the period 1500 -1700.
1 The amount of crime seems to have gone up during the 1500s and early 1600s.
2 There was an increased fear of crime. By the late 1600s, there is evidence that crime was
actually falling. However, most people continued to believe that crime was
rising rapidly.
3 In the 1680s, even minor crimes could result in execution as punishments became even
harsher. The number of crimes carrying the death penalty (capital punishment) was
greatly increased.

HOW DID SOCIAL CHANGES AFFECT CRIME AND Af)



PUNISHMENT?
Read the soci a l ch a n g es boxes b e l ow a n d on page 35 a n d use th ese to h e l p you a n swer the
fo l l owi n g q u estions.
1 Which ch a n g es help exp l a i n the i n crease i n cri m e d u ri n g the 1 500s a n d early 1 600s?
2 Which ch a n g es h e l p exp l a i n the i n creased fea r of cri m e i n this period?
3 Which ch a n g es help exp l a i n to u g h e r laws su rrou n d i n g cri m es a g a i nst prope rty?
4 Which ch a n g es h e l p exp l a i n the to u g h e r laws su rrou n d i n g cri mes a g a i nst roya l a n d
C h u rch autho rity?
5 Which ch a n g es h e l p exp l a i n the i n creased use of ca pita l p u n is h m ent fo r even m i n o r
cri m es fro m t h e 1 680s?

Po p u lation g rowth Economic cha n g es Printi n g

D u ri n g t h e sixteenth a n d E n g l a n d was beco m i n g wea lth i e r After p ri nti n g was i nvented i n the
seve nteenth ce nturies t h e re w a s a ove ra l l a n d s o m e p e o p l e fifteenth ce ntu ry, m o re books,
steady i n c rease i n t h e p o p u lati o n . beca m e richer. H oweve r, t h e broadsh eets and pa m p h l ets sta rted
M o re p e o p l e m e a n t it w a s h a rd e r ove rw h e l m i n g m aj o rity o f peo p l e to appear. A favou rite topic for
fo r s o m e t o fi n d work. re m a i n ed poor. T h i s m a d e t h e m pa m p h l ets was cri me, pa rticu la rly
v u l n e ra b l e to r i s e s i n t h e p rice witchcraft and vag a bondage.
of fo od caused by bad h a rvests. Pa m p h lets we re usua l ly i l l u strated
A fa l l - off in tra d e co u l d lead to a n d frequently read out loud to
u n e m p l oy m e n t a n d h a rd s h i p oth e rs. Even those u n a b l e to read
fo r m a ny. co u l d sti l l u n d e rsta n d the g e n e ra l
message they contained.
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Re ligious tu rmoil Pol itica l cha n g e La n d owners'


attitu d es

Re l i g i o u s ch a n g es m a d e b y H e n ry T h i s period a l so saw t h e g reatest


VI I I d u ri n g t h e 1 530s caused m u ch re be l l i o n of a l l - the E n g l is h
La n d ow n e rs were beco m i n g rich e r
u n rest and confu s i o n . This was Civi l Wa r (1 642-1 649) i n wh ich
a n d g rowi n g i n i n fl u e n ce d u ri n g
fo l l owed by a period of re l i g i o u s Pa r l i a m e nt fo u g h t and beat t h e
t h i s period . They e n co u ra g e d
u p h eava l as t h e cou ntry switched K i n g 's fo rces . T h i s cu l m i n ated i n
l aws that defe n d e d t h e i r rig hts,
fro m P rotestant to Cath o l i c t h e execution o f K i n g C h a rles I .
power and p ro p e rty a g a i n st
m o n a rchs a n d b a c k a g a i n . As To m a ny peo p l e t h e w a r a n d t h e
those t h ey reg a rd e d as a th reat.
re l i g i o u s a rg u m e nt conti n u ed, d eath o f t h e k i n g fe lt l i ke t h e
I n crea s i n g l y l a n d ow n e rs reg a rd e d
both s i d es accused t h e oth e r of 'wo r l d t u r n e d u ps i d e down'. T h i s
t h e poor w i t h s u s p i ci o n . T h ey
being i n l e a g u e with t h e Devi l . created a fee l i n g of i n secu rity
fe lt th reate n e d by t h e i r g rowi n g
T h i s h e l ped i n crease p u b l i c a n d fea r that l a sted decades.
n u m b e rs a n d wanted t o kee p the
b e l i ef i n evi l a n d s u p e r n a t u ra l
poor fi r m l y i n their p l ace.
exp l a n at i o n s fo r eve nts.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER: FACTOR CARDS


Yo u a re g o i n g to m a ke some facto r
ca rds to g et the big pictu re of the
period 1 500-1 700 and to help you
with you r revision. H e re a re some
factors you should co nsider:

M a ke yo u r own copy of the card


b e l ow a n d fo r a ny oth e r facto rs
you t h i n k were i m portant d u ri n g
1 500-1 700. Don't wo rry i f you
h ave to l eave pa rts of yo u r card s
b l a n k - y o u s h o u l d be a b l e t o add
m o re information as you work t h ro u g h this cha pte r. A N D d o n 't worry if you can't use a l l of the
fa ctors, they m i g ht n ot be i m portant i n this period but they wi l l cro p u p later!

( Factor: Science and technology


)
Effect on crimes: Effect on law Effect on
enforcement: p u n i s h ments:
New technology of Printing increased
printing increased fear of crime so
fear of crimes like government
vagrancy and introduced harsher
witchcraft as punishments to
more people were deal with it.
reading a bout it.

.....____, --
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.3 An execution : Early 1600s


The main picture on this spread shows a particularly grim execution that took place in the
early 1600s. You found out in Chapter 1 that good historians pose their own big questions
or enquiries. On these pages we would like you to pose much smaller questions about the
picture below. By posing and then answering your own small questions, you will
understand a big change that took place in the period 1500 -1700.

POSING USEFUL QUESTIONS


Qu estions l i ke, 'What is it a l l a bout? ', a re too big. Focus
instead on the basics and the deta i l s with i n the pictu re. Avoid
q u estions that can be answered with a simple yes or no.
1 Wo rk i n p a i rs o r s m a l l g ro u ps to co m p i l e a l ist of
q u estio n s about this pictu re. Then co m e togeth e r as a
class to m a ke a l ist of a l l of the q u estions you h ave co m e
u p with .
2 Read C l ues 1 -3 . Discuss which q u estions they m i g ht
h e l p you beg i n to a n swer. Don't wo rry if you a re n ot
s u re ! Use the tentative l a n g u a g e at the botto m on these
pages to h e l p yo u .
3 N ote a ny fu rth e r q u estions that a rise fro m C l u es 1 -3 a n d
add these t o yo u r l ist.

Clue 1 A d e s c r i p t i o n of the sava g e p u n is h m e n t for t r a i t o rs ,


t a ke n fro m a n A c t of Pa rli a m e n t i n 1 8 0 0 .
Tha t the offender be dragged to the gallows; that he be hanged
by the neck and then be cut down alive; that his en trails be
taken out and burned while he is yet alive; tha t his head be cut
off; tha t his body be divided in to four parts and that his head and
quarters be at the King 's disposal.

C l u e 2 An e i g ht ee n t h - c e n t u ry d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sym b o l i c
m e a n i n g o f t h e exe c u t i o n .
H e was dragged to the scaffold because h e was 'not worthy any
more to tread upon the earth whereof he was made '.
He was hanged 'by the neck between heaven and earth, as
deemed unworthy of both, or either.
He was drawn [disembowelled] because he 'inwardly had
conceived and harboured [hidden] in his parts such
horrible treason '.
He was beheaded because here he had 'imagined the mischief'.

C l u e 3 P a r t of a n a n o ny m o u s lette r s e n t i n 1 6 0 5 .
fvfy lord, I have care for your safety. Therefore, I would advise
you devise some excuse to miss your attendance at this
Parliament. For God and man have come together to punish the
wickedness of the time . . . they shall receive a terrible blow this
Parliament - and they shall not see who hurts them.


3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Svrl'J:J(;II1Jiil.
t.w...a. i i. &n.r.anU&t
r-.rt J' '"" i!?l ....,;,..-,.. <I> n
'...,.. l'"'f'ur ... D!"!' t " ""' .sr'
t i!f"..:.iCfn'!ll .,...41 vn if 'fl! ....

'\{'-""""'- ''"" r<AhJf. c6f.lllLfiL:t"1 lt;p';dUttll. -


PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Why we re the G u n powde r Plotte rs p u n ished so h a rsh ly?


M o nths befo re the execution
When James I (r.1603-1625) became king, many Catholics were hopeful that they would be
allowed to worship more freely. However, many powerful members ofJames' council were
strongly anti- Catholic and believed that more than one religion caused disunity. Therefore,
in 1604 James declared his 'utter detestation' for the Catholics ! Laws against them were
tightened and more harshly enforced than before. Although disappointed, most Catholics
had little choice but to accept the changes. However, a few determined gentlemen had ideas
of their own.

thirteen plotters ,
Guy Fawkes , filled
a vault beneath
the Houses of
Parliament with
36 barrels of
gunpowder, more
than enough
to destroy the
building and
everyone in it .

Parliament in order to kill the King and put a


Catholic on the throne .
4 . The vaults
beneath Parliament
were searched and
Fawkes was
arrested. He was
tortured until he
revealed the names
of the other plotters
and signed a
confession .

.A. 3. An anonymous letter warned Lord Monteagle


not to attend the opening of Parliament as it would ,
'receive a mighty blow'. He took it straight to
Robert Cecil - the King's Chief Minister.

BEGINNING TO ANSWER YOUR


QUESTIONS
1 Loo k back at the l ist of q u estio n s you a n d yo u r classm ates
ca m e up with . Which q u estions can you n ow a n swer
o r beg i n to a n swer? Use the te ntative l a n g u a g e at the
botto m of page 37 to help yo u . .A. 5 . The rest o f the plotters escaped. However, 2 0 0
2 Are there a n y furth e r q u estio n s that a rise fro m the government soldiers caught up with them a t Holbeach
i nfo rmation o n this page? H e re is a q u estio n to get you House . Catesby and a number of his fellow plotters
started : Why we re Cath o l ics n ot a l l owed to wors h i p were killed in the fighting. The others were returned to
freely, even befo re J a m es beca m e k i n g ? London before being found guilty and sentenced to be
hanged, drawn and quartered .



3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Yea rs b efo re the executi o n


I n the early sixteenth century everyone i n England belonged t o the Catholic Church and
followed the authority of the Pope in Rome. This had been the case for hundreds of years.
If you did not have the same religious beliefs you were called a heretic and could be
punished or even executed for heresy.

I n 1 534, afte r t h e Pope refu sed to a p p rove h i s d ivo rce,


H e n ry VI I I ( r.1 509-1 547) s p l it with the Cath o l i c C h u rch
and m a d e h i m se l f H ea d of t h e C h u rch i n E n g l a n d . H e n ry's son Edwa rd ( r.1 5 47-1 5 5 3 )
Those w h o refu sed t o a cce pt t h e s p l it with t h e Cath o l i c conti n u ed t h e s p l it w i t h t h e Cath o l i c
C h u rch were executed . H e n ry u s e d P rotestant i d e a s to C h u rch a n d , d u ri n g h i s re i g n , l aws
j u stify h i s d ivo rce, but in h i s h e a rt was sti l l a Cath o l i c. were m a d e req u i ri n g the p e o p l e
' / of E n g l a n d t o wors h i p i n a m u ch
m o re P rotestant way. Even t h e way
Religion Swingometer c h u rches were d e co rated beca m e a
m atte r of l aw.

W h e n Edwa rd d i ed he was
s u cceeded by h i s e l d e r siste r M a ry
( r.1 553-1 5 5 8 ) . S h e was d ete r m i n e d
t o m a ke E n g l a n d a Cath o l i c
cou ntry o n ce m o re. S h e o rd e red
t h e execution of n e a rly 300
P rotestants w h o refu sed to ch a n g e
E l izabeth I t h e i r b e l i efs . M a ry reg a rd e d t h e m
as h e retics a n d t h e tra d iti o n a l
p u n i s h m e nt fo r h e resy w a s t o b e
b u rnt at t h e stake.

E l izabeth ( r.1 5 5 8-1 603) resto red E n g l a n d to P rotesta ntism .


Cath o l ics were fi n e d fo r n ot atte n d i n g ch u rch a n d co u l d be
l ocked u p fo r ta ki n g p a rt i n Cath o l i c services. Th ese l aws were
i nte n d e d m o re to fri g hten Cath o l i cs, a n d we re n ot too strictly
enfo rce d . As her re i g n conti n u e d , E n g l a n d beca m e i nvo lved in
confl i ct with Cath o l i c S p a i n . T h e Pope d e cl a red that E l iza beth
was n ot the rig htfu l ru l e r and that it was the d u ty of Cath o l ics
to re b e l a g a i n st h e r. T h e re were various p l ots to ki l l her a n d
re p l a ce h e r with a Cath o l i c ru l e r. E l iza beth's advisers b e l i eved
that Cath o l ics posed a serious d a n g e r to h e r g ove rn m ent.
Alto g et h e r, a ro u n d 250 Cath o l ics were executed as tra ito rs
d u ri n g E l iza beth's re i g n .

ANSWERING YOUR QUESTIONS


1 You s h o u l d n ow be a b l e to a n swer m ost of the q u esti ons you a n d yo u r classm ates ca m e
u p with . U s e t h e tentative l a n g u a g e a t t h e botto m o f p a g e 37 t o h e l p you .
2 Write a b rief exp l a n ation o f why t h e G u n powd e r P l otters were p u n ished s o h a rs h l y a n d i n
s u c h a g ruesome way. You s h o u l d i n c l u d e the reasons h a n g i n g , d rawi n g a n d behead i n g
were u s e d a n d w h y the p l otte rs were p u n ished fo r treason rath e r than h e resy.
3 Loo k back at the facto r cards you m a d e on page 3 5 . What i nfo rmation ca n you add to
yo u r existi n g cards, or what n ew facto r card can you m a ke?


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.4 A /rascally rab balagel ? Were vagabonds really a


t hreat to respectable society?
In the Middle Ages people usually lived and worked close to where they were born. By the
150 0s, a rising population and fewer jobs meant more people were moving around looking
for work. Therefore, people started to become very concerned about vagabonds, or vagrants
as they were sometimes known. These were tramps, beggars and others who wandered the
country without a settled job. Concern about vagabondage intensified during times of
poverty and hardship, when the numbers of unemployed people increased.

Vag ra nts com m it m a ny d ifferent


We h a ve been ta u g ht that g ood
crimes such a s thefts, assau lts a n d
C h ristia n s s h o u l d wo rk h a rd .
even m u rders. i t s e e m s o bvi o u s to
After a l l , t h e B i b l e says, 'th e
m e that these vagabonds ca rry out
Devil m a kes work fo r i d l e h a n d s'
crimes a s a way to g et their h a n d s
so t h o s e n o t wo r k i n g m ig ht be
o n m o n ey without work i n g .
tem pted to c o m m it s i n s .

T h e better-off a m o n g u s a l ready pay

M o st of u s wa nt to h e l p t h e poor rates to s u p p o rt the g e n u i n e


g e n u i n e ly p o o r, t h e o l d a n d t h e p o o r from o u r o w n pa r i s h . T h ey c a n

s i c k , but w e get s u s p i c i o u s o f u s e t h i s t o b u y foo d . I d o n't wa nt to

o u t s i d e rs a s k i n g fo r h e l p. W h y s p e n d m o re of my h a rd - e a r n e d c a s h

s h o u l d we a id t h o s e w h o a p pea r payi n g fo r t h e p oor a n d i d l e fro m oth e r

fit a n d h ea lthy e n o u g h to work? a reas. T h e s e wa n d e r i n g p o o r s h o u l d


be m a d e to ret u rn to t h e i r o w n town s
a n d v i l la g es.

_. The main reasons people worried about vagabondage in the 1500s.

<1111 Source B The title


S o u rce A Fro m W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n 's page of a book by
Description of England, p u b li s h e d i n
Thomas Harman ,
1 5 7 7. warning of the
They are all thieves and extortioners. They dangers of vagabonds ,
lick the sweat from the true labourer's published in 1567.
brow and take from the godly poor wha t Harman described
is due t o them. i t is not yet sixty years 2 3 different types
since this trade [vagabondage] began but of vagabonds and
how it has prospered since tha t time is described highly
easy to judge for they are now supposed organised gangs of
to amount to above 10, 000 persons as I criminals who would
have heard reported. Moreover they have regularly meet up .
devised a language among themselves
which they name can ting such as none but
themselves are able to understand.

S o u rce C Extract f ro m Crime a n d


Punishment i n England, by J o h n B r i g g s ,
pu blished i n 1 996.
Plays a n d chap-books {short, cheap
pamphlets widely distributed} about
these 'cony-catchers [vagabonds] were
as popular with the Elizabethans and
Jacobeans as detective novels and television
soap operas about the police are today.


3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

H ow did the g ove r n m e nt treat vag a b o n ds?


Throughout the sixteenth century, the government took different measures against
vagabonds. The box below right summarises the main ones.
Many ordinary citizens did live 'in terror of the tramp' and the harshness of the laws
against vagabonds tells us landowners and the government also believed they were to
blame for many different crimes. Harman, and other pa m p h l eteers, helped stoke
government and public fear of vagrancy even further. However, was respectable society
really under threat from this 'rascally rabbalage' as Thomas Harman called it?

1 531 : U n e m p l oyed m e n o r wo m e n fo u n d
beg g i n g , o r va g a bo n ds, were w h i pped u nt i l t h e i r
b o d i e s 'be b l oody' a n d t h e n retu rned t o t h e i r
b i rth p l aces o r p revi o u s res i d e n ce.

1 547: F i rst offe n ce - two yea rs s l ave ry. Seco n d


offe n ce - s l avery fo r l i fe o r executi o n .

1 55 0 : T h e 1 547 Act w a s repealed as t o o h a rs h .


T h e 1 53 1 Act w a s revive d .

1 57 2 : Fi rst offe n ce - w h i p p i n g a n d b u r n i n g
t h ro u g h t h e g ristle o f a n e a r w i t h a n i n ch -th ick
h ot i ro n . Seco n d offe n ce - executi o n .

1 576 : Houses o f Correction were b u i lt i n every


co u nty to p u n is h a n d e m p l oy p e rsistent beg g a rs .

1 593: The 1 572 Act w a s re pealed as t o o h a rs h .


Vag a b o n d s were treated as they h a d b e e n i n 1 53 1 .

1 598 : Va g ra nts we re w h i pped a n d sent h o m e . If


t h ey did n ot mend their ways t h ey co u l d be sent
to a H o use of Co rrecti o n , be b a n i s h ed fro m the
cou ntry o r eve n execute d .
\.

Source D A vagabond being hanged. Repeat


offenders could face execution. Thomas Maynard,
Oswald Thompson and John Barres were caught in
March 1576 and were severely whipped before being
burned through the ear. They were caught again in
June and then hanged.

IDENTIFYING ATTITUDES

1 Loo k back at the facto r ca rds you m a d e o n
page 3 5 . I d e ntify which o f th ese facto rs affected
attitu des towa rd s vag a b o n d a g e a n d d iscuss h ow.
To g et you started, th i n k a bout the i m pact that
'co m m u n ications and trave l ' h a d .
2 W h y d o yo u th i n k the a uthorities vi ewed
vag a b o n d a g e as such a serious th reat? Write a
b rief exp l a n ation in yo u r book.

Source E Sixteenth-century print of a beggar being whipped


through a town.
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Vag a bonds - the rea l ity


The information and all of the sources on these two pages will help you decide the truth
of Harman's and other pamphleteers' claims about the threat that vagabondage posed to
society in the sixteenth century.

EVALUATING THE THREAT FROM VAGABONDS



1 D raw yo u r own co py of the ta b l e b e l ow a n d fi l l it in u s i n g the i nfo rmation on pages 40
and 41 .

Ag ree/partly ag ree/
Fears surro u n d i n g vagabondage disagree Reason fo r choice
Va g a b o n d s were a l l p rofessi o n a l
cri m i n a l s w h o chose t o be i d l e
Va g a b o n d s fo rmed h i g h ly
o rg a n ised c ri m i n a l g a n g s a n d
eve n s p o ke t h e i r o w n secret
language

Va g a b o n d a g e w a s a big p ro b l e m
t h a t w a s con sta ntly i n crea s i n g

W h o we re t h e va g a b o n d s?
Some vagabonds were demobilised soldiers no longer needed in the army after wars ended.
No doubt others were hardened criminals, and there is some evidence that pickpockets, a
relatively skilled group of criminals, did tend to move about. However, the great majority
of vagabonds were unemployed people looking for work wherever they could find it, as
Source F and other information below shows.

Sou rce F Extract f ro m


Crime in Medie va l England
1550- 1 750, by J . A . S h a r p e ,
p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 99.

Most of those arrested for


vagrancy [va g a bo n d a g e ]
tended to be travelling alone A m a n fro m H e n l ey- o n
or in very small groups T h a m es h a d n o s ki l led
for company. There is no
tra d e but h a d co m e
evidence of JPs [see p a g e
t o Wa rwick t o fi n d
4 8 ] having t o deal with l a bo u r i n g work afte r
large numbers of vagrants b e i n g u n s u ccessfu l
travelling together in an e l sew h e re.
organised group. lt is true
that some criminals in
London spoke in a secret
An i n n - keeper fro m
language called the 'canting
S o uthwa rk w h o h a d
tongue. Words like 'nipper'
fa l l e n i nto d e bt a n d s o
(meaning boy) and 'cove '
l eft Lo n d o n t o avo i d
(meaning man) are still
b e i n g l ocked u p i n
known today. However, this
de btor's prison.
was not the case across
the rest of the coun try and
there is little evidence of its ...
use outside of the capital. ..... Explanations given by
A ski l led s i l k-weave r had tried various p l a ces to fi n d work a selection of vagabonds,
and was o n the way to Lo n d o n . adapted from records for the
town of Warwick .
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Why did p e o p l e b e co m e va g a b o n d s?
Sou rce G Extract fro m
The biggest problem facing those looking for work in this period was the steadily rising Crime in Early Modern
population. Simply put, an increased population meant more people with not enough work England 1550 - 1 750, by J . A .
to go round. The result was rising unemployment. S h a r p e , p u b li s h e d i n 1 9 99.

In medieval England people had not needed, or had not been very free, to move around Most of those apprehended
do not seem to have been
from place to place. However, by the 150 0s, unemployment was forcing people to travel
professional rogues . . .
beyond the local area to look for work.
but were unremarkable
In normal years vagrancy was not a big problem. The city with the greatest number of represen tations of the
vagrants was London. It was the only large town in England during this period and so lower. and hence more
many people thought they might find work there. For some, it also offered better vulnerable, strata of socie ty.
opportunities for crime. Even so, in 1560 the London Bridewell (an early example of a
House of Correction) only dealt with 69 vagabonds.
<0111 Source H Sixteenth
century woodcut illustrating
different types of beggar,
including a wandering
beggar or vagabond in the
centre.

However, periods of hardship could lead to a growth in the number of vagrants. In the
Sou rce I Extract f ro m
1 5 70s, following a series of bad harvests, the number of vagabonds increased considerably.
Crime in Early Modern
England 1550 - 1 750,
The late 1590s were years of even greater poverty with wages at their lowest point since
by J . A .
the year 1200. It was not surprising that by 1600 the number of vagabonds in London had S h a rp e , p u b li s h e d i n 1 9 99.
swollen to 555.
Once misfortune sent such
In normal years Oxford Justices of the Peace (JPs) dealt with around 12 vagrants per year. people on a downward
In Salisbury they dealt with 20 or less. However, in 1598 these towns were forced to deal path . . . begging, stealing
with 67 and 98 cases of vagabondage respectively. and working must have
been regarded as equally

EXPLAINING ATTITUDES TOWARDS VAGABONDS


useful aids to survival.

1 If va g a b o n d a g e was n ot as big a t h reat as the g ove r n m e n t a n d the p u b l i c perceived, why


was it p u n ished so very h a rsh ly?
2 Look back at the facto r cards you m a d e o n page 35. What i nfo rmation ca n you add to
yo u r existi n g card s or what n ew fa cto r card ca n you m a ke?
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.5 Case study: Was Matt hew Hop kins the main reason
for t he witc h - hunt of 1645 -1647?
Historians can't be sure
why Hopkins started on
? Perhaps, when you were younger, you wore a witch, ghost or monster costume to celebrate
Halloween. Nowadays we worry less about witches meeting at midnight and more about
bothering our neighbours for sweets ! However, nearly 400 years ago witchcraft was taken
his witch-finding journey.
very seriously indeed. Between 1645 and 1647, around 250 cases of witchcraft came before
Discuss what you think
the authorities in East Anglia. This unprecedented number of accusations has been
his motivation was.
described as a 'witch-hunt.'
At the centre of the majority of cases was Matthew Hopkins, a man who became known as
the Witchfinder General due to his 'ability' to spot witches. This is his story and the story
Aye J o h n , t h e re is wo rk fa r u s of those unfortunate people who crossed his path.
bath h e re . T h e Devil a bo u n d s

1 645 : Yea r of the Witchfi n d e r G e n e ra l

.& In 1645, for reasons we do not know, Matthew Hopkins .& Hopkins named 36 women as witches and collected
and his assistant John Stearne started searching East Anglia evidence against them. They were charged with using
for witches. Hopkins , who had previously been unsuccessful harmful magic against their neighbours or their livestock.
as a lawyer, was just twenty-five years old. The majority of the women accused by Hopkins were old
and poor, the most vulnerable in their villages .

.& Hopkins exhausted his suspects by keeping them standing .& If a mouse , fly or spider found its way into the room ,
and on the move. He also kept them awake for days at a time Hopkins claimed it was a ' familiar' , a creature created by
to weaken their resistance. Both methods were particularly the Devil to do the witch's bidding.
effective on old people. Worn down, many of them confessed .


3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

.A. Any scar, boil or spot was regarded as proof of a 'Devil's .A. Fear spread and this led other towns and villages across
mark ' from which familiars sucked the witch's blood. the region to summon Hopkins to rid them of their witches .
These were not difficult to find as a lifetime of poor diet and Hopkins charged for his services , demanding a fee plus
hardship usually left marks on people's bodies. expenses for his time .

.A. Most of those accused by Hopkins were women, but at .A. Hopkins disappears from the records in 1647 and most
Brandeston , the local vicar was charged with witchcraft likely died from an illness. Between 1645 and 1 647, East
and ' swum' in the castle moat (see page 47) . 'Devil marks' Anglia witnessed at least 100 executions for witchcraft ,
were found in his mouth, probably ulcers in this time of poor possibly more . Nineteen of these victims were women from
nutrition, and he was hanged. Manningtree.

ASSESSING HOPKINS' ROLE


There is little doubt H opkins played a sign ificant ro le i n the 'witch- h u nt' between 1 645
and 1 647. However, the key question remains wheth er H opkins created the pan ic, or
was simply ta ki ng advantage of beliefs and attitudes a l ready in place at the time.
1 M a ke yo u r own co py of the rad a r g ra p h (rig ht) i n the centre of a l a rg e sh eet
of paper. Each axis re p resents a reason fo r the 'witc h - h u nts'. We h ave l a b e l led
two of them fo r yo u .
2 Read t h e i nfo rmation on pages 44-47 a n d decide on headings for t h e rem a i n i n g
axis. T h e n add bite-sized ch u n ks o f i nfo rmation a ro u n d the ova l o f each axis
s u m m a rising that reaso n .
3 W h e n y o u h ave a d d e d a l l the inform ation y o u can, d iscuss w h a t score you
wo u l d g ive each reason axis (1 : N ot i m po rtant; 3: Qu ite i m po rtant; 5: Ve ry
i m po rtant) to show h ow i m portant you t h i n k it was.
4 Was M atthew H o pkins the m a i n reason fo r the witch - h u nt of 1 645-1 647? Write
a brief exp l a n ation in yo u r book.
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Vi l l a g e te nsions
Accusations were a sign o f increased tension between the poor and those richer than them.
In times of hardship, the poor would ask for help more often, which sometimes left
wealthier villagers feeling threatened by their demands. Poor elderly women, who had once
been cared for, were now regarded differently. Most people believed it was possible to injure
or even kill others by using harmful magic. This sometimes led to vulnerable women being
scapegoated as witches if something went wrong. The cartoon shows a typical scene that
may have taken place.
lllfi":'I!C f"" - -.-..,

JJ.. A villager, an old widow, asks for JJ.. The widow walks away muttering JJ.. Some time afterward , something
help from a better-off neighbour, but and cursing quietly, maybe even terrible happens to the neighbour or
is refused. Often this followed years uttering a threat . Both feel angry. The her family - an illness to her children
of suspicion and tension between the neighbour feels guilty. or animals. Perhaps even a death.
widow and the neighbour.

I s u spect witch c raft - what else could If s h e i s a witc h , we m u st stop h e r


have ca u sed this sudden i l l ness? before s h e ca n d o a ny m o re h a r m .

Source A A pamphlet from 1689,


showing three women hanging after
JJ.. The neighbour looks for an JJ.. She mentions her thoughts t o friends being accused and found guilty of
explanation of this terrible event . who tell her about other examples of witchcraft . Printed pamphlets like
She knows the widow's reputation as things that have gone wrong when these were extremely popular and
a strange woman and the rumours they refused to help the widow. They people particularly enjoyed reading
that she is a witch. She suspects these decide to accuse the widow before about cases of witchcraft .
events could be a witch's evil work. any more harm is done .

1 How might pamphlets like Source A have affected ideas about witchcraft? What are the
strange animals shown?
?
2 Do you think witchcraft was a crime against the person or against property?

.
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Cha n g es to the law


Cases of witchcraft were nothing new in the 1640s. There had been accusations of
witchcraft in the Middle Ages, but these were dealt with by Church courts (see page 28)
which were more lenient. However, in 1542, during the religious changes that took place
under Henry VIII (see page 39), the law changed and witchcraft became a criminal offence.
Queen Elizabeth also made tough laws against witches and, in 1590, the future King James
I wrote an important book on the horrors of witchcraft. Stricter laws meant witches were
tried in ordinary courts and could be punished by death.

There was no sudden flood of witchcraft cases after the laws changed, but over the next
200 years up to 1,000 people (mainly women) were executed as witches. Most accusations
were not the work of witchfinders like Hopkins, but of ordinary villagers accusing others of
using magic to harm them in some way.

U n ce rta i n times
There is some evidence that the number of accusations for witchcraft increased during
rimes of uncertainty and unrest. The religious changes that took place under the Tudors
(see page 39) meant that old practices and beliefs were being transformed. Protestants
preached that the Devil and his servants were tempting good Christians away from God.
This heightened talk of the Devil made people fearful and more likely to look for harmful
magic as an explanation for unseen events.
The witch-hunt in East Anglia during the 1640s took place against the backdrop of the
English Civil War ( 1642-1649 ) . This had a hugely unsettling effect on the country, and to
many people the world felt as if it had been 'turned upside down'. In many areas, there was
THINKING ABOUT ?
FACTORS
some breakdown in the proper rule oflaw. The Civil War meant that assize judges (see
page 49) were less able to travel and so locals often took the law more into their own hands. Loo k back at the facto r
card s you m a d e on page
3 5 . What information ca n
H ow we re witches tried? you add to yo u r existi n g
The accusers would present their charge and bring witnesses t o support it. The accused cards, o r w h a t n ew facto r
would have to defend themselves. However, around 80 per cent of those accused were card can you m a ke?
elderly widows or unmarried women with no husband to speak up for them. That meant
they would be tested further.

<1111 Source B This woodcut is from a pamphlet


in 1600. It shows the ' swim test ' used to
identify witches. This was similar to medieval
trial by ordeal (see page 18). The accused
had their hands bound and a rope was tied
around their waist . They were then lowered
into the water. It was believed the innocent
would sink and the guilty would float . If they
floated, the accused would be examined
for the 'Devil's marks' as a final proof of
witchcraft .
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.5 How effective was law enforcement 1500-1700?


Between 1500 and 1700 various measures were taken to try to improve law enforcement.
Your task on these pages is to make an overview of policing and trials so that you can weigh
up whether there was more change or continuity when comparing this period to
medieval England.

Po lici n g
Policing took many forms but still relied largely o n the actions o f the local community.

T h e h u e a n d cry
The hue and cry was still used. If the alarm was raised, citizens still had to turn out and
look for the criminal. The constable was expected to lead the hue and cry. The local posse
could also be called out to search for criminals.

P a r i s h co nsta b l es
Parish constables remained the main defence against crime. This was a part-time job and
constables had no weapons or uniform. They spent most of their time dealing with everyday
matters such as begging without a licence. They did not go out on patrol. Constables had the
power to inflict some punishments, such as whipping vagabonds. They were expected to take
charge of suspects and make sure they were held in prison until their trial.

Tow n watch m e n a n d sergea nts


T Source A A seventeenth
Town watchmen were employed in larger towns to patrol the streets during the day and
century image of a night
watchman patrolling night. They were poorly paid and often of little use. They were expected to arrest drunks
the London streets , and vagabonds. They were allowed to peer into windows to make sure that people were not
accompanied b y his dog and breaking the law. S ergeants were employed in towns to enforce market reg u lations by
carrying his lamp and bell . weighing goods and collecting fines if traders were behaving badly.

Citize n s
Citizens (ordinary people) were expected t o deal
with crime themselves. If someone was robbed
it was his or her responsibility to get an a rrest
wa rra nt from a magistrate, track down the
criminals themselves and deliver them to
the constable.

Rewa rd s
Rewards were offered for the arrest of particular
criminals. These tended to be for more serious
crimes. The rewards involved could be very high
indeed - even the equivalent to a year's income
for a middle-class family.

J u stices of t h e Peace (J Ps)


The system of Justices of the Peace (J Ps) had been
set up in the later Middle Ages, but it was during
Tudor times that they became a key part oflocal law
enforcement. They were people oflocal importance,
usually a well-offlandowner, who took the job
for the prestige it offered. JPs judged manor court
cases. They could fine people, send them to the
stocks or the pillory, and order them to be whipped.
They were usually assisted by the constable .



3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Tria l s THE ARMY


Most cases were still dealt with at a local level, much a s they
had been during the Middle Ages. However, some changes The a rmy was used to put down p rotests, d e a l with riots
and to ca ptu re m o re o rg a n ised cri m i n a l g a n g s . The use of
were introduced in order to make the system more efficient.
the a rmy when d ea l i n g with p rotests was very u n po p u l a r
with o rd i n a ry p e o p l e . lt g ave t h e i m p ression t h e
C o u rts
g ove r n m e n t w a s i g n o r i n g t h e i r co n ce r n s a n d s i l e n c i n g
There were a variety of courts in use and all relied on a local t h e m b y fo rce .
jury. Manor courts dealt with local, minor crimes such as
selling underweight bread and drunkenness.
]Ps dealt with minor crimes on their own but, four times a
year, would meet with the other ]Ps in the county. At these
Quarter Sessions JPs would judge more serious cases, and
even had the power to sentence someone to death.
Royal judges visited each county twice a year to deal with the
most serious offences. These were known as Cou nty Assizes.

B e n efit of t h e c l e rgy
Church courts remained in use and dealt with crimes
committed by churchmen and anyone who could claim
benefit of the clergy (see page 28). However, by the 1600s,
many more ordinary people were able to read the 'neck verse'.
Therefore, the law was changed and prevented those accused
of serious crimes from claiming benefit of the clergy.

H a beas C o r p u s .&. Reco nstruction of a seventeenth ce ntury soldier.


The Habeas Corpus (meaning 'you have the body') Act was
passed in 1679. It prevented the authorities from locking a
person up indefinitely without charging them with a crime. Anyone who was arrested had
to appear in court within a certain time or be released. People no longer had to fear being
seized and locked up without trial. However, it did not stop governments from making up
evidence at trials as an excuse to lock up their critics.

WEIGHING UP CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES


1 D raw yo u r own co py of the Ve n n d i a g ra m b e l ow a n d
add deta i l s u s i n g the information o n p a g e s 48-49. Use
one co l o u r fo r p o l i c i n g m ethods and a n other fo r tria ls.
You wi l l need to refe r back to what you a l ready fo u n d
o u t a b o u t med ieva l E n g l a n d o n pages 1 2-29.
2 In which a rea does t h e re seem to h ave been the m ost
ch a n g e in the period 1 500-1 700 : p o l i c i n g m ethods
o r tria ls?
3 Re m e m be r To m the 'tea
l eaf' o n page 4? Which
period d o you th i n k he
wou l d h ave p refe rred
to l ive his cri m i n a l life
i n : the M i d d l e Ages o r
1 500-1 700?
G ive reasons.


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.6 How can we explain t he development of the


Bloody Code?
Source A A public hanging
at Tyburn in London, around
1680. Tyburn had long
been used for the execution
of London criminals. The
Tyburn gallows had three
posts and so was known
as the ' triple tree'. It could
hang up to nine people at a
time . It could take up half an
hour to die and sometimes
relatives or friends would
have to pull the condemned
man's legs to finish them
off. To add insult to injury,
London hospitals sometimes
claimed the bodies for
student doctors to dissect .

In the seventeenth century capital punishment was still used for major crimes such as
murder, treason, arson and cou nte rfeiting . Execution was also used for the theft of goods
worth more than one shilling. Each year hundreds of people were executed. This was
carried out in public to serve as a deterrent to those who might be thinking of committing
a similar crime. All of these things were as they had been in the Middle Ages. However,
when it came to punishments, some things were beginning to change.

The B l oody Cod e


I n 1688 there was a big change to the law. The number o f crimes carrying the death penalty was
increased. There were further increases throughout the eighteenth and into the early nineteenth
centuries, a period we consider in the next chapter of this book. In 1688 the number of crimes
punishable by death was 50. In 1765 it was 160 and by 1815 it had risen again to 225 ! Even
minor crimes against property such as poaching or cutting down trees were punishable by
death - it is no wonder that these laws became known as the 'Bloody Code'.

CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN PUNISHMENTS


Other p u n i s h m e nts
Before we look at the reasons why the
lt is very i m portant that you ca n spot both ch a n g es a n d conti n u ities betwee n
d ifferent time periods. N ot o n ly d o e s this h e l p y o u with the big pictu re, it is
Bloody Code began in the 1680s, we
a l s o vita l ly i m portant to help you i n the exa m ! In this secti o n we wo u l d l i ke you need to understand the other types
to co m p a re p u n i s h m ents i n the M id d l e Ages a n d i n the period 1 500 to 1 700. of punishment in use between 1 5 0 0
1 M a ke yo u r own co py of the Know l e d g e O rg a n iser b e l ow a n d use yo u r and 1 7 0 0 . These ranged from corporal
n otes o r t h e information o n pages 1 2-29 t o h e l p you fi l l i n t h e fi rst co l u m n . punishment, intended to inflict pain, to
public humiliation, fines and even the
removal of the criminal altogether.

2 Use t h e i nfo rmation on pages 50-51 t o h e l p you com p l ete the second a n d
t h i rd co l u m ns. A d d a sentence or two o f d eta i l descri bing each p u n i s h m ent.


3 C ri m e and p u n is h m e n t i n early m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

The p i l l o ry was i ntended to F i n e s were perhaps t h e


s h a m e a n d h u m i l iate. lt was m ost co m m o n type of
used to p u n ish cri m es such p u n i s h m ent a n d were used
as ch eati n g at cards, fo r m i n o r offen ces such as
persistent swea ri n g a n d swea ring, g a m b l i n g ,
se l l i n g u n d e rweight bread . I f d r u n ke n n ess a n d fa i l u re to
the crowd disapproved of atte n d ch u rc h .
the cri m e they wou l d pelt
the offender with stones.
Cri m i n a l s convicted of sexu a l
cri m es we re sometimes
ki l l ed in the p i l l o ry.

By the l ate 1 500s, m a n y


W h i p p i n g was a fo rm of town s were b u i l d i n g
co rpora l p u n is h m e n t H o uses o f Correcti o n to
i nte n d e d t o c a u s e g reat p u n is h a n d refo rm
pa i n . lt u s u a l ly took p l a ce offe n d e rs . Th ese beca m e
on m a rket day w h e n t h e re known as B ri d ewe l l s afte r
was a crowd to watch a n d t h e fi rst o n e that was b u i lt
so h a d t h e seco n d a ry i n Lon d o n . Va g a bo n d s,
effe ct of h u m i l i ati n g t h e u n m a rried m ot h e rs a n d
cri m i n a l . lt was used fo r a re peat offe n d e rs were
vari ety of offe n ces such as sent to B r i d ewe l l s .
va g a bo n d a g e, reg u l a r I n m ates we re s o m et i m e s w h i p ped but a l so m a d e to d o
d r u n ke n n ess a n d t h e th eft h a rd labour. The a u t h o rities b e l i eved s o m e offe n d e rs
of l ow-va l u e g o o d s . m i g ht m e n d t h e i r ways if ta u g ht t h e va l u e of h a rd work.

Prisons conti n u e d to be Ca rti n g m e a n t b e i n g


used fo r those awaiti n g p a r a d e d ro u n d t h e streets
tri a l a n d fo r p e o p l e i n o n a ca rt fo r a l l to see a n d
d e bt. H oweve r, p riso n s a i m ed t o s h a m e t h e
were v e r y r a r e l y used as a cri m i n a l . it w a s u s e d fo r
p u n is h m e n t i n t h e m s e l ves. va g ra n cy, a d u ltery a n d
ru n n i n g a b roth e l .

Wo m e n w h o a rg u e d with Fro m t h e 1 660s, cri m i n a l s


o r d i s o b eyed t h e i r beg a n t o be sent
h u s b a n d s co u l d be ( 'tra n s p o rted') t h o u s a n d s
convicted as sco l d s . The o f m i les away t o t h e
p u n i sh m e nt was t h e A m e ri c a n co l o n ies.
d u cki n g sto o l i n t h e l o c a l Tra nsportation fo r l ife
rive r o r p o n d . Wo m e n was used fo r m u rd e re rs
w h o a rg u e d i n p u b l i c o r w h o esca ped t h e d eath
swo re co u l d be p u n is h e d p e n a lty. O n ce in A m e rica,
i n t h e s a m e way. s o m e priso n e rs suffe red
co n d itions cl ose to
s l ave ry. H oweve r, s o m e i n E n g l a n d sti l l viewed i t as a
soft opti o n w h e n co m pa red to t h e death p e n a lty.
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Cri m e rate
The introduction of the 'Bloody Code' might give you the impression that England was
riddled with crime. It seems logical that punishments became harsher to try to reduce the
growing amount of crime by acting as a deterrent. We need to take a look at the overall
level of crime in this period and decide if this was really the case.
We should remember it is only possible to know the level of reported crimes. Many offences
went unreported and so do not show up in the figures. Nevertheless, records from across
the country suggest that crime rose in the 150 0s, and then fell steadily from the early 1600s
(see the graph below) . Therefore, it is important to understand that punishments became
bloodier at a time when the crime rate was falling ! That leaves us the puzzling question
- why, then, was the Bloody Code introduced?

Sou rce B F i g u res for C h e s h i re , 1 5 8 0 - 1 7 0 9, s h ow i n g n u m b e r of re p o rted cases o f A) t h eft a n d o t h e r p r o p e rty offe n c e s a n d


B ) m u rd e r.

0 600
0 110
1 00
500 "'
... 9 0
"'
.:::: 'E 80
QJ

400
QJ
....
.J:: ::I 70
- E
- 60
...
0
300
... 5 0
0
QJ
.c QJ
40
E 200 .c
::I E 30
20
::I
1 00
z
z
10
0 0
\:) \:) \:) \><\:) \:) \:) \:)\:)
\:)
':0
\:)
,ro'0
\:) \><\:) \:)
,ro(o
\:)
':0 \:)\:)
':0
,<? ,ro'0 ,ro(o ':0
'"' ,<? ,<o ,<o "
,<o ,<'d ,<o ,<'d
Date Date

MAKING A LINK MAP TO SHOW CAUSES



Read t h e i n fo r m ation on pages 5 2-53
very ca refu l ly. N ow look at t h e l i st of
fa cto rs b e l ow.
1 Which of the facto rs p l ayed a p a rt in
causing the i ntro d u ction of the B l oody
Code? Write each one o n a l a rg e piece
of paper a n d space them out. Ad d a
sente n ce or two exp l a i n i n g h ow each
facto r was a cause.
2 D raw l i nes between any of the fa cto rs
that you t h i n k l i n k in some way o r
i n fl u e n ced o n e a n other. Write a
sente n ce exp l a i n i n g this l i n k a l o n g the
co n n ecti n g l i n e .
3 Loo k ca refu l ly at yo u r co m p l eted l i n k
m a p. I s it possi b l e t o i d entify the facto r
that had the m ost i m po rt a n ce?
4 Loo k back at the facto r card s you m a d e o n page 35. What information can you
add to yo u r existi n g cards, o r what n ew facto r card can you m a ke?
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

Co ncerns a bout cri m e


Whatever the period, it seems i t i s human nature to see crime a s a serious problem.
However, as we saw when we looked at vagabondage (page 40), public perceptions and
attitudes do not always reflect the true picture. Even if crime was not rising, there was
plenty of evidence around to suggest it was !
Pamphlets often gave horrific and lurid details about robberies, murders, vagabonds and
the evil doings of witches. Executions were carried out in public, which had the effect
of publicising crime even further. Even the speeches made by those about to hang were
published for the public to read. We know today how sensational media reports of just one
awful crime can convince the public that crime is out of control.

Peo p l e on the m ove


Since the end of the Middle Ages, towns were growing in number and in size. This made
it harder to enforce the law using the traditional methods of the hue and cry and parish
constables. Such methods were based around village life and the idea that a person would
know all the people in their local area. In towns the streets were more crowded so it was
easier for criminals to commit crime and then escape detection.
In the Middle Ages, it was sometimes difficult for ordinary people to travel. By the time the
Bloody Code was introduced, better roads and cheaper horses meant more people were on
the move. This meant that ideas and news could travel with them and so spread
more quickly.

Protecting property
The MPs who passed the laws that made up the Bloody Code were all wealthy landowners
who were keen to protect their lands and privileges. They also felt that they had the most
to lose from crimes against property. As a result they passed laws that made punishments
for such crimes even harsher. This is not to say that all landowners were acting purely from
self-interest. Many of them believed that everyone, including the poor, suffered when laws
were broken.

Trad itio n a l views on p u n is h m e nt


For hundreds of years since Anglo-Saxon times, the trend in punishment had been to make
it ever harsher. The big idea was always that severe punishments were the most effective way
of controlling crime by acting as a deterrent. It was the only method that had been tried
and so remained a popular choice throughout this period.
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

3.7 Com municating your answer


It should be clear from this chapter that crime and 1 Come together as a class and make a list of all of the
punishment in the period 1 5 0 0 -1700 shows both change punishments you came up with and write these in your
and continuity when compared with the Middle Ages. books. Your list will be looking pretty long !
However, sometimes the exam will ask you to think about 2 Now use the key to classify the different punishments
crime and punishment across more than just one time to show the big idea b ehind each one. Don't worry if
period. For example : you need to underline some in more than one colour
and don't worry if you have used one colour more than
'Punishments were terrifying and harsh in order to
the others !
deter criminals throughout the period c.1000-c. 1700.'
How far do you agree? Explain your answer.
Ste p 3 : Writi n g yo u r a nswe r
Answering a question like this requires you to select
Make sure you mention punishments that were meant to
relevant information and to get a 'big picture' of the
deter but also any punishments intended to have other effects.
thinking behind punishments.
Remember that a good answer will make a judgement at the

Ste p 1 : Reca l l - class sticky- note re lay


end - was the main idea of punishments to deter
c.1000-c.170 0 ?
cha l l e n g e You are now ready t o answer the question. We have given
Split into small groups o fn o more than four. Your task you a good deal of help, but you will find more guidance in
is to work together and come up with a list of all the Writing Better History on pages 164-178 . And remember
punishments used between c.lOOO and c.170 0 that you have add to and use your Word Wall!
learnt about so far.
Wo rd Wa l l
Write each punishment on its own sticky note and stick it
to the board or an area allocated by your teacher. Everyone Here are some extra words you can add to the Word Wall
must take a turn writing a sticky note and sticking it up. you made on page 30. They will help you write accurately
Only one member of the group can be out of their chair at and with confidence. Look over your notes for the period
any one time. Your teacher will give you a time limit and the 1 5 0 0 -1700 and see if you could add some red words of
group with the most sticky notes (no repeats) wins ! your own.

Step 2 : Knowledge Organiser Practice q u estions


classifying the ideas behind punishments
1 Exp l a i n why the a u t h o rities took va g a bo n d a g e so
Next, you need to organise your knowledge to help you
seriously i n t h e period c.1 500-c.1 700.
2
answer the question. If we stop and think about the
' L a n d ow n e r's attitudes were t h e m ost i m po rta nt fa cto r
possible big ideas behind punishments over time, we might
affecti n g t h e d eve l o p m e n t of the B l oody Code i n t h e
come up with a list like this :
1 680s.' H ow fa r d o you a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer.
3 Exp l a i n o n e way in w h i c h p u n is h m e n t i n m e d i eva l
To deter E n g l a n d was s i m i l a r to p u n i s h m e nt in t h e seve nteenth
e To h u m i l iate
e To
centu ry.
remove the cri m i n a l fro m society
e To reform (try a n d ch a n g e the cri m i n a l fo r the bette r)

_w_..y- --1rl_j
1 -1 - ---T T
B l oody Code fi n es h u m i l iation ca pita l wh i p p i n g
p u n is h m e nt
tra nsportatio n d eterre n ce corpora l refo rm
p u n ish ment stocks
re move retribution - com pensation
I L.-
.L.- p i l l o ries
I I 1 I I
early modern sixteenth ce ntu ry seventeenth ce ntu ry
3 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e a r l y m o d e r n En g l a n d , c.1 500-c.1 700

3. 8 Visi b le lea rn i n g : Revise a n d rem e m be r


This i s the second time you have come across a page to do
with revision. We know that it is tempting to skip it and
worry about revision later ! However, take a look at these
two graphs. They should convince you that leaving revision
until just before your exam is not the way to success.

1 00

1 00 %
\
\ \
\ ' \
\ ' \ \
\ \ ' \
\ \ \ \
\ ' \ \
' \ '
' ' ' \
\

\ ' \ \
' \ ' '
' ' ' '
\ \ ' '
' ' '
' ' ' '
1 54%
"' ' ' '
' ' '
' ' '
After day QJ ' ' '
u

"' ' ' '


"' ' ' ' '
'
w a s re m e m bered.
' ' '
u
' ' ' '
a::
QJ
\ \ ' \ \

1 35%
\ \ \ \

'
\ \ \

'
\

'
\ \
\
After week
'
\

' '
\

' '
\

'
\

'
\

' '
' '
was re m e m be red .
' ' '
' ' '
' ' ''
' ''
'' ... ... '
After 2 weeks 21% '
--
.. ...
--
-- -
.... ...
... ... -
--

t Time
t Time
F i n ish l e a r n i n g Lea r n a
to p i c

Graph 1 The Ebbinghaus Curve of Forgetting. That


.6. .6. Graph 2 How do you stop yourself forgetting?
sounds impressive but the graph is alarming. We forget the
detail of what we study very quickly.

Tech n i q u e 1 : Tech n i q u e 2 : Tech n i q u e 3 :


Re peat yo u r Set you r own q u estions Revise yo u r Big
m e m o ry m a p a n d test each oth e r Sto ry of cri m e a n d
I n C h a pte r 2 you d rew a G o back ove r the work i n you r exe rcise p u n is h m e nt
m e m o ry m a p to h e l p you book (and pages 32-53) if n ecessa ry.
it's rea l ly i m portant that you
reco rd t h e m a i n featu res of Write ten to fifteen knowledge-based
kee p the Big Sto ry of cri m e a n d
cri m e a n d p u n i s h m e nt in t h e q u iz q u esti ons fo r someone e lse. M a ke
p u n is h m e nt c l e a r i n yo u r m i n d .
M i d d l e Ages (see page 3 1 ) . s u re that you a l so reco rd the a n swers
Revise the story y o u to ld a t t h e
D raw a s i m i l a r m e m o ry m a p somewhere ! Yo u r q u estions co u l d be
e n d o f C h a pter 2 o n p a g e 3 1 ,
fo r t h e period 1 5 00-1 700. T h i s m u ltiple choice, m u lti p l e sel ect, true or
b u t t h i s ti m e m a ke s u re you
t i m e, use t w o d iffe re nt co l o u rs fa lse, o r even req u i re s h o rt sente n ces as
b r i n g it up to d ate with what
to s h ow w h at were ch a n g es a n swers. Use a m ix of q u esti o n types.
you h ave l e a rned about cri m e
a n d w h at were conti n u ities.
J u st by co m posi n g these q u esti o n s you a n d p u n is h m ent 1 500-1 700.
a re a l ready revis i n g key content. Swa p
yo u r q u esti o n s with s o m e o n e e l s e i n
yo u r class. H ave a g o a t t h e i r q u iz a n d
t h e n m a rk e a c h othe r's a n swers.
,' 4 ,Crim.e and pu nishm.ent in e i ghte e nt
a n d n i n etee nth- c e nt u ry Brit a in

T he p e rio d 1 7 0 0- 1 9 0 0 s aw s o m e massive changes to c r i m e an d pu nishm ent


I n the years a fte r 1 7 5 0 , Britain b e c a me the firs t c ou n t r y in t he w o rld to
i ndu s tr ia lis e . This not o nly chang e d the w a y p e o ple worke d , bu t it also had
a huge e ffe c t on s o c iety itse lf. As you hav e seen p rev iou s ly, when s o c ietie s
c hang e so do p e o ple ' s attitudes tow ards crime and pu n i s h me nt .

C e ntu rie s -o l d ideas a bout u s ing s av age corporal a n d c ap it a l pu nis hments


to dete r w e re cha llenged a n d a dis cu s s ion b egan ab out t he b e st w ay to deal
w ilt h c rim inals . A ls o, fo r the fir s t time in his tory, a fu ll-time a nd pro fes s io n a l
p olice fo rce was e s ta b li s hed. S o what had b rou ght a b ou t the s e revohl tionar y
c hang es in c rime and pu nishment ?

inal moments

exec u t i o n s a ny m o re . I re m e m be r a
few yea rs a g o we'd see t h e m a l l of
t h e t i m e . N ow, h a rdly a ny c r i m e s
a re p u n i s h a b l e b y d eath .

People flocked to industrial


cities from rural villages. One
of the reasons for the high
crime rate was that it was
much easier for criminals to
go unrecognised in a crowd
of strangers.

..
4 C r i m e a n d pu n i s h m e n t in e i g h te e n t h - a n d n i n ete e n th - century Brita i n


LAW AND ORDER 1 7 0 0- 1 9 0 0 : OVERVIEW
1 Wo rk in p a i rs or s m a l l g ro u ps. Yo u h ave five m i n utes. What evi d e n ce ca n you fi n d in the Prisons became an
pictu re of:
a) d iffe rent types of cri m i n a l activity
important form of

b) d iffe re nt p u n i s h m ents
punishment. Prisoners

c) d iffe re nt fo rms of policing a n d/or cri m e p reve ntion


either worked in silence,

d) d iffe rent trials?


or were kept separate
from each other. They
2 What c h a n g es and conti n u ities can you see w h e n you co m p a re this cri m i n a l m o m ent in were given religious
t i m e with the seve nteenth-centu ry sce n e o n pages 32-33? instruction. The
3 Use yo u r existi n g know l e d g e of the n i n eteenth centu ry fro m Key Stag e 3, to s u g g est
authorities hoped that this
would help them reform.
poss i b l e reasons fo r the c h a n g es.
4 List a ny q u esti ons that these two pages raise about law a n d o rd e r i n the period 1 700-
1 900. Keep these safe and tick them off when you a n swer them as you work t h ro u g h the
rest of this secti o n .

Royal judges visited


counties four times a year.
They were experts in the
law. They judged serious
crimes. At the royal courts,
a jury was still used.
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4.2 Problem cri me 1 : W hy did hig hway rob bery


become suc h a serious cri me?
You have already discovered how the authorities feared heresy, vagabondage and witchcraft
in the period 1500 -1700. By the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries this had changed.
First, the religious uncertainty of the Reformation had passed with the last execution
for heresy in 1612. Second, the period 170 0 - 1 9 0 0 saw a general increase in wealth and so
fear of vagabondage greatly decreased. Finally, although belief in witches did not totally
disappear among ordinary folk, most educated people (who usually judged cases of
witchcraft) were less likely to believe such accusations and in 1736 the witchcraft laws were
finally repealed.

Cha n g i n g d efi n itions of cri m e


During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the authorities became worried about
other types of crime, such as highway robbery and smuggling, which disrupted trade. Any
activities that threatened the interests of landowners or employers also came under close
scrutiny. The age-old crime of poaching became punishable by death, and even joining a
trade union was a risky business.

H ig hway ro bbery: I ma g e versus rea l ity


Highway robbery was not a new crime. It had its beginnings in the chaos caused by the
Civil War (1642-49), but by the early 1700s it had become infamous and in some areas
reached epidemic proportions.
Highway robbers were greatly feared by ordinary travellers and were regarded by the
authorities as a major disruption to trade. The worst areas for highway robbery were
around London on the main routes into the capital. Most highwaymen were ruthless and
nothing like the romantic image portrayed in the picture below. One highwayman cut out
a woman's tongue to stop her reporting him after his mask slipped!
Source A William Powell
Frith's 1860 painting, Claude
Duval. Claude Duval, a
famous highwayman, was
finally caught and hanged
at Tyburn (see page 50) in
1670. Duval was reportedly
polite and even charming
to his victims. His supposed
gentlemanly conduct
and fashionable clothes
made him a hit with the
ladies. In this picture he
encourages the wife of one
of his victims to dance and
in return lets her husband
keep a small amount of his
money. Although this idea
of 'gentleman' of the road
became popular in printed
pamphlets and broadsheets,
it was very far from the
reality.



4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Why did hig hway ro bbery g row and then decl i n e?


Highway robbery grew as certain developments created more opportunity for the robbers.
However, later developments meant highway robbery declined just as quickly as it grew. The
boxes below give reasons for its growth and decline. r
The b a n k i n g syste m
M o re p eo p l e were H a n d g u n s h a d beco m e beca m e m o re
Road su rfa ces b e g a n to
trave l l i n g i n t h e i r own easier t o o bta i n a n d s o p h isticated ove r
i m p rove a n d coaches
coaches. q u icke r t o l o a d a n d fi re. t i m e a n d t h e n u m be r
beca m e m o re fre q u e nt
o f b a n ks g rew. Fewe r
a s speeds i n creased .
trave l l e rs carried l a rg e
a m o u nts o f m o n ey.

O pen l a n d a ro u n d
London a n d oth er towns
Stagecoaches were
was b u i lt on as the
i ntro d u ced with reg u l a r
popu lation expa nded.
sta g i n g posts w h e re
t i red h o rses co u l d be
c h a n g e d and trave l l e rs
M o u nted patro l s co u l d rest fo r t h e n i g ht.
were s e t u p a ro u n d
Lo n d o n a n d h i g h
rewards e n co u ra g e d T h e re we re m a ny
i nfo r m e rs to re p o rt l o n e ly a reas outside of
on t h e activities of towns a n d ro u g h roa d s
h i g hway m e n . w h e re coaches h a d to
s l ow d own .

After wars e n d e d ,
s o m e d e m o b i l ised
H i g hwaym e n co u l d
s o l d i e rs stru g g l e d to
h i d e a n d se l l t h e i r
fi n d h o n est ways to
sto l e n l o ot i n tave rns.
m a ke a l ivi n g .

J Ps refu sed to There was n o pol ice


l i ce nse tave rns that force and loca l
were fre q u e nted by consta bles did not track H o rses beca m e
h i g hway m e n . criminals across cou nties. c h e a p e r t o buy.

THE RISE AND FALL OF HIGHWAY ROBBERY


1 D raw yo u r own co py of the table b e l ow. 2 Look at the information boxes on this page and use them to
fi l l in the table. Try to add a sentence of exp lanation to each
Reasons for g rowth of one. We h ave included a n exa m p l e to h e l p get you started.
3 Loo k ca refu l l y at the reasons i n yo u r co m p l eted table.
hig hway robbery Reasons fo r decl i n e
Horses beca m e cheaper Which fa ctors we re m ost s i g n ificant i n b ri n g i n g about:
to buy. Therefore, robbers a) the g rowth of h i g hway ro bbery
co u ld afford to set b) the decl i n e of h i g hway ro bbery?
th emse lves up to a m b ush
m o ving targets and m a ke
q u ick geta ways.


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

4.3 Problem cri me 2 : Was t he law too hars h


on poac hers?
Many historians describe poaching as a 'social crime' - an offence that many people do not
really regard as a crime. In other words, poaching was against the law but widely tolerated
by large sections of the community who thought the law unfair. However, the authorities at
the time took a very different view. The 1 723 Black Act made hunting deer, hare or rabbits a
ca pita l crime (punishable by death) . Anyone found armed, disguised or with blackened
faces in a hunting area was assumed to be poaching and could be executed. It is not
surprising that during the eighteenth century, some of the most unpopular laws were those
dealing with poaching.

The law i s u n fa i r ! lt i s t h e re Poa c h i n g is a h a r m l e s s s p o rt, a


s i m ply to p rotect t h e i nterests c o ntest to o u twit g a m ekeepers
of wea lthy l a n d ow n e rs . u s i n g l o c a l k n owledge.

Poa c h ers a re j u st po o r fo l k w h o
ta ke t h e occa s i o n a l ra bbit o r
b i rd t o a d d to t h e pot.

s e l l i n g t h e occa s i o n a l ra bbit
j u st to m a ke e n d s m e et?

The p u bl i c h a ve sym pathy fo r


poa c h e rs a n d reg a rd t h e d eath
p e n a lty a s too h a rs h .

Source A Traditional claims made in defence of poaching.

CLAIMS AND COUNTER-CLAIMS



I m a g i n e y o u a re a n eig hteenth -centu ry j u d g e a n d h ave b e e n asked t o i nvestig ate the cri m e
o f poach i n g , as m a n y p e o p l e th i n k the l aws a re too h a rs h .

Use the i nfo rmation on page 61 to j u d g e the truth of each of the c l a i m s m a d e in the speech
b u b b l es above. M a ke yo u r own copy of the pictu re and leave space a ro u n d the outside. I n
o n e co l o u r, a d d su pporti n g evi d e n ce, then use a d iffe re nt co l o u r fo r evid e n ce that c h a l l e n g es
the c l a i m s .


4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

The law Why did they poach? Who we re the


O n ly l a n d ow n e rs wh ose l a n d was S m a l l l a n d h o l d e rs a n d tena nts poach e rs?
wo rth m o re than 1 00 a yea r co u l d fre q u ently i g n o red the law a n d
M ost were p o o r, if o n ly
h u nt a n d t h ey co u l d h u nt a nywh e re. h u nted o n t h e i r o w n l a n d . M a ny
because m ost o rd i n a ry p e o p l e
1 0 0 was a huge s u m of m o n ey poached the odd rabbit fo r the
we re p o o r at t h i s t i m e . T h e
a n d wo u l d h ave t a ke n a l a b o u re r coo k i n g pot o r sold the occasi o n a l
m aj o rity of poach e rs c a u g h t by
t e n years t o e a r n . La n d ow n e rs with p h easant t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r l ow
g a m e keepers we re described
l a n d worth less than 1 0 0 a yea r a n d wages. T h e re was a l s o a m i n o rity
as l a b o u re rs, weavers, col l iers,
te n a nts w h o rented co u l d n ot h u nt, of bette r-off poachers who
servants o r wo rkers i n oth e r
eve n on t h e i r own l a n d . Possess i n g h u nted fo r sport a n d t h e i r own
l ow- p a i d jobs.
d o g s o r sna res t h a t m i g ht be u s e d e nterta i n m e nt.
fo r h u nt i n g w a s p u n i s h a b l e b y a 5
fi n e o r t h ree m o nths i n p riso n .

The b lack ma rket


Fea r a n d loat h i n g C o u rt reco rd s a re fu l l of m e n such as J o h n Lig htwood,
a Staffo rd s h i re l a b o u re r, w h o k i l led n e a rly 80 h a res in
Faced with a rm e d g a m e ke e p e rs a n d t h e poss i b i l ity of 1 764 befo re se l l i n g t h e m fo r 3 s h i l l i n g s a p i ece. S u c h
t h e death p e n a lty, s o m e poach e rs used vio l e n ce. I n i n d ivid u a l s m a d e m o re fro m poach i n g t h a n t h ey e a r n e d
1 786, a Staffo rd s h i re fa rm l a b o u re r horsewhi p ped a i n t h e i r day jobs.
g a m e ke e p e r w h o tried to take h i s h a re . I n 1 792, two
Lig htwood was acti n g a l o n e a n d his effo rts were small
poach e rs s h ot a g a m e keepe r's h o rse a n d t h e n a i m ed
com p a red to the org a n ised g a n g s of poach e rs who
t h e i r g u n s u p at h i s w i n d ow. Fortu n ate ly, t h e kee p e r
suppl ied the black market. Th ese g a n g s favou red
fa i l e d t o wa ke a n d l o o k o u t !
t h e deer pa rks a n d g a m e rese rves owned by wea lthy
G a m e ke e p e rs a n d those who i n fo r m e d o n the poach e rs l a n d owners. D e m a n d for g a m e g rew as the popu lation
fo r t h e rewards were g e n e ra l ly h ated . Vi l l a g e rs i n creased and as people's d iet beca m e m o re
fre q u e ntly p rovided a l i bis a n d l i e d i n co u rt to p rotect soph isticated. By se l l i n g their catch in the towns a n d cities,
poach e rs fro m convicti o n . cri m i n a l g a n g s of poach e rs cou l d m a ke very h i g h p rofits.

WEIGHING UP THE EVIDENCE - ARGUMENT TUNNEL


H istorians m u st be a b l e to see two sides of an a rg u ment before reach i n g a co n c l u s i o n .
Arg u m ent tu n n e l s a re a fu n w a y o f p ractisi n g this ski l l .
1 Form an a rg u ment tu n n e l with the people in yo u r class (two seated rows of e q u a l n u m bers
fa c i n g each a n other) . O n e row m u st a rg u e that poach i n g l aws were too h a rsh w h i l e the
oth e r m ust a rg u e the op posite. After 60 seco n d s of a rg u m e nt, o n e side m oves to the n ext
seat w h i l e the oth e r stays put so each has a n ew opponent to a rg u e with . Do this as m a ny
times as yo u r tea c h e r te l l s you or u ntil you a re back to the beg i n n i n g .
2 N ow m a ke yo u r own j u d g e m e nt a n d decide wheth e r t h e l a w was too h a rsh o n poachers.
3 F i n a l ly, which facto rs were m ost s i g n ificant i n i nfl u e n ci n g :
a ) t h e laws s u r ro u n d i n g poach i n g
b ) p u b l i c attitudes towa rd s poach i n g ?


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

4.4 Problem cri me 3 : W hy was smuggling la long ti me


uncontrolled / in t he eighteent h century?
Smuggling in the eighteenth century was a massive problem in coastal areas. Smugglers
brought tea, cloth, wine and spirits into the country without paying any import tax
(customs duty) on them. At a time when there was no income tax and duties were the main
source of government income, the authorities took smuggling very seriously indeed. Under
the Bloody Code (see pages 50-51) smuggling carried the death penalty.

Sou rce B Re p o rt to t h e
D u ke of R i c h m o n d , 1 749.
The sm ugglers reigned a
long time uncon trolled . . .
I f any of them happened to
be taken . . . no magistrate
in the county durst commit
him to gaol. If he did he was
sure to have his house or
his barns set on fire, if he
was so lucky to escape with
his life.

A Source A Smugglers were often ruthless and were prepared to use violence to hold on
to their cargo or to escape capture . This picture shows the Hawkhurst gang seizing back
smuggled tea from the customs house at Poole in 1 747. In 1 748, a gang of smugglers in West
Sussex seized and murdered two customs officers. Both were tied to horses and dragged.
One of the unfortunate men had his 'nose and privities' cut off before the smugglers broke
'every bone in his body'. The second man was thrown into a well and then stoned to death .

The g ove rn m e nt response to s m u g g l i n g


I n 1748, the Duke o f Richmond was asked to smash the smuggling gangs. Thirty-five
smugglers were hanged for their crimes and a further ten died in gaol. Yet this came
nowhere near solving the problem, as it was reckoned there were at least 20,0 0 0 active
smugglers. Smuggling continued to flourish, partly because of the fear smugglers created
to deter any interference. However, there were other reasons why smuggling proved so hard
to stamp out.

WHY WAS SMUGGLING SO HARD TO STAMP OUT? ?,


1 Read the i nfo rmation on pages 62-63 a n d l ist as m a ny reasons as you can why the
g overn m e n t fo u n d it so d ifficult to sta m p s m u g g l i n g out. Use the headings b e l ow to h e l p
y o u o rg a n ise yo u r n otes :

Fet! Y of smLotgg Leys

The tlttYCICtOI!\.S of SmLotgg LI!\.g


Oygt I!\.Sec;l g t l!\.gs

PLotbLc ttttLotc;les
2 lt was clear that the B l oody Code d i d l ittle to d ete r the s m u g g l ers. What advice wo u l d you
h ave g iven to the D u ke of Rich m o n d as the best way to red u ce s m u g g l i n g ?


4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Wea lthy p e o p l e a l so t o o k p a rt i n s m u g g l i n g . Even


respecta b l e g overn m e n t m i n isters were k n ow n to h ave
I n 1 748, 1 03 p e o p l e were officia l ly 'wa nted ' a s s m u g g l e d w i n e i nto t h e co u ntry.
s m u g g l e rs. Over 7 0 p e r cent o f t h e m were l a b o u re rs ;
fewer t h a n 1 0 p e r c e n t were s m a l l l a n d ow n e rs a n d t h e
rest we re tra d e s m e n , such a s butch e rs a n d ca rpenters.

For l ow- p a i d l a b o u re rs, s m u g g l i n g was a q u i ck a n d


excit i n g way t o e a r n s i x o r seven t i m e s t h e d a i l y w a g e
i n j u st o n e n i g ht. I n S u ssex, w h e re tra d iti o n a l jobs such
as c l oth - m a k i n g a n d fis h i n g we re i n d e c l i n e, s m u g g l i n g
offe red a n a ltern ative l ivi n g .

O rd i n a ry peo p l e us u a l ly t u r n e d a b l i n d eye to
s m u g g l i n g . T h ey were h a p py to pay l ower p rices fo r
g o o d s a n d d i s l i ked t h e expe n s ive d uties i m posed by
t h e g overn m ent. Loca l s w h o h e l ped t h e s m u g g l e rs
carry g o o d s fro m s h i p to s h o re co u l d expect to earn
n e a rly twice the average l a b o u re r's daily wage.

S m u g g l i n g gangs co u l d be as l a rg e as 50 to 1 00 m e n .
T h e g a n g s were we l l a rm ed a n d h a d l itt l e fea r o f t h e
custo m s offi ce rs o r t h e a rmy.

The g a n g s co u l d m ove the g o o d s at speed a n d


s u p p l i ed a n etwo rk o f tra d e rs w h o were w i l l i n g t o se l l
tea, b r a n d y a n d oth e r s m u g g l e d g o o d s t o the p u b l ic. lt
was esti m ated that 3 m i l l i o n pounds w e i g h t of tea was T h e re were very few customs office rs to enfo rce t h e
s m u g g l e d i nto B rita i n each yea r. law a n d t h e g ove rn m e n t co u l d n ot affo rd to i n crease
t h e i r n u m b e rs.

THINKING ABOUT FACTORS


1 Which facto rs were m ost sig n ificant i n i nfl u e n ci n g :
a ) t h e g rowth o f s m u g g l i n g
b ) p u b l i c attitu d es towa rds s m u g g l i n g ?

2 Why m ig ht s m u g g l i n g , l i ke poach i n g , h ave been reg a rded as a soci a l cri m e by some


h istorians?


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4.5 Problem cri me 4 : W hy were t he Tolpuddle Martyrs


punis hed so hars hly?
After the French Revol ution in 1789, when the French monarchy was overthrown and
thousands of people guillotined, the government became terrified of the same thing
happening in Britain. Fearful landowners and politicians viewed every protest as a
potential riot or uprising. Therefore, the authorities were on the lookout for signs of
conspiracy and for groups whose ideas they considered suspect.
They were particularly anxious about the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
(GNCTU), which aimed to bring all workers together to fight for better conditions. It was
not illegal to belong to a union, but employers disliked the idea of working people co
operating. Employers believed that by demanding better pay and conditions, unions
threatened their businesses and harmed their interests. The story of the Tolpuddle Martyrs
reveals much about these attitudes and how the definitions of crime were changing.

UNDERSTANDING THE STORY OF THE TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS Af)



1 Why d i d the m e n of To l p u d d l e fo rm a u n io n in the fi rst p l a ce?
2 H ow were the men p u n ished and treated?
3 Which facto rs d o you think were m ost s i g n ificant i n infl u e n ci n g g ove r n m ent attitu des to
the To l p u d d l e M a rtyrs?

4 Why d i d the g ove rn m e nt c h a n g e the defi n ition of a cri m e to i n c l u d e the oath swo rn by the
To l p u d d l e M a rtyrs?

<11111 2 . In 1833, the


labourers set up a
union, the Friendly
Society of Agricultural
Labourers . Each
1 . Life was tough for man was blindfolded
farm labourers in and swore an oath of
the Dorset village secrecy and support
of Tolpuddle . Local for the union.
labourers , led by
George Loveless,
asked their employers
to increase their
weekly wage after it
had been cut several
times. The farm
owners refused,
before cutting wages
again!


4 C ri m e and p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - and n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

T 4 . Even though joining a union was


not against the law, and they had not
threatened anyone or gone on strike ,
Loveless and five others were arrested.
They were sentenced to seven years'
transportation to Australia (see page 5 1)

A 3. Despite the oath of secrecy, the


local farm owners heard about the
union and set about breaking it up. A 5 . The trade union movement
They used a law originally meant was badly hit by the sentence
to keep discipline in the navy. It and the GNCTU was broken up .
said that for sailors taking secret Speaking up for workers' rights
oaths was illegal, as it could lead to was clearly a risky business.
mutiny. The Government used the Employers celebrated.
law to include all secret oaths, thus
changing the definition of crime for T 7. In Britain, there was widespread
its own purposes. outcry at sentence. The men were
regarded as martyrs for union rights
and a campaign was organised against
their unfair treatment . At one meeting
in London, 2 5 ,000 people attended
and a petition demanding their
release was signed by 250,000 people .

.& 8 . Eventually, in March 1836, the

.& 6. On 17 August, after a voyage of


Government granted all six men a
pardon . However, it was another
1 1 1 days, the Tolpuddle men arrived
two years before all the men were
in Sydney harbour. They were forced
able to return home . It was another
to walk to the farms where they
20 years before the trade union
would work. One of the men, Thomas
movement began to recover.
Standfield, was aged over 50 and had to
walk 150 miles!


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4.6 How did society c hange in t he industrial period?


Britain experienced more social change during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
than at any other previous time. Although most of these changes were gradual, they
completely altered the way people lived their lives. It was only natural that this industrial
and social revolution had an effect on punishments and policing. The boxes on these pages
summarise these changes.

Po p u lation rise a n d
m ove m e nt
By 1 750 t h e re were a ro u n d 9. 5
m i l lion people living in England
a n d Wa les. M ost l ived i n
v i l l a g es scattered t h ro u g h o ut
t h e cou ntrys i d e . H oweve r, by
1 900 t h e p o p u l ation h a d risen
to 41 . 5 m i l l i o n and was m a i n ly
co ncentrated i n tow n s .

Wo rk
D u ring t h e eig hteenth centu ry,
m ost people had made a l iving
from fa rm work. By the end of
the n i n eteenth centu ry, most
people found employment in
workshops or factories. Work had
m oved into the towns and cities.

Voting rig hts


By t h e m i d - e i g hteenth centu ry,
o n ly o n e in every e i g h t m e n
co u l d vote . B y 1 8 85 n e a rly a l l
m e n h a d t h i s right. T h e refo re,
g overn m ents b e g a n to m a ke
i m p rove m e nts to h o u s i n g a n d
h e a lth, i n o rd e r t o w i n votes
fro m o rd i n a ry p e o p l e .

Ha rvests
By the n i n eteenth centu ry,
t h e re was less c h a n ce of p o o r
h a rvests ca u s i n g h i g h fo od
p rices o r sta rvati o n . Food
co u l d be i m p o rted cheaply a
q u ickly fro m oth e r co u ntries .


4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Trave l Wea lth and taxes Ed u cation


Tra n s p o rt u n d e rwent h u g e Two ce nturies of tra d e a n d D u ri n g t h e eig hteenth centu ry, o n ly
ch a n g es d u ri n g t h e e i g hteenth i n d u stri a l g rowth m a d e B rita i n a s m a l l m i n o rity of ch i l d re n atte n d e d
and n i n eteenth ce nturies. By the a wea lthy cou ntry i n t h i s sch o o l . Rates o f l iteracy were l ow.
1 840s, ra i l ways h a d beco m e a period . D u ri n g t h e n i n eteenth H oweve r, by 1 850, 70 per cent of the
m aj o r fo rm of trave l . Th ese were centu ry, t h e g ove r n m ent popu lation co u l d rea d a n d write. This
m u ch faste r t h a n t h e roa d s a n d co l l ected h i g h e r taxes, w h i c h rose to 95 per cent by 1 900, afte r a
g ra d u a l l y beca m e c h e a p e r so that t h ey co u l d use to pay fo r law in 1 880 said that a l l ch i l d re n h a d
o rd i n a ry people co u l d affo rd to refo r m s that wo u l d i m p rove t o g o t o sch ool u nti l the a g e o f 1 3 .
use t h e m . p e o p l e's l ives .

G rowi n g acce pta n ce of


g ove r n m e nt i nvo lve m e nt
For ce ntu ries, B ritish p e o p l e h a d resisted any
g ove r n m e n t i nvo lve m e n t i n l o c a l affa i rs a s an
i nte rfe re n ce, w h i c h th reate n ed t h e i r fre ed o m .
H oweve r, b y t h e n i n ete enth centu ry, p e o p l e
b e g a n t o a ccept that t h e g overn m ent s h o u l d
h ave s o m e contro l ove r certa i n t h i n g s .

N ew ideas a bout h u m a n
natu re
D u ri n g t h e eig hteenth centu ry, n ew ideas
e m e rg e d a b o u t h u m a n n atu re . S o m e a rg u e d
t h a t i m p rov i n g p e o p l e's e d u cati o n , a l o n g with
t h e i r l iv i n g and worki n g co n d itions, m i g ht
e n co u ra g e bette r b e h avi o u r. By t h e m i d -
1 8 00s, C h a rles D a r w i n d eve l o ped h i s t h e o ry
of evo l utio n . T h i s l e d s o m e p e o p l e to b e l i eve
that t h e re was a cri m i n a l class that was
s o m e h ow l ess evo lved than oth e r p e o p l e .


Read the changes i n each box carefully. Which o f these might have led to :
a) the development of a professional police force
b) different types of punishment?

2 Look again at the boxes. Which of our factors do these changes fit under?

Keep these discussions in mind as you work through the rest of this chapter and see if you
were right.


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4.7 Case study: How far should we t han k Sir Robert


Peel for t he Metropolitan Police Force in 1829?
For hundreds of years, policing had been the responsibility of ordinary people in the local
community. However, in 1829, the very first professional and full-time police force was
established in London. The man responsible for the introduction of the first police force
was Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850 ) . Peel was also a supporter of penal refo rm
and was instrumental in making prisons the main method of punishment for serious
crimes (see page 76) . He also played a significant role in the abolition of the Bloody Code
(see pages 70-71) .

The Fie l d i n g b rothers


Peel was not the first to try to improve policing in the capital. Henry Fielding and his
brother John were London magistrates. After taking over at Bow Street Magistrates' Court
in 1748, they realised that more men were needed on London's streets to reduce crime.

T h e F i e l d i n g s b e l i eved T h ey i ntro d u ced a horse patrol to


risi n g cri m e was the res u lt sto p h i g hwaym e n . T h i s effective ly
of b re a kd own in o rd e r as e n d e d h i g hway ro b b e ry a ro u n d
t h o u s a n d s fl ooded i nto Lo n d o n Lo n d o n . W h e n it sto p ped t h e
t o m a ke a l iv i n g . They a l so ro b b e rs retu rned ! I n 1 805 a n ew
b l a m ed t h e bad exa m p l e set by patro l of 54 m e n was set u p .
co rru pt po l itici a n s .

T h e i r n ewspa p e r, Th e
T h ey esta b l ished t h e
Hue a n d Cry, p u b l i s h e d
Bow Street Ru n n e rs, i nfo rmation a b o u t cri m i n a ls,
a tea m of t h i ef-t a ke rs
c ri m e and sto l e n g o o d s .
w h o patro l l e d t h e
M a g istrates a n d g a o l e rs
.t. Bow Street Runners in action, capturing two
streets o f Lo n d o n i n
fro m a l l ove r t h e cou ntry
t h e eve n i n g s . They muggers , 1806. Thanks to the Fielding brothers a passed o n the d eta i l s, w h i c h
a l so i nvestig ated more organised system of preventing crime had c reated a n atio n a l n etwo rk
cri m es a n d p resented developed in London by 1800. However, there was of i nfo rmati o n .
evi d e n ce i n co u rt. still no overall co-ordination of constables, watchmen
and runners. Many feared the cost of a police force
and worried the government might use it to limit
people's freedoms .



4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Why was Pee l a b l e to set u p the M etro p o l ita n Po lice Fo rce i n 1 829?
The Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 replaced the system also given powers to raise their own taxes that could be
of watchmen and parish constables. The new Metropolitan used to pay for a police force.

3. I n creased cri m e a n d i n c reased fea r of cri m e


Police Force had 3,200 men and opened the way for further
changes across the country. The uniform was designed to
look civilian rather than military and officers remained There was widespread belief that crime, especially violent
unarmed to distinguish them from the army. This was to crime, was on the increase. The crime rate had risen quite
reduce public fear that the police might be used to limit sharply in the years following the French wars when
their freedoms. unemployment was a problem.

1 . The ro l e of Pe e l 4. Fea r of p rotest


Sir Robert Peel was appointed Home Secreta ry i n 1822 . After the French Revolution governments and landowners
He was determined to improve people's lives by reducing feared something similar might happen in Britain. High
the amount of crime. Peel made use of statistics to paint food prices and unemployment led to many large-scale
a picture of rising criminality. He was persuasive and protests after 1815. Revolution seemed a real possibility.
reassured fellow politicians that a police force was no threat
to freedom. 5 . Lo n d o n

2. G ove rn m e nt a n d taxati o n
The rapid growth o f towns had made the use o f constables
and watchmen seem inadequate. These problems were
Governments had become more involved i n people's lives. especially serious in London. There were too many people,
The war with France (1803-1814) forced the Government crammed into closely-packed houses and streets. Fear of
to raise more money through taxes. Local authorities were crime and revolution was strongest in the capital.

HOW DID POLICING DEV ELOP AFTER 1829?

1 835 A n ew law s a i d towns were 1 842 The M etro p o l ita n Po l i ce set 1 870 Po l i ce h e l m ets were i ntro d u ce d .
a l l owed to set u p t h e i r own p o l i ce u p t h e fi rst d etective fo rce to gath e r
1 878 T h e M etro p o l itan Po l i ce d etective
fo rces. evi d e n ce, i nvestig ate a n d s o l ve cri mes
fo rce was reo rg a n ised i nto the Crim i n a l
afte r t h ey h a d been co m m itte d .
1 839 A n ew law a l l owed co u nties to set I nvestigation Department (CI D). Over
up t h e i r own p o l ice fo rces. Bow Street 1 856 lt beca m e co m p u l s o ry fo r a l l t h e n ext few years this was ro l l ed out
R u n n ers a n d oth e r fo rces i n Lo n d o n tow n s a n d co u nties t o set u p p o l ice across t h e rest of t h e cou ntry.
m e rg e d with t h e M etro p o l ita n Po l i ce. fo rces. By this time the p o l ice were
1 884 T h e re were 39,000 p o l ice i n
reg a rd e d with respect a n d n ot
B rita i n a n d ove r 200 sepa rate fo rces.
suspicion by t h e p u b l ic.

WEIGHING UP THE IMPORTANCE OF REASONS


1 Loo k at the reasons fo r the d eve l o p m ent of the Ve ry i m po rta nt
M etro p o l itan Po l i ce Force o n this page. M a ke a g ra p h
l i ke the o n e o n the r i g h t a n d show the i m po rt a n ce of
each reason by a dj u sti n g the h e i g h t of its b a r.
M a ke s u re that you l a b e l each ba r on yo u r g ra p h with
a n exp l a n ation of how that reason co ntrib uted to the Q u ite i m po rta nt
deve l o p m ent of the pol ice i n 1 829.
2 Why do you t h i n k Peel was m o re su ccessfu l than the
F i e l d i n g b roth e rs i n esta b l is h i n g Lo n d o n 's fi rst pol ice
fo rce?
3 Why were 1 842, and later 1 878, t u rn i n g poi nts i n the Little i m po rtance -

h i story of p o l i c i n g ? Q;



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4.8 W hy was t he Bloody Code abolis hed in t he 1820s


and 1830s?
You have already solved the puzzle ofwhy the Bloody Code was introduced at a time when
the crime rate was falling (see page 52) . Now it is time to solve a second mystery. Why was it
abolished in the 1820s and 1830s when the crime rate was rising and fear of crime was very high?
The Bloody Code was abolished by the reforms of Sir Robert Peel who was Home S ecretary
in the 1820s. Peel made key individual contributions to penal reform (see pages 76 -77) and
the establishment of the first full-time and professional police force (see pages 6 8 - 69) .
However, you know enough about history to realise there must have been further reasons
that allowed Peel to end the Bloody Code and make his other reforms.

KEY DATES IN THE ABOLITION OF THE B LOODY CODE

1 789 Last wo m a n b u rned fo r m u rd e r i n g h e r h u s b a n d


1 808 S i r S a m u e l Ro m i l ly g ets a l a w passed t h a t a b o l ishes the death pena lty fo r pickpocketi n g
1 820 Last b e h ea d i n g - o f t h e Cato Street co n s p i rato rs w h o h a d tried t o assass i n ate t h e
enti re g ove rn m e n t

1 820s-30s Abo l ition of n e a rly a l l capita l cri mes


1 841 O n ly m u rd e r a n d treason re m a i n ed capita l cri mes
1 868 T h e last p u b lic h a n g i n g took p l ace

WHAT REASONS DID PEEL HAVE FOR CHANGING THE LAW?


Peel faced considera b l e opposition from some M Ps when atte m pting to end the B loody Code.
M a ke you r own copy of the d i a g ra m below and use the i nfo rmation on pages 70-7 1 to add
reaso ns and evidence to each of the b l a n k speech b u b b l es t o h e l p Pee l refute these objections.

W e h a ve u sed p u b l i c exe c u t i o n a n d
h a rs h p u n i s h m e nts fo r h u n d reds o f
yea rs . T h e re a re n o a ltern atives.

We h a ve seen t h e bl oody blade of the


g u i l loti n e i n F ra n ce. This c o u ld h a p p e n
h e re if t h e p e o p l e reg a rd u s a s wea k
or if l a w a n d o rd e r brea ks down .

J u ries wo u l d not co nvict


Even in the early 1700s only 40 per cent of those convicted of capital crimes were actually
hanged. By the 1800s this had fallen to 10 per cent, despite an increase in the crime
rate overall.

I
4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Juries were frequently unwilling t o find people guilty of protest riots if there were mass hangings when offenders
if they thought the punishment was unfair and out of had been sentenced to death for minor or social crimes.
proportion to the crime. With courts unwilling to convict
them, criminals would feel even more confident of escaping I d eas a bout p u n ish m e nts we re
punishment, and so were more likely to commit crimes.
Therefore, the Bloody Code was actually undermining the cha n g i n g
law and no longer protected the property of the wealthy Throughout the eighteenth century there had been a
landowners and the middle class. growing sense among philosophers and thinkers that
punishments were far too brutal. They argued that
lawmakers should ensure punishment actually fitted the
P u b l i c executions we re not wo rki n g
crime committed.
During the 1700s, the crowds at executions grew larger,
partly because newspapers publicised them more widely. Politicians had already started to look at different ways of
Some factories even closed on execution day so that the punishing criminals. They hoped that these would be used
workers could attend what had become cheap entertainment ! more regularly, and therefore prove to be more effective. By
the 1780s, transportation (see page 51) had emerged as the
As crowds grew, the government felt that it was becoming main alternative to capital punishment. The majority of
harder to keep order. There was always the danger of a those transported had originally been sentenced to death
criminal escaping, especially if the crowd had sympathy or and then had their sentences reduced.
felt them to be innocent. There was also an increased risk

.A. Source A A public execution


THINKING ABOUT FACTORS
a t Tyburn (see page 5 0 ) , printed
in 1747. London's magistrates
Loo k back at the information on these pages. Which facto rs h e l p exp l a i n the a b o l itio n of the admitted in 1783 that 'all the aims
B l oody Code? of public justice are defeated.
All the effects of example, the
terrors of death, the shame of
punishment, are lost . ' While
executions were carried out,
the crowds laughed and even
drank. Such mass gatherings
were perfect opportunities for
pickpockets who could escape
into the crowd. There was
even the occasional risk of the
condemned criminal being
rescued by a sympathetic
crowd.
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4.9 Was transportation a success or a failure in t he


1820s and 1830s?
Transportation was the system by which convicted criminals were removed from the country
by being sent abroad. At first, the authorities had sent criminals to America, but after the
American colonies became independent in the 1770s, they had to look for an alternative.
They chose the newly discovered and little known land of Australia. In the early years the
voyage was a round trip of eighteen months, and the environment in Australia unforgiving.
Priso n e rs were fi rst sent The idea of sending people to an unknown land at the edge of the world sounded like an
to h u l ks (see p a g e 75)
excellent deterrent. Lawmakers believed transportation was going to be a success for the
o r g a o l s u nt i l e n o u g h
following reasons. It would:
were g a t h e red fo r t h e
voya g e . T h ey wo rked e provide a punishment less harsh than hanging so juries will convict
in c h a i n s w h i l e t h ey e be harsh enough to terrify criminals and deter them
waite d . The voya g e reduce crime in Britain by removing the criminals
itself w a s u n p l easant e help claim the new land of Australia for Britain
and cra m pe d , but by reform criminals through hard work.
t h e 1 830s o n ly a ro u n d
1 per cent d i ed d u ri n g
t h e fo u r- m onth trip. H ow d i d tra nsportatio n wo rk?
Once a criminal had been sentenced to transportation it could still take several months
before they finally arrived in Australia and begun a very different life.

O n a rriva l, convi cts


were assi g n e d to
settlers. T h e i r sente n ce
beca m e wh ateve r work
their m a ster g ave th e m .
T h e m a sters p rovi d e d
food, c l o t h e s a n d
s h e lter. G ood con d u ct
co u l d b ri n g a 'ticket of
leave' (early re lease) .
T h i s g ave priso n e rs a
m otive to b e h ave a n d
a sense o f o p p o rtu n ity
t h ey m i g ht n ot h ave fe lt
i n B rita i n .

Priso n e rs w h o
co m m itted fu rth e r
c r i m e s were fl o g g e d
o r sent t o m o re
d i sta nt sett l e m e nts
w h e re treatm e n t was
freq u e ntly h a rs h .

Priso n e rs w h o fa i l ed

_.. Source A Sweet Poll and Black-eyed Sue , two Plymouth prostitutes , bid farewell to their
to co m p l ete t h e i r
sente n ce a n d retu rned
lovers who are bound for Botany Bay in Australia, 1792 . The majority of those transported
to B rita i n with o u t a
were convicted thieves , and most had committed more than one offence . People who
'ticket of l eave' were
had taken part in political protests were a small minority of those transported, but the
sente n ced to death .
government regularly used transportation as punishment for such activities (see pages
64-65) . Only 3 per cent of those transported had been convicted of violent crimes.
4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Tra nsportation : For and Aga i nst


Transportation reached its height in the 1820s and 1830s. doubts about just how successful a punishment
The peak year was 1833 when 3 6 ships and 6,779 prisoners transportation really was. The boxes below outline the
were sent to Australia. However, by this time there were main arguments on both sides.

n the
In 1 8 1 0, the Lord Chie f M a ny j u ries fa i l e d to conv ict eve
alia had
By th e 1 8 30s , A u str Just ice des crib ed g u i lty bec ause they fe lt the dea th .
ed
clea rly b e co m e a n esta _b l i sh tra n s p o rtat ion as 'no m o re p e n a lty was too h a rsh fo r s o m e cnmes.
pa rt of th e B ritish Em p i re . N o
t h a n a s u m m e r's exc u rs i o n to I n con tras t, t h e y wer e far m o re

wil i n g
ely to try
oth e r co u ntry was l i k a h a p p i e r a n d bett e r c l i m ate' t o se nte n ce p e o p l e t o tra n s p o rtat ion.
l of it. .
to cla i m co ntro

I n 1 85 1 , g o l d was
O n l y a m i n o rity of convict s chose to alia had d isco ve red i n Aus tra l i a .
p rote st a a .m st
Th e settle rs i n A u str
ret u r n to B rita i n o n ce t h e i r sente n ce g ro u ps to A gold rush began a n d
es ta b l i sh ed
was u p . M a n y too k t h e o p p o rt u n ity to victs i n th e i r . thousands o f people in
th e 'd u m pi n g ' of con
l ive pea cefu l a n d m o re res pecta b l e ted to en d th e i d ea B rita i n tried t o fin d t h e
co u ntr y. Th ey wa n
l ives i n Austra l ia . Ofte n t h ey beca m e i n A u stra l i a h _a d b ee n m o n ey t o p a y fo r t h e
th at eve ryo n e
res pected m e m b e rs o f t h e com m u n ity. a cn m m a l . j o u rn ey th e re.
tra n sp o rt ed th e re as
' ./

S i n ce tra n s p o rtati o n to By t h e 1 83 0s, tra n s p o rtat ion


was cost i n g By the 1 830s, wages i n Au stra l i a
Au stra l i a had beg u n , the h a l f a m i l l i o n p o u n d s eve ry yea were actu a l ly h i g h e r than those i n
e o r m o u s a m o u n t of m o n ey
r _ an
cri m e rate i n B rita i n had at t h e t i m e . B rita i n . T h e refo re, tra n s p o rtati o n
n ot fa l l e n . Rath e r it had Pnso ns i n B rita i n we re b e i n g
used m o re was seen a s m o re of a n o p p o rtu n ity
i n crea sed q u ite sha rply . fre q u entl y i n stea d, pa rtly bec
ause t h ey th a n a p u n i s h m ent o n ce priso n e rs
'
we re chea p e r to ru n . had won a 'ti cket of l e ave'.

The e n d of tra nsportation


Transportation began to decline in the 1840s. Prisons were pressure from settlers. The government needed to keep
being used far more widely (see pages 74-75) and in 1857 them happy to maintain control over this far-flung part of
transportation was finally brought to an end, largely due to the empire.

WEIGHING UP THE SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF TRANSPORTATION .,


1 M a ke yo u r own co py of the table b e l ow a n d use the i nfo rmation on pages 72-73 to fi l l in the seco n d co l u m n .

How fa r was this a i m achieved?


Reason for transpo rtation
Give evidence for you r judgement
it wou l d p rovide a p u n i s h m ent less h a rsh than h a n g i n g so j u ries
w i l l convict.
it wou l d be h a rs h e n o u g h to te rrify cri m i n a l s and d eter t h e m .

it wou l d red u ce cri m e i n B rita i n b y re m ov i n g the cri m i n a l s .

it wou l d h e l p c l a i m t h e n ew l a n d o f Au stra l i a fo r B rita i n .

it wou l d refo rm cri m i n a l s t h ro u g h h a rd work.

2 Who was transportation m o re su ccessfu l fo r - the g overn m ent o r the priso n e rs? Exp l a i n yo u r reasons.
3 Write a b rief exp l a n ation s u m m a rising the reasons why transportation was e n d ed i n 1 857.
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4.10 W hen was t he worst ti me to be in 1Ciin k1


1
1700-1900?
During the eighteenth century prisons played only a minor part in the system of punishment.
Houses of Correction dealt with vagabonds and prostitutes but generally prisons were only
used as a place to house criminals awaiting trial or to lock up people in debt. A survey in 1777
showed there were only 4,00 0 people in prison in England and Wales and that 60 per cent
were debtors. However, over the next 100 years there were three major changes:
1 Imprisonment became the normal method of punishing criminals
By the mid-nineteenth century, prison had replaced capital punishment for serious
crimes, except murder.
2 Prisons became important as the reasons for punishment changed
For hundreds of years punishments had taken place in public to terrify and deter others
from committing crimes. By 1800 it was clear that public executions did not stop crime.
Therefore, punishments began to focus on reforming the criminal.
3 The huge increase in prisoners led to the government taking over the whole
prison system
In the 1700s prisons were locally run with no rules about their organisation. By the
1870s government inspectors checked prisoners' work, diet, health and every other
aspect of prison life.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER: HOW DID PRISONS CHANGE?



Re m e m be r o u r cri m i n a l ch u m
To m t h e 'tea-leaf' (see p a g e 4)? If I wa s b e i n g s ent

You a re g o i n g to fi n d out m o re d o w n , w h e n wo u ld be

about the ch a n g es to prisons t h e worst t i m e, G u v?

a n d decide when wou l d be


the wo rst (and the best) time
fo r To m to be locked u p -
or 'in cl i n k' as it was ca l l e d .
1 M a ke yo u r o w n co py o f t h e
Know l e d g e O rg a n iser
b e l ow.

Prison system Positives from Tom's point Neg atives from Tom's
of view point of view
O l d prison syste m G ood p l a ce to pick u p D i sease was co m m o n .
tips a n d new cri m i n a l s ki l l s
Yo u h a d t o pay t o s e e a
as convi cts were m ixed
d o ctor.
tog eth e r.
After t h e fi rst refo r m s of t h e
G a o l s Act, 1 823

T h e sepa rate syste m , 1 830s


onwa rd s

T h e s i l ent syste m , 1 8 60s


onwa rd s

2 Use the information on page 75 to fi l l i n the seco n d row of the table. We h ave added
some exa m p les to help g et you sta rted.
4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

The o l d p riso n system


In the early 1800s, most prisons were run along the same lines as centuries before, and
conditions had remained largely unchanged.
All prisoners were housed
together. Hardened criminals
mixed with first-time offenders,
debtors, lunatics, women
and children. Stories were
exchanged and future plans
made. There was a concern that
prisons were 'schools for crime'.
Prison wa rd e rs were unpaid.
They had to earn their money
by charging the prisoners
fees. If you were well offyou
might be able to afford your
own cell, good food, beer,
tobacco, visitors and even a pet!
Prisoners had to pay a fee to be
released. Those who could not
afford this continued to suffer
behind bars.
The poor relied on local
charities to pay their fees
and life was grim. While the
S o u rce A Reco n s t r u c t i o n of a p r i s o n c e l l in N o tt i n g h a m G a o l . T h e re w o u l d be t h re e
wealthiest could afford their
p r i s o n e rs l o d g e d i n a c e l l t h i s s i z e . S u c h ove rc rowd i n g was t y p i c a l f o r a l l b u t t h e
own rooms, the poorest lived
wea lt h i est i n m a t e s .
in the most overcrowded
conditions. At Newgate Gaol,
275 of the poorest prisoners
lived in an area designed for
just 150.
Prisoners even had to pay to see
a doctor. This was a problem
because prisons were damp,
dirty and unhealthy. What was
called 'gaol fever' (probably
dysentery or typhus) killed
many inmates.

Sou rce B P r i s o n h u lks we re i n t ro d u ce d as a s h o rt-term s o l u t i o n i n t h e 1 7 7 0 s w h e n


t ra n s p o rt a t i o n to A m e ri c a s u d d e n ly sto p p e d (see p a g e 7 2 ) . T h e s e w e re o l d a n d u s u a lly
rot t e n f o r m e r wa rs h i ps . C o n d i t i o n s we re as b a d as t h e w o rst p r i s o n s . P r i s o n e rs we re
kept in i rons m ost of t h e t i m e a n d t h e d e a t h rate f r o m d is e a s e was d re a d f u lly h i g h .
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Afte r the fi rst p rison refo rms, 1 820s


It was clear that the harsh punishments of the Bloody Code were not working (see pages
70 -71) and that crime was increasing. People began to look at prisons as an alternative and
the government began a programme of major penal reform. In 1823, the Home Secretary, Sir
Robert Peel (see page 68) passed a new set oflaws known as the Gaols Act. Although the Act
only applied to around 130 of the biggest prisons, and was ignored in some prisons, it was an
important step in improving conditions. The main changes are summarised below.

Pri s o n e rs s h o u l d be sepa rated


i nto g ro u ps s o that h a rd e n e d
c ri m i n a l s a re n ot m ix i n g with
fi rst-ti m e offe n d ers.

Male and fe m a l e p r i s o n e rs
A l l p r i s o n e rs s h o u l d h a ve
a re to be sepa rated . Wo m e n
proper fo od, th o u g h t h ey
s h o u ld h a ve fe m a l e wa rd ers.
ca n no l o n g e r keep pets !

Pri s o n wa rd ers a n d
g ove r n o rs a re t o b e pa i d . A l l p r i s o n ers s h o u ld atte n d
T h ey s h o u l d n o l o n g e r rely c h a p e l a n d receive re l i g i o u s
o n p r i s o n ers pay i n g fees. i n st r u c t i o n from t h e c h a p la i n .

Pri s o n s m u st be h ea lthy,
with proper fre s h water
visit p r i s o n s i n t h e i r a rea a n d
s u p p ly and a d equate
check u p on them.
d ra i n a g e.

.._ Robert Peel's Gaols Act , 1 8 2 3 . The new


idea behind these changes was to reform the
prisoners - to make them into better people so
less likely to re-offend.

ADDING TO YOUR KNOWLEDGE ORGANISER .,



Use the i nfo rmation on this page to fi l l in the t h i rd row on the table you sta rted on page 74 .

The ro l e of the reformers


For the first time in history, the Government had begun to build prisons and take an
interest in how these were run. Peel was heavily influenced by the ideas of penal reformers
John Howard and Elizabeth Fry. As Home Secretary he was well-placed to finally put these
ideas into practice .


4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

JOHN HOWARD, 1726-1790

H ow a rd beca m e i n te rested in prisons w h i l e he was


S h e riff of Bedfo rd s h i re. He i n s p ected p risons
i n Bedfo rd s h i re and was s h ocked by what h e
fo u n d .
e Afte r to u ri n g oth e r prisons a ro u n d t h e
co u ntry h e p u b l is h e d a re p o rt i n 1 7 7 7 : Th e
State of Prisons in Engla n d a n d Wa les.
e The re port was deta i led a n d h i g h l i g hted
the p ro b l e m s with the old prison syste m
(see p a g es 74-7 5 ) . H e stro n g ly attacked
t h e fees that priso n e rs h a d to pay.
e H i s p roposa l s fo r i m p rove m e nt i n c l u d e d
h e a l t h i e r acco m m odation, t h e s e p a ration
of priso n e rs, a decent d i et and bette r prison
g u a rd s .
H oweve r, d u ri n g h i s l ifet i m e, H ow a rd was criticised
fo r bei n g too l e n ient.

ELIZABETH FRY, 1780-1845

e Fry was a Quaker with a stro n g re l i g i o u s


backg ro u n d . O u a ke rs b e l i eve t h a t t h e re i s
s o m eth i n g of G o d i n eve ryo n e, a n d so it
fo l l ows that t h ey c a n be refo r m e d .
e S h e visited w o m e n i n N ewg ate p r i s o n a n d
w a s h o rrified at what s h e fo u n d . Th ree
h u n d red wo m e n , s o m e with babies o r
s m a l l ch i l d re n , were cra m m ed i nto t h ree
roo m s a m i d s h o u ti n g and fi g h ti n g . Fry
witnessed two wo m e n tea ri n g c l othes
fro m a d e a d b a by to put o n a living o n e .
e S h e h i g h l i g hted t h e poor l i v i n g co n d it i o n s
a n d t h e exp l o itati o n o f wo m e n p riso n e rs
by t h e m a l e prison warders.
e She e n co u ra g e d oth e r O u a ke rs to visit
prisons and offe r assista n ce, and set u p
p raye r g ro u ps fo r t h e wo m e n i n o rd e r to
g ive re l i g i o u s i n structi o n .
e S h e set u p a sch o o l fo r t h e c h i l d re n a t N ewg ate a n d ta u g ht t h e m usefu l work l i ke sewi n g
a n d kn itti n g t o g ive t h e m a m e a n s t o su rvive w h e n re l eased .
e S h e h a d a b i g i n fl u e n ce on t h e 1 823 G a o l s Act. H oweve r, by t h e 1 840s, Fry was
criticised by some a s b e i n g too l e n ient.

WHO HAD THE MOST IMPACT ON PRISON REFORM?


1 Describe H oward 's m a i n ideas.
2 Describe Fry's main ideas.
3 Where can you see evid e n ce of t h e i r ideas i n the 1 823 Gaols Act?
4 Exp l a i n w h i ch of the two had the m ost i m pact on p rison refo rm d u ri n g t h e i r lifeti me.
5 Pee l clea rly p l ayed a m aj o r pa rt i n tu r n i n g H oward a n d Fry's ideas into rea l ity. Loo k back at
the socia l ch a n g es on pages 66-67. Which of th ese do you t h i n k m a d e it poss i b l e fo r Pee l
t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e refo rms?
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Pe nto nvi l l e a n d the sepa rate system


B etween 1842 and 1877 the government built 90 new prisons in Britain. The first of these
was Pentonville, which provided the model for the others. Pentonville was built to deal
with the increased number of serious criminals who were no longer being transported or
executed for their crimes. Pentonville was set up not simply to deter; it aimed to reform the
inmates that passed through its doors.
Source C A plan of
Pentonville prison . The
blocks are like spokes from
the centre so that fewer
guards were needed to
supervise the prison .

H ow the s e p a rate syste m wo r ke d


Prisoners spent nearly all of their time alone and in their cells. Contact with other
prisoners was made as difficult as possible. The main idea was to keep them away from the
wicked influence of other prisoners. By being kept alone prisoners would reflect on their
crimes. All this was backed up by religious instruction so that prisoners might live more
honest and Christian lives once released. Sources D and F show how the separate system
operated at Pentonville.
Source D Prisoners
exercising at Pentonville .
They wore masks so that
they could not see anyone
and held a rope knotted at
4 . 5m intervals to prevent
them communicating with
the other prisoners .



4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

<11111 Source E Prisoners


attending the chapel at
Pentonville. The chapel was
built so that each prisoner
was boxed in. They could not
see the other prisoners but
could see the chaplain.

<11111 Source F A cell in


Pentonville , with a hammock
for sleeping and a weaving
loom for the prisoner to
work on. Prisoners were
put to useful work to show
that hard work and effort
could make them productive
citizens. It was hoped that
once released they would
seek honest employment
rather than a return to
crime .

Why might the separate


system have been bad
?
for the mental health of
the prisoners?

Stre n gths a n d we a kn esses o f t h e s e p a rate syste m


The separate system effectively isolated prisoners for the whole of their sentence. This
ensured prisoners could no longer mix and negatively influence one another. It ended the
ADDING TO YOUR ?
KNOWLEDGE
fear that prisons were acting as 'schools for crime'. However, in practice the separate system
ORGANISER
effectively placed inmates in solitary confi n e m e nt. The results of this were quite shocking.
In the first eight years at Penronville, 22 prisoners went mad, 26 had nervous breakdowns Use the information o n
and 3 committed suicide. th ese p a g e s t o fi l l i n the
t h i rd row o n the table you
The separate system also proved costly in other ways. It required inmates to be housed in sta rted o n page 74.
separate cells and this added to the cost of building and running prisons.


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Th i n g s g et to u g her: The si l e nt
system
By the 1860s, few people were being hanged, and
transportation had ended in 1857. Therefore, prisons
had become the main method used to punish the
most serious offenders.
Although crime was actually falling in this period,
certain high-profile crimes created fear among the
public. Popular and cheap booklets, known as Penny
Dreadfuls, told lurid tales of violent crime and
increased public fears that not enough was being
done to deter the criminal classes. A good example
of this was the panic stirred up by the media over the
so called 'garroting crisis' (see Source G ) .
There was a growing belief that there was an
identifiable 'criminal type' who was thought to be
physically recognisable and less evolved than the rest

Source G Garrotters lying in wait , 1863. Garroting involved partly


of society. These 'criminal types' could not be
reformed, only deterred by tougher prisons. The
strangling the victim so that he or she could be robbed easily. There
Government responded by introducing much
were a few cases , then in 1862 an MP was garrotted near the House
tougher regimes in prison and at the centre of this
of Commons . Newspapers stirred up an outcry, blaming criminals
who had won early release from prison for good behaviour. This led
was the 'silent system':
the Government to introduce a harsher regime in prisons .
Priso n e rs were
expected to be H a rd wood e n
s i l e nt at a l l t i m e s . b u n ks re p l a ced
B re a k i n g t h i s r u l e h a m m ocks to sleep
co u l d res u l t i n on. T h i s was k n own
b e i n g w h i pped o r as ' h a rd boa rd ' a n d
b e i n g put o n a d i et w a s d e l i b e rate l y
of b read a n d wate r. u n comfo rta b l e .

Food was Priso n e rs were


described a s expected to t a ke
' h a rd fa re'. lt w a s p a rt i n ' h a rd l a bo u r'
a d e q u ate but - d e l i b e rate ly
m o n oto n o u s . The p o i n t l ess work fo r
s a m e menu every seve ra l h o u rs
d ay, yea r in a n d every d ay.
yea r out.

FINISHING YOUR KNOWLEDGE

Source H A prisoner working the crank in his cell . Prisoners were


ORGANISER AND MAKING A

expected to turn the crank handle up to twenty times a minute, DECISION


10,000 times a day, for over eight hours. If a guard tightened a 1 Use the i nfo rmation on this page to fi l l in the fi n a l
screw, it made the crank harder to turn. This led to guards being row o n the t a b l e y o u sta rted o n p a g e 74.
2 N ext, use yo u r co m p l eted table to m a ke a n
nicknamed 'screws'. Some prisoners had to walk a giant treadmill or
unpick lengths of old ships' tarred rope to make string.
ove ra l l decision about w h e n t h e wo rst a n d best
times were fo r To m the 'tea-l eaf' to be 'in c l i n k'.
M a ke s u re you g ive reasons.
4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

4.11 Com municating your answer


You know that great changes to prisons took place in the nineteenth century, beginning
with the Gaols Act of 1823. However, knowing how prison changed is only part of the
story. You must also consider the reasons why prisons changed. Just listing or describing
these reasons is not enough. You must be able to 'prove' why that reason was important by
explaining the effect it had. Try answering the following question using the steps below.
Explain why there was so much change to prisons during the period 1700-1900.

Ste p 1 : Descri bing a n d exp l a i n i n g


Usually you would organise your answer into paragraphs - each paragraph describing a
reason and explaining the effect it had. To help you do this, make a copy of the table and
use the statements below it to fill in the blanks.

Reason Descri be reason Exp l a i n how reason led to a cha nge


Risi n g cri m e T h e refo re, t h e g ove rn m e n t b e g a n reform i n g
p risons t o t r y t o red u ce offe n d i n g .
B l o ody C o d e w a s n ot
worki n g
Existi n g prisons were Priso n e rs m ixed togeth e r. Fi rst-t i m e T h i s l e d critics t o d escribe p r i s o n s a s 'sch o o l s fo r
i n effective offe n d e rs were th rown togeth e r with cri m e'. C h a n g es we re needed to stop priso n e rs
exp e ri e n ced cri m i n a l s. co m m itti n g fu rth e r cri m es w h e n re l eased.
Ro l e of t h e g ove rn m e n t
was ch a n g i n g
Ro l e o f t h e refo r m e rs

Th erefore, p u b l i c executions were no l o n g e r a deterre n t . Furthermore, t h e g ove r n m e n t


feared t h e risk of riot, w h i c h m i g ht lead to revolut i o n . An a lternat ive form of p u n i s h m e n t
w a s needed .

I n d ivi d u a ls l i ke J o h n H oward a n d Elizabeth Fry believed p risoners could be refo rmed


through h a rd wo r k a n d re l i g i o u s i nstruct i o n .

Th i s resu lted i n t h e g ove r n m e n t havi n g t h e n e cessa ry f u n d s to i m p rove exist i n g p risons a n d


b u i ld n ew ones.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The g ove r n m e n t was beco m i n g m o re i nvo lved i n eve ry .

aspect of society a n d h i g h e r taxes were b e i n g ra ise d . Practice q u estions


The n u m be r of t h efts a n d violent c r i m es rose betwe e n 1 8 2 0 1 Exp l a i n o n e way in w h i c h t h e a i m s of p u n is h m e n t were
a n d 1 8 5 0 . T h e re was also a n i ncreased fear of crime. s i m i l a r i n t h e l ate n i n eteenth centu ry a n d t h e l ater
Th i s p rovi ded t h e gove r n m e n t with i d eas a b out what M i d d l e Ag es.
c h a n g es could be made to help i m p rove p risoners' lives. 2 Exp l a i n o n e way i n w h i c h p o l i c i n g m et h o d s were
d iffe re nt i n t h e n i n eteenth centu ry a n d t h e later M i d d l e
P u b l i c executions had become a form of enterta i n m e n t . They
Ag es.
3
we re rowdy a n d could attract large c rowds.
Exp l a i n why t h e re were c h a n g es i n m et h o d s of
p u n i s h i n g c ri m i n a l s i n t h e period c.1 700 to c.1 900.
4
Ste p 2 : Writing a concl usion Exp l a i n why t h e re were c h a n g es to p o l i c i n g i n t h e
A good conclusion makes the overall argument clear - it period c.1 700 to c.1 900.
does not need to repeat everything you have already written. 5 'The ro l e of Robert Pee l was t h e m a i n reason fo r t h e
Make it clear which reason you think played the most d eve l o p m e nt o f t h e fi rst p o l ice fo rce i n 1 829.' H ow fa r
important role in the changes to prisons. do you a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer.
6 ' Refo rm was t h e d rivi n g fo rce b e h i n d t h e c h a n g e s
m a d e t o p u n is h m e n t i n t h e n i n eteenth centu ry.' H ow
fa r do you a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer.
PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

4.1 2 Visi b le Lea rn i n g : Revise a n d re m e m b e r


It should b e clear by now that the period 170 0 - 1 9 0 0 saw dramatic changes
to crime and punishment. Therefore, this is a good opportunity to revisit
the factors affecting crime and punishment.

Tech n i q u e 1 : Ro l e of i n d ivid u a l cha rts - Ro bert Pee l


Yo u m ay h ave n oticed that i n t h e period 1 700-1 900 certa i n key i n d ivid u a ls, i n c l u d i n g Ro b e rt Pee l , p l ayed a ro l e i n t h e
d eve l o p m e nt of cri m e a n d p u n i s h m ent. lt w i l l be m u ch easier to revise t h e i r ach ieve m e nts if you use t h e s a m e k i n d of
c h a rt fo r each o n e . T h e exa m p l e b e l ow a n d t h e q u esti o n s a ro u n d it wi l l h e l p you create c h a rts fo r oth e r i n d ivid u a ls, but
d on ' t b e a f ra .1 d to t h .1 n k fo r you rse If a b out w h at you want to .mc I u d e.
lt is im portant to
M a ke s u re you get the Robert Peel, 1 788-1 850 narrow this down when
basic chronology right. "' considering the role
.... T i m e period: 1 7 00- 1 900 J T i m e active: 1 820s a n d 1 830s V they played .

1--
Key contr i b u t i o n :
- Did their contribution
Briefly d escribe their I ntro d u ced t h e fi rst p o l i ce force in Lo n d o n - t h e M etropo l itan
Police - i n 1 82 9 .
lead to other changes
contri bution/activities.
Refo rmed a n d i m p roved prison syste m . later on? What other
Passed l aws e n d i n g t h e Bloody C o d e . aspects of crime a n d
C o ntri b uted t o p e n a l refo rm w i t h t h e G a o l s A c t o f 1 82 3 . p u n i s h m e n t changed
as a resu lt?
S h o rt-term i m pact: Lo n g e r-term i m pact:
V
......
_..
Think a bout what their Po l i ce forces esta b l i s h e d
immed iate im pact a c ross country .
Think about any other
was on cri m e a n d Detective force formed .
Prisons beca m e m a i n form

factors that made the
p u n is h ment. Did it contribution of the
of p u n i s h m e n t for serious
change things at the crimes. individual possible or
time? that also infl uenced

- 1-- other key individuals


W h a t o t h e r factors played a role? cha nge. For exam ple,

like Fry and Howard


gave Peel the necessary
ideas for his prison
reforms. Increased
revenue from taxation
allowed government
N ow go back a n d m a ke s i m i l a r cha rts fo r a ny oth e r i n d ivid u a l s you th i n k were i m porta nt to cri m e and lawmakers to pay
a n d p u n i s h m ent. You cou l d consider Fry a n d H oward on p a g e 77, or g o even fu rth e r b a c k by
looki n g at M atth ew H opkins (pages 44-45) a n d even Wi l l i a m the Con q u eror (pages 20-21 ) .
for a police force.

Tech n i q u e 2 : Re peat you r m e m o ry m a p


I n C h a pters 2 a n d 3 you d rew a m e m o ry m a p to h e l p you reco rd t h e m a i n featu res of
cri m e a n d p u n i s h m e nt in the M i d d l e Ages a n d the period 1 5 00-1 700. D raw a th i rd
m e m o ry m a p fo r t h e period 1 700-1 900. O n ce a g a i n , use two d iffe re nt co l o u rs to s h ow
what were ch a n g es a n d what we re conti n u ities .



4 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n e i g htee n t h - a n d n i n ete e n t h - ce n t u ry B rita i n

Tech n i q u e 3: Tesse l l ate ! App reciate ! Accu m u late !


U s i n g h exa g o n s can be a g reat way of reca p p i n g a n d p e r i o d ? N ext, exp l a i n l i n k 2 i n t h e s a m e way. Yo u ' l l n otice
revisi n g p revi o u s l y l e a rnt content. T h e advanta g e of that t h e outer facto r h exa g o n s a re a l so to u c h i n g - that
h exa g o n s is that they can (get ready to m a ke yo u r m e a n s l i n k 3 a l so needs exp l a i n i n g !

Ste p 2
m a th e m atics tea c h e r proud) tesse l l ate - fit tog eth e r. T h i s
i s a usefu l w a y o f s h owi n g h ow fa ctors l i n k to c h a n g e s a n d
s o m et i m e s l i n k to each oth e r. Try a d d i n g s o m e m o re facto r h exa g o n s, but re m e m be r you
m u st exp l a i n any l i n ks that you m a ke. H e re a re t h e fa cto rs
Step 1
you co u l d u s e :
Sta rt with t h e g rowth of h i g hway ro bbe ry. Write t h i s
o n a h exa g o n a n d a d d fa cto r h exa g o n s t o t h e outside
if t h ey help to exp l a i n it. Altern ative ly, you co u l d m a ke
b i g h exa g o n s a n d do t h i s as a g ro u p . We h ave sta rted
you off to g ive you s o m e i d e a . Exp l a i n l i n k 1 - h ow d i d
co m m u n icati o n s a n d trave l affect h i g hway ro b b e ry i n t h i s

Ste p 3
N ow see what you co m e u p with w h e n you put each of t h e
fo l l owi n g ch a n g es i n t h e centra l h exa g o n :
e G rowth of s m u g g l i n g
H a rs h l aws a g a i n st poach e rs
T h e a b o l ition of the B l oody Code
Prison refo rm
e T h e creati o n of a p rofessi o n a l p o l i ce fo rce

Yo u co u l d stick yo u r fi n is h e d h exa g o n s in yo u r book a n d


write t h e l i n ks a ro u n d t h e outside. Altern ative ly, i f u s i n g
b i g h exa g o n s a n d worki n g i n g ro u ps, u s e sticky n otes to
exp l a i n t h e l i n ks you m a ke. Yo u co u l d t h e n take a d i g it a l
p h oto a n d s t i c k a co py i n yo u r b o o k .

Tech n i q u e 4: Play a g a m e
B e l ow a re a l i st o f key te rms, eve nts a n d i n d ivid u a l s fro m t h e period 1 700-1 900. I n p a i rs, co py these o nto i n d ivid u a l
ca rd s . Swap these with a n ot h e r p a i r i n yo u r class.

N ext, d iv i d e t h e c a rd s eq u a l ly betwee n you and yo u r pa rtn e r. Sit back to back and take t u r n s at d escri b i n g what is o n t h e
ca rd with o u t u s i n g a ny o f t h e w o r d s writte n o n it. M ove o n w h e n yo u r pa rtn e r su ccessfu l ly i d e ntifies what i s writte n o n
t h e ca rd .

F i n a l ly, retri eve yo u r orig i n a l c a rd s t o a d d a few o f yo u r own before passi n g t h e m o n t o a n ot h e r pa i r a n d p l ay i n g t h e


game again.

T h e B l oody Code Gaols Act, 1 823 E l izabeth Fry Ro b e rt Pee l

J o h n H ow a rd H i g hway ro b b e ry Tea, c l oth, w i n e a n d b r a n d y Fie l d i n g b roth e rs

S i l e n t syste m Pentonvi l l e Poach i n g



Crim.e and punishm.ent in m.odern
Britain, c.l900-present

There has been 5.1 Cri minal moments in ti me : 2007


more change
to crime and
punishment since
1900 than any
of the previous
periods mentioned
in this book.
Social, cultural
and technological
changes have led to
changing definitions
of crime, as well as
a revolution in law
enforcement and
crime detection
methods. Perhaps a serious issue
most significantly, and in many
the twentieth cases lead to
century saw an other types of
end to capital
punishment, thus
ending a tradition
stretching back over
a thousand years.

The growth of the


internet has made it
possible for people to
commit online crimes
such as hacking into
databases to steal
people's bank details.

Equipment in the car provides


the officer with instant access
to computer-held records for all
vehicles . All officers have their
own radio to communicate with
the station and each other.

:'
5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT C . l 9 0 0-PRESENT: OVERVIEW

1 Wo rk in p a i rs or s m a l l g ro u ps . You h ave five m i n utes. What evid e n ce can you fi n d in the pictu re of:
a) d iffe re nt types of cri m i n a l activity
b) d iffe re nt p u n i s h m ents
c) d iffe re nt fo rms of law enfo rce m e n t (policing a n d /o r cri m e p revention)?
2 What ch a n g es a n d conti n u ities ca n you see when you co m p a re this cri m i n a l m o m ent i n ti m e with the n i n eteenth -centu ry
sce n e on pages 56-57?
3 Use yo u r existi n g know l e d g e of the twentieth centu ry fro m Key Stag e 3, to help exp l a i n possi b l e reasons fo r the c h a n g es .
4 List a ny q u estions that t h e s e two p a g e s ra ise a bout cri m e a n d p u n is h m ent i n the p e r i o d 1 900-present. Kee p t h e s e safe
a n d tick them off when you a n swe r them as you work t h ro u g h the rest of this secti o n .

Little has changed. Most


criminal cases are judged in a
Magistrates' Court . The most
serious crimes are referred to
Crown Court (which replaced
visiting royal judges) and are
still heard before a jury.

Community service orders


are used as punishment for
some crimes. These young
offenders carry out work in
their local community.



PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

5.2 How far did cri me really c hange during t he


twentiet h century?
The twentieth century saw some dramatic changes in the way people lived their lives
in Britain. It was an era of two world wars, economic boom and bust, and tremendous
technological advances. Did crime change and grow as a result?

Bette r sta n d a rds of l ivi n g


By the time this book was written i n 2016, the population was better fed, better clothed and
better housed than in 1900. The welfare state provides a safety net for the most vulnerable,
but Britain remains a divided society. The gap between the richest and poorest has continued
to grow. Therefore, although a bsol ute poverty has declined, many people still feel poor
compared with the wealthiest in society.

Has cri m e rea l ly i ncreased?


Crime h a s increased since 1 9 0 0 but n o t as quickly as the headline figures suggested in the
graph below. First, figures show a rise because more people are willing to report crimes. By
the second half of the century more households had telephones, making it easier to inform
the police. Second, more people report burglaries and theft for insurance purposes. Third,
violent crimes and sexual offences are reported more, because the police are better trained
and more sympathetic than in the past. Finally, many crimes were previously dealt with
informally or 'off the record'. The police now record crime more consistently.

1 2 ,000
CV
c.
0
CV 1 0,000
c.
0
0
0
0 8,000
0
'11"'"
....
CV
c. 6,000
"'
CV
E
" i: 4,000
V

"'C
CV
"'C
.... 2 , 000
0
V
CV
0::::



Yea r

.&. Recorded crimes per 100,000 people in England and Wales during the twentieth century.
Recorded crime increased rapidly from the 1950s onwards. However, by the late 1990s it was
once again falling. This trend has continued into the twenty-first century with the crime rate at
its lowest since 1981 .



5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

NEW CRIMES OR OLD?



1 D raw you r own co py of the Ven n
d i a g ra m below OR borrow two h u la
h oops from the PE department to
m a ke a physica l d i a g ra m . You cou l d
add l a b e l s a n d i nfo rmation using
sticky n otes or s l i ps of paper and
take a d i g ital ph oto of yo u r fi nished
effort to stick i n you r book.
2 Read the i n formation about cri mes
o n pages 86-87. Re m e m be r what
you fo u n d out about cri m e i n e a r l i e r
periods a n d then add the d iffe re nt types of cri m e to yo u r d i a g ra m . Aro u n d the outside
a d d sente n ces to exp l a i n w h e re you h ave p l a ced each cri m e .

Ca r cri m e M u rd e r Hate cri mes


I n 1 900 t h e m otor ca r was sti l l a n ew The n u m be r of m u rd e rs I n 2007, t h e G overnm ent i ntroduced
i nve nti o n . By 1 930, ca rs we re c h e a p e r i n creased afte r 1 900, but a n ew law coveri n g 'h ate cri m es'. H ate
a n d d rivi n g was p o p u l a r but d a n g e ro u s . n ot as q u ickly as oth e r cri m es ra n g e from cri m i n a l d a m a g e
M otorists d i d n ot need a l i ce n ce a n d i n cri mes. T h ro u g h out a n d va n d a l ism thro u g h t o h a rassment
1 934, 7, 343 peo p l e were ki l l ed o n t h e h isto ry, m ost m u rd e rs or physica l assa u lt. Victi ms a re
roa d s . Afte r 1 935, a l l d rivers h a d t o pass occu r o n the s p u r of targ eted fo r their race, sexu a l
a test, pay ro a d tax, get i n s u ra n ce a n d the m o m e nt a n d a re orientation, re ligion o r disabil ity. The
m a i nta i n a ro adworthy ca r. Tod ay, d rivi n g u n p l a n n e d . The m ajo rity of m ost co m m o n type of h ate cri m e is
offe n ces a bsorb a h u g e a m o u nt o f p o l ice m u rd e re rs know the victim m otivated by raci s m . In recent yea rs,
and co u rt t i m e . Car th eft h a s beco m e and h ave n ever co m m itted there has been a g rowth in re lig iously
o n e o f t h e l a rg est cate g o ries o f cri m e . a serious offe n ce befo re. m otivated h ate cri m es.

Te rrorism Vio l e nt cri m e


Fro m the 1 960s B rita i n has l ived with the t h reat of terrorist v i o l e n ce. The I RA ( I rish a n d sexua l
Repu b l ican Army) carried out bomb atta cks o n b u i l d i n g s i n B rita i n between the 1 970s
offe n ces
a n d 1 990s, ki l l i n g and i nj u ri n g m a ny peo p l e . In J u ly 2005, M u s l i m extre m ists carried out
su icide b o m b i n g s i n Lo n d o n , ki l l i n g 56 people a n d i nj u ri n g m a ny m o re. V i o l e n t cri m es a n d
sexu a l offe n ces h ave
a l ways existed, but
both s h owed i n creases
i n t h e later twe ntieth
Com p ute r cri me Theft, b u rg l a ry
centu ry, p a rtly d u e
Com puter c ri m e is m ostly th eft o r
a n d s h o p l ifti n g t o a n i n creased
o n l i n e fra ud . Fra u d ste rs trick p eo p l e wi l l i n g n ess of victi m s to
T h e re h ave a l ways been opportu nistic
i nto h a n d i n g ove r i m po rta nt deta i l s o r re p o rt offe n ces.
thieves and b u rg l a rs . Tod ay, d ru g
pa sswo rd s . T h i s a l l ows fra u d ste rs to a d d icti o n fre q u ently l e a d s t o th eft
stea l m o n ey fro m t h e i r b a n k a cco u nts. as a d d icts stea l to feed t h e i r h a bit.
T h e i nternet has a l so made it easier S h o p l ifti n g beca m e esta b l i s h e d i n the
t h a n eve r befo re to i l l e g a l ly co py m u sic seco n d h a lf of t h e centu ry, a s m o re
and fi l m s with o u t payi n g fo r th e m . s h o p s p l a ced g o o d s on d i s p l ay. T h i s
m a d e s h o p l ifti n g easier a n d p e rh a ps
m o re tem pti n g .



PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

S m u g g l i n g a n d d ru g offe n ces
Sources A and B describe and show a big problem in modern Britain. However, does that
mean this is a totally new type of crime or simply an old crime that has changed and been
adapted over time ?

Sou rce A U K B o rd e r F o rce p ress re l e a s e , 1 7 N ove m b e r 2 0 1 4 . S o u rce : h t t p s ://www. g ov. u k/


g ove r n m e n t/n ews/ m a n -j a i le d -to r- d r u g - s m u g g l i n g -atte m pt
A man from Germany has been jailed for four years at Canterbury Crown Court after attempting to
smuggle approximately one kilo of cocaine in to the UK.
On 4 October this year Border Force officers stopped and questioned Charles Ukachukwu /m oh
after he arrived by coach at the tourist con trols in Dover's Eastern Docks. /m oh said he was coming
to the UK to visit family in London.
After his luggage had been searched /m oh agreed to accompany officers to hospital where he was
X-rayed and packages were iden tified inside him. A total of 83 packages were even tually recovered.
The drugs, which were later forensically tested, had a street value of over 2 75, 000 and a purity
level of 66 per cent.

Source B An X-ray showing taped up packets that were swallowed by a drug smuggler. So
called 'drugs mules' are an increasing problem particularly at the country's airports . If just
one of these packets burst , the person who swallowed them would likely die .



5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

HOW FAR HAS SMUGGLING REALLY CHANGED?


1 Use the i nfo rmation on page 88 to h e l p you co m p a re m o d e rn s m u g g l i n g with s m u g g l i n g
i n t h e eig hteenth centu ry. Fi l l i n yo u r own copy o f t h e t a b l e b e l ow.

Eig hteenth century Twe ntieth centu ry-present


Items s m u g g l e d B r a n dy, tea and c l oth

Reas o n s fo r To avo i d payi n g d uty


sm u g g l i n g B i g p rofits co u l d be m a d e
P u b l i c d e m a n d fo r g o o d s a t
c h e a p e r prices

M et h o d s used Fast s a i l i n g s h i ps b ro u g h t in
goods fro m E u rope
M oved fro m coasta l a reas to
tow n s fo r d istri bution

2 Decide where s m u g g l i n g fits o n the Ve n n d i a g ra m you sta rted o n page 87.

M od e rn s m u g g l i n g
Better transport throughout the twentieth
century has made smuggling increasingly
difficult to prevent. With millions of people
travelling in and out of the country by air,
land and sea, the task facing customs officials The main drug smuggling routes into the UK. Estimates say that 1 8-23
tonnes of heroin, 2 5-30 tonnes of cocaine and at least 270 tonnes of
cannabis are smuggled into Britain annually.
and border security is huge.

Lega l ite ms
Key
Coca i n e
Tobacco and alcohol are smuggled into the
---+

H e ro i n
country in huge quantities every day. Both are
much cheaper on the continent where taxes
on such goods are lower. Smugglers purchase Ecstasy/a m p h eta m i nes N ET H E RLAN DS
C a n na b i s CZECH REPUBLIC
large amounts and return to Britain where

PO LAN D
the goods are sold to make a profit. There is
B E LG I U M
big public demand as smuggled alcohol and
tobacco are much cheaper than in the shops .

I l legal items
Drugs are not the only illegal items smuggled
into Britain, but they generate the biggest
profits by far. Demand for illegal drugs has
continued to rise in the last 40 years and
consequently the illegal drug business has
become a multi-billion pound industry. PAKI STAN

Peo p l e s m u g g l i n g G HANA J

Tougher immigration controls and conflict


in different parts of the world have led to an ._l SOUTH
increase in people smuggling. Immigrants, who AFRICA
might otherwise not be allowed to enter Britain,
pay to be smuggled into the country.



PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

5.3 Case study: Were conscientious objectors really


/cowards and cads/ ?
Conscientious objectors (COs) refuse to take part in a war or conflict for moral reasons.
This is not usually a problem as professional armies recruit from volunteers. Those who
objected to fighting simply avoided volunteering.

The Fi rst Wo rld Wa r (1 91 4-1 91 8)


A t the start o f the war i n 1 9 14, the Government relied o n volunteers t o fight. A massive
recruitment drive was launched to encourage as many men as possible to enlist. Over
1 million men signed up, but, in 19 16, as the war dragged on and casualties mounted, the
Government introduced conscription. This meant all single men aged between 18 and 41
were required to enlist. A couple of months later this was extended to married men.
Conscription raised a further 2 . 5 million soldiers during the course of the war.
Around 16,0 0 0 men refused to join because
they were COs. The majority of them refused
to fight on religious grounds, pointing to the
commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill' from the
Bible. Others felt that the war was an
argument between the ruling classes of
Europe rather than the ordinary people.
However, majority opinion supported the war
and public attitudes towards COs were hostile.
They were frequently accused of cowardice
and some were even physically attacked.

ACTIVITY
1 What e m otion do you th i n k the m a n
is fee l i n g ?
2 W h y is the s o n s h own p l ay i n g with
toy s o l d i e rs?
3 What oth e r persuasive tech n i q u es d oes the
poster use?

.... Source A British recruitment poster, 1915.


This clever campaign was used to encourage
men to join up.
5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

\ :0: < > HJ IK T "


What impression does this newspaper
I . J'. S-> 1 1 1'

cartoon give about COs and their reasons


for not fighting?

Treatm e n t of COs
COs had to appear before a local tri b u n a l
(special court) to state their case. The
tribunals were sometimes made up of
retired soldiers and other unsympathetic
individuals. Some COs were given alternative
work supporting the war effort at home.
Others took non-fighting roles such as
driving ambulances at the front line, which
could be incredibly dangerous.
Over 6,0 0 0 COs refused to accept the
decision of the tribunal and were put in
prison where they faced solitary - os;:;:::a. - -
------
confinement, hard labour and a long '!.A T E 9.
sentence. By the end of the war, 73 COs had "l'li t ittlt pig stayed at horuc "

Source C Newspaper
died as result of their treatment. Even after
.A.
the war, all COs were stripped of the right to vote until 1926.
cartoon, 1 9 1 6 . This shows
a conscientious objector
Sou rce B Extract f r o m Great Britain 's Great War, by J e re m y Pax m a n , p u b l i s h e d i n 2 0 1 3 . staying at home while the
Near Oldham, a tribunal member facing a conchie {CO) ran ted that h e was . . . 'a coward and a cad, rest of his family contributes
and nothing but a shivering mass of unwholesome fa t '. to the war effort .

The Seco n d Wo rld Wa r (1 939-1 945)


Conscription was introduced again i n 1 939, and 59,162 people, including women,
registered as COs. This time the authorities treated them differently. Tribunals were still
held but were no longer allowed to include ex-soldiers. A greater effort was made to give
COs alternative work such as farming, or in industries like munitions that were vital to the
war effort. COs were sent to prison only as a last resort.
The British public were slower to change their attitudes than the government. COs continued
to be attacked in the newspapers and many were sacked from their jobs. Once again, COs
were openly accused of cowardice and treason while some were attacked in the street.

HOW WERE COS TREATED IN THE FIRST AND SECOND


WORLD WARS?
1 M a ke yo u r own copy of the table b e l ow a n d use the information on pages 90-91 to fi l l it
i n . An exa m p l e has been d o n e fo r yo u .

Wa r Government reaction Public attitudes


F i rst Wo rld Wa r S u p p o rted the w a r
(1 9 1 4-1 9 1 8) unanimously
Reg a rd e d C O s a s cowa rd s
Seco n d Wo r l d Wa r
(1 93 9-1 945)

2 Does the information on these pages p rove or ch a l l e n g e the popu l a r view that COs were
acti n g out of cowa rd ice? Exp l a i n yo u r reaso ns.


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5.4 W hat have been t he biggest c hanges to policing


since 1900?
The powers of the police to question, search or arrest suspects have changed little since
1 9 0 0 . However, there have been some important changes that affect greatly the way officers
carry out their duties.

CHANGES TO MODERN POLICING .,



1 Use the i nfo rmation b e l ow a n d on page 93 to co m p l ete yo u r own co py of the table b e l ow.

1 900 The situation today


N u m b e rs a n d A ro u n d 200 l o c a l p o l ice fo rces - a l l
o rg a n isation r u n d iffe rently
Litt l e co - o p e ration between fo rces
42,000 offi ce rs
Tra i n i n g a n d M i l it a ry d ri l l t h e o n ly tra i n i n g
recru itm e n t A l l p o l ice offi ce rs were m a l e
Low- q u a l ity a n d poorly p a i d recru its
Tra n s p o rt Offi ce rs wa l ked a 'beat' of u p to 20
m i les a day
Eq u i p m ent Wh istle to ca l l fo r h e l p
Wo o d e n tru n c h e o n
Pisto l s l o cked u p at p o l ice stati o n fo r
e m e rg e n cies
C ri m e d etecti o n Eyes a n d e a rs of t h e offi cer
too l s Witn ess state m e nts
Record - ke e p i n g Loca l reco rd - ke e p i n g was p o o r
N o n ati o n a l reco rd of cri m i n a l s
M a i n d uties Dea l i n g with cri m es, especi a l ly petty
th eft
Dea l i n g with d ru n ke n n ess

2 Which ch a n g es had the b i g g est i m pact o n the effectiven ess of the pol ice?
3 Which of the fo l l owing factors had the bigg est infl u e n ce o n the changes to the police force?
0 G ove r n m e n t
0 Attitu des i n society
0 Science a n d tech n o l ogy

Cri m e p reve ntion Wea pons


Every fo rce a p p o i nts cri m e p reve ntion offi ce rs (CPOs) O rd i n a ry officers d o n ot ca rry fi rea rms b u t sti l l h ave
who advise local p e o p l e o n cri m e p reve ntion a n d bato ns or tru ncheons. Pepper spray or CS gas can be
secu rity, s u c h as fitt i n g l ocks a n d a l a rm s t o p ro p e rty used to contro l violent suspects. Some office rs a re trained
a n d ve h i cles. T h e re is a l so an e m p h a s i s on catch i n g i n the use of tasers, which te m porarily disable a suspect
yo u n g offe n d e rs ea rly a n d e n co u ra g i n g t h e m away fro m with an e l ectric sh ock. Speci a l ist officers with fi rea rms
cri m e (see pages 98-99) . I n 1 982, t h e N e i g h bou rhood tra i n i n g a re used when there is a high leve l of th reat.
Watch beg a n . M e m b e rs of t h e co m m u n ity re p o rt
suspicious behavi o u r to t h e p o l ice w h o c a n t h e n fo l l ow
u p a n d i nvestig ate. I n 20 07, N e i g b o u rh o o d Watch
beca m e a natio n a l n etwo rk that wo rks closely with l o c a l
p o l i ce fo rces .


5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

Ve h icles
S i n ce the 1 930s, cars a n d m otorbikes
h ave i m p roved p o l i ce res ponse speed. By
the 1 970s th ese h a d effective ly re p l a ced
the foot patro l o r 'beat'. Po l i ce h e l ico pters
track suspects a n d s u p po rt offi ce rs o n
the g ro u n d . Tod ay, m a n y fo rces h ave
reintrod u ced foot or bicyc l e patro ls to
b u i l d bette r co m m u n ity re lations.

The science of cri m e


d etection
S i n ce 1 901 , t h e pol ice h ave used
fi n g e rpri nts and chem ica l a n a lysis of
blood s a m p les to i d e ntify suspects. M o re
rece ntly, D N A s a m p les h ave been used as
evi d e n ce with the fi rst m u rd e r convictio n
fro m t h i s n ew tech n o l ogy co m i n g i n 1 988.

S pecia l isation
Cri m e h a s beco m e m o re varied a n d
co m p l ex. The refore, there a re seve ra l
h i g h ly trained speci a l ist u n its i n c l u d i n g the
Fraud Squad, Drugs Squad, dog-h a n d l e rs,
cou nter-terro rist squads, cyber-cri m e u n its
Basic tra i n i n g Com m u n ications a n d oth e rs.

S i n ce 1 947 n ew recruits h ave I n t h e 1 930s two-way ra d i o s


u n d e rtaken fou rteen weeks of were i ntrod u ced t o p o l i ce
basic tra i n i n g at the N ati o n a l c a rs a n d t h e 999 e m e rg e n cy Com p ute r records
Po lice Tra i n i n g Co l l ege. Loca l te l e p h o n e n u m be r was starte d .
fo rces h ave their own speci a l ists Tod ay, a l l offi ce rs carry a S i n ce 1 974, t h e Po l i ce N a ti o n a l Com puter
to conti n u e the tra i n i n g . two-way ra d i o fo r i n stant ( P N C) h a s co l l ected togeth e r seve ra l
co m m u n icati o n with t h e p o l ice d ata bases, i n c l u d i n g fi n g e rp ri nts, m otor
station o r h e a d q u a rters. ve h i cles and m issi n g p e rson deta i ls.
Officers h ave a ccess to nati o n a l a n d l o c a l
i nfo rmation 24 h o u rs a d ay.
Ca mera tech nology
CCTV and oth e r secu rity
reco rd i n g s a re used to p reve nt
Cha n g i n g ro l es
cri m e, but a l so to h e l p i d e ntify N u m be rs
Po l i ce offi cers d e a l i n creasi n g l y
a n d convict su spects. T h e with n o n - c ri m e re l ated The total n u m be r of officers (as of M a rch
p o l i ce a l so use Auto m atic i n ci d e nts such a s a nti-soci a l 201 5) is 1 26,81 8, spread across 43 1ocal
N u m be r P l ate Recog n ition b e h avi o u r, d r u n ke n n ess, forces i n E n g l a n d a n d Wa les. Wom e n
(AN P R ) . As a ve h i c l e passes an m is s i n g persons and i n ci d e nts officers fi rst appeared i n 1 920. T h e
ANPR ca m e ra, its reg istrati o n l i n ked to m e n ta l h e a lth w h e re p roportion o f fem a l e officers i n E n g l a n d
i s rea d a n d ch ecked a g a i n st a s o m e o n e m ay be at risk. a n d Wa les has increased fro m 7 per cent i n
database of ve h i cles of i n te rest Offi cers a l so ke e p o rd e r at 1 977 t o a ro u n d 28 per ce nt ( M a rch 201 5).
to the p o l i ce. Offi ce rs ca n sto p d e m o n strati o n s , footba l l The p roportion of officers from eth n i c
a ve h icle, check it fo r evi d e n ce m atch es a n d oth e r l a rg e m i n o rities is sti l l l ow but has risen from
a n d m a ke a rrests. gatherings. 1 per cent in 1 989 to 5.5 per cent today.


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5.5 How have prisons c hanged since 1900?


Since the nineteenth century, prisons have been used as the most common form of
punishment for serious crimes. However, the twentieth century saw significant changes to
the way prisons operated and the conditions inmates faced.

I 've h a d e n o u g h of c r i m e .
I'm g etti n g too o l d fo r
t h i s . Ti m e to t u r n over a
n ew leaf, G u v. Gedd it?!

Remember Tom the 'tea-leaf'


from page 4? Well, he's in
trouble again. We think it's
time that Tom went on the
'straight and narrow' and
after a thousand years of
history he finally agrees.
Tom wants to become a
reformed character, so what
would he have made of
prisons and the alternatives
after 1 9 0 0 ?

WHEN WAS THE BEST TIME FOR TOM T O BE IN PRISON? -,



Use the i nfo rmation on pages 94-97 to h e l p you fi l l in yo u r own copy of the ta b l e b e l ow.
We h ave beg u n a d d i n g information to h e l p g et you sta rte d . Remember, this time Tom
wants to be reformed !

Positives from Tom's Negatives from Tom's point


point of view of view
P riso n s befo re 1 947 No m o re cra n k o r Priso n e rs co u l d m ix.
tread m i l l afte r 1 902
To m m i g ht fa l l i n with a bad
c rowd w h i l e i n s i d e
P riso n s afte r 1 947

N o n - cu stod i a l a ltern atives

Cha n g es to p riso ns before 1 947


By 1 9 0 0, prisons had already begun to move away from the separate system (see page 78) .
The use o f pointless hard work such a s the crank and the treadmill were greatly reduced
and finally abolished by 1902.
The biggest changes came after 1922. Solitary confinement was ended and prisoners were
allowed to associate with each other. The broad arrows that marked convict uniforms
were abolished, as was the 'convict crop' (shaved hairstyle) that prisoners had worn. Diet,
heating and conditions in the cells were improved gradually and more visits were allowed.
Teachers were employed in prisons to help inmates have a better chance of finding work
when released .


5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

The first open prison was built in 1933. Rules in open Cha n g es to p riso ns afte r 1 947
prisons were more relaxed and the prisoners were allowed to
The prison population began to rise steeply after the 1940s
leave the grounds in order to work. The idea was to prepare
(see the graph below) . This trend has continued until the
inmates for ordinary life back in the community. The use of
present day, with the number of people in prison doubling
open prisons was expanded and continues today.
between 1993 and 2015. The possible reasons for this are
explored below, as are the effects this had on conditions.

Why h ave p riso n e r n u m b e rs i n creased?


The rise in the prison population is due to a number of
reasons, not just an increased crime rate. Fear of crime
increased after the mid-twentieth century and politicians
reacted to public concerns that they were 'soft' on crime :
e The average length of sentences has increased. Prisoners
are being locked away for longer as governments seek to
be 'tough on crime'.
e There is an increased chance of a prison sentence for
certain crimes, particularly sexual, violent or drug
related offences.
e The number of people on remand (awaiting trial in
prison) has increased.

.A. Ford Open Prison in West Sussex . Notice the inmates Ove rcrowd i n g a n d u n d e rstaffi n g
returning to the prison at the end of a working day in the
Prison overcrowding peaked i n the 1980s and prisons have
community.
remained overcrowded every year since 1994. Reduced
Why d i d it c h a n g e? budgets and difficulties in recruiting have led to fewer staff
looking after more prisoners. At the same time, there has
Fear of crime had declined from the heights of the
been an increase in the number of serious assaults in prison.
nineteenth century. Therefore, the Government was under
There are also ongoing problems with deaths in custody,
less public pressure to make prisons so harsh. There was
reaching a record number in 2014. In recent years there has
also a belief that the certainty of arrest rather than prison
been a decline in purposeful activity such as work or
was the real deterrent.
education for prisoners. In 20 14, Ofsted judged over half of
The old belief that criminals inherited their criminal habits prisons as inadequate or requiring improvement for learning
was declining. Instead, many thought poverty or a criminal and skills. This does little to solve the problem that nearly
environment caused crimes. This raised hopes that better half of all prisoners left school without qualifications and
treatment and education in prison might reform inmates. one in five need help with literacy and numeracy.

90,000 <0111 Prison population 1900-2 0 1 0 .


Source: www.parliament .uk/
80,000 briefing-papers/SN04334. pdf

70,000
c
0 60,000
.;:::;
1!!
50,000
Q.
::J

0
Q.
40,000
c
0
;: 3 0 , 0 0 0
Ill

c..

20, 000

1 0,000

@

Year


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A rece nt p riso n e r's exp e r i e n ce


You may have noticed by now that public attitudes have a big effect on crime and
punishment. By the 1980s and 1 9 9 0s, there was growing public feeling that prisons were
no longer harsh enough. This remains a popular theme in newspapers and the media, but
how far is it really true ?
When we were writing this section we were lucky enough to get the following description
from an inmate currently serving a prison sentence. The author accurately conveys life
inside a typical closed prison.

A description of prison life in 2016


I'm currently sat in a cell that was built in the late 1840s. The modernisation of the cell is the
strip lighting that is running in a reinforced unit along the side of the wall; a TV and FM
receiver point plus a TV (that is rented, it isn't just given out to inmates), a kettle and a 'smash
proof' unit that incorporates two desks and drawer units.

S omeone who does not do as they are told will soon find themselves on a Basic Regime.
That's an hour out of the cells each day. No TV allowed. Fewer visits. Not allowed their own
clothes. Conversely, you can engage and get improved conditions. I'm on Enhanced Regime.
I'm out of my cell most of the day. I get extra visits. I can spend more money and buy things
from approved catalogues. For all, there is a standard 'bang up' time on an evening:
5 . 3 0 p.m. at the latest.

TV isn't a right. It's an earned privilege and is paid for. Making phone calls is a right but can
be restricted - they are recorded and there is a time limit on them. In short, anything above
basic food, water, a blanket and a set of clothes a week, and two envelopes and sheets of paper
is a privilege.

Like schools, things run to a timetable. Cells are unlocked for workers at 8 a.m. and at 1 .45
p.m. for afternoon sessions. Each work session lasts two and a half hours. Work or education is
compulsory for convicted prisoners. Refusal leads to Basic Regime. S ome full-time workers can
be out of their cells for roughly eight hours a day. A Basic Level prisoner will be out for just over
an hour to collect food, have showers, etc.

Fights or suspicion of one will result in a lock down. So will any breach of security and
some types of medical emergency. Perhaps the most concerning cause of lock downs is the
consequence of using substances (drugs) including legal highs. As these are all banned, they are
much more volatile than on the street. The result is more severe reactions to these substances,
which include seizures, collapses, hallucinations and violent outbursts.

At least fifteen hours a day is spent locked in a small cell. Each of us has our own way of
dealing with that. Newspapers are highly sought after - remember that they cost more than a
standard inmate's daily prison earnings. Books are also popular, though lots of the lads need to
have them read for them. Other than that it's TV if you have one, talking with cell mate if you
share and tidying the cell.

THE PRISON DEBATE -,



1 M a ke a l ist of a l l of the t h i n g s wro n g with p risons accord i n g to the p riso n e r's descriptio n
a bove.
2 H ow m a ny of th ese p ro b l e m s resu l t fro m ove rcrowd i n g a n d u n d e rstaffi n g ?
3 D iscuss as a class w h eth e r l ife i n p rison today is t o o h a rsh o r t o o soft.
4 Does the descriptio n cha l l e n g e or s u p p o rt the view that prison is an effective way of
refo r m i n g cri m i n a ls? G ive yo u r reasons .


5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

N o n -custod ia l a lte rnatives


The Effectiveness of Non- Custodial

A prison sentence keeps criminals off the street and Punishments
demonstrates to the prisoners and the public that the
For each of the non-custodial alternatives in the timeline,
government is being tough on crime. However, there are explain how it might (or might not) help deal with the
some important drawbacks, as shown in the diagram below. criticisms of prisons outlined in the diagram .

.&. An electronic tag on a released prisoner. These are fitted


to the wrist or ankle , to allow a constant watch to be kept ,
ensuring former inmates are at home during curfew hours. If
the prisoner breaks their curfew, the electronic tag will alert
the contractors and the prisoner may be recalled to prison.

It is easy to criticise prisons, but difficult to find effective


alternatives. The timeline below summarises some of the
non-custodial alternatives different governments have tried
since 1 9 0 0 .

----.
1 907 Probation i ntrod uced : t h e offe n d e r 1 962 B i rc h i n g (a p u n i s h m e n t s i m i l a r t o 1 990s E l ectro n i c tag g i n g i ntro d u ced : offe n d e rs

l
h a d to report o n ce a w e e k to t h e p o l i ce ca n i n g) a b o l i s h e d : th ose w h o wo u l d h ave wear an e l ectro n i c tag , w h i c h tracks t h e i r locati o n .
a n d meet reg u l a r ly with a probation been b i rched were now l i ke ly to be f i n e d C o u rts a n d p o l i ce can i m pose restrictions o n t h e
officer. If t h ey did not re-offe n d t h e re o r sent t o p r i so n . offe n d e r' s move m e nts a n d s e t a cu rfew.
wo u l d be no f u rt h e r p u n is h m e n t .

---4---------------- - ---------,---------------------------- ----------- 1--------,

..._______ ___
1 9 1 0-1 920 1 920-1 930 1 930-1 940 1 940-1 950 1 9 50-1 960 1 960-1 970 1 970-1 980 1 980-1 990 1 990-2000 1
1 967 Parole i ntro d u ced : p r i s o n e rs n o l o n g e r h a d
1 9 1 4 Lon g e r to pay f i n e s : offe n d e rs g iven t o se rve t h e i r e n t i re sentence if t h ey beh aved we l l .
l o n g e r to pay f i n es rat h e r than b e i n g sent 1 972 C o m m u n ity S e rvice O rd e rs i ntrod u ced
to p r i so n . F i nes h ave conti n u ed to be the 1 967 S u s p e n d e d sente n ces i n trod u ced : i f offe n d e rs offe n d e rs req u i red to d o between 40 a n d
m ost co m m o n type of sente n c e . d i d not re-offe n d t h ey were not sent to p r i so n . 3 0 0 h o u rs u n pa i d w o r k i n t h e com m u n i ty .


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5.6 How effectively do we deal wit h young offenders?


8 J uve n i l e d e l i n q u e nts
The Victorian attitude to 'juvenile delinquents' (young
offenders) was harsh and children were treated the same
6
as adults. In 1854, after being convicted of minor crime,
Edward Andrews was sent to Birmingham Borough Prison.
4 He was placed in solitary confinement and expected to
turn a hand crank (see page 80) 10,000 times every ten
hours. Andrews refused and was soaked in cold water, put
2 in a straightjacket and fed only bread and water. After two
months of this treatment Andrews hanged himself in his
cell. He was fifteen years old.

20 30 40 50 60 70
However, b y the early twentieth century ideas were shifting
Age
away from harsh punishments towards reform. Many
believed that young people were ripe for change, as their
A. Percentages of all crimes committed by males and
characters were not yet fixed. With positive influences and
females of different ages. The peak age for committing
a good environment, perhaps they could be turned away
crime is eighteen for males and even younger for females .
from a life of crime.

Refo rm beg i n s
The priority was to separate young offenders from hardened adult criminals. I n 1902, the
first borstal opened for offenders under eighteen years old. Borstals were run rather like strict
boarding schools, with house competitions and lots of character-building sport. The usual
sentence was from six months to two years. Offenders could be released after six months, but
only if staff felt they were ready.
In 1 932, the first Approved Schools were set up for offenders under the age of fifteen years.
These were rather like borstals and offered training in skills such as bricklaying. In 1 959,
after rioting and large numbers of children a bsconding, there was public criticism and
Approved Schools were gradually closed.
In 1 948, Attendance Centres were introduced. These non-custodial centres ran
compulsory daily or weekly sessions for offenders aged 10-2 1 . These covered basic literacy
and numeracy; life skills such as filling in job applications; money management and
cooking. Today Attendance Centres deal with offenders aged 18-24 years and encourage
an understanding of the impact of their crimes on the community. They also run drug,
alcohol and sexual health awareness sessions.

S h o rt s h a rp shock!
Borstals were abolished i n 1 9 8 2 . Around 60 p e r cent o f those released from borstal went on
to re-offend and there was also an increase in youth crime. Public opinion moved towards
harsher punishments. In 1 982, the Government introduced Youth Detention Centres.
Military drill and discipline were intended to provide a short sharp shock. However, this
tougher stance failed to deter and re-offending rates actually increased .



5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

The situation today


Despite changes to youth justice, re-offending rates have remained stubbornly high. Young
offenders who have served custodial sentences have the highest rates of re-offending, and
in recent years this has continued to rise.

Custody i s seen as a l a st resort. Offe n d e rs


Yo uth Co u rts work with u n d e r t h e a g e of e i g hteen c a n be h e l d
a g e n cies such a s the p o l ice, i n a Secu re C h i l d re n 's H o m e, a Secu re
sch o o l , soci a l wo rkers a n d Tra i n i n g Centre o r a YO I . YO i s o p e rate
probation officers. T h e m a ny of the s a m e ru l es as prisons.
e m p h a s i s is o n p reventi n g
t h e yo u n g p e rson settl i n g
i nto a l ife o f cri m e .
Atte n d a n ce Centres
a re the yo u n g
offe n d e r's l a st ch a n ce.
I f t h ey co m m it fu rth e r
offe n ces t h ey a re
Sente n ces may start l ocked u p i n a YO I .
with t h e pa rents, fi n i n g
t h e m i f t h ey ca n n ot
kee p t h e i r ch i l d u n d e r
contro l . C h i l d re n can N o n -cu stod i a l m ethods
be re m oved fro m t h e i r such a s ta g g i n g a n d
p a rents a n d p l a ced cu rfews a re u s e d to
i nto ca re. m o n itor offe n d e rs'
m ove m ents a n d
cou rts c a n i m pose
certa i n activities on
yo u n g sters, such a s
co u n sel l i n g .

A. Young inmate i n his cell , Portland Young Offenders Institution (YOI) , England .

HOW EFFECTIVELY ARE YOUNG OFFENDERS DEALT WITH?



1 Use the i nfo rmation on pages 98-99 to m a ke yo u r own ti m e l i n e of the ways in which yo u n g
offe n d e rs h ave been treated s i n ce 1 900.
2 Add brief n otes to exp l a i n the thinking (to d eter o r reform) beh i n d each n ew d evelopm ent.
3 As a cl ass, d iscuss h ow su ccessfu l treatm ent of yo u n g offe n d e rs has been .
4 F i n a l ly, a very d ifficult q u esti o n : What wou l d you s u g g est as a m o re effective a ltern ative?


PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

5.7 Case study: W hy is t he Derek Bentley case


remem bered today?
In 1 953, nineteen-year-old Derek Bentley was hanged for the murder of a policeman. In
1 989, the singer Elvis Costello released a song about the case. The case had already inspired
earlier songs and in 1 9 9 1 it was made into a film called Let Him Have It. S o why has the
B entley case remained in the public eye for so long?

POSING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS ?,



Read the song lyrics in Sou rce A, but n oth i n g else yet.
1 What q u estio n s do the h i g h l i g hted lyrics ra ise? S h a re th ese with the rest of the cl ass,
n oti n g d own a ny n ew q u estions.
2 What theories at this sta g e d o you h ave about why the Bentley case was re m e m be red fo r
so l o n g ?

N ow read the rest o f the inform ation o n page 1 0 1 .


3 Use the i nfo rmation to a n swer the q u esti ons you posed a s a class i n q u estio n 1 . Exp l a i n
the m e a n i n g o f the h i g h l i g hted lyrics i n yo u r book, t a k i n g care t o refe r t o d eta i l s i n t h e
Bentley case.
4 The death pena lty i n B rita i n was a b o l ished i n 1 965. In what ways m ig ht p u b l i c attitu des
about the Bentley case h ave p l ayed a ro le?

Sou rce A ly r i c s to t h e 1 9 8 9 song by E lv i s C o s t e l l o , ' let H i m D a n g le'.

Bentley said t o Craig, 'L e t him have it, Chris'

They still don't know todayjust what he meant by this

Craig fired the pistol, but was too young to swing

So the police took Ben tley and the very next thing
Let him dangle, let him dangle
Let him dangle, let him dangle
Ben tley had surrendered, he was under arrest
When he gave Chris Craig tha t fa tal request
Craig shot Sidney Miles, he took Bentley's word

The prosecution claimed as they charged them with murder

Let him dangle, let him dangle


Let him dangle, let him dangle
They say Derek Bentley was easily led

Well wha t 's that to the woman tha t Sidney Miles wed?
Though guilty was the verdict, and Craig had shot him dead
The gallows were for Ben tley and still she never said
Let him dangle, let him dangle
Let him dangle, let him dangle
Not many people thought that Bentley would hang

But the word never came, the phone never rang

Outside Wandsworth Prison there was horror and hate


As the hangman shook Ben tley's hand to calcula te his weight
Let him dangle, let him dangle
Let him dangle, let him dangle

..
5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

The story of Dere k Bentley, 1 933-1 953


Derek Bentley had severe learning difficulties and suffered from epilepsy. As a result of his
difficulties, Bentley found it hard to hold down even the most basic of jobs and struggled
to make friends.
In November 1952, Bentley, along with his sixteen-year-old companion, Chris Craig, were
caught burgling a warehouse in London. Craig, who came from a family often in trouble with
the law, was carrying a gun. He gave Bentley a sheath knife and a knuckle-d uster to carry.
The police arrived while B entley and Craig were on the roof. Detective Sergeant Fairfax
climbed up and managed to arrest Bentley. According to the police, DS Fairfax asked Craig
to hand over the gun, at which point B entley shouted, 'Let him have it, Chris.' Craig fired at
Fairfax, injuring him in the shoulder. Bentley did not use the weapons in his pockets and
made no attempt to escape.
More officers climbed onto the roof. PC Sidney Miles was immediately shot and killed.
After using up the rest ofhis bullets, Craig jumped from the roof, fracturing his spine and
breaking his wrist.
Bentley and Craig were both charged with murder. Craig was under eighteen so too young
to hang, but Bentley faced the death penalty if guilty. Bentley and Craig denied Bentley
ever said, 'Let him have it.' Even if he had said it, Bentley's lawyer argued, he could have
meant 'hand over the gun'. There was also controversy over whether Bentley was fit to stand
trial given his low intelligence.
Despite not firing the fatal shot, B entley was found guilty and sentenced to death,
although the jury asked for mercy for him. Craig was imprisoned and not released until
1963. B entley's lawyers' appeals were turned down.
There was public outcry at the sentence. The decision now
rested with the Home Secretary, Sir David Maxwell Fyfe.
Two hundred MPs signed a memorandum asking him to
show mercy and cancel the execution. Fyfe refused and on
28January 1 953, Bentley was hanged. Afterwards there
were angry scenes outside the prison and two people were
arrested for damage to property.
Bentley's parents, and later his sister, campaigned for a
posthumous (after death) pardon. Finally, in 1998, the
Court of Appeal ruled that the conviction for murder be set
aside. The ruling also said the original trial was unfair as
the judge had put pressure on the jury to convict.
There is no doubt that the public outcry over the Bentley
case contributed to the argument against the death penalty.
Many believed it was a miscarriage of justice. It also made
the law look cruel and caused people to doubt the morality
of capital punishment.

Iris Bentley, holding a photograph of her brother Derek ,


outside her home in 1 9 9 3 . Iris campaigned tirelessly to
clear her brother's name but sadly did not live to see the
1998 ruling.
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

5.8 W hy was the deat h penalty abolis hed in 1965?


Throughout the last thousand years you have studied, the ultimate punishment was always
the death penalty. Gradually, pressure to end capital punishment increased and in 1965 it
was abolished. However, there were strong arguments on both sides of the debate.

FO R AGAI NST
Th ose wanti n g to reta i n c a p ita l p u n is h m e n t a rg u e d : Abo l ition ists a rg u e d :
e lt h a d a d eterre n t effect a n d cri m i n a l s wou l d b e e Oth e r E u ro p e a n co u ntries h a d a b o l i s h e d c a p ita l
m o re l i ke l y t o carry wea p o n s if t h e re w a s n o d a n g e r p u n is h m e n t with o u t a n otice a b l e i n crease i n cri m e .
o f t h e m b e i n g h a n g e d fo r m u rd e r. e M i st a kes were m a d e a n d s o m et i m e s t h e wro n g
e Life i m p ri so n m e n t was expe n s ive a n d , i n a way, even p e rson w a s execute d .
m o re cru e l . e M ost m u rd e re rs a cted o n t h e s p u r o f t h e m o m e nt
M u rd e re rs w h o se rved a sente n ce a n d were t h e n and with o u t t h i n k i n g . The refo re, capita l p u n i s h m ent
re leased m i g ht ki l l a g a i n . d i d n ot d eter t h e m .
e Execution s h owed t h e p ro p e r contem pt fo r m u rd e r e Execution w a s a g a i n st t h e teach i n g s o f d iffe re nt
a n d ave n g e d t h e l i fe o f t h e victi m . re l i g i o n s and t h e Ch risti a n idea of fo rg ive n ess a n d
t h e sanctity o f l ife.

A decl i n i n g tre n d i n executions As result, executions in Britain fell to an average of only


four a year. However, to many the law still seemed unfair -
B y the late 1700s the use o f the death penalty was declining.
why was murder by shooting worse than strangulation
The Government decision to abolish the Bloody Code in the
or poisoning?
1820s and 1830s (see page 70) meant that only murder and
treason were punishable by death. In 1868 public hanging
was ended and after 1840 there were around fifteen The i m pact of the Seco n d Wo rld Wa r
executions a year - all for murder. Following the Second World War (1939-1945) and the
horrors of the Holocaust, there was a growing feeling that
In 1957 the Government abolished hanging for all
execution was un-Christian and barbaric. The country
murders except:
had been engaged in a life or death struggle against the
e murder of a police officer or prison officer Nazis. Execution now seemed wrong, the kind of action one
e murder by shooting or explosion associated with Hitler's Germany rather than Britain. In
murder while resisting arrest 1948, the United Nations issued its Declaration of Human
e murder while carrying out a theft Rights, which Britain signed up to. The Declaration says,
e murder of more than one person. 'Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.'
It goes on to add, 'No one shall be subjected to torture or to

THINKING ABOUT FACTORS cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.'
1 U s i n g the i nfo rmation on pages 1 02-1 03, fi n d evi d e n ce
of h ow each of the fa ctors in the table b e l ow contributed H i g h - p rofi l e cases a n d misca rriages of
to the end of the death pena lty i n 1 965. We h ave added j u stice
the two fa cto rs we think were m ost i m po rtant, but fee l
free t o add a ny oth e rs y o u t h i n k p l ayed a ro le.
Two well-publicised cases helped to turn the argument
in favour of abolition. The first was the case of Timothy
Evide nce of this factor i n Evans, who was hanged in March 1950. The second was the
Fa ctor action case ofD erek Bentley, executed in 1950 (see pages 100-101) .
I n stituti o n s : G ove rn m ent

Attitu des i n society


Afte r a bo l ition
Capital punishment was abolished i n 1 9 65 for all crimes
2 Can you exp l a i n h ow some of the fa cto rs were l i n ked? except treason in times of war and piracy. At first this was
3 Which facto r p l ayed the b i g g est ro l e i n the a b o l ition of for a trial period of five years, but in 1 9 69 Parliament voted
the death pena lty? Exp l a i n yo u r t h i n k i n g . to abolish it permanently.


5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

TIMOTHY EVANS

Timothy Eva ns was hanged in 1 950 a n d


post h u mously pardoned i n 1 966.
Eva n s and his wife were l o d g e rs in the h o u se of J o h n
Ch ristie, a t 1 0 R i l l i n gton P l a ce, Lo n d o n . Ch ristie w a s a
seria l kil l e r w h o h a d a l ready m u rd e red seve ra l wom e n .
Eva ns' wife beca m e p reg n a n t a n d Ch ristie offe red to
pe rfo rm an a borti o n . He ki l l ed Eva ns' wife a n d to l d
Eva n s s h e h a d d i ed d u ri n g a fa i l ed a borti o n . Eva n s
fe lt g u i lty a n d , n ot t h i n k i n g rati o n a l ly, confessed to
m u rd e r. H is story was o bvi o u s l y u ntrue - he c h a n g e d it
seve ra l t i m e s - but he was sti l l fo u n d g u i lty a n d h a n g e d .
Th ree years l ater, Ch ristie w a s convi cted o f eig ht oth e r
m u rd e rs, m a ki n g i t c l e a r Eva n s w a s a n i n n ocent m a n .

RUTH ELLIS

T h e l a st wom a n to be h a n g ed was Ruth El l i s in 1 95 6 .


E l l is was fo u n d g u i lty o f s h ooti n g h e r l over David
B l a ke l y i n a 'cri m e of passi o n '. lt had been an a b u s ive
re lati o n s h i p a n d B l a ke l y often beat E l l is . T h e re was
n o d o u bt as to her g u i lt, but t h e re was tre m e n d o u s
p u b l i c sym pathy fo r t h e g l a m o ro u s E l l is wh ose p h oto
a p p e a red in m a ny n ews p a p e rs .

T Sou rce A N u m b e r o f m u rd e rs i n t h e U K , 1 9 0 0 - 2 0 1 0 .

800 D o the figures i n Source ?


700
A prove that the abolition
of the death penalty

(i) 600
m
caused an increase in
"0
500
the number of murders?
:::J
.....

E
0 400
300
Q)
.....

.0
E
:::J
z
200
1 00
0
!:)Cl "Cl
"

" "
P.JC)
"Qj


PA RT 1 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

5.9 Com municating your answer


Now you have completed your research on the period c . 1 9 0 0 -present, it is time to answer
an enquiry question.

...............................
<changes to attitudes in society were the main reason for changes in punishments
. .
. c.1900 to the present.' How far do you agree?
Practice
B efore you answer this question you need to think about what to include. That's where the
q u estions iceberg comes in. It's here to warn you that certain kinds of question may contain hidden
1 Explain one way i n dangers lurking beneath the surface. On a first look, this question seems to be just asking
w h i c h smuggling i n the you about public attitudes. However, the question also includes the key words - how far.
twentieth centu ry was This is always a sign that there is more to the question than meets the eye and that you
sim i l a r to smuggling need to consider other factors not mentioned in the question. Remember, you can find
i n the period c.1 700 to additional advice in the Writing Better History section on page 164.
c.1 900.
2 Exp l a i n why there

Step 1 .
were c h a n g es i n

Deal with the


p o l i ci n g m ethods of
Step 3. Write your conclusion.
part of the question which is
p u n is h i n g cri m i n a l s i n
Don't sit on the fence - reach
'above the su rface ' . Explain how attitudes
judgement. Were attitudes
the period c.1 900 to
in soc i ety i nfluenced pu nishments. You need to
in society the main reason?
the present d ay.
3 think about how public attitudes hel ped lead to
End with a sentence
Explain why there
abolition of the death penalty and changes to prisons.
explai ning why you
were changes to

reached this decision.


punishm ents in the
period c.1 900 to the
present day. Step 2. Write about the other factors l u rki ng beneath
4 'Science and surface and ex plai n the effect they had on punishments.
tech nology has had You could incl ude:
the biggest effect on Science and technology -

policing c.1 900 to the Institutions: Government

present day.' H ow fa r Role of key individuals

do you agree? Explain Any other factors yo u th i n k relevant

you r answer.
5 ' M iscarriages of justice
were the m a i n reason
why ca pita l punishment Wo rd wa l l
was a bol ished i n 1 965.' Here are some final words you can add to the original Word wall you began on page 30.
H ow fa r do you agree? They will help you write accurately and with confidence. Look over your notes for c . 1 9 0 0 -
Explain you r answer. present and make sure that you know what all the words mean. Then add some r e d wo rds
of your own.

----'-' .,...
r r-- l __
....,;---...
n o n -custodia l sente nce you n g offe n d e rs special isatio n
cri m e prevention o p e n prison m isca rriage o f justice
_.__ _
N e i g h b o u rhood Watch 1

twenti nth t entu r,y


I
J_ I
r
prese nt day
p re-wa r (befo re WWI ) i nter-wa r (between th e wa rs) post-wa r (afte r WWI I )
5 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n m o d e r n B rita i n , c.1 9 0 0 - p resent

5.1 0 Vis i b le lea rn i n g : Revise a n d re m e m b e r

Tech n i q u e 1 : M a ki n g you r own pe n d u l u ms


The p u n i s h ment pend u l u m As you a l ready kn ow, as g ove rn m ents a n d t h e p u b l i c
c h a n g e d t h e i r m i n d s a b o u t w h a t prisons s h o u l d be l i ke, t h e
I n the l ast two sections you co l l ected a l ot of i n formation pe n d u l u m fo r prisons h a s swu n g b a c k a n d fo rth ove r t h e
a bout ch a n g es to prisons s i n ce the 1 700s. Revision i nvolves l a st 2 0 0 yea rs .
taki n g l a rg e a m o u nts of content and s l i m m i n g it d own so it 1 G o back ove r yo u r n otes a n d decide h ow fa r the
is easier to re m e m ber. One way is to m a ke yo u r revision p e n d u l u m sw u n g fo r each of t h e fo l l owi n g :
visu a l . Yo u co u l d view the c h a n g es as a pe n d u l u m swi n g i n g the old p rison system up u ntil the 1 820s (see page 75)
fro m o n e s i d e t o the oth e r. refo r m e d p ri s o n s afte r 1 823 (see p a g e 76)

Reform Deterrent t h e sepa rate syste m , 1 830s onwa rd s (see
Pun ishme nts to reform P u n i s h m e nts s h o u l d p u n i s r page 78)
the cri m i n a l so that cri m i n a l s so h a r s h l y t h a t t h e s i l e n t syste m , 1 860s onwa rd s (see p a g e 80)
h e or she would be less they wou ld be deterred
l i kely to offend a g a i n . from offe n d i n g a g a i n . p risons befo re 1 947 (see p a g e 94)
p risons afte r 1 947 (see p a g e 95)
n o n -custo d i a l a ltern atives (see p a g e 97) .
For each o n e, l ist s o m e evi d e n ce i n b u l l et p o i n t fo rm
fo r yo u r d ecisi o n .
2 You co u l d u s e t h e pend u l u m i d e a t o a n a lyse oth e r fo rms
of p u n i s h m ent ove r time. Th i n k about h ow you wo u l d
d raw a pe n d u l u m fo r each o f t h e fo l l ow i n g periods.
M a ke s u re to add yo u r reasons b e l ow each o n e :
c.1 000-c.1 500
c.1 500-c.1 700
c.1 700-c.1 900
c.1 900-present .

Tech n i q u e 2 : Tech n i q u e 3 : Set yo u r own


Re peat yo u r m em o ry m a p q u estions a n d test each oth e r
At t h e e n d o f C h a pters 2 , 3 a n d 4 you d rew a m e m o ry G o back ove r t h e work i n yo u r exe rcise b o o k (a n d pages
m a p to h e l p you reco rd t h e m a i n featu res of cri m e a n d 00-00) if n ecessa ry. Write te n to fifte e n k n ow l e d g e
p u n i s h m e nt. D raw a s i m i l a r m e m o ry m a p fo r t h e period b a s e d q u iz q u esti o n s fo r a pa rtn e r. M a ke s u re t h a t you
c.1 900 to t h e p resent. Use two d iffe re nt co l o u rs to s h ow a l so reco rd t h e a n swers s o m ewh e re !
ch a n g es a n d conti n u ities fro m e a r l i e r periods.
Yo u r q u esti o n s co u l d b e m u lti p l e c h o i ce, m u lti p l e
sel ect, t r u e o r fa lse, o r eve n req u i re s h o rt sente n ces
as a n swers. Use a m ix of q u esti o n types. J u st by
co m po s i n g these q u esti o n s you a re a l ready revis i n g key
Tech n i q u e 4: One of you r own content. Swap yo u r q u esti o n s with a p a rt n e r. H ave a g o
a t t h e i r q u iz a n d t h e n m a rk each othe r's a n swers.
H o pefu l ly, we h ave a l ready g iven you a fa i r few ideas
a b o u t revision a n d ways of m a ki n g t h e i nfo rmation
'stick'. G o back to t h e Revise and re m e m b e r pages at
t h e end of e a r l i e r c h a pters. Ch oose a n ot h e r m ethod
l i sted t h e re and a d a pt it to help you re m e m be r what
you cove red i n t h i s secti o n . Yo u m i g ht want to p l a y one
of t h e g a m es, m a ke h exa g o n s o r write t h e ' b i g story'
c.1 900 to the p resent - it's up to you this ti m e !

I
Crim.e and punishm.ent in Britain:
Revisiting the big stories

How has the nature of cri minal activity


c hanged through history?

PETTY T H E FT OF ClOT H I N G, F O O D A N D SMAll A M O U NTS OF M O N EY

73 % of crime in 1 300s

THE BIG IDEAS VIOlENT CRI M E

Th ere h a s been g reat


1 8% of crime i n 1 300s
conti n u ity i n t h e types
of cri m e across a l l
periods. Petty cri m e
h a s re m a i n ed t h e
m a i n t y p e o f offe n ce
co m m itte d .

1 000-1 500
As a proporti o n
of the tota l cri m e s
co m m itted, v i o l e nt
offe n ces h ave OTH E R CRI M E S
d ecreased o v e r t i m e .

Hunting
T h e fea r of cri m e h a s
often been g reater
t h a n t h e actu a l a m o u nt
of cri m e h a s j u stifi e d .

I He<y

Witchcraft

Treason

I
6 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : Revisiti n g t h e b i g sto ries

These two pages sum up the main types of crime


that have been committed across the centuries. THE BIG PICTURE OF CRIME ")

Above the timeline are the crimes that have always 1 Which types of cri m e h ave been m ost co m m o n t h ro u g h o ut
been committed. The crimes below the timeline are h i story - cri mes a g a i nst the perso n , a g a i nst p roperty o r a g a i nst
those that have been more common or taken more autho rity? Why d o you th i n k this is?
seriously at different times. Many of these only 2 Has the p roportion of violent cri m e i n creased, fa l l e n o r re m a i n ed
became crimes because of changing attitudes or new the s a m e? Why do you th i n k this is?
laws made by governments at the time. The dotted 3 Which cri m es were n ot co m m itted in e a r l i e r ce nturies but h ave
lines on the timeline indicate cases where the crime beco m e co m m o n tod ay?
4 a) Which fa cto rs do you t h i n k h e l p exp l a i n i n creases in cri m e?
existed but was not regarded as a clear and present
threat by the government or local community. b) Exp l a i n why these facto rs h ave m a d e cri m e m o re com m o n .

74% of crime in 1 600s 75% of crime in 1 800s Less than 50% today
(not including car theft)

1 5% of crime in 1 600s 1 0% of crime in 1 800s Less than 5% today

1 500--1 700 1 700--1 900 1 900--present

I
I
------ ------- ,

,,
1

P>::: =:::: ::.:::::::::: ::: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ - - - - - .!. _ _ _ _


-- - - - - - - l r'
_ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _

Poaching

Drug smuggling

h=======>

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ J,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3'
Vagabondage

Highway robbery
====>

Computer
crime

-->
Car crime
I

= ==
-=-:=:=== ! - - : ::::: :: :: : ::::: : :: : =
Crimes linked to
prejudice (includes =:>
racially and religiously
motivated offences)

PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

How has t he nature of law enforcement c hanged


t hrough history?
For hundreds of years it was the responsibility of individuals and the local community to
catch criminals and bring them to justice. However, as society has become more complex,
the role of catching criminals, investigating their crimes and bringing them to trial has
been taken over by the police. The top part of this timeline outlines the methods that have
been used to catch criminals and bring them to court. The lower part outlines the different
methods that have been used for trials. The dotted lines on the timeline indicate where the
method was in existence but was not a major part of law enforcement.

THE BIG IDEAS

e For ce ntu ries l o c a l com m u n ities were


expected to p o l ice t h e m s e l ves a n d
catch any cri m i n a l s .
e A p rofessi o n a l p o l i ce fo rce w a s fi rst
Parish constc
esta b l i s h ed in Lo n d o n in 1 829 a n d soon
s p read to oth e r p a rts of t h e cou ntry.

Army used to crush protest

1 000-1 500

Local juries using knowledge of offender

Trial

I:
6 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : Revisiti n g t h e b i g sto ries

THE BIG PICTURE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT


1 Who was respo n s i b l e fo r catch i n g cri m i n a l s a n d co l l ecti n g evid e n ce i n :
a) A n g l o-Saxon E n g l a n d
b ) the later M id d l e Ages
c) Tu d o r and Stu a rt E n g l a n d ?
2 W h e n did t h e g overnm ent rather t h a n local com m u n ities fi rst take a serious ro l e i n policing?
3 What reasons exp l a i n why this ch a n g e occu rred?


B w Street Runners >

CID set up Police force


==== ===>
Specialisation


Nr:ighbqurhood


500-1 700 1 700-1 900 1 900-present

Justices of the Peace (JPs)

Lawyers

I
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

How has t he nature of punish ment c hanged


t hrough history?
These pages outline the changes and continuities in punishment through history. Above
THE BIG IDEAS the timeline shows the thinking behind the different types of punishment. Below the
e Th ro u g h h i sto ry, h a rs h
timeline shows the various methods used.
p u n i s h m ents were
used as t h e m a i n
m ethod t o try t o sto p
cri m e .
e H a rs h p u n i s h m ents Deterrence
h a d l ittle o r n o effe ct
in p reventi n g c ri m e

Retribution
fro m i n creasi n g .
e S i n ce t h e 1 800s t h e re
h ave been m o re
atte m pts at try i n g to
refo rm cri m i n a l s as we l l
as punishing them.
1 000-1 500 1!

Fines


6 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : Revisiti n g t h e b i g sto ries

R e norm
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________ _________________J
THE BIG PICTURE OF
- - - - - - - - - - --------,v/
PUNISHMENTS
1 Which m ethods of p u n is h m e nt were used
fo r the l o n g est time?
2 Choose o n e p u n i s h m ent that is no l o n g e r
u s e d tod ay. Exp l a i n w h y it is n o l o n g e r used.
3 When was the period of g reatest change i n
V
p u n is h m e nts?
4 F i n d exa m p les of p u n i s h m ents that were
i nte n d e d to :
00-1 700 1 700-1 900 1 900-present
a) d eter
b) p rovide retri bution (reve n g e)
c) refo r m .
5 H ow h ave i d e a s about the pu rposes of
p u n i s h m ents:
a) c h a n g e d
b) stayed the same?

Bloody Code - In public In prison


capital punishment for un til 1 860s until 1 965

=-------enmlnorcnm5---
_{{:')=:
.....E"
tl ) l)
'!'!:o:at : : : : -;;;;=':;>

n
Prison for Prison for Open prisons

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -debtors
--------- serious offences introduced
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---------------------------

I
lra wing and quartering
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ f ,

=----- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . ; >

Non-custodial alternatives

Community
service
Tagging
PA RT 1 : C r i m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Factors for c hange


Way back in Chapter 1 we introduced you to the different factors affecting crime
and punishment.

t
1 000-1 500 1 500-1 700 1 700-1 900 1 900-present

Q ueen M a ry b u rn s
3 0 0 Protesta nts; R e l i g i o u s a rg u m e n ts
Q ueen E l iza beth ' s for a b o l ition of capital
treat m e n t of C a th o l i cs p u n i s h m ent, 1 9 6 5
6 C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n : Revisiti n g t h e b i g sto ries

By now it must be obvious that a number of these have kept cropping up again and again.
Quite simply, the factors are what made things happen ! By focusing on them you will
better understand the reasons behind the changes and continuities outlined on pages 7-9.
So let's start by looking at one factor as an example - Institutions : The Church.

FACTORS AND THE BIG PICTURE



1 M a ke yo u r own l a rg e co py of the table b e l ow.

I n stitutio ns: Effects on a m o u nt of cri me/ Effects o n law enfo rce m e nt


The C h u rch definitions of cri m i n a l activity (policing a n d trials) Effects on pu nishment
1 0 00-1 500

1 500-1 700 Tu d o r re l i g i o u s ch a n g es m e a n t
havi n g wro n g b e l i efs co u l d l e a d
to p e rsecuti o n .
1 700-1 900 E l iza beth F r y ca m pa i g n ed fo r
bette r co n d it i o n s fo r wo m e n
priso n e rs.
1 90 0 - p resent

2 Use the ti m e l i n e o n page 1 1 2 to fi l l i n the ch a rt fo r this facto r. We h ave sta rted this fo r yo u, but you wi l l need to add m o re.
3 G o back ove r yo u r n otes, u s i n g this book if needed, a n d l o o k fo r exa m p l es of h ow the oth e r facto rs h ave affected cri m e
a n d p u n i s h m ent. M a ke a n ew t a b l e fo r each o n e . Yo u co u l d d o t h i s i n s m a l l g ro u ps, each looking a t a d iffe re nt fa cto r,
befo re feed i n g back as a w h o l e class. Don't worry if there a re some b l a n k spaces in yo u r table - this sh ows that n ot a l l
facto rs were i m portant a t d iffe rent times.

Tom 's big picture Very risky


Tom the 'tea - leaf'

Remember Tom the 'tea-leaf' ? Well, he's


back and he needs your help for the last
Worth
time. Now that you are an expert in the
t h e risk
history of crime and punishment you
must help him answer the question he
first posed back on page 4: When was the
riskiest time to be a criminal?
Tom the ' tea-leaf' .

RISKY BUSINESS?

1 Use yo u r n otes, yo u r own know l e d g e a n d this book An n otate each point with a few senten ces of exp l a n ation
(wh e re n ecessa ry) to p l ot yo u r own g ra p h showing the risk befo re j o i n i n g them u p with a r u l e r.
faci n g To m . Re m e m ber that 'tea-leaf' is rhym i n g slang fo r 2 To m was g u i lty of th eft, a cri m e a g a i nst property. H ow
thief. You s h o u l d th i n k about:
a) the c h a n ces of b e i n g ca u g ht
m i g ht the g ra p h l o o k d iffe re nt if To m h a d been someone
who too k p a rt i n p rotests o r re be l l ions? When was the
What p o l i c i n g m ethods we re used? riski est ti m e to co m m it such cri m es?

3 Wo u l d the g ra p h look a ny d iffe rent if To m was a violent
H ow effective were th ese?
b) the punishm ents that Tom wou ld h ave faced if convicted

m u rd e re r - g u i lty of cri mes a g a i nst the perso n ?
What was the idea of p u n is h m ent in each period?
H ow severe we re p u n i s h m ents at this time?
W hat is t his historic
environ ment unit about?
This unit counts for 10 per cent of your GCSE course.
It is linked to the Thematic Study on Crime and
Punishment in Britain in two ways :
1 You will use your knowledge of crime and punishment
in the late nineteenth century in this unit.
2 The enquiry approach you used to study 'Crime
and Punishment in Britain' will help considerably
because this unit is designed to develop your skills
in historical enquiry - from asking questions to
communicating your answer. We spent a lot of time
on enquiry in 'Crime and Punishment in Britain' to
prepare you for this historic environment unit.
There are also three major differences from your work on the Thematic Study on Crime
and Punishment:
1 This unit focuses on a single place, a historic site - Whitechapel.
2 It focuses on a short period, the years c.1870-c.1900.
3 It looks much more closely at contemporary sources and how we use them in an enquiry.

T h i s book does n ot p rovide a l l t h e m ate r i a l you w i l l use Enquiry



fo r t h i s study. T h i s i s d e l i be rate ! We h ave g ive n you t h e Describe in your own

stru ctu re fo r yo u r e n q u i ry a n d p l e nty of i nfo rmation words the enquiry

and sou rces, but yo u r tea c h e r will a d d m o re sou rces, process you use to

perhaps re lati n g to cri m es, c ri m i n a ls, victi m s o r investigate a new

p o l i ce m e n , w h i c h w e h ave n ot m e ntioned i n t h i s book. historical topic.


PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

1.1 W hitec hapel : murderers and bad mot hers


When we hear the words 'Victorian Whitechapel' we might immediately think of 'Jack the
Ripper', the notorious serial killer. This section of the book will look at the Ripper, but it is
important to remember that this was just one case among many. We need to think more
widely about the types of crime and criminals in Whitechapel.
There were other murders in Whitechapel
during our period. Before 1888 the most
well-known was the death ofHarriet
Lane, at the hands of her lover - Mr Henry
Wainwright. Wainwright was a fairly
successful salesman, and his affair with
Harrier was a serious one. He put her and
their children up in a flat and paid them
a generous allowance. When his business
failed he could no longer keep Harrier fed
and housed, and she began to call on him at
work and to make embarrassing scenes.
Wainwright decided to get rid of her, for
good. He asked his brother to write pretend
love letters to Lane, under the false name of
'Edward Frieake', so that Wainwright could
claim that Lane had run away. He then
murdered her, and buried her under the floor
of a warehouse in a pit filled with chloride of
lime, a bleach which he hoped would destroy
the body.
A year later the warehouse was put up for
sale because the owner needed the money.
Wainwright decided to move the body, so it
would not be discovered. However, when he
dug up the remains he found that instead of
being dissolved by the chloride of lime, the
chemical had preserved Lane's body.
Wainwright then decided to chop Lane's
remains into pieces and put these into sacks.
In an inexplicable decision he also got one
of his workers to help transfer the sacks to a
waiting cab in the street. This worker, Arthur
Stokes, opened one of the sacks to find
Harrier Lane's half-decomposed head !
Stokes sent Wainwright and his sacks Source A The front cover of a special supplement to the Illustra ted Police
off in the cab but followed on foot, and News, 2 1 December 1875, showing the execution of Henry Wainwright .

shouted for help to the first policeman that


he saw. The police stopped the cab, and MURDER IN THE MEDIA
.,
then opened the sacks to discover Wainwright's ex-lover's
1 Loo k at the cove r of the Illustrated Police News (Source
remains. Wainwright was arrested, and eventually tried for
A) . In what ways has the a rtist tried to m a ke this sce n e
murder. The sentence of execution by hanging was carried
m o re d ra m atic?
out at the end of 1875 . Wainwright's case was big news - as
2 What d oes this te l l us a bout h ow i m portant Wa inwrig ht's
can be seen by the cover of the Illustrated Police News.
cri m e was?
3 Does this te l l us a nyth i n g about h ow ofte n m u rd e rs l i ke
this too k p l a ce?
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Gory stories are exciting, but by focusing on stories like these we could be missing learning
about other interesting lives, and we might also be distorting our ideas of what crime was like
in Whitechapel in our period. The records of the Old Bailey criminal courthouse are available
online, and they contain stories just like Henry Wainwright's, but they also let us look at the
big picture, at patterns of criminal activity. Using the special search on the Old Bailey website
we can find out how many crimes mention the keyword 'Whitechapel' for our period (614)
and what different categories these crimes might fit into (see the table below) .
T Categories of crime

CRIMES Th eft 209


Vio l e nt theft 1 32
Deception
Deception 1 09
D i s h o n estly g etti n g
m o n ey, p ro p e rty o r oth e r
Roya l offences 50
ben efit. Brea king the peace 48
Roya l offe nces Kil l i n g 38

C r i m e s a g a i n st Roya l M isce l l a neous 16


rig hts o r t h e co u ntry Da mage to property 11
e . g . tax eva s i o n , fo rg i n g
Sexu a l offe nces 9
cu rre n cy, treason a n d
s o m e re l i g i o u s cri m e s .

Brea king the peace The case of Sa ra h Fishe r's ba by


Ass a u lt, riot, th reate n i n g This table tells us that we can easily stereotype crimes and criminals in Whitechapel if we
b e h avi o u r. O n ly t h e m ost only focus on the high-profile crimes like murder. The Old Bailey records also tell us about
serious exa m p l es of these lots of different types of crime. A really good example of a very different case is that of
went to tri a l at the O l d Sarah Fisher in 1873.
B a i l ey.
Fisher was convicted of 'unlawfully exposing' her young child, Lucy. On a frosty night in
November 1873, Fisher was begging; her husband was at home unable to work because of
injuries to his legs. Her thin and barely clothed 'baby', though really she was eighteen
months old, was used to get sympathy and money from passers-by. A solicitor called Sidney
Chidley noticed Sarah and the condition of her daughter and found a policeman. Fisher
was arrested, and Lucy taken to the Westminster Workhouse. Sadly, Lucy died shortly
afterwards, probably from tuberculosis. Sarah Fisher was found guilty of 'exposing' Lucy,
and at her trial she pleaded, 'I am very sorry that I was begging. I have lost my baby now.'

ASKING QUESTIONS
O n e of t h e s ki l l s you p ractised i n t h e t h e m atic stu dy on C ri m e a n d P u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n
w a s aski n g g o o d h istorica l q u esti o n s . Aski n g q u esti o n s is a n i m po rta nt p a rt o f t h i s u n it
because it p l ays a p a rt i n yo u r G C S E exa m i n atio n . So we' l l pause h e re a n d ask you to a s k
s o m e q u esti o n s !
1 M a ke a l ist o f q u esti ons w e co u l d a s k a b o u t cri m e a n d p o l i c i n g i n Wh itech a p e l betwee n
1 870 a n d 1 900. T h e s e q u estio n s co u l d be about fa m o u s cases l i ke th ose o f H e n ry
Wa inwright or Jack the Ripper. They co u l d a lso be a bout the s m a l l e r cases l i ke S a ra h
Fishe r's o r a bout cri m e i n Wh itech a p e l i n g e n e ra l . U s e the q u estio n sta rte rs b e l ow t o h e l p .

W h e n . . . ? W h a t . . . ? W h y . . . ? H ow . . . ? W h a t h a pp e n ed . . . ? W h e re . . ?
.

What effects . ? H ow s i g n ificant . . ? Did it rea l ly . . ? Who . . ? Did they . . . ?


. . . . .

2 When you h ave co m p l eted yo u r l i st, d ivide it i nto 'big' a n d ' l ittle' q u estions. ( Look back to
page 1 3 to re m i n d yo u rself of the d iffe re n ces between t h e m . )
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Aski n g q u estions, ide ntifyi n g sou rces


QUESTIONS AND SOURCES .,

This page shows you so m e of the questions you could ask
about crime in Whitechap el between 1870 and 1 9 0 0, Ch oose two of the q u estions b e l ow or fro m yo u r l ist of
q u estions fro m the aski n g q u estions a ctivity on page 1 1 6 .
together with some of the sources you might use to answer
Which of the sou rces b e l ow do you t h i n k wo u l d be m ost
those questions. B oth questions and sources are here
usefu l fo r a n sweri n g each of yo u r two q u esti ons? Exp l a i n
because one aim of this unit is to work out which sources w h y y o u t h i n k e a c h sou rce m i g ht be usefu l .
may be most helpful for answering individual questions .
You know b y now that sources are n o t 'useful' or 'useless' We d o n ot expect you t o know t h e 'rig ht' a n swe rs a t this
in themselves - their usefulness depends on which stage. This task is to get you thinking about what kinds of
i nfo rmation m ight be i n the sou rces a n d w h i ch q u esti o n s
question you are trying to answer. For example, one source
t h e y m ay h e l p with . I n the rest o f this u n it y o u wi l l g et to
may be very useful for learning about the techniques used
know m ost of these sou rces a n d fi n d out which q u esti o n s
to try to capture Jack the Ripper, but completely unhelpful t h e y a re m ost usefu l fo r a n sweri n g .
if you want to find out about what kinds of punishment
people received when they were convicted of theft.

S o m e q u esti o n s

Were there many


Who were the
cases of cruelty or
suspects in the Jack the
neglect of children,
Ripper case?
like Sarah Fisher's?

S o u rces

Records of c h a rities C h a rles B ooth 's Reports from


C o ro n e rs ' re ports
i n vo lved i n h o u s i n g s u rvey of pove rty Lo n d o n n ews p a p e rs

O l d B a i ley
Pol itical cartoons Nati o n a l newspa pers Loca l pol ice records
reco rds of tri a l s
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

O rga n isi n g yo u r u nd e rsta n d i n g of the sou rces


Why did we set up the activities on questions and sources ? account, photograph, etc. The text will remind you to do
It is because this unit is about how we undertake a this.
historical enquiry and about the kinds of sources we use, as 2 Put the category in column 1 and the example such as a
well as being about crime and punishment in Whitechapel photograph of an operation taking place) in column 2 .
at this time. Therefore you are going to use a variety of 3 Then complete columns 3 - 6 for the source.
sources and learn different things from them. The first is
You may use sources that fit more than one category of
the most obvious - the sources will:
source, or you may use other kinds of sources. Don't worry
increase your knowledge and understanding of crime in if sources do not fit neatly into categories - historical
Whitechapel, and the work of the police between 1870 research is unpredictable and you often find things that
and 1 9 0 0 . you don't expect. That's why it's enjoyable !
However, other things you learn about the sources are just It is also important to remember that one source will not
as important and will be tested in your examination. You tell you everything you want to know. Always try to use a
will find out: combination of sources. This is because they may each add
the kinds of sources that help us investigate crime in different information because they were created by different
Whitechapel at this time people, at different times, or because they are different
which sources are most useful for investigating types of source - a photograph and a diary perhaps. Using
individual aspects of crime and for answering particular a variety of sources also allows you to check what each is
questions. saying as you always need to ask whether the evidence in a
source is typical of the evidence as a whole.
To keep track of the sources and what you can learn from
them, we suggest you use a Knowledge Organiser such as National records
the table below. You could perhaps make a copy of it on National newspapers
A3 paper or in a Word document. You may wish to keep Records of crimes
additional, detailed notes to support the summary in your Police investigations
table. Completing the table is an important reminder that Old bailey records of trials
this unit is about enquiry and sources, as well as about Cartoons from newspapers and journals.
crime in Whitechapel during this period.
Local records

Here is a guide to completing your table over the next few
Housing and employment records, council records and
weeks:
1
census returns
After you have worked on a section of this unit, identify Charles Booth's survey and workhouse records
which sources you have used and fill in a row of this Local police records, coroners' reports, photographs and
table for each source. Decide which of the categories London newspapers
(see below) the source fits into, for example a personal
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Exp l o r i n g S a r a h F i s h e r's co u rt reco rd


The reason that we can describe the gruesome discovery of the body in Henry Wainwright's
warehouse, and the sad case of Sarah Fisher's dying baby, is that the details of their cases
were carefully recorded when they appeared before the judge and jury at the Old Bailey.
This was London's most important criminal court between 1673 and 1 9 1 3 .
The Old Bailey's records have been digitised and put online, so that everyone can access
them. There is a search tool which means you can home in on particular types of case at
particular times. The printed record is also available as a scan - so that you can check the
words of the digitised copy.

.A. A photograph of the Old Bailey court taken in 1897. The 'dock ' where the accused would
have stood is on the left hand side , while the judge's desk is on the right . The seats where
the jury would sit are at the back of the photograph .
PART 2 : Crime and punishment in Britain, c.1000-present

I'd like to know more about Sarah Fisher, so I think we should study her case report in
detail. When you have read through it, see if you can answer some of the questions below.
Exposing in this
These are supposed to get you started in understanding her case report. You may not be
case means
able to work out all the answers straight away, but the report will give you some ideas as to
taking the baby what to study next.
outside without
enough clothes The Workhouse

on in the cold (one of which


SARAH FISHER, Miscellaneous > othe r , 15th December 1 8 7 3 was the
weather.
78. SARAH FISHER (36 ) , 6
Unlawfully exp sing Lucy Fisher , a child under
Westminster
the age of two years, whereby its health was permanently injured. Union) was the

SIDNEY CHIDLEY. I am a solicitor. On 13th November I was in a restaurant in


place where very
1r------Maddox Street. The prisoner came in with a baby in her arms , and showed poor Victorians
---
----
---- -
---' it to two females, one of whom exclaimed "Good God! the child is dead ! "
I looked at i t ,
could get food,
and thought it was dead, but it moved its arms it looked
These are like a living skeleton . We gave her some money , and I said "You ought not lodgings and
the details of to have that child out; you should take it at once to the workhouse" . --------
medicine but, as
I watched her from public-house to public-hous e , stopping everyone she
the witness came t o . It was a cold, frosty night, and a keen wind. I thought the child we will see, many
against Sarah would not live the night through, and gave the prisoner in charge for
refused to go
begging , in order that the child might get sufficient food and care. -----.
Fisher. there.
Prisoner. I did not expose the baby ; they wished to see i t to satisfy
themselves that it was alive.

Witness. It was not at the request of other people that she showed the baby . --
She did not ask for money , but she undid the child, and anybody with a
Giving the
farthing in their pockets, must have given her something.

' prisoner in
This is RICHARD SMITH (Policeman C 1 6 ) . On 13th November, the prisoner was
charge means
Constable given into my custody the child was placed in the cell with her at the
station it was comfortably cared for, with wrapper s , and had warm milk. reporting a
Smith's n u mber. I took it to the workhouse next morning and gave it to Dunston .
crime to a
C means The prisoner gave me an address in Whitechapel, at Sarah King ' s
lodging house. I went there and saw the husband . policeman.
the division .
[ .. ]

(Westminster)
JOSEPH ROGERS . I am medical officer of the Westminster Union .
that he On 14th November, a female child was brought to me. I ordered it some

works in. The medicine, a milk diet, and some wine. I t only weighed 9lbs . lOoz. where as
a child of that age ought to weigh 24lbs . or more. I directed that i t
Whitechapel should not be brought to me across the yard, but that I would go to i t ,
police were in which I did at some inconvenience . After its death I had it weighed again ,
and it only weighed 7lbs . 10 11. 2oz. I had given it eggs 1 brandy , and Tubercular matter
H division. everything possible, but I was satisfied that i t would die when I first
means evidence
saw i t . I found no marks of injury, only extreme emaciation.
The heart was healthy , in the chest there were old adhesions of the of tuberculosis, a
lungs , and the pleura [part of the lungs ] and ribs, which had been in
disease which starts
existence seven or eight months ; I also found deposition of tubercular --
matter in both lungs . [ ... ] I t was most improper to take such a child in the lungs, and can
The defence
out on a cold, November evening, and to keep it out for several hours ,
be deadly. lt makes
part of the its life was in danger.
[ ... ] people thin, and
record is where
used to be called
the defendant Prisoner ' s D fence. I am very sorry that I was begging ;
I have lost my baby now. consumption because
gets to tell
it seemed to eat
their side of GUILTY . The prisoner's husband stated that he was very poor, and had
suffered for years with a bad leg, and was only able to get an uncertain away at its victims.
the story.
living by penmanship . He was ordered to enter into recognizances for the
prisoner's appearance to come up and receive judgment if called upon .

After the judgment of GUILTY, the court records the judge's decision on
sentence. Here Sarah's husband has to guarantee that he will bring her back
to court if they decide later to punish her. Really this means that she is
being released, with the warning not to commit a crime again.
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

SARAH FISHER'S LOST BABY


There's lots of interesting detail in the report, and some clues
as to what to explore next. The first thing to notice is that this
1 What c l u es a re there that M a d d ox Street was a wea lthy crime didn't take place in Whitechapel, but the defendant
p l a ce? lived there. Fisher was arrested in Maddox Street, in the West
2 What was S i d n ey C h i d l ey's attitu d e to Sarah Fisher? End, a much wealthier part of London. Fisher lived in Sarah
3 What do you th i n k d rew Sarah Fisher to M a d d ox Street?
King's lodging house in Whitechapel, but we are not told

4 H ow l o n g h a d the Fishers been l iv i n g at Sarah Ki n g 's


where that is. As we will find out, a lodging house was a place
where people would pay rent to stay in a room, often sharing
l od g i n g h o u se?
with many other people. There were many of these lodging or
5 Are there a ny c l u es as to why Sarah Fisher needed to
'doss' houses in Whitechapel in our period.
beg fo r m o n ey?
6 What seems to be the attitu d e of the U n io n med ica l
officer to baby Fisher?
Ce nsus frustrations
7 What w a s t h e ba by's n a m e?
I used the Census records to try to find out more about
8 Did the baby d i e of h u n g e r o r of som eth i n g e lse?
King and Fisher. We are given an age for Sarah Fisher, and
What d oes this te l l you about her life befo re
an approximate age for each of her children. I can use these
1 3 N ove m ber 1 873? to try to narrow down the search.
Of the Sarah Fishers living in or near Whitechapel at the
time some are older and some younger than the age given for Sarah in the case report.
There is one of exactly the right age, but she was living with her mother and father, with
no children in 1871. The court case suggests she should have had a child of at least one
year old. The closest I can get is a Sarah Fisher living in St Pancras, a good distance north
of Whitechapel. She had a son, not one year old at that date. This could be the baby that
died in 1873. Frustratingly, I have to admit that I'll never know - there just isn't enough
information for me to say that this is our Sarah Fisher. It's a similar story for a search for
the landlady, Sarah King. The only person for whom I can find any other record of is poor
Lucy. Her death in Westminster is recorded in the register of deaths for that year.
This doesn't mean that the Census will never give me useful information - it just means
that I need quite a lot to start with before I can sometimes get more from a Census search.
Often, when dealing with the names given to criminal courts, I find that searching the
Census is not successful in finding more information. I suspect that this is because many
people gave false names to the police and the courts - especially if they didn't want the court
to find out about past crimes they had committed, as this would lead to a harsher sentence.

THE CENSUS

T h e C e n s u s o n ly takes p l a ce every ten years. S a r a h m ay h ave m oved reg u l a rly each yea r,
l et a l o n e i n a d e c a d e . As we're l e a rn i n g , t h i s k i n d of co m m u n ity was very m o b i l e so co u l d
easily be m is s i n g fro m t h e C e n s u s o r l i v i n g i n a d iffe re nt a rea o n t h e n i g ht t h e Census was
take n . lt can eve n be h a rd to track m o re sta b l e fa m i l ies, p a rtly because of s i m p l e m i sta kes
by t h e e n u m e rato rs (th e p e o p l e w h o w rote out t h e reco rd s) . C e n s u s reco rds a re fa r fro m
1 00 p e r cent a ccu rate.

The census has told me some useful things. While looking through the Census at all the
Sarah Fishers and the Sarah Kings I discovered several things about Whitechapel in this
period. One Sarah King lived at 6 Baker's Row in Whitechapel, but so did sixteen other
people. On this street there were other houses where families with a married couple, a son
or daughter and even a servant lived. This suggests that Whitechapel was a place where the
very poor crowded together, but that within a stone's throw we might also find a relatively
wealthy middle-class family.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Vis i b le lea rn i n g : Pla n n i n g my e n q u i ry

This is me ! I'm the person who's writing this part of the book and planning this
investigation. The key word in this situation is to PLAN ! I know a little. I want to know a
lot - but just starting to read could leave me with a jumble of information. I have been
studying history for many years so I know how to work my way through a new topic. This
page shows you my plan for my enquiry.

StP.j e- 1 wluvt do I lar.w-f StP.je- 2 Wluvt do I WtN"'t tofi'ui owU


T h i s is a s u m m a r y of my m a i n I n e e d a set of q u e sti o n s as ta rg ets
s t a rt i n g p o i nt s : w h e n I do m y resea rch so I k n ow

B etwe e n 1 870 a n d 1 9 00 w h e n I 've co m p l eted my e n q u i r y :

W h itech a p e l w a s a p l a ce w h e re e Why we re s o m e p e o p l e i n
I k n o w a l ittl e a bout s o m e p e o p l e were very p o o r. W h itech a p e l l ivi n g i n pove rty?
s o m e of the types of crime Poverty m a d e p e o p l e i l l , a n d W h a t d iffe re nt k i n d s of p e o p l e l ived
and the types of defe n d a n t m a d e s o m e ta ke d e s p e rate in W h itec h a p e l ?
fro m Wh itecha pel t h a t a p pea red m e a s u re s . e W h a t effects d i d p overty have o n
befo re the Old Ba i l ey, but I have T h e re w a s a p o l i ce fo rce, a n d it p e o p l e, a n d o n c r i m e ?
a l ot of qu estio n s. H o w do I p l a n was split i nto d iv i s i o n s . W h a t t y p e s o f cri m e we re
m y way from k n o w i n g a l ittl e a n d e T h e re we re h i g h - p rofi l e c r i m es co m m itte d ?
h a v i n g l ots o f qu est i o n s s u c h as th ose of J a c k t h e R i p p e r H ow d i d t h e p o l i ce d o t h e i r work?
to fi n d i n g the a n swe rs a n d a n d H e n ry Wa i nw r i g ht, as we l l a s We re t h e p o l i ce su ccessfu l ?
k n o w i n g a l ot m o re? m o re o rd i n a ry cri m e s . W h y d i d t h e p o l i ce fa i l t o catch J a c k
e M ost c r i m e s we re not v i o l e nt, b u t t h e R i p p e r?
were p r o p e rty cri m es l i ke t h eft .

StP.j e- 3 wwe- wUt i ruUNr""'MUtfi'ui tlu- tN"'>n-Y>f


T h e re a re two k i n d s of s o u rces I ca n u s e .

B o o ks, a rt i c l e s a n d webs ites written b y experts o n c r i m e a n d p u n i s h m e nt i n


W h itech a p e l at t h i s t i m e .

2 S o u rces from t h e t i m e - p h otog ra p h s , a cco u nts written by citizens a n d


g ove r n m e n t off i c i a l s , re p o rts from n ews p a p e rs, co u rt reco rd s .

Visible learning

Tackling new topics with confidence

I u s e t h i s p l a n to h e l p me ex p l o re a ny h istorica l t o p i c t h a t is new to m e . St a rt i n g to
i nvestigate a n ew t o p i c c a n fe e l w o r ryi n g , l i ke st a rt i n g co m p l et e ly fro m scratch, b e c a u s e
d a t e s , n a m es a n d eve nts a re d iffe rent B U T i t ' s i m p o rt a nt to re m e m b e r H OW we s t u d y
eve ry t o p i c is v e r y s i m i l a r. W e u s e t h i s s a m e p l a n w h et h e r w e ' r e ex p l o r i n g Ro m a n h istory
o r C ri m e i n Victo r i a n Wh itech a p e l . We h ave s h own yo u this a p p ro a c h very vis i b l y so yo u
fe e l m o re c o n f i d e n t w h e n eve r you sta rt to t a c k l e a new t o p i c .
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Letti ng you i nto a secret


I h ave been writi n g h i story books as part of my job fo r m o re than 1 0 yea rs. You m i g ht t h i n k
I m ust know everyth i n g there is t o know a b o u t h i story b u t th at's n ot true. The 'secret' is
that t h e re a re q u ite a few h istorical to pics I d o n 't know i n g reat d eta i l , because I h ave n ever
had to stu dy them i n d eta i l , or write a bout them . T h o u g h I know q u ite a l ot a bout the
Victorian period, I a m n ot a n expe rt i n eve ry aspect of what h a ppened i n Wh itech a p e l at
this time. I therefo re need to fi n d out a l ot m o re a bout the period, a n d about Wh itech a p e l
i n o rd e r to start t o fi n d the a n swers fo r my q u esti o n s about cri m e a n d p o l i c i n g , a n d a b o u t
the l ives o f peo p l e l i ke Sarah Fisher.

StVJe- 4 How-wi.I.J I do t!U-r rueaKvlrd


I n e e d to :

H ave my q u es t i o n s i n m i n d so I a lways rea d with a p u rpose Re m e m b e r that I may not b e a b l e to fi n d exact and co m p l ete
to a n swe r those q u esti o n s . a n swers to a l l my q u esti o n s so I n e e d to use words s u c h as
K e e p ca ref u l n otes, u s i n g my o w n K n ow l e d g e O rg a n isers, s o ' p r o b a b ly', ' i n a l l l i ke l i h oo d ', 'poss i b ly' a n d oth e r s we've s e e n
t h a t I d o n 't e n d u p w i t h a h e a p of d i s o rg a n ised i nfo rmati o n . o n t h e W o r d Wa l l s o n p a g e s 3 0 a n d 1 04 .
M a ke s u re t h e books I read a n d webs ites I u s e a re rea l l y by T h e re m a y b e q u e sti o n s I ca n 't a n sw e r a t a l l ! A n d I
ex perts. T h i s m e a n s c h e c k i n g w h o wrote t h e m a n d h ow t h ey n e e d to ke e p t h i n k i n g ! I m i g ht f i n d u n ex p e cted
k n ow what t h ey're te l l i n g m e . i nfo r m a t i o n w h i c h p ro m pts n e w q u e sti o n s o r s u g g ests
A s k q u es t i o n s a b o ut t h e sou rces I u s e . F o r exa m p l e : I s I l o o k in oth e r books o r reco r d s . I ca n 't p re d i ct exa ctl y
a p h otog ra p h typ i c a l o f co n d it i o n s i n Lo n d o n at t h a t w h at I ' l l f i n d at t h e b e g i n n i n g of a n e n q u i r y . I n e e d to
t i m e ? W a s t h e a ut h o r p resent at t h e eve nts h e o r s h e was r e m e m b e r t h a t I 'm a l l owed to c h a n g e m y m i n d a b o u t
descri b i n g ? W h i c h a re the most usefu l s o u rces fo r each m y a n sw e r to a q u e st i o n a s I f i n d o u t m o re .
q u esti o n ?

C o m b i n ation o f colours i n d icates


that the street conta i n s a fair
proportion of each of the classes
represented by the respective
c o l o u rs .
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1.2 W hat was W hitec hapel li ke?


Whitechapel is an area of London's East End, just outside the City of London. In our period
it was an inner-city area of poverty - a place where lots of different types of people lived,
many of whom were very poor. Some parts were known as 'rooke ries' an area filled with -

lodging houses in which some of London's poorest people lived in terribly overcrowded
conditions. They spent only one or two nights in a place, each day trying to earn enough
money to eat and for the 4d it would cost for their next night's 'doss'. Other parts of
White chapel were more respectable and during our period, as you will see, parts of the area
changed for the better, or for the worse. The work of the police and the crimes that took
place in Whitechapel will be covered in more detail later on, so this section focuses on
living conditions.

Th ree key places in Wh itecha pe l


You are going to get a n overview of Whitechapel by looking at three key places. You'll hear
about these places again as the unit goes on, but let's explore them a bit first. As you're
reading you should record what you find out in a Knowledge Organiser like this one :

Place What does this place Does this place give What q u estions
tel l us a bout housing us a ny clues as to does this place
a n d overcrowd ing in the ca uses of crime m a ke us ask?
Wh itechapel? in Whitechapel?
F l ower a n d D e a n Street

Wh itech a p e l Wo rkh o u s e
a n d Casu a l Wa rd
T h e Pea body Estate

THE TEN BELLS PUB THE EV IDENCE OF CHARLES BOOTH

This p u b was j ust n o rth of Flower Charles Booth, 1 840-1 9 1 6


and Dean Street, o n the corner of
Fou rn ie r Street and Com m e rcia l Roa d . Booth w a s a su ccessfu l b u s i n ess m a n , w h o
O bviously this w a s a place where beca m e i n te rested i n pove rty. H e tried
peo p l e d ra n k, a n d as we wi l l see, d r i n k to fi n d out t h e exte nt of pove rty u s i n g
made p e o p l e m o re l i kely t o com m it C e n s u s reco rds b u t , l i ke us, h e fo u n d
cri m es a n d to be victi ms of cri me. q u ite s o o n that these reco rd s co u l d
M a ry Ke l ly, the last of Jack the Ripper's n ot a n swer a l l h i s q u esti o n s , a n d were
victi ms, d ra n k at the Ten B e l l s on the s o m et i m e s i n accu rate. H e decided to
eve n i n g that she was ki l l e d . P u bs l i ke i nvestig ate by sett i n g up what today
the Ten B e l l s were stop-off poi nts for we m i g ht ca l l a sociologica l resea rch
p rostitutes looking fo r clie nts, a n d for p roj ect. He e m p l oyed 80 rese a rc h e rs
thieves a n d ro bbers looking fo r peo p l e to exp l o re pove rty, l iv i n g co n d iti o n s
t o steal fro m . a n d re l i g i o u s fa ith a c ross t h e c a p ita l ,
a n d u s e d very i n n ovative ways t o g e t
H oweve r, p u bs were a l so p l a ces to at t h e i n fo rm ation that h e n e e d e d . H i s
g et warm a n d to eat a m e a l , wh ich tea m of rese a rc h e rs ta l ked to S c h o o l B o a rd
wou l d h ave been very we l co m e fo r Visitors, w h o we re e m p l oyed by l o ca l a u t h o rities
those w h o were l i v i n g i n d oss h o u ses to visit c h i l d re n i n t h e yea rs befo re t h ey reach the
o r crowd ed a p a rt m e nts. age fo r sch o o l . Booth a l so a s ked his resea rch e rs to i n te rview m a ny of Lo n d o n 's
p o l i ce m e n d u ri n g t h e i r 'beats' - t h e i r patro ls - to fi n d o u t t h e i r views of t h e
a reas t h ey were w a l k i n g th ro u g h . Booth p rod u ced a s e r i e s o f m a ps w h i c h tried
to s h ow h ow poor each a rea was. T h e re a re some extracts fro m Booth's m a ps
on t h e fo l l owi n g pages.
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Flowe r a n d Dea n Street


In 1870 Flower and Dean Street was a well-known rookery. The historian Jerry White used FLOWER AND
the 1871 Census to work out that there were 902 lodgers staying in 31 of the 'doss houses' DEAN STREET
on this street alone. Some of these houses dated back to late 1600 and they were in a terrible 1 What does Sou rce B
condition. Their yards had been built over to provide more rooms and at the front the street te l l us about the peo p l e
was narrow - only 16 feet at its widest part in the middle. There were outside toilets, bur l iving o n F l ower a n d
buckets and pots were used indoors, and often spilled. Some lodgings were more settled, but Dean Street?
families moved on after a few days or weeks, perhaps because they couldn't afford the rent, or 2 Loo k a g a i n at the
because they moved to find other work. Because of the worst doss houses, Flower and Dean d iffe re nt co l o u rs. What
Street had a terrible reputation as a haunt of thieves, drunkards and prostitutes. As you d o they te l l us about
can see, Booth coloured this street in black in 1889, which meant that he saw it as a 'vicious, the spread of d iffe rent
semi-criminal' area. If we look closely at the map though, it looks like there were middle cl asses of people across
class, 'well-to-do' families very nearby. This pattern was repeated across Whitechapel, with Wh itech a p e l ?
very poor and much more comfortably off people living near each other. Overall, however, 3 H ow fa r away fro m t h e
according to the Medical Officer of Health for Whitechapel's report in 1873, Whitechapel was bette r off a reas were t h e
very densely populated, with 188.6 people living in each acre (about 0.001 square miles), an poore r p e o p l e l ivi n g ?
average 25.6 square foot per person. For London as a whole the figure was 45 people per acre. 4 Loo k at the street
patte rns a ro u n d F l ower
Sou rce A Fro m t h e B o a rd of Wo rks, W h i t e c h a p e l d i s t r i c t , re p o rt on t h e s a n ita ry co n d i t i o n and Dean Street, what
o f t h e W h i t e c h a p e l d i s t r i c t , f o r t h e q u a rt e r e n d e d 3 A p r i l , 1 8 8 0 . poss i b l e p ro b l e m s
co u l d this c a u s e fo r a
I have t o state tha t I have made an inspection of a l l the private houses, o r houses l e t in apartments,
p o l i ce fo rce?
in the undermentioned stree ts, namely-Flower and Dean Street, Upper Keate Street, and Lower
Keate Street. The houses, 38 in number, contain 143 rooms, and are occupied by 298 persons; 210
adults and 88 children [. .1. I discovered 4 cases of overcrowding only, 2 in Flower and Dean Street.
.

and 2 in Lower Keate Street. The interior condition of these houses is not good, they are worn out.

T Source
and many of the walls and ceilings are dirty and dilapidated. The greater portion of these houses
have been condemned [. . .], and three of their number, 5, 7, and 8, Lower Keate Street, should either B Whitechapel

be taken down, or at once closed, as they are in such a dirty and dilapida ted condition. from Charles Booth's map of
poverty in London, 1889 .

Very poor, casuaL


C h ro n i c want

1""-"""'M"""
Poor 1 8s to 2 1 s


a week for a moderate f a m i ly.

M ixed . Some comfortable,


others poor.

F a i rly comforta b l e .


Good ord i n a ry e a r n i n g s .

M id d l e class .


We l l todo .

U p perm 1 d d l e a n d
u p p e r classes. Wea lthy

C o m b i nation of colours i n d icates


that the street conta i n s a f a i r
proportion of each o f the classes
represented by the respective
colours.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Wh itecha pe l Wo rkh ouse a n d


Cas u a l Wa rd
I'm starting to understand why Sarah Fisher might be driven
to take her young and very sick child out on a frosty and cold
night in order to use her to try to earn some money. In the
case report I read that the child was taken to the Workhouse,
where she was given medicine and food. Why didn't Sarah go
to the Workhouse herself, to get help for Lucy?
Those who were unable to afford a bed for the night in a
doss house, or who were too young, too old and too unwell
to work, could go to the Workhouse. However, people were
very reluctant to go for help at the Workhouse because of
the strict rules that dictated what people ate, how they
worked, the time they went to bed and when they got up.
Those with families were segregated from their children

Source C A group of men picking oakum in return for a


and their wives or husbands and for much of the time were
.A.
not even allowed to speak to one another. Parents were
night 's stay at St Thomas's Street Casual Ward.
allowed to see their children only once a day.
The Whitechapel Workhouse was a t South Grove, t o the east, just off Mile End Road. I n
the centre of Whitechapel a t Buck's Row there was a Workhouse Infirmary for the sick, and
across the road at St Thomas's Street there was a 'Casual Ward', which could take around
400 inmates. The Casual Ward, for those who wanted a bed for one night, only had spaces
for around 60 people. The rules of the Casual Ward were very harsh - inmates were
expected to work to earn their bed for the night. They would be made to pick oakum,
which means picking apart the fibres of old rope, or they could be asked to work in the
kitchens or to clean the Workhouse. It was thought that otherwise the inmates would be
tempted to stay on at the expense of the taxpayers, who funded the Workhouse Union.

M a ke s u re you
S o u rce D From The Pe ople of the Abyss, by J a c k Lo n d o n , an A m e r i c a n n ove list w h o stayed
u n d e rsta n d the fo l l owi n g : in d oss h o u s e s and wo r k h o u s e s to s e e what i t was Li ke. In 1 9 0 2 h e v i s i t e d the W h i t e c h a p e l

C a s u a l Wa rd .
Wo rkh ouse u n i o n
Picki n g oakum Some were set to scrubbing and cleaning, others to picking oakum, and eight of us were convoyed
e Casu a l wa rd across the street to the Whitechapel lnfirmary, where we were set at scavenger work. This was the
e I nfi rm a ry method by which we paid for our skilly* and canvas**, and I, for one, know that I paid in full many
Sweatsh o p times over.
Though we had most revolting tasks to perform, our allotment was considered the best, and the
other men deemed themselves lucky in being chosen to perform it.
'Don't touch it, ma te, the nurse sez it 's deadly, warned my working partner. as I held open a sack
in to which he was emp tying a garbage can.
it came from the sick wards, and I told him that I purposed neither to touch it, nor to allow it to
touch me. Nevertheless, I had to carry the sack, and other sacks, down five flights of stairs and
empty them in a recep tacle where the corruption was speedily sprinkled with strong disinfectant.
* S k i l ly - a k i n d of we a k b roth o r s o u p m a d e from w a t e r, vegeta b les a n d c o r n f lo u r.
* * C a nvas - t h i s m e a n s t h e u s e of a h a m m o c k as a b e d f o r t h e n i g h t .

THE CASUAL WARD OF THE WORKHOUSE


1 M a ke a l ist of the workh ouse ru l es on this page.
2 Why were m a ny ru l es of the Casu a l Wa rd so h a rsh?
3 Does this exp l a i n why people p refe rred to take t h e i r c h a n ces i n d oss h o u ses?
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

The Pea body Estate WHY DIDN'T PEOPLE JUST


To the south of Whitechapel Road, just to the east of the Tower of LEAV E WHITECHAPEL?
London, is a street called Royal Mint Street, and just off this street was
another 'rookery' like Flower and Dean Street, where there were large We m i g ht wo n d e r why p e o p l e d i d n 't m ove out
numbers of lodging houses. The annual death rate here in the years and fi n d bette r p l a ces to l ive. The main reason
after 1865 was more than 50 in 1,0 00. This was double that for the rest seems to h ave been that people l ived w h e re
of London. You can see from Source E how the small houses and narrow t h ey co u l d e a rn m o n ey. B etwee n Wh itech a p e l
R o a d a n d the Th a m es t h e re were ta n n e ries
roads were crowded together.
w h e re leath e r was cu red, sweatshops a n d
In 1876 the Metropolitan Boa rd of Works (a government organisation) ta i l o rs w h e re c l othes a n d s h oes were m a d e,
bought the area for slum clearance. This scheme was very expensive. The s l a u g hte r h o uses a n d butch e rs' s h o p s a n d
Board was supposed to sell the land on, but couldn't find commercial b a keries. A l l these p l a ces n e e d e d e m p l oyees.
developers to buy it, because of the small profits they would make on the Peo p l e h a d to l ive with i n wa l k i n g d ista nce
of their work. T h i s was especi a l ly true fo r
low rents they would be able to charge.
t h e poorest l a b o u re rs a n d d o c k workers.
In 1879 they sold most of the site to the Peabody Trust, a charity set up T h e i r jobs were very i n s e c u re - t h ey co u l d
by a wealthy American banker. This trust built blocks of flats which be ta ke n o n fo r a d ay's work a n d l a i d off t h e
were designed to offer affordable rents. By 1881, 287 flats had been n ext. Th ese wo rkers h a d to g et to t h e d ock
built. Each block of flats was separate from the other and surrounded o r ta n n e ry g ates ea rly i n t h e m o r n i n g to g et
work befo re t h e com petiti o n a rrive d . T h e l ow
by a yard, in order to improve ventilation. They were built from brick
pay - betwee n 6 a n d 1 2 s h i l l i n g s a week i n
and had unplastered walls so that lice could not live in the plaster. They
g o o d e m p l oy m e n t - m e a n t that it w a s h a rd to
also had shared bathrooms and kitchens, and were much more pleasant save a n d h a rd to l eave. For those w h o co u l d
to live in than the buildings they replaced. However, the rents were n ot work - eith e r because o f sickness l i ke
probably too high for many of the people who had lived in the area S a r a h Fishe r's h u s b a n d , o r because of a l co h o l
before, and tenants who got behind with their rent were immediately a d d icti o n l i ke m ost o f J a c k t h e R i p p e r's victi m s
thrown out. So improvements like these caused more overcrowding - t h e re we re oth e r o p p o rtu n ities t o e a r n
elsewhere as the poorest people looked for rents they could afford. m o n ey fro m p rostitut i o n , ro b b e ry o r th eft.

ACTIVITY
F i n d out m o re a bout
G e o rg e Pea body a n d why
h e decided to d o n ate
m o n ey fo r new h o u s i n g i n
Lo n d o n .
1 What evidence sugg ests
that peop l e who l ived
near Roya l M i nt Street
we re very poor?
2 Why d i d the Board of
Works fi n d it h a rd to
re-b u i l d bette r h o u ses
in this a rea?
3 What i m p rove m ents
did t h e Pea body c h a rity
bring?
.A. S o u rce E A p i c t u re s h o w i n g Pea b o d y b u i ld i n g s in W h i t e c h a p e l in 2 0 1 2 .
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1.3 Victorians and t he fear of cri me in the East End


So, I have found out that Whitechapel was a place in which some people who were relatively
comfortably off lived close to areas in which very poor people lived. I have also found out
that in the poorer areas there was overcrowding caused by high rents and by insecure and
low-paid work. It seems many people in Whitechapel were living under threat of
homelessness. Sarah Fisher's husband's illness stopped him from getting work, and it
seems that her landlady, Sarah King, was running a lodging house like those I found out
about on Flower and Dean Street. I have also perhaps found out why Sarah Fisher didn't
ask for help from the Workhouse - it seems that only the very desperate would do this.
Sarah perhaps thought she would lose her baby if she asked for help from the Workhouse
Union. I've made good progress, but I have also opened up some new areas that I might
want to follow up. For instance, I might want to know why Victorian newspapers were so
interested in crime, why the number of policemen in Whitechapel seemed to be growing,
and I might also investigate why wealthy men like Peabody were concerned about living
conditions in places like Whitechapel.

S o u rce A Fro m Ta les of Mean Stre e ts , a n ovel by A rt h u r M o rr i s o n , p u b l i s h e d in 1 8 94.


This street is in the East End [. . .] an evil plexus of slums that hide human creeping things; where
filthy men and women live on penn'orths of gin, where collars and clean shirts are decencies
unknown, where every citizen wears a black eye and none ever combs his hair.

Source A is taken from the first page of a novel by Arthur Morrison. We might be tempted
to dismiss it as an exaggeration and say that it offers no useful evidence for us as
historians. There is certainly a lot of language of exaggeration - my favourite phrase is 'an
evil plexus of slums' - it's exciting stuff and designed to raise the hairs on the back of his
readers' necks. However, this source might tell us some important things about the fear of
crime and the fear of the East End that many people felt during our period - it could help
us to understand why Victorians were afraid of crime.

A cri m i n a l u n d e rcl ass


The French artist Gustave People had different explanations for crime. Some thought that there was a criminal
Dore drew pictures like
underclass, sometimes called the 'residuum' - natural criminals, born to steal, lie and rob.
this one of London in 1872 .
The residuum, it was thought, were attracted to the hard-working people of London and
Dore exaggerated many of
the features of London life ,
lived off them, like criminal parasites.
but can still give u s a n idea
Sou rce B From Crime a n d its Causes, a b o o k by W. D. M o rriso n , a clergyma n , p u blished i n 1 89 1 .
of what conditions in the
rookeries were like . Habitual criminals are not to be confounded [confused] with the working or any other class; they
are a set of persons who make crime the object and business of their lives; to commit crime is their
trade; they deliberately scoff at honest ways of earning a living.

Lod g i n g h o uses a n d p u bs
Others, such as Andrew Mearns, a clergyman who visited the East End and wrote a
pamphlet called The Bitter Cry of Outcast London in 1883, were worried that overcrowding
and unhealthy living conditions would spread criminal behaviour. Inevitably, this meant
that lodging houses and pubs were seen as places in which crime would be transmitted
from habitual criminals to the decent people forced to live alongside them.


RECORDING YOUR RESEARCH
Use five n ote card s to record the reasons why m a n y Victorian Lo n d o n e rs were worried about
cri m e i n Wh itech a p e l , each with o n e of the fo l l owi n g head i n g s :
e A cri m i n a l u n d e rclass e I m m i g ration
e Lod g i n g h o u ses and p u bs e Difficu lties of refo rm
e Drink
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Sou rce C Fro m The Bitter Cry of Outcast L o n don by A n d rew M e a r n s , p u b l i s h e d in 1 8 8 3 .


That people condemned t o exist under such conditions take t o drink a n d fall in to sin is surely
a ma tter for little surprise . . . . One of the saddest results of this overcrowding is the inevitable
association of honest people with criminals. Often is the family of an honest working man
compelled to take refuge in a thieves' kitchen . . . . Who can wonder that every evil flourishes in such
hotbeds of vice and disease?

LODGING HOUSES
1 Read S o u rce C. Why wou ld 'hon est' fa m i l ies end u p in kitchens fu l l of thieves if they l ived i n
a l o d g i n g h ouse?
2 Did M o rrison t h i n k that d ri n k was a cause o r a co nseq u e n ce of h a rsh l iving cond itions?

D ri n k
Drink was one way of coping with the difficulties of life in Whitechapel, and addiction to
alcohol was responsible for some committing crimes. The historian Drew Gray in his book
London's Shadows, published in 2 0 1 3, made a survey of the seventeen cases before the
Thames Police Court on 1 June 1887 for 'disorderly behaviour' and found that all except
one mentioned the drunkenness of the accused. Alcohol could also make arguments worse,
as in the trial ofWilliam Seaman who was convicted of attacking Mr John Simpkin, a
chemist, in an argument about his weighing out of an order of alum, which was used in
baking (see Source D ) .

S o u rce D Fro m O l d Bailey Pro ceedings O n lin e , O c t o b e r 1 8 8 8 , t r i a l of W I L L I A M S E A M A N ( 4 0 ) .


DRINK
JOHN TABARD {Police m a n H 85}: O n 8th Sep tember I was in Berner Street when I heard shouts of
1 H ow d i d d ri n k i n crease
Police '-/ wen t to the prosecutor's shop, and saw the prisoner holding the prosecutor by the left
hand by the throat, and punching him in the ribs with his right hand-/ caugh t hold of him, and with cri m e i n Wh itech a p e l ?
the assistance of Smith I pulled him in to the street-he was then taken in to the back of the shop 2 Why d i d so m a ny
on account of the crowd-/ got this hammer {produced} from McCarthy-1 took the prisoner to the people d ri n k i n
station-the charge was taken down by the inspector [. . .] Wh itech a p e l ?

However, drink was also a factor in making people victims of crime. All of]ack the Ripper's
victims were alcoholics, and were probably drunk when they were attacked. There are
plenty of other examples of victims being robbed or stolen from while slightly the worse for
a drink.
We need to bear in mind that many of the newspapers and other sources are looking at
Whitechapel from the outside, and reflect the fears and attitudes of the people
'investigating' the problems that they saw in Whitechapel. However, it seems clear that life
in Whitechapel was tough, and that for some, crime was often a way of getting over short
term difficulties. It was also often unplanned and opportunistic, like the case of George
Knight, convicted of 'simple larceny' in 1881 (see S ource E) .

S o u rce E Fro m Old Bailey Proceedings Onlin e , M a y 1 8 8 1 , t r i a l of G E O R G E K N I G H T (a g e d 2 0 ) .


THOMAS HEWSMAN. I a m employed by Messrs. Cook, Sons, a n d Go., of 22, St. Pa ul 's Churchyard,
silk merchan ts-on 1st April / saw the prisoner about 70 a. m. passing through the warehouse-/
knew he was not employed there-he was holding his coa t so that it was drawn tightly across the
back-/ followed him to the back door; there are three steps to go down, so that I could see over his
shoulder. and I saw a corner of a parcel inside his coat-/ comm unica ted with Mr. Harries. followed
the prisoner. and asked him wha t he had under his coa t-he threw the parcel in the road and ran
away-this is it-/ and Harries ran after him-it was picked up and given to me-Harries caugh t the
prisoner. and he was brought back.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

I m m i g rati o n
Whitechapel had long been a place that attracted immigrants - there were jobs, and
cheap places to sleep, and for the Irish and the Jews from eastern Europe, there were also
communities of similar people who were already settled there. Irish immigration had been
happening in large numbers since the early 1800s. By the time of our period there were
well-established Irish lodging houses, and Irish workers dominated many of the docks.
After 1801 Russian Jews came to England in large numbers because they were persecuted in
Russia following the assassination ofTsar Alexander II. Around 30,0 0 0 arrived in London
between 1881 and 1891. Jewish immigrants found it harder to integrate than those from
Ireland, partly because of language barriers, but also because of cultural factors such as
religious holidays and Sabbath rituals. As a result, many recent Jewish immigrants found
themselves working for more established Jewish employers, often working in sweatshops
making clothing and shoes. All in all this meant that Jewish people were segregated, and a
target for prejudice. The map below shows where the Jewish population of Whitechapel
mainly lived at this time.
T Source F Charles Booth's map of the Jewish population of Whitechapel in 1900.

1 Th i s i s the a rea a ro u n d F lower a n d Dea n Street. 3 Jewish i m m ig ra nts tended to c l u ster i n pa rtic u l a r

Why d o you th i n k that the J ewish i m m i g ra nts of t h e a reas w h ere they we re a l m ost 1 0 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e

1880s a n d 1890s were d rawn to t h i s a rea? p o p u lati o n . As y o u ca n s e e i n t h e places a ro u n d


e a c h a rea, Jewish people we re sti l l a m i n o rity.

Note: I n a l l streets coloured b l u e ,


J e w i s h people f o r m a m ajo rity o f
i n h a b itants; i n t h o s e coloured red,
the Genti les predo m i nate.

2 T h i s i s w h e re the Pea body Estate wa s b u i lt.


4 T h i s i s w h ere the B e r n e r Street Th eatre wa s,
w h ere the Workers ' Friend n ewspa per wa s pri nted .
Why d i d n 't the Jewish i m m ig ra nts m ove to these
new m o d e l a pa rtments?
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Socia l i s m and a n a rchism


S o u rce G Fro m A r n o ld W h i te 's b o o k , The
Adding to the fears of criminal behaviour were worries about political ideas
Modern Jew, p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 99.
such as socialism and anarchism that these immigrants seemed to bring
with them, or which were stirred up by home-grown radical politicians. There are thousands of [Jews] who prefer
existence without physical exertion, and who
The Irish were targets of prejudice because of their Roman Catholic are con ten t to live on others, un trammelled
religion, but also because of the rise in 'Fenian' Irish Nationalism. At by considerations of honesty or truth [.. .]
that time the whole of lreland was ruled by Britain, but many Irish [consider] the benefit that the coun try would
people wanted at the least 'Home Rule' and preferably independence. derive from the to tal cessa tion [stopping]
Armed protests in Ireland were increasing and in 1884 a small bombing of the immigration of professional paupers,
anarchists and thieves.
campaign led to an explosion on a train at Gower Street station, and
the discovery of a bomb left in Trafalgar Square. Two other bombs did
explode in the campaign, though there were only slight injuries in each.
There had been a series of attempted assassinations and bomb attacks IMMIGRATION FEARS
on the continent, which newspapers had labelled anarchist 'outrages'. 1 Read Sou rce G . What d i d Wh ite accuse
Anarchism was a revolutionary political idea which said that people J ewish peo p l e of b e i n g ?
would be better off without government and without laws, and that left to 2 W h a t d o y o u t h i n k 'p rofessi o n a l pau per'
their own devices people would act honourably and kindly to one another. m e a n s?
To the English press this idea was very threatening. The idea of anarchism 3 Read Sou rce H . Why d i d M o rrison t h i n k
was developed by Russian revolutionaries, and some politicians that cri m e wo u l d n ot be cu red b y g iv i n g
emphasised the threat ofJewish immigration and Jewish radicalism from people bette r h o u s i n g a n d m o re m o n ey?
eastern Europe.
Some Jewish immigrants did bring radical political beliefs and set up
socialist organisations such as the International Worker's Educational S o u rce H F ro m Crime and its Causes, by
Club and a newspaper - the Arbeter Fraint or Worker's Friend at a theatre W. D . M o r r i s o n , p u b li s h e d i n 1 8 9 1 .
just off Commercial Road in Whitechapel at Berner Street, now called Very often crime is but the offspring of
Henriques Street. Many people were already blaming the Ripper murders degeneracy and disease. A diseased and
on a Jew when the body of Annie Chapman, the third victim, was found degenerate population no matter how
in the yard of the Berner Street theatre. Rumours were circulated and favourably circumstanced in other respects will
printed that Nikolay Vasiliev, a Russian anarchist Jew, was responsible always produce a plentiful crop of criminals.
for a string of similar murders in France, and was now living in England,
though it unlikely that this person even existed. Even though there was
never a serious connection found between political anarchists and the
Ripper murder, the police were worried about their ability to keep an eye on Practice q u estions
the activities of the Jews in Berner Street, especially as many of them were Exploring the sources
1
carried out in Yiddish - the language that many of the immigrants spoke.
Describe two featu res of:
Diffi cu lty of refo rm a ) l o d g i n g h o u ses in Wh itech a p e l
b ) co n d it i o n s i n workh o u ses
c) t h e effect of d r i n k o n cri m e in
These ideas and fears led reformers to want to open up the East End and
Whitechapel in particular, by widening roads, and by knocking down
Wh itech a p e l .
2
the rookeries and lodging houses. It was these ideas that led to the calls
H ow usefu l a re sou rces A a n d B o n
for laws to knock down the slums and replace them with new housing
p a g e 1 25 fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto t h e
projects like the Peabody Estate near Royal Mint Street.
p ro b l e m s of h o u s i n g a n d overcrowd i n g
However, as we've already seen, these schemes often didn't benefit those i n Wh itech a p e l ? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swe r,
people in the greatest need - they found themselves crowding into u s i n g S o u rces A a n d B a n d yo u r
other lodging houses. Increasingly, they were in competition for rented k n ow l e d g e o f t h e h i storica l context.
accommodation with immigrants from Ireland and eastern Europe. This 3 H ow co u l d you fo l l ow u p S o u rce B o n
meant that the problem seemed like an intractable one, and efforts to p a g e 1 28 t o fi n d o u t m o re a b o u t t h e
improve the environment and the character of the East End seemed fruitless. ca u ses o f cri m e i n Wh itech a p e l ? U s e
This situation seemed to confirm W.D. Morrison (see Source H) in his view t h e fo l l ow i n g h e a d i n g s :
that it was character and nature that caused crime, not environment. Deta i l i n S o u rce B I wo u l d fo l l ow u p
Q u estion I wou l d a s k
What type of sou rce I co u l d use
H ow t h i s m i g ht h e l p my q u estion
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1.4 The working of t he Metropolitan Police


In the early part of the nineteenth century there was a feeling that crime had increased in
London. There were local watchmen and other types of police force throughout London,
but they were variable in their effectiveness. Poorer places like Whitechapel could not
afford to pay for enough watchmen to protect people from crime. Sir Robert Peel, who was
the Home Secretary between 1822 and 1830, decided that London needed one police force
that was under central control.

What was the p u b l ic attitude towa rds the M etro p o l ita n


Po lice?
When the Metropolitan Police was set up in 1829, it was paid for by local London
authorities, but controlled by the Home Secretary. Before this each local area had employed
its own 'watchmen'. Many worried that a centrally controlled police force could be used by
government to spy on ordinary Englishmen and women, and interfere with their liberty. In
1833 a coroner's jury decided that the stabbing of a policeman at a riot had been justifiable
homicide because of the tactics of the police force in controlling the crowd. Did the
reputation of the police improve as time went on?

A QUICK HISTORY OF THE METROPOLITAN POLICE



1 Read the boxes on the n ext page. Pro d u ce a l iving g ra p h l i ke the o n e h e re to reco rd h ow
good the re p utati o n of the pol ice wo u l d h ave been at d iffe rent tim es, in yo u r view.

H i g h reputation

X at M i l b a n k Prison
Police response to f i re

X . .
The M etro p o l itan Police Act

Low reputation +--.-----,--.---.--,

2 Focus on the p rofessi o n a l ism of the fo rce.


a) I d e ntify t h ree ch a n g es which a i m ed to i m p rove the q u a l ity of recru its a n d the
workfo rce.
b) I d e ntify t h ree i m p rove m e nts to pol ice o rg a n isation or i nvestig ation tech n i q ues.
3 D iscuss with a pa rtn e r and d ivide this ti m e l i n e i nto d iffe rent phases, such as times when
things seemed to be going bette r o r worse.
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

1 829 1 835
The M etro p o l itan Po l i ce Act, d rafted by Sir Ro b e rt Pee l , N ewspa p e rs praised t h e q u i ck res ponse by t h e p o l ice
set u p t h e M etro p o l itan Po l i ce. S i r C h a rles Rowan a n d to a fi re at M i l l b a n k Priso n , which p reve nted any
Rich a rd M ay n e were t h e fi rst Commissioners (see p a g e esca pes or tro u b l e a m o n g t h e p riso n e rs.
1 34 ) . By 1 83 0 t h e re we re 3 , 3 0 0 p o l i ce m e n i n t h e fo rce.

1 866
1 842 1 852
3 , 2 0 0 p o l i ce m e n were used
Detective Branch fo r m e d (see page 1 3 4 ) . Sir C h a rles Rowa n d i e d . to contro l a riot i n Hyde Park
S o m e worried that p o l ice detectives wou l d b e T h e re were n ow 5,700 - Co m m i ss i o n e r M a y n e was
used t o s py o n o rd i n a ry p e o p l e . Plain-clothed m e n i n the fo rce. i nj u red, and t h e a rmy was
police m e n were o rd e red to revea l t h e i r i d e ntity ca l l ed i n to contro l t h e c rowd .
i n confro ntati o n s with t h e p u b l ic.

1 867 1 870
I rish ' F e n i a n s', w h o wa nted i n d e p e n d e n ce fo r N ew Co m m iss i o n e r Ed m u n d H e n d e rson i ntro d u ced
I re l a n d , p l a nted a b o m b i n C l e rke nwe l l . T h e ru l es to i n crease t h e q u a l ity of recru its and to raise
p o l ice i g n o red warn i n g s o f t h e attack. sta n d a rd s of rea d i n g and writi n g i n t h e p o l ice. He
re l axed ru l es a b o u t d r i l l (see p a g e 1 34 ) .

1 877 1 885 1 886


A cou rt case revea led co rru pti o n a m o n g s e n i o r O n ly a yea r afte r a A p rotest i n Trafa l g a r
offi cers at t h e Detective B r a n c h i n a n i nte rnati o n a l ' S pecia l I rish B r a n c h ' was S q u a re g ot o u t o f h a n d a n d
g a m b l i n g fra u d co n s p i ra cy. T h i s 'Tri a l o f t h e set up to i nfi ltrate I rish h o u ses were d a m a g e d .
Detectives' w a s closely fo l l owed a n d re po rted i n terrorist ce l l s, Fenian H e n d e rson resi g n ed a s
t h e n ews p a p e rs . T h e fo l l owi n g yea r, S i r C h a rles b o m bs exp l o d e d at t h e Co m m iss i o n e r. S i r C h a rles
Vincent refo r m e d t h i s branch i nto t h e C ri m i n a l H o uses o f Pa r l i a m e nt a n d Wa rre n re p l a ced h i m .
I nvesti g ation D e p a rt m e n t (CI D ) . t h e Towe r of Lo n d o n .

1 887 1 888-89

Wa rren resi g n e d afte r seem i n g t o criticise t h e H o m e T h e Wh itech a p e l M u rd e rs were ca rried out


Se creta ry fo l l ow i n g a n ot h e r riot i n Trafa l g a r S q u a re . five were t h o u g h t to be t h e work of o n e m a n :
J a m es M u n ro was a p p o i nted i n h i s p l ace. J a ck t h e R i p p e r. T h e R i p p e r was n ot c a u g ht.

1 895 1 902
1 894 N ew r u l es fo r
1 901 M ed a ls, time off a n d
N ew syste m fo r recru itment. A p p l ica nts a bonus was paid
had to be betwee n 21 F i n g erprint i d e ntificati o n t o a l l p o l i ce m e n
i d e ntify i n g s u s pects
and 27, a b l e to rea d i ntro d u ce d . t o repay t h e m fo r
was put in p l a ce
- u s i n g p hysica l a n d w rite we l l , a n d be extra d uties d u ri n g
m e a s u re m e nts, ta l l e r than 5'9". t h e co ro n ation of
p h otog ra p h s a n d 'th e Edwa rd VI I .
m u g shot'.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Po lice Co m m issio n e rs a n d the H o m e Secreta ry


B etween 1870 and 1 9 0 0 there seemed to be a crisis at the very top of the police force, with
two Commissioners being forced to resign from their jobs. Their experiences allow us to
explore people's attitudes to the police - why were people suspicious of them and were they
doing an effective job ?

Co m m issio n e r Ed m u n d H e n d e rs o n
Edmund Henderson, who was appointed
as Commissioner in 1870, was forced to
resign in 1886 following a string of scandals.
Henderson was accused of having relaxed
police discipline - he had allowed officers
to grow beards, and reduced the amount
of military drill practice they had to do.
His critics often ignored the action he had
taken to raise the standard of reading and
writing in the force, and his expansion of the
Detective Branch.
In 1877 a scandal called 'the Trial of
the Detectives' was uncovered involving
corruption in the Detective Branch (see page
143), and suspicion of the police continued
throughout the time Henderson was in
charge. In the case of Thomas Titley in 1880
some thought that the police had made
Titley break the law. They had posed in
plain clothes as customers wanting to buy a
chemical in order to bring on an abortion.
On 17 December 1880 The London Daily News
wrote that the case had been 'manufactured'
in an 'extraordinary manner'. The jury found
Titley guilty but recommended a lenient
sentence 'on the ground of the provocation
by the police inducing him to the crime'. The
following year 3,800 people signed a petition
against Titley's eighteen-month sentence.

BULL'S EYE ON BOBBY .


Following this, in 1884 and 1885, Irish
Fenian terrorists exploded a series of bombs,
11h.. Dol.r. (.ttrkr" p,tl(o,cmtm'thtllluru). 11 THANK YOU. PLL J UST .lJ .!YE. A LOUK ROUND MYSI-HF. Sl'RIKE )l E
including two that damaged the Houses of
TrrE rllllUSll S A!N'P A S CLEAN AS HEY MIGHT llll l "
Parliament (see Source C ) . This was
A Source A A cartoon published in Punch magazine in 1877 during the especially humiliating as the Special Irish
Trial of the Detectives. Sir Edmund Henderson is shown as a normal Branch, which had been set up in 1883, had
constable . A policeman's light is being shone in his face by John Bull - a failed to stop the plot. Finally, following a
symbol of Britishness. The words 'detective branch' are on the door. riot in Trafalgar Square which had got out of
control, Henderson was replaced by Charles
Warren in January 1886.
Sou rce B Fro m The L o n don Daily News , 1 7 D e ce m b e r 1 8 8 0 .
Nothing could well be stronger than the language in which fvlr Justice Stephen
THOMAS TITLEY

[the judge who tried the case] condemned the conduct of the CID. He will, 1 H ow m ig ht the Titley case h ave m a d e
we think, have the general body of public opinion with him in saying that 'the people suspicious o f the pol ice?
2 Loo k at Sou rce A. Why is 'J o h n B u l l '
employment of spies to go and tell a parcel of lies was a proceeding that must
be deprecated [condemned] by all '.
s h i n i n g a l i g ht i n t h i s ca rtoon?
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

T Source C The front page of theGraphic Newspaper from January


1885, showing a drawing of the damage done to the chamber of the SIR EDMUND HENDERSON,
House of Commons . 1821-1896

H e n d e rson was a n
adventu re r a n d s o l d i e r
befo re settl i n g d own t o t h e
j o b o f Co m m issi o n e r o f t h e
M etro p o l itan Po l i ce. H e
carried o u t su rveys o f B ritish
territory i n C a n a d a a n d
w a s i n ch a rg e o f t h e prison
colony i n Weste rn Au stra l i a .
H e beca m e Co m m is s i o n e r
i n 1 869. H e n d e rson m a d e
seve ra l refo rms, i n c l u d i n g a l l ow i n g p o l i ce m e n
t o vote i n e l ecti o n s a n d setti n g u p a c h a rity to
l o o k afte r w i d ows a n d o r p h a n s of p o l i ce m e n
ki l l ed i n se rvice. H e a l so created a 're g i ster
of H a bitu a l C ri m i n a ls' which was s u p posed to
a l low t h e p o l ice to kee p reco rds o n p e o p l e w h o
kept co m m itti n g cri m e s . H e n d e rson resi g n ed i n
J a n u a ry 1 8 8 6 .

SIR CHARLES WARREN, 1840-1927


Wa rren h a d an a m azi n g ly
varied l i fe - a n d co u l d h ave
been w ritte n i nto n ove l s
as a h e ro i c Victo ri a n . H e
w e n t t o tra i n as a n a rmy
offi ce r aged fo u rteen a n d
j o i n e d t h e Roya l E n g i n e e rs
a g e d seve nte e n . D u ri n g h i s
a rmy c a r e e r h e se rved i n
G i b ra lt a r, t h e M i d d l e East
and South Afri ca, retu rn i n g
t o E n g l a n d w h e n h e was
seriously wo u n d ed i n t h e Kaffi r Wa r. In 1 8 82 he
was sent to fi n d o u t w h at had h a p pe n ed to an
a rch a e o l o g i c a l expedition to t h e S i n a i Pe n i n s u l a
n .'' L" "'"''IOf'OTJ;,a iiAU.
i n Egypt. Wa rre n d iscove red t h a t t h e tea m h a d
r- "-'"" ,.- so.. ..

1' H ,!$.. 11 \' -N .o\ )l l T J:: E: X l' L O ' J O N !:i IX J, O !\ U O J( - .\ T T il E d O U S t: :i O J" 1' .\ R L l .\ L E J't, 'l' been m u rd e red, so h e tracked d own t h e ki l l e rs
a n d a rrested th e m . H e was t h e Co m m iss i o n e r of
t h e M etro p o l itan Po l i ce betwee n 1 8 86 a n d 1 8 8 8 .
Co m m issio n e r C h a r l es Wa rre n
Unfortunately for Warren, he was appointed just before a change
in Home Secretary. The new Home Secretary, Henry Matthews, got
ACTIVITIES
his position just six months after the appointment of Warren as
Commissioner. Matthews made no secret of his dislike for Warren's 1 Look up 'co rru pti o n ' a n d ' i n com pete n ce' in the
approach and made it clear that he would have preferred to promote d icti o n a ry a n d s u m m a rise the d efi n itions.
James Munro, Warren's deputy. Monro himself undermined Warren 2 Write yo u r n otes a bout S i r Ed m u n d
by complaining that Warren did not support the CID with enough H e n d e rson's t i m e as pol ice co m m issio n e r.
men or money. Neither Monro, Matthews nor Warren were easy to M a ke s u re you n ote d own evi d e n ce of
work for - all three were stubborn and did not listen to advice. co rru ption a n d i n com pete nce.
3 We re there oth e r reasons why Sir Ed m u n d
H e n d e rson's re putatio n was n ot a g o o d one?
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Reactio n s to Wa rren's a p p roach


Warren's approach to his job was to try to raise standards. He issued orders to increase the
military drill practice, and tightened up the rules for recruitment - he also brought more
ex-soldiers into the force. Warren's focus on military discipline made people worry that the
force was becoming an army which would be used to control the people. The press reacted
badly when, in November 1887, another protest in Trafalgar Square was put down with
what seemed like excessive force. In late 1888, when Jack the Ripper started to kill women
in Whitechapel (see page 15 1), he seemed to be running rings round the police, who looked
incapable of catching him.
In November 1888, at the height of the
Ripper crisis, Warren wrote an article
that was published in Murray's Magazine, a
popular news magazine.
lt is to be d e p l o red t h a t s u ccessive
G ove r n m ents h ave not h a d t h e co u ra g e
t o m a ke a sta n d a g a inst t h e m o re n o isy
section of the p e o p l e representing a
s m a l l m i n o rity, a n d h ave g iven way befo re
ove r [ p rotests] w h i c h h ave exe rcised
a te rro rism ove r peacefu l law a b i d i n g
citize ns.

Warren was reacting to accusations that his


police force had used too much force in
controlling a protesting crowd in Trafalgar
Square in 1887, and criticisms that he was
turning London's police into a military
organisation. His biggest mistake, however,
was in not getting this article approved by
the Home Secretary, Henry Matthews.
Warren's criticism of the Government
looked like criticism ofMatthews. When
Matthews wrote to Warren in November
1888 to rebuke him for writing the Murray
Magazine article, Warren offered his
resignation in anger, and Matthews
accepted it at once.

ACTIVITIES -,

1 M a ke n otes on S i r Cha rles Wa rren's time
as co m m issio n e r, focusing o n co rru ption
a n d /o r i n co m pete n ce.
BLIND-MAN'S BUFF. 2 We re there oth e r reasons fo r S i r
(.Ar ]Jfttvd bp t/16 l'!ico,)
C h a r l es's res i g n ation?
u T U R :-f UOU :X U T l l l!lr!l rnM ES,
Alll) C>ll'Cfl WJIOU YOU 11 \Y ! "
3 Write a para g ra ph which exp l a i n s why

Source D A cartoon published by Punch magazine when the panic over


there was a crisis at the head of the
..._
M etropol itan Po l ice i n the yea rs
the Ripper murders was at its height . The policeman's blindfold is stopping 1 870-1 889.
him from catching the criminals who are taunting him .
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

1.5 The organisation of policing in W hitec hapel


The Metropolitan Police was split up into different 'divisions' - each was responsible for
policing a different area of London. Whitechapel came under 'H' Division. In 1886, H
Division was extended eastwards, which gave it the territory set out on the map below.
Each division was run by a Superintendent Constable, who had a hierarchy of policemen
working under him.

Recru its
New constables were recruited by the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police, which from
1890 was at Scotland Yard. Once the recruits were accepted and trained they were sent out to
divisions that needed new men. Applicants filled out a form, giving details of their lives and
experiences, and which gave the addresses of people who could act as character references.

Sou rce A R e q u i re m e n t s for a p p l i c a n t s , f ro m the a p p li c a t i o n form for n ew re c r u i t s .


H e must not be under 2 1 years, n o r over 32 years of age
He must not be less than five feet nine inches in heigh t without his shoes
He m ust not have more than two children
He must not carry on any trade, nor will his wife be permitted to keep any shop
He must read and write legibly
He m ust produce sa tisfactory testimonials as to character
He must be certified as physically fit f... ] by the Surgeon of the Police Force

Successful applicants were given two weeks' training in military drill exercises (marching to
order) followed by one week of'beat' duty alongside a more experienced constable in B or C
Division (see map below) . They were then assigned to the division that they would work in .

..6. A map showing the different divisions of the Metropolitan Police. B Division is Chelsea
and C Division is Mayfair and Soho . H Division included the Whitechapel area.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Who we re t h e re cru its?


Recruitment of the right kind of candidate was very important. It was thought that the
best policemen were men who had been brought up in the countryside, as they would be
bigger and healthier than those from London. Character was thought to be very important.
Recruits would have to show that they had good 'discipline' - that they would take orders
and not break rules and regulations. The 1871 Instruction book for Candidates and Constables, a
handbook for new police recruits, is very clear about the qualities the police were looking
for {see Source B ) .

Sou rce B Extracts f r o m t h e Instruction Book for Can didates a n d Constables ( 1 8 7 1 ) .


He is to speak the truth at all times and under all circumstances and when called upon to give
evidence to state all he knows .. . ] without fear or reserva tion.
Perfect command of temper is indispensable. A [constable] m ust not allow himself to be moved or
excited or by any language or threat. however violen t. The cooler he keeps himself the more power
he will have over his assailan ts.
A constable m ust act with energy, promptness and determination, for if he wavers, or doubts the
thief may escape or the opportunity to render assistance may be lost.

The police offered a steady job in an age when work was usually poorly paid and temporary.
Right from the start of the Metropolitan Police it was decided that senior jobs would be
given to serving policemen - so good policemen who stayed in their jobs could expect
promotion. After 1860, a pension was given after 30 years in the service. The police even
set up sports clubs for those who wanted to play cricket or football, and awards for good
service or bravery.
A survey of recruits in 1874 suggested that 31 per cent of new recruits came from the
countryside around London - many were farm labourers and 12 per cent came from the
military. The historian Haia Shpayer-Makov's research suggests that the more wealthy or
skilled the recruit, the less likely they were to stay in the police for their whole careers -
perhaps because they had other options to earn money.

H Division
TA map of Whitechapel and In 188S, Dickens's Dictionary ofLondon listed 19 inspectors, 44 sergeants, and 441 constables
surrounding areas . in H Division. This made a force of SOS policemen to cover Whitechapel's population of
about 176,000 people. The numbers of H Division's forces
went up and down, but even at its peak during 1888 there
were only around S7S police officers, including both
constables and detectives. This meant that there was one
policeman for every 300 people living in Whitechapel
in normal times. Across the whole of London the force
was 14,000 for a population of about S.S million people,
about one policeman for every 390 people. To compare, the
population of London in 201S is around 8.6 million and
there are approximately 32,000 police officers - about one
policeman for every 268 people who live in London.

St G e o rg e S t Pa u l Lem a n Street Po lice Station


i n t h e East Shadwell Just north o f the place where the Peabody Estate would b e
built (see page 127), but south o f the Whitechapel Road, i s
Leman Street and the main police station for H Division,
St J o h n of
and the Whitechapel area. In 1891, it was moved to specially
Wa p p i n built premises on the site of a theatre that had been
demolished a few doors down. Most of the records of this
station for our period have not survived, but we can get an
idea of the work of the policeman from other sources.
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

For instance, we could use information in the Census returns for Leman Street. In 1881,
the Census records list two sergeants and 42 police constables as staying there on the night
of the Census. It also records six prisoners as well as one 'destitute' person sleeping on the
street outside. The 1 9 0 1 Census, taken when the station had moved to a new and bigger
building, lists 63 police constables, seven prisoners, eight police families and interestingly,
three sergeants and five inspectors. Inspectors were not mentioned at all on the earlier
Census record from 1 8 8 1 .

J'tF as) The I H.,..... ""' oituate wilhln the Bouudarieo ol che

Clloll pp.lo

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' lk pm tNwg i 11ld1 / tM -w, IJ/ tJw k<Jdingt <V aT< -rr r

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'I "I 'I "I 1 "I 'R.G.
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:::..io':".!:'.:.;=:: , .
HOO IO OfFI tt. LOUOI
I
.A.Source C A digital scan
LEMAN STREET of the Census record for
1
Leman Street in 1 88 1 . Each
What do the n u m bers of people living a n d b e i n g h e l d in Lem a n Street Po l ice Stati o n
between 1 8 88 a n d 1 901 s u g g est about h ow H Division w a s ch a n g i n g ?
entry was copied by hand

2 W h y m ig ht the enteri n g , co pyi n g a n d reco pying o f n a m es fro m returns t o reg i sters m a ke


from the Census return
filled in by the residents,
resea rch m o re d ifficult fo r h isto rians? or, in this case, probably a
3 See if you ca n i d e ntify on the 1 8 81 return (Sou rce C) what the priso n e rs n o r m a l l y d i d fo r a police sergeant on duty that
l ivi n g , a n d the p l a ces they were born. night at the station .
4 What m i g ht the b i rth p l a ces of th ose stayi n g i n Lem a n Street o n the n i g ht of the Census te l l
you a bout t h e popu l ation of Wh itech a p e l ?

SOURCES AND PROBLEMS


Ad d a few m o re ideas to the l ist of s o u rces that you sta rted on page 1 1 8 . I n pa rticu l a r, can
you think of t h i n g s that the Census m i g ht te l l yo u, as we l l as some of its d rawbacks?
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Tha m es Po lice Co u rt
If we want to find out more about the kinds of things that constables did as part of their
work we could look at reports of cases that were taken to the Thames Police Court, which
was the court for the whole area of Whirechapel down to the Thames. It heard thousands
of cases relating to crimes that could be tried without a jury.
Crimes of forgery, assault, attempted drownings in vats of wine, and others can be found in
these reports. The most serious cases of murder or attempted murder and other crimes that
the magistrate felt needed harsher punishments were sent to the Old Bailey. Here there was
a jury, and the judge could impose more serious sentences, but the dividing line between
these serious crimes and those that stayed at the Police Court was not clear.
Though there are no official records derailing what was said at these cases, the court
register for the year 1888 has survived. This document lists the cases, defendants and the
crimes they were charged with. The historian Drew Gray has studied the register to find
out the proportion of the different crimes that were committed (see Source D ) .

Sou rce D H e a r i n g s a t t h e T h a m e s P o l i c e C o u rt , J a n u a ry 1 8 8 7- D e c e m b e r 1 8 8 7, f ro m t h e
c o u rt re g i ste r. Fro m D rew G ray, London's Shadows , p u b li s h e d i n 2 0 1 0 .

Type o f offence Male Female Tot a l


P ro p e r t y 381 [85%) 7 4 [ 1 6%) 455 [ 2 7 % )
Violence 3 5 2 [84%) 65 [ 1 6%) 41 7 [24%)
D i s o rd e r ly 337 [62%) 208 [38%) 545 [32%)
Reg u latory* 244 [ 8 5 % ) 44 [1 5%0 288 [1 7%)
To t a l 1 ,3 1 4 [77%) 391 [23%) 1 ,705
* T h e s e t e n d e d to b e c r i m e s s u c h a s b re a k i n g t h e r u les o f t h e Wo r k h o u s e b y ru n n i n g away,
d r i v i n g a c a rt d a n g e ro u s ly o r r u n n i n g away from the a rmy.

Using what you already know about what Whitechapel was like, can you explain why

crimes of 'disorderly behaviour' might be the most common?

Source D tells us a lot about the types of crime, and proportion of crimes that the H
Division constables would have faced. So, the most common type of crime was disorderly
behaviour, but this was only slightly more frequent than crimes against property (which
means theft, or fraud) and crimes of violence.

COMBINING INFORMATION FROM SOURCES

O n e of t h e p ro b l e m s with sou rces l i ke t h e reg iste r, a n d ta b l es based on t h e m , is that each


cate g o ry cove rs a very l a rg e ra n g e of crimes. Vio l e n ce co u l d mean a nyth i n g fro m t h e th reat
of v i o l e n ce, or fea r of b e i n g h u rt, r i g h t up to atte m pted m u rd e rs, sta b b i n g s a n d beati n g s . If
I want to know m o re about t h e kinds of cri mes and d iffi cu lties that t h e Wh itech a p e l p o l i ce
fa ced, I need to l o o k at m o re t h a n o n e sou rce, a n d l e a rn fro m t h e m tog eth e r.
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

The ro l e of the beat co nsta b l e


The role o fthe constable was to prevent crime by being an obvious
presence, and to arrest those caught committing a crime.

U n ifo r m a n d eq u i p m e nt
The beat consta ble's uniform was woollen trousers and jacket,
both a deep blue-black colour, with shiny buttons and (until
1863) a top hat. This uniform was meant to stand out in the
crowd, because one of the jobs of the policeman was to be seen. A
truncheon was carried to help defend a constable under attack, and
handcuffs or 'come along' cuffs were used for bringing unwilling
citizens back to the station. The oil-fired bulls-eye lamp - the 'dark
lantern' - gave heat as well as light, which was especially welcome
on cold nights. The flame could be hidden from view in order to
help the officer creep up on suspected criminals.
The initial 'stovepipe' top hat didn't give enough protection from
blows to the head, so, from 1863, a new design of the helmet, called
the custodian, was introduced. The design of this helmet was
supposed to deflect a downward blow to the side.

T h e beat
There are lots of mentions in the records of the Old Bailey, and in the
newspaper reports from Whitechapel, of policemen being called by
witnesses to a crime, or happening to come across a crime in progress.
This wasn't just luck. Without radios, CCTV, computer surveillance
or motor patrols, the main tactic for preventing crime was 'the beat'.
This was a specific area that each constable would have to patrol,
using a route that had been given to him by his sergeant. The beat
was timed precisely - and the constable would be expected to reach
certain places, and to be at the end of the beat, at specific times so
that his sergeant could meet him or contact him when necessary. In
the days before radio, this was the only way in which a sergeant could
track his constables, and the only way he could get messages and
instructions to him. As you can see from Source E, the instructions
about the speed of his walking were very precise.

Source E Fro m t h e Candidates and Constables Instruction Book, 1 8 7 1 .


He is to walk at a gentle pace, about 2Vz miles an hour, keeping the
outer or kerb side of the street by day, and walking close to the houses
by night. He m ust not loiter or stand in an idle and listless manner, or
gossip. He is not on any account to receive drink from any one. If he
requires refreshment. he can obtain the permission of his Sergeant to
purchase it.

THE BEAT
1 H ow d i d p o l i ce m e n 's u n iform h e l p them in the p revention
of cri me?
2 Can you co m e u p with two possi b l e reasons why?
3 Why was the beat timed so p recise ly?
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

The 'beat' ro uti n e


A t the start o f the day's duty a squad o f policemen would leave their station i n single file,
each peeling off at the start of their beat.
During the day the beat was about half an hour. At night the beats were made half as
long - so that the route was walked every fifteen minutes. This meant that burglars and
thieves had less time to carry out crimes during the cover of night. Each shift would last
nine hours - eight of which would be spent walking in boots made with wooden soles ! In
the hour before their beat began, officers would study their orders of the day, which listed
wanted criminals or crimes that had happened in the shift before theirs, and put on the
black and white striped armband which showed that they were on duty.
Policemen usually travelled the beat alone, unless they were working in a particularly
dangerous area. They were expected not only to learn the route of their beat, but to know
the shops, warehouses, pubs and other businesses and the people who worked there, as well
as the alleyways, yards and squares that led off their routes. After a month a policeman
would be moved on to another beat. This was to prevent corruption between officers and
locals - it was often the case that shopkeepers might give a constable a cup of tea, in return
for being extra vigilant when walking past their shop, or in case there was trouble from
customers in the future. The landlord of a pub might leave a pint of beer on the window for
a constable as he walked past, in return for a good word from the officer when the
application to renew the pub's licence came up. Officially this was frowned upon, but
sergeants and inspectors saw that the constable needed to get to know the people on his
beat. They were encouraged to share a cup of tea with the watchmen (today we might call
them security guards) who patrolled larger commercial buildings like warehouses, so that
they could share information on suspicious persons and potential suspects.
Disadva ntages
The obvious downside to the beat system was that, after
watching each policeman for a little while, a criminal would
be able to work out the route, and commit his crime when
the policeman was on another section of the beat. The
constable would try to alter his beat a little on each route,
or might sometimes walk it the other way round, so that his
position was less predictable. This was not the only
complication. At night, constables were expected to check
doors and downstairs windows of the premises that they
walked past. Some would use tricks like leaving strips of
paper wedged in the doors of places that might be targeted
by thieves. If they walked by again and noticed that the
paper had gone, they could then investigate further.

THE BEAT .,
1 What were the advantages a n d d isadva ntages of the
beat syste m ?
2 W h y were t h e beats s h o rte r a t n i g ht?
3 H ow do the beat syste m a n d the u n iform of the
con sta b l e s u g g est that the j o b of the p o l i ce was m a i n ly
to p reve nt cri m e?

.& Source F A redrawn map from one of the 'beat books' for
H Division . This one is from the 1930s but the beat system
had not really changed since the end of the 1800s.
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The development of the Centra l I nvestigation Division (CI D)


From the first days of the Metropolitan Police in 1829, people were suspicious of the idea of
d etecting crime - it seemed too much like snooping. So a detective force wasn't set up until
1842, but even then this was only a small unit which worked the Metropolitan Police's
headquarters at Scotland Yard. In 1870 Commissioner Henderson decided to recruit more
detectives, bur also to move them out to the divisions, so that they could work with the
constables and use their local knowledge.
These detectives didn't perform very well. There were cases
of mistaken identity which led to arrests of the wrong
person. In 1877, a group of detectives were found guilty of
accepting bribes in return for protecting a gang which had He h a d trave l l ed w i d e l y
stolen thousands of francs from French gamblers in an i n E u rope a n d t h e n
tra i n e d a s a l awye r.
international betting seam. This 'Trial of the Detectives'
led to a reorganisation of detectives in London. They were e H e spent the w h o l e of
brought back under the control of a new single organisation 1 87 7 studyi n g P a r i s i a n
p o l ice d etective
called the Criminal Investigation Division or CID, based at
tech n i q u es.
Scotland Yard in Westminster.
H ea d of t h e C I D
Howard Vincent was given the job of leading the CID - and betwee n 1 7 78 a n d 1 8 84.

he set our new ways of working. He centralised control of Was g ive n t h e j o b of
the CID, and increased the pay of detectives in order to reform i n g t h e C I D
attract the best constables. He also encouraged detectives to afte r t h e 'Tra i l o f the
do more plain-clothes operations, and to investigate crimes Detectives.'
that they suspected might happen - rather than wait for P u b l i s h e d the fi rst Po l i ce Code in 1 8 89, w h i c h set
them to be reported. out g u i d e l i n e s fo r co l l ecti n g evi d e n ce a n d d etecti n g
cri m i n a l s .
However, detectives still worked in local divisions so that
they knew their patch, its p eople and policemen well. One
example is Inspector Reid. He worked his way up from
constable to the role of detective in Bethnal Green, and was very experienced in policing
the East End, before being given the job of inspector (an inspector was a more experienced
policeman who oversaw the work of several sergeants and his constables) at H Division. He
replaced Inspector Frederick Abberline, who had spent most of his career in Whitechapel,
and was promoted to a role at CID in Scotland Yard (before being sent back to work with H
Division during the Whitechapel murder investigation) .

The day-to-day wo rk of the d etective


Detectives often worked in plain clothes, so that they could 'shadow' suspects - follow them
to observe their activities or make arrests. Each day they would receive a report from the chief ATTITUDES

inspector in each division, which listed the unsolved crimes and ongoing investigations in TOWARDS
each area. In addition, from 1878, they also had to look out for 'habitual criminals' - those DETECTION
1
who repeatedly committed crime. Details of these criminals were kept in a 'Register of
Describe the attitude
habitual criminals' at Scotland Yard, where the CID's headquarters were. Detectives also
towa rd s d etective work
had the job of supervising prisoners who had been released early for good behaviour. These d u ri n g this period .
2 Describe the ro l e of a
men had to visit a police station at least once a week, and were given a 'ticket ofleave' which
explained their crime, and which they had to produce if asked by a policeman. d etective p o l i ce m a n
The detective's main job was to observe and gather information. As we'll see, however, d u ri n g t h i s period .
before 1 9 0 0 there were few forensic investigation techniques. Detectives were starting 3 I n what ways d i d
to use photography, but there was no reliable way of gathering fingerprint evidence. the d etective's ro l e
The analysis of fibres or DNA marching was unimagined, and the most usual method d eve l o p d u ri n g the
of getting evidence was to gather descriptions and witness statements, take casts of period?
footprints, or to get a tip from an informant.
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Fo l l owi n g u p a sou rce

Source H Fro m a re p o rt
i n t h e Graphic Ne wspaper,
28 D e ce m b e r 1 8 9 5 , I s s u e
1 3 61 .
So, I grabbed the brother
who was kicking out at my
shins. I got a good hold of his
neck with my right hand . . . I
thought that as I was alone
among a rare lot of 'em, men
and women, pushing and
crowding and cursing, and
the nearest ones beginning
to get me wedged in, I had
better blow my whistle;
and no sooner did the other
brother see both my hands
busy than he came straight
for me with a knife.

S o u rce I Deta i ls f r o m P C
W i l l i a m S h o rt 's e n t ry i n
t h e H D i v i s i o n a l R e g i s t e r.
Collar No: 6 1 5
Warran t N o : 70668
Occupation: Farm Labourer
From: Parkham Bideford,
Devon
Age: 22
Da te of joining: 1 1 May 7885
Heigh t: 6 ' 1/4 "

Source G A picture published in 1895 in the Graphic Newspaper which shows a scuffle
Transferred to: A Division 8
February 1890 _.
described to a j ournalist by PC H6 1 5 when he stepped in to stop a fight .

This looks like an interesting story - and I would like to know more about it! To do
that I need to work out which details in the source I can follow up, and where and how
I might search for more information. The most obvious person to focus on is the police
officer. I know that he worked in H Division in Whitechapel (because of the H on his
collar number) . The collar number is useful as these were given when a constable joined a
particular division. Like numbers on a football shirt, they were re-used and given out again
as people joined and left the division. This means I can search the H Divisional Register,
which will tell me who used that collar number.
Not all of the Divisional Registers have survived, and they are in paper form - they have not
(yet) been digitised, so they have to be searched by hand. I was lucky because the Heritage
Centre of the Metropolitan Police agreed to do the search over the phone - otherwise I
would have to have visited in person. The Divisional Register had one person using that
collar number between 1885 and 1890, then another person using that number from 1 9 1 1 .
That was great for me, because the incident I was investigating happened before 1895
(that's when the story was published) . So, it looked like William Short used the collar
number in the picture. From the Divisional Register I learned several interesting things
about PC William Short (see Source I) .
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RECRUITMENT
1 Loo k back at page 1 3 8 then at W i l l i a m S h o rt's reco rd in Sou rce I . What m a d e S h o rt the
i d e a l ca n d i d ate to j o i n the M etro p o l itan Po l ice?
2 Loo k back at the pictu re o n page 1 44. Consideri n g S h o rt's age and h e i g h t i n the d ivisi o n a l
reco rd , d o e s the pictu re s e e m l i ke a n accu rate i m a g e o f h i m ?

Warrant numbers were given t o each new recruit a s he was accepted into the force and
he kept this number, even if he moved between divisions. Now that I have a warrant
number, I can search the Attestation Ledgers and Joining and Leaving Ledgers. These
were handwritten record books of when people joined and left the force. They have been
digitised and are searchable online at the National Archives. They tell me a little more
about Short - he left H Division in 1890, five years before the publication of the story in the
Graphic. If it is Short in the news article, perhaps he left Whitechapel because of incidents
like this one. He stayed in A Division for another 21 years, leaving in 1 9 1 1 - when he would
have had a full police pension after such long service.
In this case the ledgers can't tell me much more. But I have more details from the picture
(Source G) that I might want to follow up. In the background I can see a police station. I
can use a map, and the details that I have from the article to find more information.
Short (if it was him) says that the incident took place near Pearl Street, and near a public
house and a police station. Source ] shows the station as being on a fairly sharp corner - the
building narrows at the corner quite a lot. It is also across the road from a pub (in the
left-hand corner) . The junction of Commercial Street and Elder Street has a pub nearby and
a police station on the corner, and it is very near Great Pearl Street.

T Source J A recreation of the 1894 street map , showing the Commercial Street
Police Station, the public house on the corner of Wheler Street , Great Pearl Street and
Commercial Street .

Quaker Street KEY ITEMS



P.H .
S alvation
H ow co u l d each of
Army Shelter th ese ite m s be usefu l fo r
fo l l ow i n g u p a sou rce?
e Attestation l e d g e r
J o i n i n g a n d l eavi n g
ledger
Wa rra nt n u m be r
e Co l l a r n u m be r

National
Telephone
Works

Key
P.H . Public house Lamb S treet
''"""
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THE INCIDENT IN SPITALFIELDS .,


1 Loo k closely at Sou rces G a n d J . C a n you work out where the a rtist stood w h e n h e fi rst
sketched out the pictu re?
2 Sou rce G is n ot a p h otog ra p h , but a d rawi n g of the eve nts. H ow does this c h a n g e the way
that you m ig ht use it as evid e n ce?

Now I have the warrant number and name I can use these details to follow up searches of
newspaper reports. One of the most important sources for crime at this time is newspaper
reports. Newspapers often printed short items about criminals and victims appearing
at the Police Court. It looks like the event recorded in the Graphic happened at least five
years before the publication date of 1895, because by this time Short was in A Division in
Westminster, a long way from Great Pearl Street. However, the details of when he joined
and left Whitechapel Division help me narrow the newspaper search down even further.
Unfortunately in our case I cannot find any reference to the fight that is mentioned in the
story in the Graphic. This doesn't mean that it didn't happen, just that it didn't get into the
papers at the time. The story seems to match with the details on the ground, and PC615
was serving in the Whitechapel area around the time of the Graphic story. In fact, there are
local newspapers that I could search in local museums and libraries that might have details
of this story, so there's still more following up that I could do. The search was not a waste
of time either - browsing through these stories and sources I started to get a picture of the
work of the police and some of the problems they were facing in Whitechapel.

SEARCHING THE ARCHIV ES

Looki n g in o l d editions of s o m e news p a p e rs is m u ch easier t h a n it used to be, because


m a ny h ave been d i g itised . H oweve r, what we're able to l o o k at o n l i n e m ay n ot g ive us
t h e whole pictu re, a s these re po rts o n ly re p rese nt a s m a l l fraction of co u rt cases. The
news p a p e rs te n d to cove r t h e m o re su rpri s i n g cases, o r the m ost i nte resti n g d eta i l s - l i ke
t h e c h a rges a g a i n st a wo m a n w h o d ressed as a m a n i n o rd e r to fo l l ow h e r h u s b a n d , i n t h e
h o p e of d i scove r i n g h i s affa i r, o r t h e case of a wa re h o u s e m a n accused o f crue lty t o a d o g
- h e h a d been seen th row i n g it a s fa r a s h e co u l d b y i t s fro n t l e g s . T h e rea d i n g p u b l i c we re
very i n te rested in t h e cri m es that h a p p e n e d in less wea lthy a reas l i ke Wh itech a p e l , a n d
sto ries a b o u t cri m e t h e re wou l d often re-a p p e a r i n news p a p e rs u p a n d d ow n t h e co u ntry.

S o m e of t h e cases in t h e p a p e rs a re very o d d - l i ke t h i s o n e in S o u rce K, w h i c h te l l s u s


a b o u t a l o u d i nte rruption t o a S u n day re l i g i o u s service.

S o u rce K From a re p o rt o f a ca s e a t the T h a m e s Police C o u rt f r o m T h e Wa tchman and


Wesleyan A dvertiser, N ove m b e r 1 8 6 0 .

The defendant did unlawfully molest, let, disturb, vex, and trouble the said Thomas Dove, a
clergyman in holy orders, ministering in the parish church of St. George, during the celebration
of divine service. He occupied a pew near the reading-desk, and said the responses very loudly.
Mr. Churchwarden Thompson wen t to him and requested him not to make so m uch noise,
when he turned round and said, Don't interrupt me, sir, and continued his loud reading. The
Churchwarden then called in the police, and had him removed.

-
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1.6 Difficulties of policing W hitec hapel


Large parts ofWhitechapel were slums at the start of the he made two complaints. The first was that he had been
period and this remained the case despite work done by assaulted by the policemen, and the second was that both
charities such as the Peabody Trust. The layout of the streets constables had been drinking. Gunter admitted that he'd had
and the buildings themselves made policing difficult. half a pint, in a shop doorway, but denied that he had been in
Criminals could hide from the police in the rookeries, and the pub with Gallagher.
use the alleys and yards as places from which to watch for
Drink also had a large part to play in many of the cases of
victims, hide after committing a crime, or to run criminal
violence and abuse within families - like the case from June
activities from. However, there were other difficulties which
1878 of Henry S eigenberg of Cable Street, whose drunken
the police faced in Whitechapel. In this section we're going to
father beat him so badly that the injuries, when shown in
study these.
court, 'caused quite a groan of execration to run through
RECORDING YOUR RESEARCH
the Court'. The case was so serious that it was committed
for a full trial at the Old Bailey.
Use a table l i ke the o n e b e l ow to reco rd information fro m
pages 1 47-1 50 about the d ifficu lties to p o l i c i n g caused by P u bs
l ife in Wh itech a p e l . Making sure that landlords of pubs did not break the terms
W h a t did t h e of their licences was also an important part of the work of
W h a t d ifficu lties pol ice try to do the police. Policemen would check that landlords were
Issue did it ca use? about this issue? closing their pubs on time, and that they were not allowing
gambling or illegal boxing to take place on their premises.
A l co h o l a n d
p u bs
After 1870 it was illegal to serve alcohol to someone who
was already drunk. As the period went on it was harder and
Gangs
harder for landlords to keep their licences if they had
P rostitution broken the law, and as a result most landlords worked hard
to make sure that they were on the right side of the police.
V i o l e nt
d e m o n strati o n s
a n d attacks o n JUST A DRINK?
J ews
1 What p ro b l e m s d i d a l co h o l cause fo r the pol ice i n
Wh itech a p e l ?
2 W h y w a s the a l l eg ation a g a i nst G u nter so serious?
A l co h o l
3 What d eta i l s i n the re port about H e n ry Seigen berg 's
As we have already seen (see page 129), alcohol played a large beati n g co u l d you fo l l ow u p?
part in the work of a policeman. It made some people more
vulnerable to becoming victims of crime, like John Watson,
who, according to a report on 22 July 1870 in the Clerkenwell S o u rce A F ro m East L o n don Observer, 2 0 O c t o b e r 1 8 7 7.
News, had fallen in with a couple of young women in a pub in
Sergeant Singer 13H said that on the 1 1th he visited the [Prince
Gowers Walk, Whitechapel. He became 'intoxicated' and the of Denmark Public House]. There were two or three men and
women were caught relieving him of his watch in the street some women in front of the bar. One of the men, a sailor. was
by Constable Deddnould from H Division. staggering about drunk . . . . For the defence the defendant and
two other witnesses said tha t they did not believe that the man
The case ofWilliam Froomberg reported in the East London
was drunk, he was merely excited. [The] Defendan t said that he
Observer on 3 May 1879 (see Source A) shows that alcohol
wan ted to get the man out of his house, but he would not go.
could also make small disputes much worse, and that it could
also make work harder and more dangerous for policemen.
Froomberg was shouting at a watchman in front of the Sailors'
Home (a place for sailors to sleep when their ship was in SAILING INTO TROUBLE
dock) . The watchman of the Sailors' Home blew his whistle, 1 Loo k at the m a p on page 1 3 8 . Why do so m a ny
summoning PC Gallagher, who was off duty and enjoying a Wh itech a p e l repo rts m e ntion s a i l o rs?
drink in a local pub, but arrived when he heard the whistle. 2 Why were s a i l o rs attracted to Wh itech a p e l ?
At the same time PC Gunter also arrived. Froomberg did not 3 W h y m i g ht m e n fa r fro m h o m e i n Lo n d o n be m o re l i kely
co-operate. Though 'no more violence was used than was to g et into tro u ble?
absolutely necessary to get [Froomberg] to the police station',
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Gangs with a well-dressed man. This man had drawn her into
a side court where the other members of the gang were
Alcohol was also involved i n some o f the racketeering that
waiting. This report also shows us how difficult it is to
went on in Whitechapel - illegal pubs and unlicensed
know what is happening, because the papers didn't always
boxing matches being some of the most common rackets.
write in plain language about the people of Whitechapel.
Some were run by well-organised gangs. In 1 935 W.G .
The reference here to the woman spending part of the
Cornish, who had been a detective in the Whitechapel area
evening with a sea captain and then taking up with another
in the later 1800s, wrote in his memoirs about 'Bessarabian'
man is meant to signal to us that she was a prostitute,
gangs that ran protection rackets which threatened the
without directly saying so.
owners of]ewish businesses. The immigrants that the gang
preyed on were already scared of the authorities - as many Many of the problems that the police had with young people
of them had come to London to escape persecution by the were much less dramatic than this - the Standard from 15
army and secret police in Russia. They tended to try to pay July 1884 tells of the arrest of a group of young men who
up, or to sort out their problems without getting the police had created a disturbance in a street near Regent's Canal at
involved. This means that they have left very little evidence the far end ofWhitechapel Road. This group were gambling,
behind. An 'ex-detective Sergeant Leeson' did publish some bathing and 'running about the towing path in a nude state' !
memoirs and stories during the 1930s when he retired,
which contained references to these immigrant gangs (see Prostitution
Source B ) .
Prostitution was not i n itself a crime - though after 1885
keeping a brothel was illegal. It is sometimes called 'the
Sou rce B Fro m A n East En d Detective b y B . L e e s o n ,
oldest profession', but for many women in Whitechapel it
pu blished i n 1 936.
wasn't a job, but a necessity in really desperate situations, or
The 'Bessarabians', or the 'Stop-at-nothing ' gang, were the when their lives were affected by alcoholism. For instance,
greatest menace London has ever known. The public little
all of the victims of]ack the Ripper had sold sex in order
guess how much they owe to the Me tropolitan Police for the fact
to pay for lodgings or alcohol, but they had all done other
that London to -day is free from a terror that made it - in the
early days of this cen tury - almost as dangerous a place as . . .
work before, and sometimes after, they had started to work
Chicago . . . a t its wildest. * as prostitutes.
* E a r ly i n t h e 1 8 0 0 s C h i c a g o h a d a re p u t a t i o n s i m i l a r to The case of Emily Warder illustrates the way that
W h i te c h a p e l 's - i t was seen a s a place of p rost i t u t i o n , prostitutes were dealt with in newspaper reports and the
g a m b l i n g , t h eft a n d m u rd e r. ways in which they could end up in trouble with the police.
E m i ly Wa rd e r, 28 was c h a rg e d . . . with b e i n g d r u n k


a n d d isorderly outside t h e S a i l o rs' H o m e, H a l f Street


GANGS OF LONDON? Wh itech a p e l . The priso n e r had been fo u n d by a
consta b l e d a n c i n g a b o u t at n i g h t outside t h e h o m e
1 Fro m the to n e a n d content of Sou rce B, what evi d e n ce i n a s u i t of m e n 's clothes, b e l o n g i n g t o a yo u n g s a i l o r
ca n you fi n d that Leeson m i g ht be exa g g e rati n g the w h o was stayi n g w i t h h e r.
danger of the Bessa ra b i a n g a n g ?
2 W h a t d o y o u know a b o u t these g a n g s t h a t wo u l d te l l
Julia Le Fair, one of the few women actually referred to directly
us h ow m u ch o f a th reat they were t o d iffe re nt kinds of as a prostitute in the newspaper records of the Thames Police
people living in Wh itech a p e l ? Court, shows how this work could lead to involvement in
crime, as well as making the women very vulnerable in other
ways (see Source C).
It is very hard to get much evidence to back up these stories.
Most reports about gangs in the newspapers seem to be
about small groups of younger people getting into fights,
PROSTITUTION

or taking opportunities to rob and steal. A typical report is 1 What l i n ks between d ri n k, cri m e a n d p rostituti o n can
that from Lloyd's Weekly in 1888 during the Jack the Ripper you see i n the case of J u l i a Le Fa i r?
murders, which describes a gang of women and bullies 2 What attitu de towa rds p rostitutes can we d etect in the
who robbed 'a young woman who had been spending the n ewspa per re port (see S o u rce C) a n d i n the ch a rges
evening with a sea captain', after which she had taken up a g a i nst Le Fa i r?
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Sou rce C Fro m a re p o rt in the East L o n don Observer, 2 2 Visible learning


S e p te m b e r 1 8 7 7.
SHOCKING ASSAULT ON A SAILOR - Julia Le Fair 32, a prostitute, Thinking carefully about sou rces
was charged with feloniously [seriously] cutting and wounding
When yo u use a sou rce, there a re th ree stages to th i n k about:
a sailor, named Jackson . . . it appears that on Tuesday night last.
the prisoner and the injured man were in one of the low lodging 1 What is it te l l i n g you a b o u t t h e s u bject of t h e e n q u i ry -
houses in the vicinity of Wellclose-Square. A quarrel broke out eith e r d i rectly o r th ro u g h w h at you c a n i n fe r?
between them in the course of which ... they then had a struggle 2 What d oes t h e i nfo rmation a b o u t t h e a u t h o r o r s p e a ke r,
and fell on the ground together, knocking over a paraffin lamp. a n d d eta i l s s u c h as t h e d ate, s u g g est a b o u t h ow
The prisoner is then said to have caught hold of the lamp and re l i a b l e o r u sefu l t h e sou rce is fo r the e n q u i ry?
struck the man on the side of the head with it ... causing him to 3 H ow d oes yo u r k n ow l e d g e of t h e to p i c h e l p you decide
lose a great deal of blood. h ow usefu l t h e sou rce is? For exa m p le, fro m yo u r
k n ow l e d g e, does a n acco u n t seem typica l of oth e r
a cco u nts o f t h e s a m e to pic?

I m m i g ration
As w e have seen, tensions also came from the presence o f
Jewish and other minority communities i n Whitechapel. The 1 . What va l u a ble i nfo rmati o n does each re p o rt g ive m e ?
stories in the archives often focused on stereotypes of the
greed or dishonesty ofJewish criminals - so there are tales of
Jewish bigamists and false doctors defrauding young Jewish
2 . D o e s W i l l i a m s [Sou rce D J seem we l l - i nformed a n d
women of all their money. In one article in the Derby Telegraph
does h i s evid e n c e a g ree w i t h oth e r s o u rces?
Mr Montague Williams (who had been a magistrate at the
Thames Police Court) described how difficult he found it
to decide cases where each side was Jewish (see Source D ) .
Jewish shopkeepers and tailors were i n competition with 3 . Does my kn owled g e of h o w Jewish people were
other traders and workers. Suspicion and anti-Semitism also treated s u g g est these s o u rces a re u sefu l evid e n c e ?
caused problems for Jewish people living in Whitechapel.
In turn, especially more recently arrived Jewish immigrant
communities tended to try to police their own problems. S o u rce D A n extract f ro m a n ews a rt i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n
They were in fact unlikely to go to the police if they were 1 8 8 9 re p o r t i n g t h e words o f M r M o n t a g u e W i l l i a m s , a
victims of crime, because they were treated so badly by the m a g istrate at T h a m e s P o l i ce C o u rt .
police in their homelands of Russia and Poland. [Jews] though t no more of taking a n oath to a lie than they did
of drinking a glass of wa ter. He often felt bewildered in the
The police themselves were made nervous and suspicious by
attempt to decide disputes between the foreign Jews living in
the presence of many eastern European Jews in fWhitechapell, and it was quite certain that if one side told half a
Whitechapel. In 1904 the Superintendent of Whitechapel dozen lies in their cases, witnesses [for the other side] would be
Division wrote to the Home Office to ask for funds to pay forthcoming to tell as many lies.
for language lessons in Yiddish, a language often spoken by
Jewish immigrants (see Source E ) .


S o u rce E From a Letter to t h e H o m e O f f i c e f ro m t h e


IMMIGRATION S u p e r i n te n d e n t of W h i t e c h a p e l D i v i s i o n , 1 9 0 4 .

1 Which words a n d p h rases fro m Sou rce D te l l us that


Bills a n d circulars in this language are distributed a n d posted
all over the division, but police know nothing of their [meaning].
there was p rej u d ice a g a i nst J ewish people?
As it is known that a number of these people are members of
2 What t h i n g s meant that m a ny i m m i g ra nts d i d n ot m ix Continental Revolutionary Societies it would be very desirable
with oth e r people living i n Wh itech a p e l ? to have members of the service who could speak this language.
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So, just before the Whitechapel murders the MET seemed to be in chaos. Two chief
inspectors had resigned in little more than two years following corruption scandals and
riots that had been too lightly controlled and protests which had been too violently put
down. James Monro, the head of the CID had resigned just before the first Ripper murder,
and his replacement was on a long holiday in Switzerland. Combined with their inability to
prevent the Ripper's killing spree, these events made the MET look ineffective.
Sou rce F Fro m a re p o rt in
t h e So uth Wa les Echo , 1 0
Po l itica l d e m o nstrat i o n s a n d stri kes
M a rc h 1 8 8 8 . The politics of some of the new Jewish immigrants, and their reaction to the low wages
A FIEND I N HUMAN FORM and long hours they had to work, also caused problems for the police. This can be seen in
Thomas Supple {50},
the report of a riot which followed a protest on 16 March 1889. This protest march had set
labourer. was charged off from the International Workers' Association headquarters in Berner Street towards
with violen tly assaulting an the Chief Rabbi's synagogue in Aldgate.
old Jewish woman named The protestors wanted the rabbi to preach
Miriam Uta/ ... on Thursday against their low wages and long hours - he
evening [when] she was refused. When the protestors returned to
standing at her door on Whitechapel, the police raided the IWA on
Old Mon tague Street, B erner Street, and arrested the leaders of the
Whitechapel. The prisoner march. They were found guilty of assaulting
who was drunk and a
police officers during their arrest, and
stranger to her. came up
one was given three months' hard labour
and seizing her by the hair.
dashed her head against the
as well as a 40 bond for good behaviour
wall several times, saying, afterwards. That autumn there was a strike
"I will knock your Jewish of 10,0 0 0 sweatshop tailors, which was more
brains out. ' successful than the protests in March. They
demanded, and got, a maximum twelve
hour working day.
S o u rce G A n extract f ro m
t h e East L o n don Observer, Atta c ks o n J ews
.A.Source H From Illustra ted Police News
26 O cto b e r 1 8 7 8 .
Newspaper reports also contain stories of
The Conversion of the Jews crimes and attacks carried out against Jewish 2 7th October. This image was taken from
Lewis lsaacs was charged people. In most of these cases the victim's the front page in 1888, showing how
with riotous behaviour. religion was not the cause of the assault, those living outside Whitechapel saw the
and lsaac Cloth . . . with which often happened during robberies. immigrant communities who lived there .
assaulting a police officer.
However, some Jews were targeted because of
and Marcus Cohen was
their religion (see Source F) .
charged with a ttempting to
rescue [Cloth] from police
custody. Witnesses saw CONFLICT BETWEEN J EWS AND CHRISTIANS
the defendant lsaacs; he
was standing on the kerb T h e re were s o m et i m e s re po rts of confl i ct betwe e n peo p l e beca use of t h e i r re l i g i o u s
opposite the ch urch, waving d iffe re n ces. I n Octo b e r 1 878, a n a rticle i n t h e East London Observer cove red a d istu rba n ce
his hat, and shouting out outside St M a ry's (see S o u rce G ) . T h e re is a tra d ition i n s o m e fo r m s of Ch risti a n ity that
something in a foreign J e s u s will return to ea rth when t h e J ews h ave conve rted to Ch risti a n ity. St M a ry's was we l l
language. There were about k n own as a p l a ce w h i c h p rea ched t o t h e J ews. lt is c l e a r that n ot a l l J ewish p e o p l e l i v i n g i n
250 people, who he seemed Wh itech a p e l a p p reci ated t h e atte m pt t o convert J ews t o Ch risti a n ity, a n d p o l i c i n g these
to be addressing. [The te n s i o n s was one of t h e d ifficu lties that H Division fa ced . The p o l ice h a d to b ri n g t h i s crowd
police were compelled to u n d e r contro l , but it seems that t h ey h a d a n ot h e r p ro b l e m . M r Lush i n gto n , a m a g i strate
take lsaacs] in to custody. at the T h a m es Po l i ce Co u rt who was n ot known fo r l etti n g peo p l e off l i g htly, d i s m issed
t h e evi d e n ce a g a i nst t h e t h ree J ewish d efe n d a nts - and h e n oted i n p a rticu l a r that o n e
p o l i ce m a n 's story w a s very d iffe re nt fro m t h e oth e rs, w h i c h s u g g ests t h a t Lu s h i n gton h a d
d etected a nti-se m itic b i a s i n t h e testi m o ny o f a t l east o n e o f these con sta b l es .
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1.7 How did t he police try to capture t he Ripper?


Between 3 1 August and 9 November 1888 five women had been women murdered before in Whitechapel, and
were murdered in strikingly similar and gruesome ways there were others afterwards, but only these five have been
- as we can see below. There was a frenzy of coverage in conclusively linked to the Ripper.
the press, and a large number of letters from hoaxers to
As we will see, the failure of the police to capture the killer
the papers and to the police, claiming to be the murderer
made them seem incompetent. Cartoons and newspaper
- one of whom signed himself as 'Jack the Ripper'. This
articles (see page 158) presented them as helpless, perhaps
nickname stuck - it highlighted the brutal way that the
even clueless, in their response to the Ripper. In reality, the
killer opened the bodies of his victims, often taking body
police worked extraordinarily hard, and tried a number of
parts as 'souvenirs'. The crimes got grizzlier as they went
ways to capture the killer, though none were successful.
on - until they suddenly stopped after the terrible murder
There is even evidence that the police improved their use of
and mutilation ofMary Kelly in November 1888. There
some techniques as the case went on.

THE RIPPER'S V ICTIMS

Elizabeth Stride and


Catherine Eddowes,
30 Se ptember
Stride was fo u n d fi rst, at
O utfi e l d 's Ya rd, outside
t h e theatre w h e re J ewish
soci a l ists h a d been m eeti n g
i n B e r n e r Street. Strid e's
th roat was cut - but
n oth i n g e l s e was d o n e
t o h e r, poss i b l y because
t h e ki l l e r was i nte rru pted .
E d d owes' body, fo u n d
h o u rs late r i n M itre S q u a re,
was b a d l y m ut i l ated a n d
d isem bowe l l e d . T h i s t i m e
t h e ki l l e r h a d c u t at t h e
fa ce - t a k i n g a p a rt o f h e r
n ose a n d p a rt o f o n e e a r.
Late r that m o r n i n g , pa rt
of h e r a p ro n was fo u n d
at G o u l ston Street. Th ese
ki l l i n g s beca m e known as
t h e 'd o u b l e eve nt'.

Mary Nichols, 31 August Annie Chapman, 8 Mary Kelly, 9 November


N ichols was the fi rst victi m whose death Se ptember Ke l ly's body was the m ost badly 'ri pped',
seems to m atch the Ripper's m ethods. C h a p m a n was fo u n d n e a r some ste ps i n perhaps because u n l i ke the oth e r ki l l i n gs,
She was fou n d i n Bucks Row, to the G e o rge's Yard off H a n b u ry Street, n e a r her m u rder had taken place inside h e r
north-east of Wh itechapel. Her th roat C o m m e rci a l Street t o the n o rth o f the room at M i l l er's Court i n Dorset Street.
had been cut. lt wasn't rea lised that her Wh itech a p e l Roa d . T h e re were signs H e r i nju ries were terri b l e {-} pa rts of
a bdomen had been cut open u nti l she that s h e h a d been stra n g l e d befo re h e r h e r body we re cut com p letely out a n d
was exa m i n ed at the mortuary. t h roat w a s cut. S o m e o f h e r i ntesti n e s strewn a ro u n d the room . The police m a n
h a d been p u l l e d o u t of h e r body. who fi rst s a w the b o d y thro u g h a b roken
window said that it was 'indescri babl e'.
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES
We a re g o i n g to stu dy the fo l l ow i n g t h e s e tech n i q ues. For e a c h tech n i q u e
tech n i q u e s : y o u n e e d t o reco rd a few sente n ces
e
Ca re.f.ul ab-S.eYati!ll,_____

Ibe t:10!!c uud obeervatjon to be!pthem gatheches andevldeno


_____

ca refu l observatio n about:


a u topsy h ow the pol ice used this tech n i q u e
p h otog raphy a n d sketches t h i n g s that made this tech n i q u e
i nte rvi ews a n d fo l l owi n g u p c l u es m o re o r l ess effective
e i d entifyi n g suspects. e ways i n w h i ch this tech n i q u e was
d eve l o p i n g .
Create six n ote cards so that you can
reco rd what you l e a rn about each of

Ca refu l o bservation the body had been disembowelled, and his report contains a
detailed record of what Nichols was wearing. At the scene of
The Police Code, written b y Howard Vincent, s e t out what
Annie Chapman's killing, Inspector Chandler made a very
constables were supposed to do when they came across the
detailed observation which included noticing the pattern of
scene of a crime. Mainly, this was keeping the area clear of
blood spots on the fence and floor next to her neck.
onlookers so that evidence wasn't disturbed before an
inspector or detective arrived. The job of the inspector was
to make a careful note of the scene, so that this could be MAKING OBSERVATIONS
used for investigating the crime and identifying 1 Why did the Po lice Code order that the scene of a cri m e
the criminal. s h o u l d n ot be touched befo re a detective or i nspector

Source A
a rrived?
2
A mock-up of
.:\ Exp l a i n two i m portant o bse rvations that the p o l i ce m a d e
POLI CE COD E d u ri n g the R i p p e r i nvestig atio n .
3
the cover of the
H ow accu rately were pol ice a b l e t o esti mate times o f death?

= !:P.w
Police Code - a
set of instructions 4 What s i m i l a rities were there between th ese cri m es which
designed by the m a d e the pol ice th i n k they were looking fo r o n e suspect?
ll't
head of CID to C.E. HOWARD VINCBI<T, 1!"- "Q. C.B. !oLP..
improve the way 1.-rU Dir(or q OrrmtMr !ftetsltro"

the police collected SlXTfl A.BilrD G Sll &rH1"1.0N


evidence . It was I'BBCBI)CD 6f
used from the early ADDRES.liES 0,\T POLICE! DUT1ES

1880s.

THE IMPORTANCE OF OBSERVATION

The reco rd of the bru ises a n d m a rks on t h e b o d i es of t h e


R i p p e r's victi m s were v e r y i m po rta nt i n h e l p i n g d e c i d e
h ow h e k i l led t h e m . T h e re was n ever a ny b l ood o n t h e
fro nt w h i c h s u g g ests that t h ey were o n t h e i r backs w h e n
t h e i r th roats were c u t . T h e bru ises o n t h e i r fa ces a n d
n ecks p e rh a ps te l l u s h ow t h i s w a s d o n e - it seems t h ey
were stra n g l e d , eith e r to death o r to u n co n s c i o u s n ess
befo re h a n d . T h ey we re dead befo re t h ey were cut o p e n .

This observation of the scene wasn't always possible, as


Inspector Spratling's report from the night ofMary
Nichols' murder shows. Instead of waiting for the arrival of
an inspector, the doctor had called for an 'ambulance'
(really a kind of wheeled stretcher) to take the body to the Source B The outside of Mary Kelly's lodging house at 1 3
mortuary (a place where bodies are examined and stored Miller's Court taken the day after her murder. The arrow
before burial) . However, it was Spratling who noticed that on the picture shows the broken window through which
Bowyer made his discovery.
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Photog ra p hy a n d s ketch es
SKETCHES OF .,
The Metropolitan Police made limited use of photographs during our period. Photographs
THE RIPPER
were commonly taken of bodies before and after a post-mortem, although they were used for
identification of the victim rather than to help solve the crime. We might argue that, during 1 Why did the papers
the Ripper investigation, the Metropolitan Police seem to have developed their use of publish sketches like the
photography (as we will see when looking at the Mary Kelly murder scene) - possibly because one in Source C even
though they had no clear
they worked more closely with the City of London Police, which had made much more use of
description of the Ripper?
this technology. However some historians think that even the photographs taken at the scene
ofKelly's murder were actually taken by a photographer from the City of London Police, which 2 I n what ways d i d the
M etropol itan a n d City
would suggest that the use of photography by the Met was still limited.
Po l ice d iffe r i n the way
they reco rd ed a cri m e
SKETCHES OF A KIL LER sce n e?
3 H ow accu rate do you
The n ewspa pers p rod u ced seve ra l pictu res of J a ck the Ripper, l i ke Sou rce C. H oweve r,
th i n k the esti m ates of
these were n ever part of the offici a l i nvestigation, a n d it is n ot clear on what i nfo rmation
the time of d eath of
the sketches were m a d e, oth e r than descriptions g iven at co ro n e r's i n q u ests o r perhaps in
each victim we re?
state m e nts l i ke the o n e that M atth ew Packe r g ave (see S o u rce H ) .

S ketches
Today when we think of a police sketch we might think of an identikit drawing from a
witness statement. This technique was not used by the police until the mid-1890s, years
after the Ripper killings stopped. The City of London Police did collect detailed drawings
of Mitre Square and the doctor called to Catherine Eddowes' crime scene made a sketch of
the position and condition of her body before she was moved. The City Police also asked
Frederick William Foster to make drawings of the position of her body in Mitre Square, for
the inquest.
When Mary's Kelly's body was discovered on the morning of9 November 1888, the room in
which she was lying was not opened for more than two hours after her body was spotted
through a broken window by her landlord's servant. The inspector on the scene was hoping
that bloodhounds could be brought to use to track the murderer and did not want to confuse
them by disturbing the scene. At the same time a photographer was called to document it.
Pictures were taken from outside, through the broken window, and then of inside the room
and Mary's body. These pictures are horrible, but they did record the crime scene, and have
been used since by criminologists and historians studying the case.

' 1

Source D A sketch by the police surgeon of the City of


.A.
London Police of Catherine Eddowes' body at Mitre Square .

.A. Source C Sketches of Jack the Ripper, from Illustra ted


Police News, 2 0 October 1888.
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Autopsy I nte rviews a n d fo l l owi n g u p cl u es


Post-mortem or autopsy examinations (looking at and The police went to houses and businesses in the areas around
inside the body of the victim) have been happening since where each of the bodies were found. After the murders of
classical times. We read about Lucy Fisher's autopsy on page Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes on 30 September
120, and all the Ripper's victims had autopsies, the details 1888 (known as 'the double event' - see page 151), they made
of which were given to the police. From the start the police a full-scale search oflodging houses in the Whitechapel area,
thought that they were looking for a left-handed murderer, in the hope of finding evidence that would lead them to the
from the way that the bodies were injured. killer. This led to them questioning more than 2,000 people,
with a focus on butchers and slaughter-men. The
Metropolitan Police also printed handbills and posters to be
CORONER'S INQUESTS
displayed and handed out in Whitechapel.
Coroner's inquests a re officia l meeti ngs at which the coroner,
someone g iven the job of i nvestigating suspicious deaths,
makes a decision about wheth er the person has been kil led or
has died natu ra l ly. M ost of the orig i n a l coroner's papers h ave
not su rvived. So, how do we know about what h appened at
coroner's inqu ests? Fortu nate ly, because inquests were public
POLICE NOTICE.
meeti ngs, newspa pers reported them.

T O TH E O C C U P I E R
S o u rce E A re p o rt o f the c o ro n e r's i n q u e st o n M a ry Kelly 's
b o d y f r o m t h e Morn ing Pos t, 1 3 N ove m b e r 1 8 8 8 .
O n t h e m o r n i n g s of F r i d a y, 3 1 st
Thomas Bowyer. 2 7, stated that h e was a servant to fvfr fvfcCarthy A u g u st S a t u r d a y, 8th, and S u n d a y,
and served in his chandler's shop. At a quarter to eleven on Friday 30th Sept. 1 888, Wo m e n were
morning he was ordered to go to Mary Janes room, No. 73 to get m u rd e red in or near Wh itec h a pe l ,
the rent which was in arrears. He knocked at the door but received s u p posed b y s o m e o n e resi d i n g i n t h e
no answer: He knocked again, and, as there was still no reply he i m m e d i ate n e i g h b o u rh ood . Shou ld
went round the house and where there was a broken window he . . .
yo u k n ow o f a n y person t o w h o m
pulled the curtain aside, looked in a n d s a w two lumps of flesh lying s u s p i c i o n i s attached, y o u a re e a r n est l y
on a table close by the bed. The second time he looked he saw a
req u ested to co m m u n icate at o n ce
body lying on the bed and blood on the floor:
with t h e n e a rest Po l i ce Stat i o n .

Metropol ita n Police Office,


BODY TEMPERATURE : TIME OF DEATH 30th Septem ber, 1 888

One of the m ost im porta nt observations that cou l d be made


was the temperatu re of the body. Using thermometers, in
1 868 two doctors at G uy's H ospita l had produced tables Source F The words on one of 8 0 , 0 0 0 handbills that were
.&.
that showed how q u ickly bodies lost heat, so that the time of handed out in the days after 30 September 1 8 8 8 .
their death could be ca lcu lated . H owever, this was a very new
tech nique, and the common practice in the pol ice at the time
was to fee l the arms and legs to see if the ends of them had Practice q u estions
cooled down . PC La m b 252 H, who took control of the scene 1 Descri be two featu res of:
of El iza beth Strid e's m u rder on the night of 30 September, felt
a) the use by the p o l ice of p h otog ra p h i c evi d e n ce
b) t h e use by the p o l ice of s ketch e s
that her face was sti l l wa rm . Th is, and the fact that a lthough

2
her th roat had been sl it, she had not been 'ri pped', made the
H ow usefu l a re S o u rces A (on p a g e 1 52) a n d D ( p a g e
pol ice th i n k that she had n ot been dead for very long. They
a lso thought it likely that the ki l l e r had been i nterru pted before 1 53 ) fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto h ow t h e p o l ice i n vestig ated
he cou l d start to cut open her body. the R i p p e r crim es? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swe r u s i n g S o u rces
A a n d D a n d yo u r k n ow l e d g e of the h istorica l context.
3 H ow co u l d you fo l l ow u p S o u rce C o n p a g e 1 5 8 to fi n d
o u t m o re a b o u t h ow t h e p u b l i c fe lt a b o u t t h e R i p p e r
i nvesti g at i o n ? Use t h e fo l l owi n g h e a d i n g s :
a) Deta i l i n S o u rce C t h a t I wou l d fo l l ow u p
b) Q u esti o n I wou l d a s k
c) What t y p e o f sou rce I co u l d use
d) H ow t h i s m i g ht help a n swe r my q u esti o n .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Witn ess state m e nts


Howard Vincent's Police Code, which was in use from 1881, set out the way in which
statements should be recorded by the police. The statement was written using only the
words of the witness, and then read back to them. Errors were corrected by crossing out so
that the error should still be seen, after which each page was signed. Statements were also
taken at coroners' inquests. A witness statement was given by a Mr Hutchinson after the
death ofMary Kelly (see Source G ) .

Sou rce G A n extract fro m G e o rg e H u t c h i n s o n 's w i t n e ss state m e n t . H u t c h i n s o n t h o u g h t h e


s a w Ke l ly t a l k i n g to a m a n i n C o m m e rc i a l Street j u s t b e f o re h e r m u rd e r.
I heard her say alrigh t to him and the man said you will be alrigh t for what I have told you, he then
placed his right hand around her shoulders. He also had a kind of a small parcel in his left hand,
with a kind of a strap around it. I stood against the lamp of the Ten Bells Queens Head Public
House, and wa tched him. They both then came past me and the man hid down his head, with his hat
over his eyes. I stooped down and looked in the face. He looked a t me stern.

Fo l l ow i n g up c l u es
Inspector Chandler was sent to follow up clues such as
WERE THERE ENOUGH POLICEMEN?
a scrap of paper in Annie Chapman's possessions, which
had come from an army regiment in Hampshire. Inspector
Plain-clothed and extra officers
Abberline went to Gravesend in Kent to arrest a delirious
ex-pub landlord who matched the description of a man As ea rly as 29 S e pte m b e r 1 8 88, o rd e rs were g iven fo r
m o re con sta b l es to work i n p l a i n c l othes - six i n tota l . T h i s
who had been seen at Chapman's murder. According to the
h a d g rown to m o re t h a n twenty b y t h e e n d o f Octo b e r.
historian Neil R. A. B ell, after house-to-house enquiries
T h i s was i n a d d ition to t h e a p p roxi m ate ly 50 co n sta b l es
after 'the double event' the police then followed up 3 0 0 w h o were tra n sfe r red te m po ra ri l y to Wh itech a p e l to work
lines of enquiry and arrested 80 people across London for o n t h e Ripper case, and to h e l p kee p o rd e r as t h e p u b l i c
further investigation and questioning. All these clues and b e g a n t o p a n i c.
leads came to nothing, but they show how active the police
were in tracing them to the end.

I d e ntification tech n i q u es
The main identification technique available was for police to take notes from the
descriptions given by witnesses. A good example is that of Matthew Packer, who claimed
that he had seen Elizabeth Stride in Bern er Street, just before she was murdered.

Sou rce H A n extract fro m M a t t h ew P a c ke r's state m e n t , s u m m a r i s e d by C a r m i c h a e l B ru c e ,


IDENTIFYING ?,
w h o was s t i l l sta n d i n g i n a s h e a d of C I D .
On Sat night about 7 7pm a young man from 25-30 - about 5. 7 with long black coa t buttoned up - soft
CRIMINALS
felt hat, kind of Yankee hat ra ther broad shoulders - rather quick in speaking, rough voice . . . He had a 1 Why d i d the
frock coat on - no gloves. He was about 7 7/2 inch or 2 or 3 inches - a little higher than she was. M etropol itan Po l i ce fi n d
it h a rd t o i d e ntify t h e
Ripper?
2 What i m p rove m e nts
As you can see, this is quite a detailed description. The only problem with it is that it was
probably made up, as we will see. The police realised that Packer was not a reliable witness.
were taki n g p l a ce
So, descriptions like these were only helpful if they were based on real information, and i n the m ethods of
they took time to note down as well as to follow up. i nvestig ation a n d
The art of identification sketches was only just developing and was not used in the Ripper d etecti o n t h a t the
p o l i ce had?
investigation. The ideas of a Frenchman, Alphonse Bertillon, were taken up as official
policy in the 1890s - the use of m u g -shots and facial measurements to reconstruct sketches 3 What evidence is there

of suspects from descriptions. However, this was not available to the police investigating that the M etropolitan
Po lice cou l d have made
the Ripper murders. Similarly, the idea of using fingerprints had been suggested, but it
bette r use of some of
wasn't until the early years of the twentieth century that they were actually first used in
these tech n i q u es?
criminal investigations.
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Identity parades were used from the beginning of the C ri m i n a l p rofi les
Whitechapel murder investigations, but without success, The Ripper investigation was the first documented use of a
although they were useful in ruling out suspects such as criminal profile. These involve using the evidence gathered
Jack Pizer or 'Leather Apron', whose nickname was about the criminal and from the crime scene to work out the
circulated in the press (see page 158) . type of person that the police should be looking for. Following
the murder ofMary Kelly, Dr Thomas Bond was asked to
ABSTRACT OF prepare a profile of the killer. Bond was a police surgeon at the
TU ANTHROPOJri2TlUCAJ, SIGNALMENT
scene of Kelly's murder, and had carried out her autopsy. He
was then given the papers and records of the other four
killings in order to write a report on the case as a whole.

Sou rce I F ro m Dr B o n d 's re p o rt on t h e m u rd e re r.


The m urderer in external appearance is quite likely to be a quiet
inoffensive looking man probably middle aged and nea tly and
respectably dressed. I think he must be in the habit of wearing
a cloak or overcoa t or he could hardly have escaped notice in
the streets if the blood on his hands and clothes were visible
. . . he would probably be solitary and eccen tric in his habits,
also he is most likely to be a man without regular occupa tion,
but with some small income or pension. He is possibly living
among respectable persons who have some knowledge of his
character and habits and who may have grounds for suspicion
that he is not quite right in his mind at times.

INTERVIEWS AND CLUES


1 What evid e n ce is there that the M etro p o l itan Po l ice were
worki n g h a rd to catch the Ripper?
2 Exp l a i n h ow the p o l i ce m a ke witness state m e nts as
accu rate as poss i b l e .
3 Why d i d t h e q u esti o n i n g fo cus o n b utch e rs a n d
s l a u g hte r m e n ?

BLOODHOUNDS

O n e d eve l o p m ent that was n ot carried t h ro u g h was the use


of b l o od h o u n d s . The M et Co m m issio n e r Cha rles Wa rren
1. Height. ,., Reach, 3 Trunk. had o rd e red a tri a l of t h e i r use and a pair b red by Mr Edwin
+ Length of hea4. 5 W'ldth of head. 6. Right eu.
Left foreorm..
B ro u g h , who had a re putati o n fo r b reed i n g exce l l ent dogs,
7 Lefr foot . I. LeFt middle linser. 9-
we re b ro u g ht down fro m Scarboro u g h i n Yo rks h i re. The
tri a l at the start of Octo b e r went we l l , a n d the n ext stag e in
A A diagram explaining Bertillon's system for the plan was to use the dogs at a m u rd e r sce n e . H oweve r,
photographing criminals , from a book published in 1896 in there was a l u l l betwee n the 'd o u b l e eve nt' a n d the m u rd e r
the USA as a guide for American police . o f M a ry Ke l l y - a n d M r B ro u g h too k the dogs b a c k to
Scarboro u g h on 1 N ove m b e r, frustrated at the d e l ays.
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1.8 How did t he press make it more difficult for t he


police to investigate t he Ripper case?
During the Whitechapel murders those in charge of the
police seemed to be in chaos. Two chief inspectors had
resigned in little more than two years, after corruption
scandals and riots, which the papers reported in great
detail. James Monro, the head of the CID, had resigned just
before the first Ripper murder, and his replacemenr was on
a long holiday in Switzerland. This seemed to leave the CID
without a leader at a crucial point. The fact that they could
not capture 'the Ripper' seemed to confirm that the police
could not do their jobs properly. However, as we have seen,
the police on the ground were working very hard to find the
killer - but they didn't seem to get any credit for this work
in the press.
The papers themselves were full of criticism, as well as
suggestions from those who thought that the police should
be doing more than they were. The Reverend Samuel
Barnett, a vicar from a nearby church, wrote to The Times
claiming that the murders were partly caused by the failure
of the police to revoke the licences of 'criminal haunts'
pubs in which criminals and prostitutes mixed. Other
letters suggested that the police should use bloodhounds,
or even set up a team of policemen disguised as prostitutes
so that they could trap the Ripper.

CORNELL NOTES
You need to reco rd the information in this sectio n so that
you re m e m be r h ow the p ress affected the Ripper
investigatio n . Yo u ca n use a 'Corn e l l N otes' Know l e d g e
O rg a n iser t o h e l p y o u d o this. S p l it yo u r page into th ree, as
s h own i n the d i a g ra m b e l ow. As you read th ro u g h pages
1 57-1 61 you s h o u l d m a ke n otes, as you m i g ht d o n o r m a l ly. .A.Source A A cartoon from the news magazine Punch ,
When you h ave d o n e this read t h ro u g h yo u r n otes, a n d i n October 1888 the posters are advertising newspapers
-

the w i d e r m a rg i n o n the l eft write s o m e q u estio n s t h a t a re filled with horrible details of the murders .
a n swered by yo u r n otes. For i n stan ce, you m ig ht write
' P u b l ished M atthew Packe r's story that he sold g rapes to
"J ack" a n d E l iza beth Stride' w h e n you a re fi rst m a ki n g
n otes, a n d then ' H ow d i d the p ress e n co u ra g e fa lse ACTIVITY

1
stori es? ' when you co m e back to review th ese n otes. In the
Try to re m e m be r why the M et was in trou b l e in 1 88 1 .
botto m box you ca n write fu rth e r q u estions that yo u 'd l i ke
M a ke a l ist of eve nts that s u g g est the M et was in crisis.
to fi n d out the a n swers to, or m a ke a n ote of a nyth i n g that
Looki n g back ove r pages 1 32-1 36, h ave you m issed
confuses yo u .
a nyth i n g ?

This is where you make otes 4 2 W h y were peo p l e so worried a n d fasci n ated with cri m e
the first time you read through
1, he pages.
i n Wh itech a p e l ? M a ke a l ist o f a l l the reasons a n d then

where you write =l-


ons that are answered
1e f-
check back ove r pages 1 28-1 3 1 to see if you h ave

r notes.
re m e m bered everyth i n g .


This is where you write :u rther
r--Lquestions you would like the
I lanswers to.
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Sensati o n a l Sto ries The police did not give very much information about the
murders - beyond the details that might help identify the
The Ripper murders were an opportunity for the victims. Journalists had to rely on speaking to people that
newspapers to sell copies. There was fierce competition gathered when the body had been found in order to get a
between the thirteen morning and nine evening daily description. This led to the press printing many details and
papers being sold in London. This led to stories that stories that weren't true or exaggerated. Annie Chapman's
sensationalised the details of the murders - and witnesses rings had been ripped from her fingers, and were never found
even made things up. - but in some stories the journalist claimed that they had been
arranged at the feet of the body.
SENSATIONALISM

We ofte n fi n d referen ces in n ewspa per sou rces to seve n , The p ress a n d the re p utation of
e i g h t a n d even te n , e l even o r m o re victi m s o f the Ripper. the police
The papers were a d d i n g to the l ist victi m s of m u rd e rs that
h a pp e n ed before the fi rst Ripper ki l l i n g of M a ry N ic h o l s As the newspapers filled with apparent witnesses and
o n 3 1 Aug ust. They conti n u ed t o add oth e r m u rd e r victi m s descriptions of the murderer it made it seem even more
afte r the ki l l i n g o f M a ry Ke l ly o n 9 N ove m b e r - despite the incredible that the police had not caught the killer.
fa ct that they d i d n ot m atch the very u n us u a l m ethods used Cartoons which presented the police as incompetent made
to m u rd e r the 'ca n o n ical' victims. this feeling even worse. On 1 October, the Pall Mall Gazette,
which had been a critic of Charles Warren even before the
Ripper attacks, gleefully reported on a demonstration in
TWO PRIVATE DET ECT IVE
S ON
Victoria Park in Bethnal Green at which speakers called for
T H E TRACK O F T H E ASS
ASS IN.
Warren's resignation (see Source C ) .

WHERE HE HOUGHT THE GRAPES FOUND Source C Fro m a re p o rt o n a p u b li c d e m o n stration i n Beth n a l


BESIDE THE M LJRDERED WOMAN. G re e n , p u blished i n t h e Pall Mall Gazette, 1 October 1 88 8 .
After several speeches upon the conduct of the Home Secretary
MATTHEW PACKER 'S STORY. and Sir Charles Warren, a resolution was unanimously passed
that it was high time both officers should resign and make
way for some officers who would leave no stone unturned for

INTERVIEW WITH THE MAN WHO


the purpose of bringing the murderers to justice, instead of

SPOKE TO THE MURD ERER.


allowing them to run riot in a civilised city like London.

A Source B Headlines from the London Evening News, Warren did not help matters. In early October the Board of
4 October 1888.
Works (a kind of local council for London) published a
statement which called on the police to do more to stop the
THE MISSING GRAPES Ripper. Warren published a reply which claimed, 'Statistics
show that London, in comparison to its population, is the
Packer h a d been i n te rviewed by t h e p o l ice on 3 0
safest city in the world to live in' and went on to suggest
S e pte m b e r, t h e m o r n i n g afte r t h e m u rd e r o f E l izabeth
that the Board should provide more street lights to make it
Stri d e . H e l ived j u st n ext door to t h e ya rd w h e re her ki l l i n g
h a d t a ke n p l a ce a n d to l d t h e p o l ice that h e h a d seen a n d harder for criminals like the Ripper.
h e a rd n oth i n g , a n d n e i t h e r h a d h i s wife n o r t h e i r l o d g e rs .
B y t h e n ext d a y h e h a d g ive n a n i nterview t o re po rters LEATHER APRON
fro m the Eve n ing News, a n d had been t a ke n by two
p rivate d etectives (see p a g e 1 60) to i d e ntify E l iza beth's The ru m o u rs that the n ewspa pers p u b l ished a l s o led
body. H e was n ow c l a i m i n g that h e h a d seen a n d s p o ke n to dead e n d s, a n d to suspects going i nto h i d i n g . O n ce
t o E l izabeth a n d a m a l e co m pa n i o n s h o rtly befo re s h e such suspect was J o h n Pize r - a J ewish co b b l e r known as
w a s ki l l e d . T h e g ra pes m e nt i o n e d i n t h i s story m a ke n o ' Leath e r Apron'. Pizer was a stra n g e and violent man who
a p p e a ra n ce i n t h e oth e r sou rces a b o u t Strid e's body. had th reate ned p rostitutes. A suspect with h i s n i ckn a m e was
Packe r's descripti o n was used by s o m e p a p e rs to d raw re po rted i n the paper, a n d Pizer was then arrested hiding at
a sketch of 'the suspect', desp ite t h e fa ct that t h e p o l ice the h o m e of a fa m i ly m e m ber. lt beca m e clear that Pizer h a d
t h e m s e lves did n ot th i n k that h e was a re l i a b l e witness. a good a l i b i fo r the m u rd e rs a n d h e w a s re leased .
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The Ri pper Lette rs Home Secretary, Matthews, to offer an official reward.


The Government refused to do this, as neither the Home
The press also published many of the letters that they received Secretary nor Charles Warren thought that it would
from people claiming to be Jack the Ripper - in fact it was one produce useful information. In the past rewards had
of these letters, signed by 'Jack the Ripper', that gave the killer seemed to create lots of allegations made on suspicion or
his nickname. The first two were published at the request of even made up completely. It was feared that these would
the police - in the hope that they might lead them to the take up police time, so an official reward was never offered.
identity of the killer. They were in the same handwriting, and
Lusk became very well-known, and started to receive hoax
made references which made them convincing.
letters from people claiming to be the Ripper. On 16 October
Lusk received a parcel containing a human kidney and a
Sou rce D A Letter received by t h e Central N ews Ag e n cy on 2 7
Septe m b e r, a n d p a s s e d o n to t h e po lice o n 1 O c t o b e r 1 8 88.
letter with the address 'From Hell'.
Dear Boss,
S o u rce E A t ra n s c r i p t i o n of t h e ' F ro m H e ll' Letter.
I keep on hearing the police have caught me but they won t fix me
From Hell.
just yet. I have laughed when they look so clever and talk about
being on the right track. That joke about Leather Apron gave me Mr Lusk,
real fits. I am down on whores and I shant quit ripping them till Sor
I do get buckled. Grand work the last job was. I gave the lady no I send you half the Kidne I took from one woman and prasarved
time to squeal. How can they catch me now. / love my work and it for you tother piece I fried and ate it was very nise. I may send
want to start again. You will soon hear of me with my funny little you the bloody knit that took it out if you only wate a whil longer
games. I saved some of the proper red stuff in a ginger beer
signed
bottle over the last job to write with but it went thick like glue and
I cant use it. Red ink is fit enough I hope ha. ha. The next job I do I Ca tch me when you can Mishter Lusk
shall clip the ladys ears off and send to the police officers just for
jolly wouldn't you. Keep this letter back till / do a bit more work, Lusk had the kidney examined by a Dr Openshaw at the
then give it out straight. My knife 's so nice and sharp I want to get
London Hospital who confirmed that it was a human
to work right away if I get a chance. Good Luck.
kidney preserved in wine. He confirmed it was human, but
Yours truly suggested that it could have been taken from any of the
Jack the Ripper numerous bodies that turned up in London autopsies in
normal times. Along with the dramatic letter, this seemed
Look back at page 1 5 1 and the description of ' the double
event'. Why might Catherine Eddowes' murder make this
? to be a joke, possibly by a medical student.

letter (Source D) seem more likely to have come from the


killer?
Practice q u estions
1 Descri be two featu res of:
a) the treatment of the Ripper story by the n ewspa pers
b) t h e d eve l o p m e n t of t h e C I D.
The Wh itechapel Vig i l a n ce Com m ittee
George Lusk, a builder from Whitechapel, felt not enough 2 H ow usefu l a re S o u rce F ( p a g e 1 54) a n d S o u rce I
had been done to catch the killer and set up the Whitechapel ( p a g e 1 5 6) fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto t h e tech n i q u e s used by
Vigilance Committee. The Committee hired two private p o l ice to i d e ntify s u s pects? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swers u s i n g
detectives to investigate the killings. These were the two who S o u rces F a n d I a n d yo u r k n ow l e d g e o f the h i sto rica l
questioned Matthew Packer after his press interviews led him context.
to claim that he had talked to the killer and sold grapes to 3 H ow usefu l a re S o u rces C ( p a g e 1 5 8 ) a n d E ( p a g e 1 59)
Elizabeth Stride just before she was murdered. They also took fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto t h e attit u d e of Lo n d o n e rs to the
Packer to the mortuary to identify Stride's body. Packer's story p o l i ce? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer u s i n g S o u rces C and E
(which as we've seen was probably false) caused a great deal of a n d yo u r k n ow l e d g e of the h i storica l context.
interest in the papers and added to the panic on the streets of
Whitechapel.
The Committee also published posters offering a small
reward. They offered this reward after petitioning the
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1.9 Did t he City and Metropolitan Police work well


toget her?
We have already seen that rivalry and personality clashes was some anti-Jewish graffiti in chalk (see Source A) above
meant that James Munro, the man in charge of CID, resigned the piece of Eddowes' apron covered in blood on Goulston
just before the Ripper murders (see page 150), and that Street, which PC Alfred Long found.
criticism ofWarren (as well as a bad working relationship
Eddowes' murder had taken place in Mitre Square, within
with the Home Secretary) forced him to resign just before the
the City Police's territory. The City of London Police were a
murder ofMary Kelly (see page 136) . This made it look as if
separate and independent police force and not under
the top of the police force was in chaos - and accounts for
Charles Warren's control. Two City detectives did see the
some of the bad press that the police received.
chalk writing, and insisted that a photographer record the
However, on the ground the different types of police force words. However, many people had decided that the crimes
and the different divisions of the Metropolitan Police, against women were being carried out by a Jew, and attacks
worked very well together. The other divisions helped by on Jewish people had increased during the crisis. Warren
sending men to patrol the beat in Whitechapel. It was decided that the risk of an anti-S emitic riot was too great to
hoped that this increased manpower would make it more wait for a photographer to arrive and so he made a copy of
likely that the Ripper would be caught in the act. PC Long, the graffiti, and ordered that the writing be washed from
who found the piece of Eddowes' apron on the night of 3 0 the wall. This did cause problems, and criticism from the
September, had been drafted in from A Division in order to press. Warren had to write to the Home Office to explain
increase the number of policemen on the streets, and is a his actions.
good example of this kind of co-operation.
S o u rce B Fro m a re p o rt w r i t t e n by C h a rles Warren a n d
s e n t to t h e H o m e O f f i c e o n 8 N ove m b e r 1 8 8 8 , s h o rt ly
Sou rce A : A t ra n s c r i p t i o n of t h e g ra f f i t i s e e n a b ove
b e f o re h i s res i g n a t i o n .
w h e re t h e p i ece o f E d d owes' a p ro n was s e e n - writte n by
C o m m i ss i o n e r C h a rles Warren at t h e sce n e . i t was jus t getting ligh t, the public would be i n th e streets in
a few minutes, in a neighbourhood very m uch crowded on
The Juwes are
Sun day mornings by Jewish ven dors and Christian purchasers
The men that from all parts of London . . . The writing was visible to anybody
Will not in the street . . . after taking in to considera tion the excited
be Blamed state of the population in London generally at th e tim e the
strong feeling which had been excited against the Jews . . . I
for nothing
considered it desirable to oblitera te th e writing at once, having
taken a copy.
In general there was also co-operation between the City and
Metropolitan Police forces. Donald Swanson, who was in This seems to be the only point at which relations
charge of the Whitechapel investigation at Scotland Yard, were strained. It could even be argued that H Division
worked well with Inspector James McWilliam, who was learned lots from the City of London Police during the
in charge of the City's detectives. For instance, Swanson's investigation. Mary Kelly's murder scene was preserved and
reports comment on how 'cordial' the relationship was. photographed. If we compare this to the way that the earlier
However, during the investigation there was a point at Ripper crime scenes were handled then we could see this as
which the co-operation broke down - from the top down. evidence that H Division had learned from the City Police's
On the night of 'the double event' - the night that both handling and recording of the Mitre Square site where
Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes were killed - there Catherine Eddowe's body was found.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

: Practice q u estions
1 Describe two featu res of t h e co- o p e ration betwee n t h e 3 H ow co u l d yo u fo l l ow u p S o u rce A (above) to fi n d
C i t y a n d M etro p o l ita n p o l i ce d u ri n g t h e R i p p e r m u rd e rs . o u t m o re a b o u t t h e G o u l ston Street g raffiti? Use t h e
2 H ow u sefu l a re S o u rces A a n d B fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto fo l l ow i n g h e a d i n g s :
coo p e rati o n betwee n the M etro p o l itan a n d City p o l i ce a ) Deta i l i n S o u rce A t h a t I wo u l d fo l l ow u p
fo rces? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer u s i n g t h e sou rces a n d yo u r b) Qu estion I wou l d a s k
k n ow l e d g e o f t h e h istorica l context. c) What t y p e of sou rce I co u l d use
d) H ow t h i s m i g ht help a n swer my q u esti o n .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1.10 Conclusions

What have I learned a bout cri m e a n d pol ici n g i n Wh itecha pel?


When I first started looking at this period I had a n outline of Fisher, made me think a lot about what would drive a mother
the topic in my head. I expected to find lots of poverty, and to take a sick child out on a cold night so that she could use
a violent society. My view of this part of London at that time her for begging.
was definitely dominated by what I thought I knew about the
People turned to drink in response to their harsh lives. Some
crimes of]ack the Ripper. I was convinced that Whitechapel
became alcoholics, which meant they were more likely to get
was positively dangerous. My view of policing at the time was
involved in crime - in violent fights perhaps, or by becoming
dominated by the idea of the detective - a Victorian hero,
victims of crime like the women murdered by the Ripper.
perhaps modelled on Sherlock Holmes who used clues and
logic to solve crimes. Writing this book has meant that I have I learned that many middle-class and wealthy Victorians
been able to read lots more about the topic, and to learn that were worried about poverty and crime. This led to
the reality was much more complicated. investigations like Charles Booth's or the clearance of
slums and the building of new model places to live like the
I have learned that Whitechapel was not just filled with a
Peabody Estate.
violent or thieving underclass of people desperately taking
from each other what they could. Instead I found out it was I have learned that the police were a relatively new force,
a mixed area, with some very poor people, often immigrants and that the tools they had to use to combat crime were
from Russia, Ireland or elsewhere. Not all of these people limited. Detection was viewed suspiciously - people were
trusted the police. Poor people often lived in crowded worried that the police were snooping into their lives.
'rookeries' but only a few streets away middle class families
I learned that crime was big news - people across London read
lived much more comfortably.
avidly about the work of the police in newspapers, and that
I learned that the conditions in which people lived, their this interest became a frenzy in 1888 during the Ripper crisis.
low wages and the fact that they often lost work without
Finally, I learned that the police had a tough job in catching
any warning, meant that committing a crime was a way
the Ripper, because they didn't have many of the forensic
of surviving. The first case we looked at, the death of Lucy
tools that we might use today.

What next?
One of the reasons I chose to study and to teach history is To find out the answers I need to think about what kinds of
that it is never 'done'. There are always new questions that sources might help me. Here are some possibilities.
can be followed up, and often there are new books, or new
pieces of research to read, or even more sources to consider
and fit into the jigsaw. The questions I would like to explore h o u s i n g and e m p l oyment p h oto g ra p h s
next are : reco rds
Lo n d o n n ews p a p e rs
Is there a ny rec o rd of how wo m e n i n Wh ite c h a p e l fe lt a bout co u n ci l reco rd s
natio n a l news p a p e rs
and rea cted to the J a c k the Ripper crisis? Census ret u r n s
O l d B a i l ey reco rds of tria l s
2 What wa s the i m pact of slum c l ea ra n ce o n crime in l o c a l p o l ice reco rds
Pu n ch ca rto o n s
Wh itecha pel i n the l o n g e r term ?
coro n e r's re po rts
3 What patte r n s ove r t i m e ca n we see i n the types of c r i m e s
t h a t were co m m itted d u ri n g the period ? Did types o f
c r i m e c h a n g e a s the types of peo p l e l iv i n g i n Wh itec h a p e l
changed?
ACTIVITY: WHAT NEXT?
Which of these reco rds a n d d o c u m e nts wo u l d h e l p m e
4 What d id H Division policemen th i n k o f t h e way the
a n swer the five q u estions a b ove?
M etropolita n Pol ice hand led the Ripper crisis?

5 Did the re p utatio n of the M etro p o l ita n Po l ice recove r


qu ickly?
PA RT 2 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

1 .1 1 Visi b le Lea rn i ng : Review a n d revise

Th i n ki n g a bout sou rces


This activity will help you practise asking questions and The focus is, therefore, on asking questions, identifying
choosing sources. We have done a lot of work already in this sources that would be relevant to the topic and would help
unit to prepare you for questions 1 and 2 in paper 1 of your you answer the questions you ask, and on using your
exam. You can also find more guidance on the specifics knowledge of the topic. You can find more guidance on this
of tackling these questions on pages 168- 169. This page is question on page 170 bur this activity will help you practise
designed to help you with question 2b in paper 1 of your asking questions and choosing sources.
exam. Question 2b will look like this:
2(b) H ow co u l d you fo l l ow u p S o u rce B to fi n d out m o re about
the p ro b l e m s i n (a topic wi l l be identified)? I n yo u r a n swer, you
1 Choose one o f the topics i n the purple b ox below. Write
down at least two questions you want to ask about it to
?
m u st g ive the q u estion you wou l d ask a n d the type of source deepen your knowledge.

2 Look at the sources in the blue b ox. Select one source


you co u l d use. Co m p l ete the ta b l e b e l ow. (4 m a rks)
that might help you answer your questions, and then
explain how it might do this. You could choose different
Deta i l in S o u rce B that I wou l d fo l l ow u p :
sources for each question.
Qu esti o n I wo u l d ask: 3 Repeat these steps for at least one more topic.

What type of s o u rce I co u l d use:

H ow t h i s m i g ht h e l p a n swer my q u esti o n :

To p i cs to fi n d o u t m o re a b o u t

1 Types of cri m e a n d 2 Wo r k h o uses 3 Poverty a n d c a u s e s of


cri m i n a l s crime

4 Lo d g i n g h o uses 5 J ew i s h i m m i g ra t i o n 6 I ri s h i m m i g ra t i o n

7 Po l itica l activism 8 R e c r u i t m e n t to H 9 T h e ro l e of t h e
D iv i s i o n consta b l e o n t h e be a t

1 0 I m p rove m e nts i n 1 1 N ewspa p e rs a n d c ri m e 1 2 T h e d eve l o p m e n t of t h e


d etect i o n tech n i q u e s CID

S o u rces yo u co u l d use

A Housing and B Co u n ci l reco rds c C e n s u s ret u r n s


e m p l o y m e n t records

D C h a r l e s B o o t h 's s u rvey E Wo r k h o u s e records F Loca l p o l ice records

G C o ro n e r's re p o rts H P h oto g r a p h s I Lo n d o n n ewspa p e rs

j O l d B a i l ey records of K Pu n ch cartoons L C I D reco rds


tria l s

M H o m e office p a p e rs
PA RT 2 : T h e h isto ric e n v i ro n m e n t : Wh itech a p e l , c.1 870- c.1 9 0 0 : C ri m e, p o l i c i n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Cementi n g yo u r knowledge

I n your examination you will b e asked three questions (see pages 164-165) . These
questions will be about the sources we use to find out about crime and policing in
Whitechapel and will also test your skills in enquiry, such as asking questions. To do well
in all the questions you also need a good level of knowledge about the topics you have
studied in this unit. Examiners will be looking to see how much you know and how you use
that knowledge in your answers. Therefore it is important that you make that knowledge
stick in your brain.

1 Test yo u rself!
T h e m o re y o u i d e ntify w h a t yo u ' re n ot s u re a b o ut, t h e m o re c h a n ce y o u h ave o f fi l l i n g t h o s e g a ps a n d d o i n g we l l i n t h e
exa m . H ow m a ny o f t h e s e c a n you get rig ht?

1 W h at k i n d s of tria l s took p l a ce at 2 W h e re was the m ost n o to r i o u s 3 Exp l a i n w h a t ' h avi n g m o n ey fo r


t h e O l d B a i l ey? 'rookery' in W h itech a p e l ? d oss' m e a n s .

4 W h at w a s t h e n a m e o f t h e m a n 5 W h y d i d p rostitutes visit p u bs 6 W h i c h i m m i g ra n t g ro u ps h a d b e e n
w h o g ave m o n ey to h e l p b u i l d b ette r fre q u e ntly? m o v i n g i n to W h ite c h a p e l ?
h o u s i n g i n W h itech a p e l ?

7 Exp l a i n t h e d iffe r e n ces between 8 W h y did many p e o p l e in 9 W h a t evi d e n ce is t h e re that


the Wo r k h o u s e and the C a s u a l Wa rd . W h ite c h a p e l t u r n to c r i m e ? Vi cto ria n s were worried a b o u t
p ove rty?

1 0 W h e n was t h e fi rst a n d l ast R i p p e r 1 1 Exp l a i n t h e b e a t syste m . 1 2 W h a t was t h e W h itech a p e l


m u rd e r? Vig i l a n ce C o m m ittee?

2 Aski n g q u estions
W e h ave p rovided s o m e a n swers b e l ow, b u t i t is yo u r j o b t o co m e u p with s u i ta b l e m atch i n g q u esti o n s . Try t o m a ke each
q u esti o n a s d eta i l ed as possi b l e so that you a re using yo u r k n ow l e d g e to h e l p yo u word it.

1 Lo d g i n g h o uses 2 S a i l o rs 3 R o o ke ry 4 Bessa r a b i a n g a n g 5 A l p h o n se B e rti l l o n

6 Sarah F is h e r 7 T h e O l d B a i l ey 8 C o m m e rcia l Street 9 W i l l i a m S h o rt 1 0 S i r C h a r l e s Wa rren

3 Te l l i n g sto ries
T h e tasks i n 1 and 2 a b ove focus o n i n d ivid u a l pieces of i n fo rm a t i o n , but you a l so n e e d to h ave a n u n d e rsta n d i n g of t h e
sto ries at t h e h e a rt of t h i s u n it. Ta ke each of t h e s e q u esti o n s a n d p re p a re a n a n swer that w i l l take yo u a m i n ute o r t w o t o
exp l a i n a l o u d . Exp l a i n i n g it a l o u d w i l l h e l p to ce m e n t it i n yo u r b ra i n .
1 Why was Wh itech a p e l a p l a ce with l ots of c ri m i n a l activity?
2 H ow d i d t h e re putati o n of t h e M etro p o l itan Po l i ce c h a n g e d u ri n g t h e period?
3 What ste ps were b e i n g taken to m a ke Wh itech a p e l a bette r p l a ce to l ive?
4 H ow was p o l i c i n g o rg a n ised i n Wh itech a p e l ?
5 H ow d i d t h e n ews p a p e rs m a ke it m o re d ifficu lt to i n vestig ate t h e R i p p e r m u rd e rs?
6 What ste ps d i d t h e p o l ice ta ke to catch t h e R i p p e r?
7 What were t h e a i m s of the beat syste m ?
8 Why were n 't b l ood h o u n d s used i n t h e R i p p e r i nvesti g at i o n ?
9 H ow d i d m et h o d s of i d e ntify i n g c ri m i n a l s a n d i nvesti gati n g cri m e i m p rove d u ri n g t h e period?
10 H ow we l l d i d t h e M etro p o l itan Po l i ce co - o p e rate with t h e City of Lo n d o n Po l i ce and t h e CID d u ri n g t h e R i p p e r crisis?
Introducing t he exam
Simply knowing a lot o f content i s not enough to achieve a The guidance on page 166 helps you approach your exam
good grade in your GCSE History exam. You need to know with confidence.
how to write effective answers to the questions. Pages 164-
Paper 1 is divided into two sections. Section A covers the
1 78 give you an insight into the exam and provide guidance
study of a historic environment on Whitechapel, c.1870 -
on how to approach the different questions. This page and
c 1 9 0 0 . Section B covers the thematic study o f crime and
page 165 introduce the structure of Paper 1 of your exam.
punishment in Britain, c.lOOO -present.

Pa per 1 : Thematic study a n d h isto ric e nvi ro n m e nt


O ptio n : Wh ite c h a p e l , c.1 870-c.1 900 : Cri m e, p o l i ci n g a n d t h e i n n e r city

Tim e : 1 h o u r 15 m i n utes
You m ust have :
._. S o u rce B o o k l et (encl osed)

A______..._ I nstructions
A n swer Questi o n s 1 a n d 2 fro m Secti o n A .
A.---"'" From Secti o n B, a n swer Q u esti o n s 3 a n d 4 a n d t h e n EITH E R Question 5 OR Qu estion 6 .
V I nformation
T h e tota l m a rk fo r t h i s p a p e r is 52 .
----
..,-------- . T h e m a rks fo r each q u estion a re s h ow n i n b ra ckets.

S ECTION A: Whitechapel, c.1 870-c.1 900


Answer Questions 1 and 2.
1 . Descri be t w o featu res o f h o u s i n g i n Wh itech a p e l betwee n 1 870 a n d 1 90 0 .
..
0 Featu re 1
Featu re 2 (Tota l for Question 1 = 4 ma rks)
2. (a) Study S o u rces A a n d B in the S o u rce B o o k l et.
..
0 H ow usefu l a re Sources A (So u rce D o n page 1 54) a n d B (Sou rce A on page 1 58) fo r a n e n q u i ry i nto the
p roblems the police faced when i nvestigati n g the Ripper m u rders?
Exp l a i n yo u r a n swe r, u s i n g S o u rces A a n d B a n d yo u r own k n ow l e d g e of the h i sto rica l context.
(8 m a rks)

e--. (b) Study Sou rce B


H ow wou l d you fo l l ow u p S o u rce B to fi n d o u t m o re a b o u t t h e types of cri m e co m m itted i n
Wh itech a p e l i n t h i s period?
I n yo u r a n swer, you m u st g ive t h e q u esti o n you wo u l d ask and t h e type of sou rce yo u co u l d use.
Com p l ete t h e table below: (4 m a rks)

Deta i l in S o u rce B that I wou l d fo l l ow u p : ____

Qu esti o n I wo u l d ask:
What type of sou rce I co u l d use:
H ow t h i s m i g ht h e l p a n swer my q u esti o n : ____

(Tota l for Qu estion 2 = 1 2 ma rks)


TOTAL FOR S ECTI O N A = 16 MARKS
PA RT 3: Writi n g bette r h istory

S ECTION 8: Crime and punishment, c.1 000-present


Answer Q u esti o n s 3 and 4 . Then a n swer E I T H E R Q u estion 5 OR 6.

e---. 3.
Exp l a i n one way i n which tri a l s i n m e d i eva l E n g l a n d were s i m i l a r to tri a l s i n t h e seve nteenth centu ry.
(4 m a rks)
o----. 4. Exp l a i n why t h e re were ch a n g es to p o l i c i n g in the period betwee n 1 70 0 a n d 1 900. (1 2 m a rks)

Yo u m ay use t h e fo l l owi n g i n yo u r a n swer:


the g rowth of Lo n d o n i n creased taxati o n
Yo u m u st a l so use i nfo rmation o f yo u r ow n .

Answer EITH E R Question 5 O R Question 6.


Spelling, punctuation, grammar and the use of specialist terminology will be assessed in this question.
EITH E R
' T h e ro l e o f t h e C h u rch w a s t h e m ost i m po rta nt facto r affecti n g law enfo rce m e nt d u ri n g t h e
M i d d l e Ages.'
H ow fa r d o you a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer. (1 6 m a rks)

Yo u m ay use the fo l l owi n g i n yo u r a n swer:


ben efit of t h e c l e rgy tith i n g s
Yo u m ust a l so use i n formation o f yo u r own .

OR
6. ' T h e m a i n p u rpose o f p u n is h m e n t d u ri n g t h e period c.1 000-c.1 700 w a s t o d ete r p e o p l e fro m
co m m itti n g crim es.'
H ow fa r d o you a g ree? Exp l a i n yo u r a n swer. (1 6 m a rks)

Yo u m ay use the fo l l owi n g i n yo u r a n swer:


co rpora l p u n i s h m e n t t h e i ntro d u ction of tra n s p o rtati o n
Yo u m ust a l so use i n fo rm ation o f yo u r ow n .

(Tota l fo r spelling, punctuation, g ra m m a r a n d the use o f special ist term i n o l ogy = 4 ma rks)
(Tota l for Question 5 or 6 = 20 ma rks)

Ti m i n g ti p
Qvertio llf 1 a n d Z approx.
m i n vter
1.'5
It is important to time yourself carefully. One hour and fifteen minutes sounds a long
time but it goes very quickly! S ome students run out of time because they spend too long
on Section A, thinking that it is worth spending half their time on this Section. However, Qvertionr a n d If approx.
Section A is worth 16 marks whereas Section B is worth 36 marks. The final two questions of m i n vter
1.'5
Section B are worth more marks than all the other questions put together. This shows the Eitloer Qvertion '5 o r (.,
importance of having a time plan and sticking to it. approx. 1.'5 m i n vter
Look at the plan on the sticky note to the right. You could use this plan or develop your
own and check it with your teacher.
PA RT 3 : C ri m e a n d p u n is h m e n t i n B rita i n , c.1 0 0 0 - p resent

Pla n n i n g fo r su ccess
0 T H E S O U RCE B O O KLET the source in its historical context. This is a challenging task.
Page 169 explains how to approach this question.
The exam paper on pages 164 and 165 gives you an idea
what your exam will look like. We have not included the
Source Booklet. For practice use the sources and activities
0 FO LLOW I N G U P A S O U RCE
in Part 2 of this book (pages 1 14-163 ) . Make sure you This question has four parts. You need to fill in the table on
spend time reading and annotating the sources before you the exam paper. Page 170 provides advice on this question.
attempt Question 2 in the exam.
0 EXPLO R I N G S I M I LA R I T I ES A N D
0 FO LLOW I N ST R U CTI O N S CA R E F U LLY D I F F E R E N C E S B ETW E E N P E R I O DS
Read the instructions very carefully. Some students miss This is the first question that tests you on your knowledge
questions they need to answer while others waste time and understanding of crime and punishment in Britain from
answering more questions than they need to answer. c.lOOO to the present. It will ask you to explain a similarity
Remember to answer both parts of Question 2 and to or a difference between the key features of two different
choose between EITHER Question 5 OR 6. You will also see periods. Page 171 explains how to answer this question.
that for Question 1 you need to describe two key features
whereas with Question 3 you only need to explain one way 0 EXPLAI N I N G W H Y C R I M E AN D
in which people's reactions were similar.
P U N I S H M E N T P RO G R ESS E D (O R STAY E D TH E

8 T H I N K CAR E F U L LY A B O U T W H I C H SAM E)

Q U ESTI O N YO U C H OOS E Questions such as this test your ability to write effective
explanations. You may be asked to explain why crime and
After Questions 1, 2, 3 and 4, you need to decide whether punishment progressed so quickly or why there was little
to answer Question 5 or Question 6. Do not rush your change during a period. Pages 172-173 help you write a good
decision. Think carefully about which question you will answer to this question.
perform best on. Plan your answer - it is worth 16 marks,
nearly a third of the total marks for the paper.
G U S I N G T H E STI M U LU S M AT E R IAL
0 S P E N D TI M E D E- CO D I N G Q U ESTI O N S When you attempt Question 4 and either Question 5 or 6 you
will have bullet points as stimulus material to help plan your
The marks for each question are shown i n brackets. This answer. You do not have to include them but try to use them
gives you an idea of how much you need to write, as does to get you thinking and to support your arguments. You must
the space for your answer on the exam paper. However, do bring in your own knowledge too. If you only use the stimulus
not panic if you do not fill all the space. There will probably material you will not gain high marks for your answer.
be more space than you need and the quality of your answer
is more important than how much you write. The most
important thing is to keep focused on the question. If you
- MAKI N G J U D G E M E N TS
include information that is not relevant to the question you This question carries the most marks and requires a longer
will not gain any marks, no matter how much you write ! answer that needs careful planning. You will be provided
with a statement. It may be about the pace of change in a
Read each question carefully before you to start to answer period (for example Question 5) or the significance of an
it. Use the advice on de-coding questions on page 167 to individual or a discovery (for example Question 6). Pages
make sure you focus on the question. 174-175 provide advice on answering this question.

0 D E S C R I B I N G KEY FEATU R E S f) C H ECKI N G TH E QUALITY O F YO U R


The first question asks you t o describe two features of WRITI N G
an aspect of the historic environment you have studied.
Make sure you leave five minutes at the end of the exam
Headings on the exam paper help you write about each feature
to check your answers. If you are short of time check your
separately. Advice on how to gain high marks is on page 168.
answer to the final question first as spelling, punctuation,
0 EVALUAT I N G T H E U S E F U LN ESS OF A grammar and use of specialist terminology are assessed
in this question. You can gain 4 additional marks on this
S O U RCE question - page 176 provides advice on what to focus on.
This question asks you to evaluate how useful two sources However, remember that the accuracy of your spelling,
are for a specific enquiry. Use the Source Booklet to annotate punctuation and grammar is important in all questions as
the sources. Make sure you use your own knowledge to place it affects the clarity of your answer.
PA RT 3: Writi n g bette r h istory

De-coding exam questions


The examiners are not trying to catch you out: they are Step 3 Spot the question type. Are you being asked to :
giving you a chance to show what you know - and what describe the key features of a period
you can do with what you know. However, you must stick explain similarities between periods or why
to