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Mariano Marcos State University

College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering
Batac City, Ilocos Norte

Canning Industry

Bruce Dominique G. Siggaoat

Engr. Eric R. Halabaso

December 2, 2015

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.1.1 Canning
It is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are
processed and sealed in an airtight container. Canning provides a
shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under
specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned
product, such as canned dried lentils, could last as long as 30 years
in an edible state.
1.1.2 History of canning
 1795: In 1795 the French Directory (the final phase of the nation’s
government following the French Revolution) Emperor Napoleon
Bonaparte decided that something needed to be done about the
military’s food supply. During that year French forces fought battles
in Italy, the Netherlands, Germany and the Caribbean, highlighting
the need for a stable source of food for far-flung soldiers and
sailors. The Directory’s leaders decided to offer a 12,000-franc prize
through the Society for the Encouragement of Industry for a
breakthrough in the preservation of food.
 1800: Nicolas Appert, a French confectioner and brewer, who had
worked as a chef for the French nobility, dove into the study of food
preservation. His innovation, when it arrived, came packed in the
strongest airtight containers he had access to: champagne bottles,
sealed with an oddly effective mixture of cheese and lime. Appert’s
discovery built on earlier imperfect techniques, which either
removed air or preserved food by heat but hadn’t managed to do
 1803: Running a bustling lab and factory, Appert soon progressed
from champagne bottles to wide-necked glass containers. He
preserved foods (which came to include vegetables, fruit, meat,
dairy and fish) were sent out for sea trials with the French navy.
However, glass containers presented challenges for transportation.
 1804: Appert’s factory had begun to experiment with meat packed
in tin cans, which he soldered shut and then observed for months
for signs of swelling. Those that didn’t swell were deemed safe for
sale and long-term storage.
 1806: Legendary gastronomist Grimod de la Reynière wrote
glowingly of Appert, noting that his canned fresh peas were “green,
tender and more flavorful than those eaten at the height of the
 1809: Nicolas Appert had succeeded in preserving certain foods
through canning and presented his findings to the government.
Before awarding the prize, the government required that his
findings be published.

 1962: Beverage can pull-tab was introduced. (The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years).  1926: Canned ham ("SPAM") was introduced.  Canned foods do not require salt or sodium for preservation. The patent includes pottery. Appert spent many more years working to improve his method amidst the chaos of post-Napoleonic France. were tested by the National Food Processors Association. he is. glass and tinplated iron for use as food container.  1810: Nicolas Appert published Le Livre de to us les Menages. After winning the prize. there was no trace of microbial growth and the 109 year-old food was determined to be still safe to eat.  1810: Peter Durand (England) receives a patent from King George III. In fact. Although appearance.  1875: Sardines first packed in cans. and manufacturers are increasingly answering the demand for lower sodium varieties of your favorite canned foods.  1856: Gail Borden is granted a patent on canned condensed milk. the Directory presented him with the 12.  1989: Retained ring pull ends for the beverage industry are introduced. many canned food products are available in low-sodium and no-salt added alternatives. further validating Appert's basic processes. ou l'Art de Conserver pendant plesieurs annees toutes les Substances Animales et Vegetables.3 Facts about canning  In 1974. Osterhoudt patented the tin can with a key opener. samples of canned food from the wreck of the Bertrand. His factories remained innovative but unprofitable.  1819: Thomas Kensett and Ezra Gagett start selling their products in canned tinplate cans.1. Although Appert could never explain why his food preservation process succeeded.  1812: Peter Durand introduces his tinplated iron can in America.  1825: Kensett receives an American patent for tinplated cans. and he died a poor man in 1841 and was buried in a common grave.  1866: J. explained the relationship between microbes and food spoilage. credited with being the father of canning. a steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in 1865.  1965: Aluminum beverage cans introduced and Tin-Free-steel (TFS chromium) cans developed. Upon publication. nevertheless. smell and vitamin content had deteriorated. .000 franc award. It would be another half century before his countryman. 1.  Not all canned foods have added salt. Louis Pasteur.

For some species like tuna and sardines canning is the most important processing method. The description is related to canning plant with a capacity of 20 tons whole raw fish (bluefin or yellowfin tuna) per 8 hours.1 Fish Many types of fish.1. and in some cases the canned products are richer than their fresh or frozen counterparts. Manufacturing Process 2.2 Limitations This report focuses only on canning tuna in brine. Proteins. The overall yield is approximately 50-55% which gives approximately 10 000 450 g (1 pound) cans or 20 000 225 g (1/2 pound) cans per 8 hours. C.  A 1997 study found that canned fruits and vegetables are as rich with dietary fiber and vitamins as the same corresponding fresh or frozen foods. but they retain their nutritive value if those liquids are consumed. The retention of vitamin B1 depends on the amount of heat used during canning. D. carbohydrates. Simplified flow sheets for canning tuna in brine are shown in Figure 1. 2. as are vitamins A. the size of the individual fish varying from that of the smallest sardines to that of the largest tuna species.1 Raw materials 2. Some vitamins and minerals may dissolve into the brine or syrup in a can during processing.  October 23 is National Canning Day! 1. and other marine foods are suitable for canning. The Codex Alimentarius Commission recommends the following species of Tuna to be canned: Canned Tuna and Bonito (CODEX STAN 70-1981) Thunnus alalunga Euthynnus affinis Thunnus albacares Euthynnus alletteratus Thunnus atlanticus Euthunnus lineatus Thunnus obesus Euthynnus pelamis (syn: Katsuwonus pelamis) Thunnus thynnus maccoyii Sarda chiliensis Thunnus thynnus orientalis Sarda orientalis Thunnus thynnus thynnus Sarda Sarda Thunnus tongoll Sarda velox . and fats are unaffected. and B2.  Canning preserves most of the nutrients in foods.

2 Salt Salt is used on the canning of tuna in brine. cooling heat exchangers and fire protection. aluminium and lacquered steel plate (TFS). Processing Figure 1 Flow sheet for canning tuna in brine .1.1.3 Packaging Materials The most common material used for manufacturing containers for fish products are tin plate. 2. 2.2.2 Ingredients and additives 2.1 Potable Water or Seawater Water is used for washing and cleaning the raw materials used in the processing of fish.1. Flexible packaging as an alternative to metal cans has become more common during the last years and glass jars are sometimes used for specialty packs. It can also be used for such purposes as producing steam. 2.2.

Sequential processing operations for canning tuna are described as follows: .

Holding of frozen tuna for long periods before thawing may lead to oxidation of fat resulting in a yellow to orange discolouration on the surface of the cooked loins. The fish is placed in baskets which are placed on racks. the cooking time may vary from 1 1/2 hours for small tuna to 8 to 10 hours. or doors. The head is removed and the fish is skinned and split into halves before removing the tail and backbone.0%. This operation is necessary to make it possible to hand pick the light meat from the carcass and also to remove some of the oil from oily fish. Loss of weight is approximately 3-5%.1 Frozen tuna is thawed. If tuna is not eviscerated on board vessels this must be done in the plant.2. The pre-cooking is a batch type operation.2. Loss of weight is approximately 24-27%. at one or both ends. Bonito and skip jack are frozen with viscera.4 Tuna is cooled thoroughly to firm the flesh before the manual cleaning operation can be performed.3 The tuna is given a pre-cook by heating at a temperature in range of 102 to 104 ºC. tuna is individually cleaned. The loins are produced by splitting the halves of the fish along the median line.2. The splitting and evisceration procedure is the only butchering operation performed on the tuna while it is in the raw condition.5 After the pre-cooking and cooling operations.2. but is now carried out by machines. the tuna is washed and inspected for spoilage. 2. 2. Usually this surface discolouration can be removed when the fish is cleaned.6 The production of solid packs was formerly a hand-packing operation. Once thawed. Pre-cooking may also be carried out in boiling brine.2. or more. edible flakes and waste products are separated. All other cleaning is performed after the tuna has been cooked. 2. For example. Steam is admitted through a steam spreader on the floor of the cooker. The pre-cooking time for individual batches varies widely according to the size of tuna.2. Loss of weight is approximately 22-26%. of these portions approximately 15% is flake tuna.2. The racks of butchered fish are rolled into the cookers which are usually of rectangular cross section and made of reinforced steel plate with a door. This machine . preferably.2 Longitudinal cuts are common with large sized tuna and the viscera are removed from the fish on board fishing vessels prior to freezing. 2.5-1. the blood and dark meat are scraped away and the loins. Red meat is then removed from each loin. 2. for larger tuna. Steam vent and drain valves are provided to permit removal of air and condensate. Loss during thawing is 0. by means of running water at a temperature of 10-15 °C.

Flakes and grated tuna. Oil should be added slowly over a sufficient stretch of the line to permit its thorough absorbtion by the tuna meat. which are produced from broken loins and flakes. See Figure 2. and processed directly. These machines close the cans and while so doing draw the air out thus creating a vacuum. 2.7 The open cans next pass the line where additives such as salt.2. . The lid is seamed to the can immediately it emerges from the exhaust box. produces a cylinder of tuna loins of uniform density from which can be cut can-zised segments of uniform weight. whereas larger ones must be vacuum sealed. When oil is not added an equivalent amount of water replaces it.the vacuum causes the ends of the can to assume a concave profile which is characteristic of vacuum packed and hermetically sealed cans.8 Small cans may be closed.2.1 The can. are J packed in the same way as chunk packs. Chunk packs are produced from loins which are cut on a moving belt by means of reciprocating cutter blades. The can and contents are then heated by passage through an exhaust box. stands on a base plate which is raised so that a chuck fits into the countersink part of the lid. vegetables and finally either water or oil are added. When using the exhausting method the lids of the cans are first clipped or clinched on to the body in such a way as to allow free passage of gases and vapours out of the can. 2. with the lid (can end) placed or clinched on top. The seam is created in two operations. The oil temperature is recommended to be 80 ºC-90 ºC.9 The double seaming method is usually used to seal metal containers. 2. without a vacuum. 2. The vacuum also reduces the residual oxygen content in the can and therefore the extent of internal corrosion. so that when the contents cool a vacuum is obtained.9. the vacuum is necessary to minimize the pressure increase in order to reduce the chance of distortion (peaking) and damage to the double seam. "Seaming Operation -Double Seam (CAC/RCP 10-1976).2. After processing and cooling the formation of . cans are seamed by using either vacuum seamers or an exhaust system. holding both in position. As the pressure in the can increases considerably during heat processing . Thus the system relies on sealing the can while the contents are hot and allowing product contraction to create the vacuum. In order to form a vacuum. The cut loins are then filled into cans by tuna filler machines. An alternate method of achieving a vacuum in sealed cans is by using vacuum seamers.2.

The seaming operation must be monitored throughout the processing and visual inspections should be carried out at least every 30 minutes (Warne. Overlap should be at least 45 % of the internal seam length to ensure that the seam will function correctly and resist to minor abuse. conditions time of cans (°C) (min) 1. Figure 2 Seaming operations: double seam 2. The sealing compound renders the seam air tight (hermetic). however at the intersection with the side seam there are seven layers of plate. The can end which is lined with a plastisol sealing compound is crimped into place so that it forms the so-called "cover-hook" around the lip of the container body. the extra two being due to side seam overlap. 1993).2 The "cover-hook" and the enclosed lip of the container are folded down against the container and interlock about the "body-hook". The retort baskets are transferred into the retort and the cans sterilized. Around its circumference the double seam consists of five layers of metal -three layers of the can end and two layers of the can body.2. 2. Figure 3 Examples of retorting temperatures and times for canned tuna Nominal capacity Alternative Processing temp. Both hooks overlap to form a strong joint which acts as a hermetic seal.2.9.8 kg (4 pound) I 116 230 . Good manufacturing practice indicates that the.10 The sealed cans are transferred by a conveyor through a can washer which cleans the cans in detergent and water before discharging them into retort baskets.

batch retorts. or vertical. operating under conditions of good manufacturing practice. Overpressure is between 2-3 kg/cm². Sterilization takes place in retorts. The temperature recorder is checked to ensure that it is working correctly. . with or without water. Following this the vents and bleeders are opened and the drain and overflow are closed {unless the over flow is used for venting). The following general description applies to processing in batch retorts using saturated steam as the heating medium. II 121 190 450 g {l pound) I 116 95 II 121 80 225 g (l/2 pound ) I 116 75 II 121 45 112 g (l/4 pound) I 116 65 II 121 40 All canned fish products are sterilized at temperatures above 100 ºC. After the retort is loaded the door or lid is closed and the seal is checked to confirm that all the lugs are fastened securely. The simplest and most common retorts today are horizontal. Individual canneries may select different processing times and/or temperatures to suit their manufacturing requirements. Processing conditions shown are suitable for those canneries.

the can size and the nature of the pack (i. the pressure. turn off the steam and immediately start the cooling cycle. allow sufficient venting. as this is not necessarily a true indication of the required condition. vent time has elapsed. While it is not serious if the thermograph indicates a temperature slightly lower (say 1 °C) than the mercury thermometer.. it is most important that it never reads higher.  When the correct venting temperature is reached (>100 ºC) and/or the specified. and the temperature indicated by the recording thermometer. .  Gradually close the bypass as the retort approaches the processing temperature. At all times the mercury thermometer should be used as the reference.  At the start of the process. nor should reliance be placed on agreement between the mercury thermometer and pressure gauge readings as a criterion for complete air elimination. 1. The retort is now ready for operation during which the following operational procedures should be adopted:  Steam is admitted by gradually opening the controller and the steam by pass lines. check that the specified temperature is being maintained. check the temperature indicated on the mercury and recording thermometers.  Maintain the retort temperature at the recommended processing temperature. Steam may be used to maintain the pressure but compressed air is more usual. there is still air in the retort and venting should be continued until agreement between pressure reading and the corresponding retort temperature is reached. The cooling time depends on the processing temperature. for indicating true retort temperature.1. If the pressure gauge is reading high while the temperature is reading low.  Leave all bleeders wide open during the entire process.e. record on the production records the time. It is bad practice to vent less than the recommended time.1 When processing medium sized or larger cans (say greater than 250 g) in retorts using steam it may be necessary to cool the cans under pressure so that the ends do not peak during cooling.  When the recommended processing time has elapsed.  When the retort has reached the processing temperature.  Keep a record of the come-up time to make certain it has been long enough to . liquid to solid ratio).  Throughout the process. the vents are closed. This will prevent a sudden drop in temperature as the steam supply is cut when the retorting temperature is reached. the mercury thermometer reading. the temperature of the water used for cooling.

1.6 Baskets for cooking tuna Baskets filled with tuna are placed in racks and loaded into the cooker. The main characteristics of racks used for tuna are given in the following:  The racks are equipped with two fixed and two swivel wheels. 1. Baskets with tuna are placed on the racks before they are loaded into the cooker.3. 1.8 Exhaust box Exhaust boxes are used for heating cans to ensure that when sealed and cooled a vacuum is produced in the container. 1.3. 1.2 If necessary the cans should be washed before temporary storage.4 Cartoning machine Cartoning machines are used for packing cans into individual cartons. however under no conditions should the processed cans be manually handled while wet.7 High-speed tuna filler A high speed tuna filler is a fully automatic machine designed to cut and fill pre-cooked tuna meat into round and/or oval cans. 1.1. 1.3. flakes.4 Quality Control 1.5 Racks Racks are used in the pre-cooking process. which can have just one or a number of heads or seaming stations. 1.1 Quality requirements for water .3. The double seam is formed by mechanically interlocking five layers of material together: three layers of the can end and two layers of the can body. Styles of tuna are pre-cooked (packs prepared from cooked fish without skin) and not pre-cooked (solid packs prepared directly from raw fish) which may be presented as" skin-on”).3.1 Retorts As briefly described previously retorts are used to sterilize the contents of the cans. 1.3. grated or shredded in brine solution.  The holding capacity of each rack is determined by the requirements of production.2 Products Important canned fish products are tuna packed as solid pack.3 Equipment Used 1. chunks.3 Can washing & drying machine Can washing and drying machines are used to clean cans after sterilization in order to remove residual oils that may have adhered to the can surfaces during filling and retorting.4.3.3. 1.2 Seaming machines The double seam is made using a double seamer. 1.

Salt should comply with the "Codex Alimentarius Specifications for Food Grade Salt" (being-developed by the Codex Committee on Food Additives). Only potable water should be used for the supply of hot water.4 kg/cm². packaged and stored should be potable water or clean sea water and should be supplied at pressure of no less than 1.3 Fish Handling on land Information about fish handling prior to canning is given in detail in Planning and Engineering Data. The cold water supply used for cleaning purposes should be fitted with an in-line chlorination system allowing the residual chlorine content of the water to be varied at will in order to reduce multiplication of micro-organisms and prevent the build-up of fish odours. this may concern consumers as struvite can form crystals resembling glass in the canned fish. Fresh Fish Handling.4. 1. An adequate supply of hot water of potable quality at a minimum temperature of 82°C should be available at all times during the plant operation (CAC/RCP 9-1976). Water used for washing or conveying raw materials should not be recirculated unless it is restored to a level of potable quality. similar to those that would be involved in preparing them for marketing as fresh fish.4. Therefore the general instructions described in the Recommended International Code of Practice should be used as a guide for the . If the salt contains too much magnesium chloride the risk of struvite formation increases. processed. 735. FAO Fish. Non-potable water may be used for such purposes as producing steam. kept. It is very important that both-systems of storage and distribution of potable and non-potable water are entirely separate and there is no possibility for cross-contamination or for inadvertent usage of non- potable water in the fish or shellfish processing areas. The processes and principles involved in preparing fresh fish for canning are. The same requirements for the separation of systems would apply to clean sea water when it is used in the processing of fish (CAC/RCP 9- 1976). a common contaminant of unrefined salt. All water available for use in those parts of an establishment where fish and shell fish are received.2 Quality requirements for other ingredients and additives Salt used for making brine or other purposes should be pure and not contain appreciable quantities of magnesium chloride. In this context these data are of most value where they concern operations of special importance for canning. cooling heat exchangers and fire protection. Circ. 1. for the most part.

given the volume of production. texture. the product shall be practically free of dark meat. for ultimately it is in the canners` interests to assure that their products are not only safe to eat. 1. Frozen fish can be thawed by immersion in chilled water (temperatures above 15 ºC are not advisable). especially whole eviscerated tuna is rapid at temperatures sufficient to hasten thawing. This comes as no surprise. For the solid form of pack.5 Equipment Fatal errors in low-acid canned food manufacture are rare. thawing up to 12 hours or more is not unusual. For canned tuna designated as light. failure to regulate end product quality will lead to outbreaks of food poisoning and expensive recalls. like tuna. The quality of the fresh tuna begins to diminish before the last thawed portions have become unfrozen. smaller species. at best. Environment.1 Physical Hazards Causes of accidents in fish processing operations include falls caused by slippery floors and stairs. At the worst. but also that they are of the expected quality. equipment safety issues . and honey-combing. the cans shall be well filled with fish. The products shall be practically free from skin (except when presented as "skin- on" pack). blood-clots. the proportion of free flakes broken in the canning operation shall not exceed 18 percent of the weight of the flesh. handling and preparation of fresh fish for canning (CAC/RCP 9-1976 and CAC/RCP 10-1976).4 Product On opening. 1. and it will limit the ability of the manufacturer to supply to an agreed specification. Thawing of frozen fish is an important step in canned fish manufacture. it will gradually undermine the image of the product. The colour. As thawing of the fish is progressive. the red muscle known as red meat.4. water spraying or air current exposure. and exterior parts of larger species may reach the desired state of thaw while the inner parts of larger species remain frozen.1. bones. inspection of facilities and operations and testing or examinations) are effective. bruises. For larger species. prominent blood streaks. which. scales.1 Occupational Health and Safety 2.4. suggests that traditional process control measures (achieved through staff education and training. odour and flavour shall be characteristic of good quality canned tuna and bonito of the particular species. 2. Deterioration of fresh fish. Health and Safety 2.

g. 2. Carrying. and tools. 2. boat holds) are common to most industries.g. 2.1 Wastewater 2. 2. Repetitive strain injuries may result from manual filleting and trimming operations.1. condensers. storage areas.7 Noise and Vibrations Noise and vibration exposure may result from proximity to noisy machinery (e. In addition. carrying. In fish smoking facilities.1. or be an additional factor. primarily for washing and cleaning purposes.g. even in tropical locations.4 Chemical Exposure to chemicals (including gases and vapors) includes handling chemicals such as chlorine. compressors. automatic packing machinery. associated with filleting knives and other sharp tools. in respiratory and musculoskeletal ailments. stainless steel basins). water is an important lubricant and transport medium in the various handling and processing steps of bulk fish processing. 2.1.1. lye. workers could be exposed to smoke particles that contain potential or confirmed carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).2.1. and acids that are related to cleaning operations and disinfection in process areas. and work posture injuries. and repetitive work. ventilation units. Poor working postures may result from the design of the workspace. Improper work clothes in combination with stationary work locations can result. Many of the manual operations in less mechanized fish processing plants include lifting heavy boxes of raw materials.5 Heat and Cold Exposure to extreme heat and cold is common because fish processing is often conducted in air-conditioned plants under low temperature.1. and general handling of fish and shellfish may develop infections and or allergic reactions resulting from exposure to the fish itself. and Repetitive Work Fish processing activities may include a variety of situations in which workers can be exposed to lifting.2 Biological Hazards Workers involved in manual gutting. furniture. Water spraying processes may result in the formation of aerosols with bacteria that can be inhaled. but also as media for storage and refrigeration of fish products before and during processing.2.2 Environmental Impact 2. or bacteria on the fish. Fish processing wastewater has a high organic .3 Lifting. 2. and cuts from sharp edges on process equipment (e.1. skinning. 2. machinery. and pressurized air).1 Industrial Process Wastewater Fish processing requires large amounts of water.6 Confined Spaces Occupational health and safety impacts associated with confined spaces in fish processing operations (e.

which is relevant if the gas from this process is not treated effectively in the cleaning process.2.2 Exhaust Gases Exhaust gas emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2]. 2. boilers. and neutral detergents. content.2. because of the presence of blood. alkaline.2. Electricity is used for electrical equipment.2 Other Wastewater Streams & Water Consumption Contaminated streams should be routed to the treatment system for industrial process wastewater.2. hydrogen peroxide. compressors and other engines for power and heat generation. It also typically has a high content of nitrogen (especially if blood is present) and phosphorus.1 Economics of Production 3. The primary process source is the fish smoking process. 2. 2. This deterioration causes the formation of odorous compounds such as ammonia.1.g. fish drying processes. and odor emitted during filling and emptying of bulk tanks and silos.2.1. steam.2 Emissions to Air 2. cooking by-products during fish meal production. and electricity for process and cleaning applications. Fish quality may deteriorate under the anaerobic conditions found in onboard storage on fishing vessels and in the raw material silos of fish processing facilities.1 Odor Odor is often the most significant form of air pollution in fish processing. air conditioning. and ice production.3 Particulates Particulate emissions are generally not a serious problem in the fish processing sector.2. 2. Industry and Market Profile 4. mercaptans.2. including acid. tissue.2. and dissolved protein.1 Local Market . and formaldehyde. nitrogen oxides [NOX] and carbon monoxide [CO]) in the fish processing sector result from the combustion of gas and fuel oil or diesel in turbines. 2. The disinfectants commonly used include chlorine compounds. and hydrogen sulfide gas. freezing. A range of chemicals is typically used for cleaning. 3. disinfection of fishmeal processing equipment). Detergents and disinfectants may also be present in the wastewater stream after application during facility cleaning activities. cooling.2. Major sources include storage sites for processing waste. and subsequently a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). as well as disinfectants. Other compounds also may be used for select activities (e.3 Energy Consumptions and Management Fish processing facilities use energy to produce hot water.

195 operators.07 million MT) as compared to last year ’s production of 1.8% or 836. 2013  The fishing industry’s contribution to the country’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP) were 1.3 billion) and 18.1.705. In terms of value. The 2013 production was valued at 244. respectively.5% (P131 billion) of the Gross Value Added (GVA) in Agriculture.28 % (1. an average yearly increment of 5.43 % (1.9 million metric tons. Fisheries production drops down by 0. The commercial sector has an increased production of 2.297 billion and P706. 3.6 billion at current and constant prices.6 billion pesos as compared with the 215. respectively.1.413 metric tons. Hunting.9% at current and constant 2000 prices.614. 3.497 and 226.371.373 million MT) lower than the previous year ’s level (2.7 million metric tons in CY 2013.1 Contribution to National Economy. the largest share next to agricultural crops.8 billion pesos in 2008. Average annual production growth rate within that period was registered at 0.6 billion pesos.676) operators while the commercial and aquaculture sectors added some 16. This translates to some P199.  The industry also accounted for 15.7 % and 1.2 Employment in the Fishing Industry The industry employed a total of 1.2% from 5 million metric tons in CY 2008 to 4.3 Performance of the Fishing Industry  Total volume of fisheries production in the Philippines from January to December 2013 reached 4.1. respectively.63% (2.  The annual performance of the fishing industry was attributed to the production of the three (3) sectors.03%.4% (P199.541 million MT) followed by the municipal sector with – 1.26 million MT).1.568 metric tons share to the total fisheries production.38 billion pesos. the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) registered the highest production among all regions with its 17.04 million MT while the aquaculture sector was 6.3 billion for current prices and P131 billion for constant prices of the country’s GDP of P11 548 billion (current prices) and P6 765 billion (constant prices).  The 2013 fisheries production also showed a 3. the 2013 fisheries production was valued at 244.3.  At the regional level.1.28% decrease from the previous year’s production of 4. Forestry and Fishing Group of P1.1.368 fishing operators nationwide (NSO 2002 Census for Fisheries) of which the municipal fisheries sector accounted for more than one million (1. where seaweed was the major .

585 metric tons.6 billion.  Export volume increased by 101.130 MT) of the total export volume (333.9 billion while inland fisheries production was valued at P8. shrimp/prawn. the country’s aquaculture production of fish.2.75 million metric tons or nearly 7. The production constitutes 2.) combined for 69% (231.2. The commercial sub-sector contributed P69.87 million metric tons of fish. The three major export commodities (tuna.36% of the total world production of 23. the Philippines ranked 7th among the top fish producing countries in the world with its total production of 4. crustaceans and mollusks has amounted to over 1.7% to the total fisheries production.6 billion in 2013 as compared to P237. commodity produced followed by Region IX with a 12. followed by Region VI with P28.386 million US dollars and import value of 300 million US dollars.2% share or 574. crustaceans and mollusks in 2012 ranked 11th in the world and a 1.759 metric tons or 11.78 million metric tons (FAO website). In terms of value.9 million metric tons (FAO website).44 billion.  The Philippines’ 0. Region IV-B (MIMAROPA) recorded an output of 550.9 billion.  Similarly.63 million metric tons.1. mollusks.7 billion in 2012. the Philippines is the world’s 3rd largest producer of aquatic plants (including seaweeds) having produced a total of 1.99 billion.036 million dollars – total export value of 1. The top three (3) regions were Region III with P30.1 World Scenario: Philippine Fisheries  In 2012. crustaceans.95 billion dollars (FAO website). Next is municipal fisheries sub-sector with a total production of P 80. 3.  In terms of value.1.7 billion or 38 %.791 million metric tons aquaculture production of fish.  The Aquaculture fisheries sub-sector contributed the highest value of about P 93. Total fish caught by marine fishermen was valued at P71.47 billion and Region XII with P25.2 Global Market 3.66% of the total world production of 182.465 MT) .1.7% from 165. seaweeds. the industry has contributed P244.2 Philippines Export  Foreign trade performance of the fishery industry in 2013 registered a net surplus of 1. and aquatic plants (including seaweeds). 3.324 MT in 2012 to 333.19% share to the total global aquaculture production of 66.465 MT in 2013.9 billion or 29% to the total fishery output.

 In terms of value. Tuna has an import value of US $90. Japan.9 million.92 million. the Philippine fishery imports originated from the following major countries: China. Canned tuna. Japan 6% . constitutes bulk of tuna products being exported. 1%. and Denmark.2. In general. smoked/dried. These commodities have an aggregated value of US$ 100. . 6.  Among the major destination of Philippine fish and fishery product exports (in terms of value) with percentage share are 12 USA. 3. Canada. 3. 1. Germany . 11%. 14. 14%. 7. USA. and China. 65% than the previous year. 6%. though.  Tuna remained as the top export commodity with a collective volume of 165. . France. Korea.2. Indonesia. in general.2%. crustaceans.2%. 8%.1% in prawn feeds. Papua New Guinea. 1. .3 Philippines Import  Fifty percent of the total import value for 2013 was contributed by three major commodities in chilled/frozen fish. Taiwan (ROC) 10. Spain.3%. 0. Japan and United Kingdom.5% to the total import value of fish and fishery products. Taiwan (ROC). Major markets for this commodity include USA. . Other countries have a cumulative share of 16%. and mollusks fit and unfit for human consumption. mackerel and sardines with a total of US$ 150.757 MT for fresh/chilled/frozen.  Chilled/frozen fish comprise of tuna. Hongkong 5.6 million out of the US$ 299.6 million total import value. Marshall Island.3%.5% and Korea Rep. as well as flour. Taiwan (ROC) 2.1. Vietnam. and 69% (US$967 million) of the total export value US$ 1. 13. Other fishery imports include mackerel.7%. the largest among the three major imports with a share of 30%.9%. 25.5%.386 million in 2013. 1.4 World Top exporters . These were mostly supplied by Papua New Guinea 8 %.3%.5% . Rep Of 3%. 5%. UK. 5%. 4%. 24%.1%. Other countries contributed 20.618 million. and canned tuna products valued at US $681. 2. 4.7%. Japan 2.1.4%.7% and sardines 5. tuna export is up by 192% in terms of volume and higher in terms of value. meals and pellets of fish.2%.

compared with previous review periods.2.1 TRENDS  While 2014 continued to be positive for canned/preserved food. 3. Growth is also maintained with the increase in variants as manufacturers with various brands benefit and make up for products in decline. Canned/preserved food. As a staple. largely due to its canned/preserved fish/seafood products.2.2.2 Future Market Outlook 3.1. 3. 3. growth was seen to slow down slightly in 2014.3 Local Industries Philbest Canning Corporation is one of the 50 business units under the RD Corporation. It maintained its lead at 23% of total retail value sales.2 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE  Sales continued to be led by Century Canning Corp in 2014.1. which in turn is becoming the fastest growing and probably now the largest Filipino-owned conglomerate in Southern . alongside its establishment as a trusted brand name for canned/preserved food products.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3.3 PROSPECTS  Positive growth continues to be expected for canned/preserved food over the forecast period. this product will continue to be purchased by Filipino consumers.1. 3. The popularity of canned/preserved fish/seafood products in the Philippines greatly benefits Century Canning Corp. especially those with more affordable prices.2. remains a staple in local households.

PhilBest Canning Corporation is located in Purok Saydala Barangay Tambler.org/docrep/003/r6918e/r6918e05.com/topic/Nicolas_Appert.history.com/invention/canning/  https://prezi.com/vegetables. Philippines.org/wiki/Canning  http://www.html  http://www. Mindanao. With a growing middle class and steady international market.encyclopedia.com/fgntjdjk3j6o/facts-about-canning/  http://www.fao.aspx  https://en. This initiative was done in collaboration with private sector partners in the canning beans industry that are expected to provide the eventual market to the farmers.html  https://en.fao.edubilla. Situated in 2. However production of canning beans is hampered by lack of high quality seeds.com/topic/canning-food-processing  http://www. canning beans has potential to become a major cash crop for farmers. the Company is looked up by the community as a major source of employment. Research Kenyan scientists release five new canning bean varieties after sixty-year wait Speaking to the private sector players in the canning bean sector in Kenya one cannot fail to note their excitement over the new canning bean varieties that were released in 2015.wikipedia. 4.com/od/Canning/a/From-Napoleon-To- Mason-Jars-The-Brief-History-Of-Canning-Food. Beans are the most important source of protein.org/professionals-and-government/frequently- asked-questions/the-canning-process.aspx  http://www.qbyv.org/docrep/003/r6918e/R6918E00.mealtime. Presently. disease and drought tolerant canning bean varieties that have been released in Kenya and Ethiopia and are being tested in Tanzania. growth and development.htm  http://www.com/en/canhistory  http://foodpreservation.britannica. References  http://www. 5. Burundi and Rwanda.5 hectares of land overlooking Sarangani Bay. iron and zinc for resource poor communities in Eastern Africa.about.htm#Contents  http://www. General Santos City.org/professionals-and-government/frequently- asked-questions/did-you-know.org/wiki/Tuna .htm  http://nchfp.com/news/hungry-history/what-it-says-on-the-tin-a- brief-history-of-canned-food  http://www.uga. it has the capacity to process an average of 140 metric tons per day of Tuna raw materials that is converted into high quality tuna products for its customers worldwide. Bio-Innovate supported scientists from universities and national research organizations to produce new high yielding.wikipedia.atlapactrading.edu/how/general/how_canning_preserves_foods.mealtime.aspx  http://www.

com/canned-preserved-food-in-the- philippines/report  http://www.da.fpeac.worldwildlife.philbest.ph/publication  http://worldtradedaily.wikipedia.org/species/tuna  https://en.euromonitor.fao.pdf  www.org/fishery/statistics/tuna-catches/en  http://www.com.ph/ .com/2012/10/23/national-canning-day/  http://www.org/seafood/IndustrialWasteAbatement-Seafood.bfar.cnn.htm  seafood.org/wiki/Double_seam  http://www.org/docrep/003/t0007e/t0007e07.pdf  http://eatocracy.fao.gov.oregonstate.edu/. http://www.pdf%20Links/Tuna-Canned.org/kenyan-scientists-release-five-new- canning-bean-varieties-after-sixty-year-wait-2/  http://www.com/2012/09/19/wit-report-for-hs-code-160414- canned-tuna/  http://www.bioinnovate-africa.