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with PID controller

Weiwei Zhang Yefa Hu

School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering

Wuhan University of technology

Wuhan, China, 430070

zdzdq@126.com

AbstractIn this paper, a prototype miniature of flywheel shaped rotor measures 302 mm in outer diameter and 156 mm

energy storage system is developed. The structure and dynamics in inner diameter. The rotor mass is 1.01kg, which is supported

characteristic of the flywheel energy storage system are by attractive force produced by three active magnetic bearings.

discussed. The system consists of a disk-shaped rotor, active In order to suppress the rotor vibration, PID control is applied

magnetic bearing (AMB), PID controller, displacement sensor to the AMB.

and cabinet, etc. The rotor is suspended by three active magnetic

bearings (AMB). A mathematical model of the system is deduced

and each degree of freedom motion is treated separately for the

control system. PID control is applied to the AMB. The

experiments have been carried out to measure the dynamic

response of the rotor to direct disturbance. The results indicate

that the PID controller possesses good performance.

PID control

I. INTRODUCTION

Recently, saving energy effectively has become very

important. Thus, energy-saving technology for surplus power

has attracted more and more attention. A flywheel energy

storage system is one of the valuable energy-saving Figure1. Schematic illustration of the flywheel energy storage system.

technologies. The system is very simple and characterized by

high energy saving compared with other energy storage B. Model

systems[1,2].

There are one translational motion in the vertical direction z

In this paper, a prototype of flywheel energy storage system and two rotational motions, roll x and pitch y . The coordinate

is proposed. The rotor is suspended by three active magnetic system and the mathematical model of the system are shown in

bearings (AMB) to constrain three degrees of freedom along z- Fig.2.

axis and about x-axis and y-axis. The other three degrees of

freedom about z-axis and along x-axis and y-axis are to be st at or

zb

passively constrained by edge effect[3]. Active magnetic z

bearings are ideally suited for high-speed and vacuum

applications due to their contact free operation, low friction y

losses, adjustable damping and stiffness characteristics[4]. x y

During normal operation, there is a 12.5mm air-gap between x z

the disk-shaped rotor surfaces and the stator. PID control

method is applied to the flywheel energy storage system. The (a)

dynamics of the energy storage system is discussed.

f1

S3 r ot or z

A. Structure f3 a f2

A prototype miniature flywheel energy storage system has a a x

been developed. The schematic illustration of the flywheel S2

energy storage system is shown in Fig.1 [2].The system

y (c)

consists of a disk-shaped rotor, active magnetic bearing, PID (b)

controller, displacement sensor and cabinet, etc. The disk-

Figure2. Mathematical model of the flywheel energy storage system.

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

(No. 50675163)

It is assumed that the roll and pitch angles are so small The relationships between i1, i2, i3 and x1, x2, x3 are decided

that cos x 1 sin x x sin y y , cos y 1, where by the control strategy. It can be written as (5).

x , y are the roll and pitch angles of the rotor. The motion z zb fzd

equations of the rotor can be written as (1). Then writing q = x , qb = 0 , Fd = mx d

0 my d

<< y

z f z f zd From (1) to (5), the dynamics equation of the system can be

<< written as:

[ M ] x = mx + mxd (1) <<

<< m m d M q = ki ABCq + k x ACq + k x ACqb + Fd (6)

y y y

Where

Where M = diag(mJxJy)

3 1

m is the mass of the rotor; 1 1 1 1 a a

Jx is the inertial momentum of the rotor about x-axis; 2 2

3a 3a

Jy is the inertial momentum of the rotor about y-axis; A = 0 , C = 1 0 a

fz is the z-direction electromagnetic force produced by the 2 2

a a 1 3 1

three active magnetic bearings; a a a

mx is the moment about x-axis by the three active magnetic 2 2

2 2

bearings;

B is decided by the control strategy.

my is the moment about y-axis by the three active magnetic

bearings;

C. Control system configuration

f zd is the z-direction direct disturbance;

The developed flywheel storage system is a three-channel

m yd is the direct disturbance about the x-axis; multiple-input multiple output system. The coil current of each

m yd is the direct disturbance about the y-axis; magnets is controlled on the basis of local information at the

corresponding position as shown in Fig. 3[5]. From Fig. 1, it

Three magnetic bearings are located at the vertices of an can be seen that the positions detected by sensor 1, 2, 3 are not

equilateral triangle. The total force and torques are related with the electromagnet gap, which requires to be transformed into

the electromagnetic forces generated by the three active the displacement signals of the magnets respectively.

magnetic bearings as (2).

X1

sensor 1 cont r ol l er 1 i1

1 1 1

fz f1 f1 X2

3a 3a

mx = A f 2 = 0 2

2

f2 sensor 2 cont r ol l er 2 i2

my f

3 f

a a 3 X3

a

2 2 sensor 3 cont r ol l er 3 i3

Where fk is the attractive force of the active magnetic bearing

k(k=1, 2, 3) and a is the distance of the active magnetic bearing Controller is the core link to achieve stable levitation of the

from the center. flywheel storage system. Thus the real time accuracy and

The force of each active magnetic bearing is approximately stability of the system should be fully considered. According to

given by (3). dynamics (6), a decoupling control system is designed as

fk=kiik+kxxk (3) shown in Fig. 4, where Gc(s) is the controller, Gp(s) is the

Where xk is the deviation of the gap between the electromagnet power amplifier, Gs(s) is the sensor.

and the rotor, ik is the control current. Controller Power Amplifier

U

The gaps are related with the displacements as (4). Uo Ue

Gc (s) D/A Gp (s)

disk-shaped rotor

3 1 + _

x1 z zb 1 2 a 2 a z zb

x = C - 0 = 1 0

a x + C 0 (4) s1

2 x

0

1 y

Gs (s)

x3 0

y 1 3

a a s2

2 2 A/D Gs (s)

s3

i1 x1

Gs (s)

i = B x (5)

2 2 Figure4. Block diagram of the control system.

i3 x3

PID control strategy is widely used in the control system

because of its advantages, such as simple principle, easiness to

implement and so on. Here integral separate PID control

strategy is adopted to prevent the disk-shaped rotor from

floating at the beginning of floating or output significant

deviations at the end, which will cause PID computing integral

accumulation. Integral separation is set an artificial domain of

according to the actual situation, adopting PD control

strategy while the error is big and PID control strategy is

adopted when the error is small. The specified realization steps

are as following:

1) In accordance with the actual situation, set a threshold

value>0; Figure 6. Displacement curve.

2) While error ( k ) > ,use PD control;

accuracy of the control system.

The schematic diagram of the manufactured flywheel

storage energy system for experiment study is shown in Fig. 5.

The area of the magnetic pole is 2.5210-4 m2, single-pole turn

2400, bias current 2.5A, offset position 12.5mm. Half-bridge

switching power amplifier is adopted to provide 120V DC

strong power-supply voltage. The gap between the rotor and

the stator is measured by eddy current displacement sensor. Figure 7. Control current curve.

Conversion ratio of 12bit A/D is 60 s. Sampling rate of 12 bit

is 100 s and the control cycle is approximately 1ms.

Figure 5. Flywheel energy storage system. Figure 8. Displacement curve under disturbance.

stability, the displacement and corresponding control current

curve are shown as Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.

It can be seen that the system achieved stable suspension

after 0.9 second, the gap between the displacement sensor and

the disk-shaped rotor is 8mm smaller than that of the

electromagnet and the rotor.

Vertical disturbance and horizontal disturbance were

respectively added to the system when the rotor suspended

stable, the corresponding rotor displacement and the control

current curve are shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9.

It can be seen from Fig.8, the oscillation is lager when ACKNOWLEDGMENT

vertical disturbance was added than horizontal disturbance, but The authors acknowledge financial support from National

still within the scope of the work. After less than 5s self- Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50675163).

adjusting, the rotor achieved stable suspension.

It can be seen from Fig.9 larger control current is needed REFERENCES

when disturbances are added to the system, because while [1] M. A. Pichot, J. P. Kajs, B. R. Murphy, Active Magnetic Bearings for

increasing the horizontal interference, component force exists Energy Storage Systems for Combat Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on

in the vertical direction to a certain extent, resulting in Magnetic, 2001,1,(37), pp. 318-323.

oscillation in the vertical direction. [2] Selim Sivrioglu, Kenzo Nonami, Active Permanent Magnet Support for

a Superconducting Magnetic-Bearing Flywheel Rotor, IEEE

transactions on applied superconductivity, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 1673-1677,

IV. CONCLUSIONS December 2000.

A prototype of flywheel energy storage system for [3] Xiaoguang Wang, Kui Jiang, Study on the Centripetal Effect of the

experiment was developed. PID controller was successfully Magnetic Bearing, the 2th Chinese Symp. on Magnetic Bearing,

Nanjing, China, August, 2007, pp. 195-198.

applied to suspend the rotor under outer disturbance conditions,

which possessed good dynamic and static properties. The [4] Yefa Hu, Zude Zhou, Zhengfeng Jiang., The Basic Theroy and

Application of Active Magentic Bearing, Beijing China Machine Press,

established mathematical model can accurately reflect the 2006.

characteristics of control. The experiment results revealed that [5] Md. Emdadul Hoque, Masaya Takasaki, Yuji Ishino, Development of a

the system performance for suppressing the effect of direct Three-Axis Active Vibration Isolator Using Zero-Power Control,

disturbances was good. IEEE/Asme Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 462-470,

August 2006,

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