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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Transitions from porphyry to


epithermal ore environments

Processes in active porphyry systems


Early and intermediate porphyry stages
Transition from porphyry tops to lithocaps
Linked porphyry and high-sulfidation deposits
Lithocaps and high-sulfidation deposits
Intrusion-centered intermediate-sulfidation veins

Jeffrey W. Hedenquist
Ottawa
Hermosillo,
Universit deMexico:
Genve October,
: 13 October
20142014

Intrusion-centered porphyry Cu deposits: Tectonic


and structural control on arc magma emplacement

Richards (2007), from Tosdal & Richards (2001)

J.W. Hedenquist 1
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Richards, 2011

(level of neutral buoyancy)

Intrusion-centered systems: tectonic setting

Cu-Au

Intrusion-centered: ~40% of world Au


Porphyry: 70% of world Cu

From R. Goldfarb, after Groves et al. (2005)

J.W. Hedenquist 2
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Sakurajima, Kyushu
Bingham Canyon, Utah: >31 Mt Cu

Bingham Canyon porphyry deposit, Utah: reconstruction

? ? Advanced argillic lithocap?

Waite et al., 1997; Hattori and Keith, 2003

J.W. Hedenquist 3
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Redmondporphyry,
Bingham et al., 2003 Utah
Redmond et al., 2004
Hypersaline liquid
Paleodepth (km) 1.5 -

Vapor

Critical fluids (Cu)

White Island, New Zealand: Quiescent eruption, 1988

High-temperature
hypogene vapors,
800oC with HCl, SO2

300 t Au, 1 Mt Cu flux during


~10,000 yr magma discharge;
partial loss to atmosphere

Photograph:
W.F. Giggenbach

J.W. Hedenquist 4
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

White Island, New Zealand: fumaroles

High-temperature
hypogene vapors,
800 oC with HCl, SO2

White Island, New Zealand: drowned fumaroles, 2004

Satsuma Iwojima, Japan

Residual
(vuggy) pH 0.2
quartz

acidic stream,
pH ~0.6

J.W. Hedenquist 5
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Satsuma Iwojima, S. Kyushu:


passive degassing (no eruption) 880oC, H2O,
HCl, SO2

Sampling of 770oC vapor


Summit crater with acidic gases

J.W. Hedenquist 6
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Satsuma Iwojima, Japan Residual (vuggy) qtz

pH
1.7 -- 1.1

Hedenquist et al., 1994

pH 1.1
dissolved rock

Satsuma Iwojima White Island Magmatic fluid: coupled vapor


(low metals) (~10 ppm Cu) and brine from deep fluid

Critical fluid
bulk salinity

COUPLED vapor + brine

hypersaline
vapor liquid (brine),
within porphyry
Critical
fluid

Fluid exsolved in melt

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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Porphyry systems Residual quartz (vuggy),


barren

pH 1-2,
H2SO4 Quartz-alunite,
barren
HCl

Base of lithocap

Sillitoe, 2010

Porphyry systems Residual quartz (vuggy)


HS enargite, Au

Quartz-alunite

IS veins

Base of lithocap

Sillitoe, 2010
Porphyry
Cu (Au) Intermediate: Lower T
magmatic, <10 wt% NaCl
White mica (up to
pyrophyllite) ( 350oC)
Straight qtz veins, halo
Metals (shallow HS ore,
marginal IS veins)

J.W. Hedenquist 8
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Lowell and= advanced argillic


Extreme hydrolytic
Guilbert, 1970
F - feldspar stable (potassic)
H - hydrolytic (attack by H+)
(phyllic and advanced argillic)
E - caused by external fluids
(propylitic and sodic-calcic)

? ?

Adv argillic Key (accessory) minerals


2 Potassic (early): biotite, K-feldspar
argillic
Depth km

(magnetite, actinolite, tourmaline)


Advanced argillic: residual quartz, sericitic
alunite, dickite, pyrophyllite (diasp)
4 Sodic-calcic (deep): ab/oligo., act. potassic
Propylitic (margins): epidote,
chlorite, albite, actinolite
Time >
Sericitic (phyllic): White mica (qtz,
chlorite, hematite, anhydrite)
potassic
High

2 Argillic (clays): Illite, smectite,


kaolinite (later carbonate)
Vapor & brine coupled
Temperature

4
sericitic
80% 20%
adv. arg.

argillic
Low

Seedorff et al., 2005

J.W. Hedenquist 9
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Chuquicamata, Chile

Ridgeway,
Hugo Dummett N, Oyu Australia
Tolgoi, Mongolia

El Teniente, Chile

Variable alteration and Cu zoning


in large porphyry deposits
Sillitoe, 2010

Seedorff et al., 2005 Cooling = change in


mineral stability, results in
overprinting relationships
P - propylitic, IA - inter. argillic
AA- advanced argillic
S - sericitic, K - potassic
Tourmaline
Late cool, unseparated fluid [NaFe2+2(Al,Fe3+)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4]
Dumortierite [Al7BO3)(SiO4)3O3]

Brine
Vapor Also can add: F = topaz, zunyite

log aF-/aH+
Solvus Separation

Critical fluid

log aK+/aH+

J.W. Hedenquist 10
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Batu Hijau porphyry, Sumbawa Arif and Baker, 2003

A veins: early, high temperature (potassic stage, no alteration halo


- bn, ccp). Wavy veins; ductile plastic rock (high T hypersaline liquid
+ vapor inclusions): lithostatic P
B veins: transitional
D veins: later, lower temperature (phyllic stage, with alteration
halo - ccp, py, shallow bn + py, cv, en). Straight and center line;
brittle rock (350 C 5-10 % NaCl inclusions): hydrostatic P

Gustafson and Hunt, 1975

Typical porphyry
intrusion and vein
relationship

Sillitoe, 2010

J.W. Hedenquist 11
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Halilaga Cu-Au porphyry, Turkey http://pilotgold.com/

Proffett, 2003

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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Bingham Canyon, Utah

Gruen et al., 2010

240 Mt of M,I&I at 0.74% Cu and


Copper Creek porphyry
0.013% Mo (0.5% CuEq cutoff for
UG, top 400 m below surface) Cu-Mo, Arizona

1400

1000
m

Riedell et al., 2013

J.W. Hedenquist 13
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Early bt vn
A vn
Early halo vn
D (qsp) vn

Riedell et al., 2013

1 km

Vein abundance at surface (>5%


EH & 5% D), over 0.5% Cu grade
shell at ~350-700 m depth Riedell et al., 2013

J.W. Hedenquist 14
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Porphyry examples El Salvador, to east


c. late 1950s
pyrophyllite

muscovite

Damiana exotic

Geology of El Salvador

Cornejo et al., 1997

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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Watanabe and
Hedenquist, 2001

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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Cu ore at
2600 m

Watanabe and
Hedenquist, 2001

Watanabe and Hedenquist, 2001, after Hemley et al., 1969

pyrophyllite

muscovite

1. Cooling

2. Vapor
condensation
2 muscovite + 6 qtz = 3 pyrophyllite
KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 2 H+ + 6 SiO2 =
3 Al2Si4O10(OH)2 + 2 K+

J.W. Hedenquist 17
Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

El Salvador, looking ~SE

alunite lithocap (late)


pyrophyllite

Watanabe and
Hedenquist, 2001

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Porphyry systems: transition to lithocaps Geneva, 13th October 2014

Breccias
w/ adv arg

Watanabe and
Hedenquist, 2001

Fluids from alteration at present-


Volcanic vapor
day level of exposure Giggenbach, 1992
Water in felsic magmas
B. Taylor et al., 1986

Muscovite
overprint
dickite Deep
potassic
(biotite)

Vapor-brine fractionation ~20 D


Horita et al., 1995; Schmulovitch et al., 1999

Watanabe and Hedenquist, 2001

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