Você está na página 1de 83

Dynaflodrill _ USER

MANUAL
VERSION 5

be dynamic
Drillbench Dynaflodrill User Guide Page i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1. GENERAL 4
1.1 Overview 4
1.2 Areas of application 5

2. MAIN ENVIRONMENT 6
2.1 Overview 6

3. CREATING A CASE FILE 8


3.1 Overview 8
3.2 The data model - DEML 8
3.3 New session (.dml) file 9
3.4 Editing an existing session (.dml) file 10
3.5 Converting legacy session files 10
3.6 Library 12
3.6.1 Library editor 14

4. INPUT PARAMETERS 15
4.1 Description 15
4.2 Survey 16
4.3 Wellbore geometry 19
4.4 String 21
4.5 Surface equipment 24
4.6 Injection system 25
4.6.1 Drillstring gas injection 26
4.6.2 Annulus gas injection 26
4.7 Mud 27
4.8 Reservoir 31
4.9 Temperature 36

5. EXPERT INPUT PARAMETERS 37

6. MENUS AND TOOLBARS 39


6.1 File 39
6.1.1 New 39
6.1.2 Open 39
6.1.3 Reopen 39
6.1.4 Save 39
6.1.5 Save as 40
6.1.6 Save as template 40
6.1.7 Save library 40
6.1.8 Import 40
6.1.9 Export 41
6.1.10Exit 41
6.2 Edit 41
6.2.1 Cut 41
6.2.2 Copy 41
6.2.3 Paste 41
6.2.4 Undo 41
6.3 View 42
6.3.1 Well schematic 42
6.3.2 Survey plot 42
6.3.3 Log view 43
6.3.4 Navigation bar 44
6.3.5 Basic input 44
6.3.6 Expert input 44
6.3.7 Simulation 44
6.4 Simulation 44
6.4.1 Toolbar functionality 44
6.4.2 Start/Pause/Continue 45
6.4.3 Step 45
6.4.4 Reset 45
6.4.5 Load state from file 45
6.4.6 Save state 45
6.5 Results 46
6.5.1 Keep previous results 46
6.5.2 Import results 46
6.5.3 Export results 46
6.5.4 Add page 47
6.5.5 Rename page 47
6.5.6 Remove page 47
6.5.7 Load/save layouts 47
6.6 Tools 48
6.6.1 Take snapshot 48
6.6.2 Report 48
6.6.3 Validate parameters 50
6.6.4 Edit unit settings 50
6.6.5 Options 51
6.7 Help 55
6.7.1 About 55

7. RUNNING A SIMULATION 57
7.1 Overview 57
7.2 Controlling a simulation 57
7.3 Simulation window 58
7.3.1 Graphical output 58
7.3.2 Plot properties 61
7.3.3 Print and export 61
7.3.4 Import data 63
7.3.5 Zooming 63
7.4 Interactive simulation mode 64
7.5 Batch simulation mode 65

8. WORKING WITH DYNAFLODRILL 67


8.1 Multiple runs keep results 67
8.2 Improved results view 68
8.2.1 Trend plots 68
8.2.2 Profile plots 69
8.3 Well schematic 70
8.4 Add external data 71
8.5 Create presentation graphics 74

9. RHEOLOGY MODELS 75
Drillbench Dynaflodrill User Guide Page iii

9.1 Generalized Newtonian models 75


9.1.1 Bingham plastic model 75
9.1.2 Power law model 75
9.1.3 Robertson-Stiff model 75
9.2 Pressure and temperature dependent rheology 76
9.3 Friction factor 76
9.3.1 Friction factor in laminar flow 76
9.3.2 Friction factor in turbulent flow 76
9.3.3 Transition from laminar to turbulent flow 77
9.3.4 Frictional pressure loss model 77
9.3.5 Beggs and Brill correlation with angle correction for liquid hold-up 77
9.3.6 Semi-empirical pressure loss calculation 78

10. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS 79

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 80
Drillbench Dynaflodrill User Guide Page 4

1. GENERAL

1.1 Overview

Underbalanced drilling (UBD) has firmly evolved into a new facet of the oil and gas
industry. Operators are applying this new technology to improve ultimate reservoir
recovery and maximize the economics of production. UBD has been utilized for
specific applications such as limiting lost circulation. A number of developments
took place in the oil industry that caused the present increased interest in
underbalanced drilling.

Underbalanced drilling still has some concerns to be addressed by future


developments in the industry to broaden its applicability. Among those is the
engineering software required for pressure calculations to model well flow and gas
lifting requirement during the design stage. The flow modeling software can be
divided into two categories: steady state (or static) flow modeling and dynamic flow
modeling. The steady state flow modeling is useful for quick sensitivity analyses
and parameters screening exercises. The dynamic flow modeling is required for
simulating the dynamic effects occurring as a result from varying operational
conditions, e.g., drilling and tripping, starting and stopping pumping, drill pipe
connection, and gas injections, BHA deployment and reservoir production.
Designing underbalanced operations ideally require both steady-state and dynamic
tools. Steady-state tools facilitate rapid design, sensitivity studies and dimensioning,
while the dynamic tools are required for checking the operational feasibility of the
steady-state solutions.
Steadyflodrill is a tool designed for the steady-state design phase. It is very fast
with output tailored for the design phase. It is also very closely related to
Dynaflodrill a dynamic tool for underbalanced operations. Starting a design
process in Steadyflodrill, continuing in Dynaflodrill to check feasibility and then
finalizing operational preparations in our training tool Ubitts provides the user with a
very complete and efficient work process.
1.2 Areas of application

The simulator can be used to design an optimum well program for a given geology,
wellbore configuration and surface equipment. It can also be used to develop
optimum operational procedures to avoid hazards during the drilling operation, and
as a tool for post-analyses of UBD operations. The simulator is also a useful tool
for training and simulation of what-if scenarios.

Example applications of Dynaflodrill:

1. predict whether it is possible to achieve a stable underbalanced condition for the


given system and operational constrains
2. evaluate different scenarios for how to achieve the underbalanced condition
3. predict the amount of injection gas required for the operation
4. design procedures for operations like tripping, starting and stopping circulation
such that excessive wellhead pressures and accidental overbalance situations
are avoided
5. design the operation such that it is in a stable operating range where
the bottomhole pressure is not very sensitive to changes in normal
control parameters
6. post-analysis of underbalanced operation to capture successful procedures and
operational experience and pass them on
7. training of new engineers and other relevant personnel
2. MAIN ENVIRONMENT

2.1 Overview

By default, the Dynaflodrill installation creates a Dynaflodrill entry under Programs


SPT Group Drillbench 5.0 in the Start menu. Dynaflodrill is started either by
selecting this shortcut, by clicking a desktop icon or directly from the program
installation directory using the Windows Explorer.
Regardless of the start-up method, the program will look similar to Figure 2-1 when
starting up. The contents of the parameter display may be different depending on
parameter group and selected window.

Figure 2-1. A typical view when starting Dynaflodrill. A summary page gives the
user an overview of the case by showing the most important parameters.

The environment consists of 4 main areas; the menu line and the toolbar at the top of
the window, and the main Dynaflodrill window with a navigation bar to the left and a
data entry and interaction window to the right.
The menu bar
A standard menu bar with File, Edit, View, Simulation, Results, Tools and Help
entries. File operations, view selection and simulation control may be done from
here.

The toolbar

Frequently used commands, like File New, File Open, Save, Copy, Cut, Paste
and Undo, are placed in a toolbar for easy access. These commands can also be
accessed by standard Windows keyboard shortcuts (Chapter 10). A toolbar for
controlling the simulation with start, pause, single step and reset buttons is placed
next to the normal toolbar. The user can also select the desired type of simulation,
interactive or batch.

Navigation bar
The navigation bar contains:
- Input for specification of the most frequently used input parameters
- Expert input for specification of optional or expert features
- Simulation for calculation and output of results

Data entry window


Displays either input parameters or simulator output depending on the current
selection in the navigation bar
3. CREATING A CASE FILE

3.1 Overview

This section briefly describes the data model in Drillbench and how a new case can
be created. All Drillbench applications share the same data model, therefore this
section is similar for all applications.
A new case can be created either by building a new file or by editing an old file. The
data needed for a simulation may be selected from the library or specified on the
input parameter sheets. The input parameter sheets and the library are presented in
more detail in Section 3.6 and Chapter 4.
If you have used older versions of Drillbench, you can open your input files as
normal and you will be notified that your input has been upgraded. Note that this
upgrade is irreversible files saved from this version cannot be loaded in
older versions of Drillbench.

3.2 The data model - DEML

The data model illustrated in Figure 3-1 handles all internal data transfer
between the user interface and the numerical models and stores all the
information in XML files.
The data model is the same for all Drillbench applications, but most applications
only use a subset of the full model. When switching from one application to another,
all available data will be used and the user must add only the data specific to the
application in use.

Figure 3-1 Data model in Drillbench


Data can be collected from several sources. In many cases, companies have some
standards, guidelines or common practices that will remain unchanged from case
to case. Also vendors of tools and fluids may be the same in many cases.
The total amount of data needed to run a Dynaflodrill session may therefore be
divided into case specific data and more standard data that will remain unchanged
or only slightly modified from case to case. The standard data can be defined in the
library to simplify the case definition phase.

Among the case specific data are well trajectory, geometry, operational conditions
and temperature. Typical library entries are fluids, pipes and tools.

3.3 New session (.dml) file

To create a new session file, select File New from the menu bar. The new file
dialog offers choices of starting with a blank file or with predefined templates.

Templates can be defined either for specific well types (i.e. HPHT, deep-water,
extended reach) or for specific fields. The idea behind the templates is that the input
process should be simplified. All the predefined data is available from the user
interface so it is easy to review the data and verify that it fits the case you want to
simulate.

Figure 3-2. New file dialog

The path to the templates is configured in the Tools Options dialog.


3.4 Editing an existing session (.dml) file

Existing input files are opened by choosing File Open and selecting the file. A
recently used file can also be opened from the File Reopen list. The edit process
is very similar to what you do when you open a template file. After editing the input
file, choose File Save asfrom the menu line and give the input file a new
name. The input file can be saved in any directory.

3.5 Converting legacy session files

Since version 4, Drillbench has used a new data file format. Files created with older
versions of Drillbench (3.X) need to be converted for use in Drillbench applications.
There are two tools for converting old files:

Convert file - converts a single file or database

Convert folder - converts all files in a folder and (optional) subfolders


To convert a file:

Open the convert file application (Start [Program location] Tools Legacy
Convert file)
The application shown in Figure 3-3 is opened. By clicking the folder symbol, an
explorer window is opened for selection of files to convert. The corresponding new
file (.dml) will be located in the same folder as the original file.

Figure 3-3 Tool for converting session and database files from Drillbench 3.X.

To convert a folder:

Open the convert folder application (Start [Program location] Tools Legacy
Convert folder)

Figure 3-4 shows the convert folder tool. Select the folder you want to convert and
all old session files including those in subfolders will be scanned and converted.
This can be performed at the root (C:\ or any other location where you have
Drillbench files), but note that if you have many files, this command can take some
time to complete.
Figure 3-4 Tool for conversion of all session files in a folder (including subfolders).

A log file is created for each file that is converted to the current Drillbench format
(.dml). The log file is automatically stored together with the file and contains any
messages and warnings that may have been generated during the conversion to
the new format.

3.6 Library

All data is entered in the parameter input section. For some data that is typically
entered based on data sheets or from handbooks, an optional library function is
included. The default installation of Drillbench contains a library with values for
pipes & tubulars, tools, fluids etc. The user can easily add information to the library
to define new items.
The entries from the library are selected in the parameter input sections for
Wellbore geometry, String and Mud. The library can be accessed by clicking on the
Name field for the item/component. The items/components that can be found and
stored in the library are:
Riser

Casing/Liner

String components

Bit

Mud (Drilling fluid)


Figure 3-5. Library browser and filter dialog for casings

To find a specific item or component in the library, there is a filter option to help you
search for the item or component you need. You can set up several different filters
to make your library search more detailed. Click the Add button to add a line in the
filter dialog or press remove if you want to remove a line. Remember to click Apply
filter no filtering is performed before this button is clicked.

To select an item from the list of matching components you can double click on the
element. You will then return to the input screen and can continue to specify other
data.
If you do not find a suitable item or component in the library, you can specify all the
properties of the item or component manually in the input parameter window. The
item or component can then be added to the library by right-clicking on the line in
the table and choosing add item to Library.
3.6.1 Library editor

There is also a standalone library editor that can be opened from the Start menu
(Start [Program location] Tools Library editor).

Figure 3-6 Library editor

In the Library editor all the information that is stored in the library can be reviewed.
It is possible to add new items or edit the specification of existing items.
4. INPUT PARAMETERS
The input parameters have been divided into ten main groups.

Summary A brief summary of the most important input data


Description Information about the present study/case
Survey Describes the well trajectory
Wellbore geometry Defines the casing program for the well
String Configuring and defining the drill string and bit
Surface equipment Defines the rig equipment
Injection system Configuring and defining the injection system
Mud Defines the drilling fluid
Reservoir Defines the reservoir properties
Temperature Defines temperatures and temperature model

4.1 Description

Use the Description window to describe the main purpose and key parameters of
the current case. The input is self-explanatory and consists of the most important
parameters needed to identify the case. Use the Description field to distinguish
several computations performed for the same case.
Figure 4-1 Description window

4.2 Survey

The input data for the survey are measured depth, inclination and azimuth. The
simulator calculates the true vertical depth (TVD) by using the minimum curvature
algorithm. The angle is given as deviation from the vertical, which means that an
angle of 90 indicates the horizontal. The angle between two points is the average
angle between the points. The simulator handles horizontal wells, but angles higher
than 100 are not recommended. This window is optional and the well is assumed
vertical if no data is entered.
The survey data can be entered manually, copied from a spreadsheet or imported
from an existing survey file. Figure 4-2 shows the survey data table and a 2D sketch
of the well trajectory.
Figure 4-2 Specification of survey data

Inclination data can also be imported from file (Ref. Figure 4-3) by choosing File
Import Survey data or RMSwellplan data.

Figure 4-3 Menu option for survey data import

The RMSwellplan option opens a File open dialog and a *.dwf file can be selected.
The survey data import is different as this option opens a file import tool, shown in
Figure 4-4.
The import tool is very general and can handle different units, different column order
or delimiters. It can also handle any number of header or footer lines.
Figure 4-4 Survey Import window

The survey profile can be previewed in 3D, by selecting View Survey plot.

Figure 4-5 3D survey plot


4.3 Wellbore geometry

The wellbore geometry section contains the specification of the actual hole. A
typical window appearance is shown in Figure 4-6. The wellbore is divided in two
parts:
Casing/Liner

Open hole

A sketch of the casing program can be displayed for simplifying the input process.
This is opened from the View Well schematic menu. The sketch will be
immediately updated with any changes in casing or open hole specification.

Figure 4-6. Specification of wellbore geometry.

In Dynaflodrill it is only required to specify the inner tube and the annulus, which
makes up the mud flow path. Thus, only the casings that make up the current
annulus must be defined and casings outside may be left out. A complete casing
program can of course be defined if the same case will be used for other
applications that require more details.

The top and bottom position of each pipe (Hanger and Setting depth) must be
specified in measured depth from RKB. Inner and Outer diameter can be typed in
directly or filled out by selecting a casing from the library. The library is optional, but
provides an easy way of entering correct casing data. The library functionality is
described in more detail in Chapter 3.6. Figure 4-7 shows an example of searching
for the desired element. Highlighting an element in the browser and pressing OK
will copy the actual string data to the wellbore geometry window.

Figure 4-7. Library browser for Casings (database)

To append lines to the table, use the down arrow key. To add or remove lines within
the table use either Ctrl+Ins or Ctrl+Del. Ctrl+Ins with the cursor in the middle of a
table will open a new line above the cursor.

Figure 4-8 Open hole

You specify the open hole section by the length from the last casing shoe to the
bottom of the wellbore along with the open hole diameter.

Planned well depth can be different from the initial length of the open hole section.
4.4 String

Dynaflodrill can use both conventional and coiled tubing. Figure 4-9 shows the
specification of the string data. The specification is done from the bit and up. The
window is divided in two parts specification of the string and specification of the
bit. Also here the casing and string sketch can be displayed to simplify the data
entry process.

Figure 4-9 String configuration

String

The string specification can either be done by selecting string elements from the
library or by typing directly in the window. The library functionality is described in
Chapter 3.6. The string is specified from the bit and upwards. The section length
and inner and outer diameter are required. The distance from bottom is calculated
and displayed as a reference.
The average stand length is the length drilled before performing a new connection.
During simulation, a message is given in the log window when the pipe joint
reaches the rig floor. The simulator automatically stops pumping when performing
connection.
It is possible to create items with custom dimensions by modifying the diameters of
an already defined item. To add new items to the library, right click on the
component and press Save.
It is also possible to edit/view the properties of the different components by clicking
in the last column of the chosen component. For Dynaflodrill it is important to notice
that the motor is defined as part of the properties dialog.
Figure 4-10 shows the Properties window for the motor. The dimensions and flow
rate interval with corresponding pressure loss can be specified. In the table of flow
rates the minimum and maximum rate is taken as lower and upper motor limitations.
Figure 4-10 Specification of motor properties

To append lines to the table, use the down arrow key. To add or remove lines within
the table use either Ctrl+Ins or Ctrl+Del.

Bit

The bit is defined separately. Select the bit from the library browser by clicking the
ellipsis button. It is possible to edit the bit dimensions and properties by adjusting
the values in the window. The flow area through the nozzles is defined either by
entering the total flow area (TFA) or by entering the diameter of each nozzle. To
add a newly created bit to the library, click the Add to library button.
.
Figure 4-11 . Bit configuration

If nozzle diameter is selected and it is necessary to specify more than four nozzles,
the extra nozzles can easily be added by pressing the down arrow key at the last
line in the table, or alternatively by pressing Ctrl+Ins.
4.5 Surface equipment

Figure 4-12 Surface equipment window

Choke

The Inner diameter of the choke must be given, together with the minimum time
required to fully close the choke. The simulator automatically adds a surface pipe
length to the system. The user controls the well pressure by modifying the well head
pressure. In the Choke section the user specifies how to operate the choke by
selecting either Pressure or Opening from the Choke control combo box
The Pressure change parameter is only used if Pressure is selected as choke
control. It defines how much the pressure changes per unit time.

Separator

A Separator working pressure has to be set.

Pump13

The Liquid pump rate change defines how fast a new rate can be achieved when
the circulation rate is altered. Example: a Liquid pump rate change of 2000 l/min
means that when circulating at 1000 l/min it takes 0.5 min from the pump is starting
to shut down until it stops flowing.
Correspondingly, the Gas pump rate change defines how fast operational changes
can be achieved for the gas compressors.

Rotary control head


The duration of closure is the time period from the Rotary control head status
is switched to closed in the user interface and until the Rotary control head is
fully closed.

4.6 Injection system

In Figure 4-14 a sample of a gas injection specification is given. The specification is


divided into two parts, Drill string and Annulus injection. There are several options
for annulus gas injection (4.6.2); Parasite annulus, Parasite string and Source point
injection.
A Check valve can be specified to control whether backflow is allowed or not.
Simultaneous injection in both drillpipe and annulus is possible. In this case, the
injection gases may be different, but the check valve status is assumed equal for
both injection lines.
4.6.1 Drillstring gas injection

For drillstring injection it is only necessary to specify the Density of the injection gas
and the mole fraction of the available gas components.

Figure 4-14 Specification of gas injection properties

4.6.2 Annulus gas injection

There are three options for annulus injection;

Parasite annulus

Parasite string

Source point

Both the parasite annulus and parasite string options require specification of an
inner diameter (for either the annulus casing or the string) and an injection depth
(Length).
It is possible to inject gas or kill mud through the parasite string or parasitic annulus.
If gas injection is modeled, the composition of the injection gas and the gas density
needs to be specified. If kill mud injection is modeled, the mud density must be
given.
It is also required to specify the fluid temperature in the injection line. Figure 4-14
shows the specification for parasitic annulus and Figure 4-15 the specification for
parasitic string. The sketch indicates the layout of the injection system.
Figure 4-15 Parasitic string

Figure 4-16 shows the specification of the source point injection. Only gas injection
is available. This option only requires an injection depth and the composition of the
injected gas. Injection line temperature is not in use in this option. The source point
option disregards the behavior of the compressible volume in the parasite
string/annulus and represents a simplification of the calculations.

Figure 4-16 Source point gas injection

4.7 Mud

In Figure 4-17 the specification of mud properties is illustrated. Fluids can either be
selected from the library or a new fluid can be defined by entering relevant data in
the window. A fluid can be selected from the available library fluids by clicking on
the button in the Fluid name field. This will open the select fluid dialog shown in
Figure 4-18.
If a fluid similar to the actual fluid is not found, it can be created. This is done by
entering data in the relevant input fields for Component densities, PVT,
Thermophysical properties and Rheology. The newly created drilling fluid can be
added to the library by clicking the Add to library button in the upper right corner.
Figure 4-17 Mud window

Figure 4-18 Library browser for fluids


Component densities

Below the drilling fluid entry, the fluid component densities are displayed.

Unless the fluid density is calculated based on data from a field mud, see
Measured PVT model below, a component density model is used. The p, T
dependency of each phase will then be treated separately and a resulting density
will be calculated based on the weight fractions of each phase and the density of
the mud at standard conditions.
Base oil density is specified at standard conditions (1 bar,15C / 14.7 psia and 60
F).

Solids density is the density of the weight material. A solid density of 4.2 sg is
suggested by default, which corresponds to the density of Barite. In these
calculations, the compressibility of solids are assumed to be negligible, an
assumption that in most cases is fairly correct.
Density refers to the density of the whole mud phase and must be specified at the
correct reference temperature and atmospheric pressure.

The last parameter to be specified is the mud Oil water ratio. The ratio is specified
using 'oil%/water%' (e.g. '80/20').

Figure 4-19 Component densities

PVT model

There is an option to choose from two different PVT models, Measured PVT model
or a Black oil PVT model.
Figure 4-20 PVT model

The Measured PVT model is based on experimental PVT data for elevated
pressure and temperatures. The measured values can be specified by clicking on
the properties button in the PVT section, as shown in Figure 4-21. Clicking the
properties button opens a sub-window with two tab sheets; one for specification of
saturated base oil density and one for specification of gas solubility in the base oil.
This option is suitable only for dry gas influx.

The first row in the gas solubility table should always contain data at 1 bar. This is
used as a reference point in the computations.

Figure 4-21 Specification of PVT data for measured PVT option

For the Black oil PVT model, the mud properties for elevated pressure and
temperature are based on empirical correlations. There are no requirements to the
composition of the base oil.

Fluid type

Fluid type can either be Liquid or Foam.


The foam quality is a required input when the foam model is used and is defined as
the volume ratio between gas and foam typically in the range from 0.85 to 0.95
(85-95%). The foam model requires that the foam is stable.

Rheology

Three rheology models can be selected; Robertson-Stiff, Power Law and Bingham.

The rheology curve can be specified as a table of shear rate vs. shear stress
(Fann reading). The rheology table is a spreadsheet table and it is possible to use
copy and paste between other programs and Drillbench.
If Robertson-Stiff is chosen as rheology model, where applicable, the table should
contain at least three Fann readings.

Rheology data can also be given in terms of plastic viscosity (PV) and yield point
(YP).

It is assumed that the rheology data entered is valid at atmospheric pressure and
50 C (122 F).

Robertson-Stiff is the recommended model for most situations. The rheology


models are described in more detail in Chapter 9.

4.8 Reservoir

The reservoir properties window is shown in Figure 4-22. The upper part of the
window is a table with characteristics for the reservoir zone, such as depth, pore
pressure, influx rate etc. The lower section contains properties for the reservoir fluid
and the cuttings.
Figure 4-22 Specification of reservoir properties

Reservoir zone

The name of the reservoir zone is entered in the column Lithology name. Lithology
is used as a term for the material in the surroundings of the well. The reservoir type
can be either fractured or matrix. The type is important for estimating the intensity of
the influx from the reservoir. The columns Top and Bottom define the upper and
lower boundaries of the reservoir zone and are given in metered depth from RKB.
Reservoir top must be between last shoe depth and the bottom of the well. Top
pressure and Top temperature is the pressure and temperature in the reservoir at
the top depth.
The reservoir fluid can either be a pure gas or the user can specify a certain gas oil
ratio (GOR) and water cut (WC). Water cut is the volume fraction of water in the
liquid phase. GOR is specified at standard conditions. Clicking in the Reservoir
fluid column activates the cell for edit and a button appears in the right end of the
cell.
Pushing this button opens a dialog, shown in Figure 4-23, where these properties
are specified.
Figure 4-23 GOR and WC for reservoir fluid

Note that only very lean gases should be regarded as gas only, i.e. dry gas or
leaner. All other fluids should be treated with possibility for oily components as well.
With condensing influx (i.e. not dry gas), the reservoir oil will mix with the mud and
can significantly alter the mud properties. This is an irreversible change, in contrast
to dissolved reservoir gas, which is released from the mud when approaching
surface conditions. Generally, all fluids with the exception of very lean gases should
be treated as oil to capture this effect.
The Influx model defines the rate of influx into the well. Clicking in the Influx column
activates the cell for edit and a button appears in the right end of the cell. Pushing
this button opens a dialog, as shown in Figure 4-24. The selection of models
available depends on which reservoir type and type of fluid is selected.

Figure 4-24 Specification of influx model

Four influx models are available;

Linear PI: Production depends linearly on the pressure drawdown (i.e. difference
between formation pressure and the flowing bottomhole pressure). This is the PI
model for oil/water reservoir, and the preferred model for high-pressure gas
reservoirs
Squared PI: Production depends on the difference between the squared reservoir
pressure and the squared well pressure. This is the preferred PI model for low-
pressure gas reservoirs
Reservoir model: the influx is based on permeability, porosity, the length of the
reservoir exposed to the well and the drawdown
Constant: constant influx rate

If the reservoir is a Matrix, the influx rate can be calculated based on a linear PI,
squared PI (gas only) or the reservoir model. The PI is adjusted according to the
length of the reservoir exposed to the well.
If the reservoir is Fractured, the influx rate can be calculated based on a linear PI,
squared PI (gas only) or constant influx rate. For fractured reservoirs the PI will be
independent of the length of the reservoir exposed to the well.
Several reservoir zones can be defined. This makes it possible to specify a
reservoir that consists of a combination of matrix layers and fractures, various influx
rates, etc. The properties for the reservoir fluid are the same for all zones, but
gas/oil ratio and water cut can vary between the zones.
Reservoir fluid

The properties for the reservoir fluid are specified for each phase, as shown in
Figure 4-25.

Figure 4-25 Reservoir fluid specification

The density of the influx gas is specified at standard conditions. If any


contamination is present, the amount of contamination is specified as well (on
molar basis). The available impurity gases are: nitrogen N2, carbon dioxide CO2 and
dihydrogen sulphide H2S. The gas density should include the contaminations.
For fluids heavier than very lean gases, properties for the influx gas, influx oil and
water must all be specified. Density and compressibility are given at standard
conditions, while formation volume factor and viscosity are given at reservoir
conditions.

Cuttings

The cuttings density and either max concentration or minimum relative velocity must
be specified.
4.9 Temperature

Figure 4-26 Temperature input window

Temperature is specified as depth tables for temperatures inside the drillstring and
annulus. Measured depth is entered together with the corresponding temperature.
The number of pairs may be different for annulus and drill string. The first data
points in the tables are the mud temperatures at surface (inlet and outlet).
The program interpolates linearly between the given temperature points when
computing the effective temperature profile.
If measured data is not available, it is recommended to calculate the mud

temperature profile by using the dynamic temperature model in Drillbench
Presmod and copy the result into the tables in Dynaflodrill. A Dynaflodrill input file
can be opened and run in Presmod after adding data for the temperature
calculations.
5. EXPERT INPUT PARAMETERS
Specification of wellhead pressure, number of grid cells and selection of sub-
models and definition of well observation points are available as optional input.

Figure 5-1 Model parameters

Wellhead pressure

The wellhead pressure represents the reference pressure at surface. This is the
pressure downstream of the choke or any other surface equipment and is the
minimum wellhead annulus outlet pressure. The wellhead pressure is entered as a
constant value. For reference the wellhead pressure is displayed on result plots.

Number of grid cells

The number of grid cells is a numerical parameter. The user specifies the number of
grid cells used to create the underlying mathematical model. More specifically, it
defines the level of detail at which the drillstring and annulus is discretized.
Increasing the number of grid cells will increase the accuracy of the simulation, at
the cost of the computation time. The computation time will at best increase linearly
with respect to the grid cells. To keep the simulation from becoming too time-
consuming, it is recommended to set this parameter between 50 and 100.

Sub-models Pressure loss model


Beggs and Brill, Semi-Empirical and a Mechanistic pressure loss sub-models can
be selected. The mechanistic model is recommended for Newtonian fluids, while
the semi-empirical model is recommended for non-Newtonian fluids.

Sub-models Gas density model

Hall-Yarborough and Redlich-Kwong can be selected. The Hall-Yarborough


equation of state is the recommended setting.

Friction factor model

The friction factor sub-models shown in Figure 5-2 are available.

Figure 5-2 Friction factor models

For all models except Ed. Technip 1982, steel and open hole roughness must be
specified. Ed. Technip is the recommended friction factor model.

Observation points

Five positions can be specified in the well. At these points, pressure, equivalent
circulating density (ECD) and temperature can be observed during simulation. The
observation point is specified using a measured depth and one of two modes of
operation that affect how the point behaves during string movement. The points
can either be moving or fixed. A moving point is a point that is attached to the
drillstring and moves together with the string. A fixed point refers to a fixed depth,
independent of string movement or bit position.
6. MENUS AND TOOLBARS
Menus and toolbar icons have standard Windows functionality. We assume that
Dynaflodrill users are familiar with Windows operations, and will only describe the
menu and toolbar functions specially designed for Dynaflodrill.

6.1 File

6.1.1 New

Use File New to create an input file from scratch. This dialog offers choices of
starting with a blank file or with predefined templates. The template path is
configured in the option dialog.

Figure 6-1 New file dialog

6.1.2 Open

Open a file using a standard file selection dialog.

6.1.3 Reopen

Reopen one of the last used files.

6.1.4 Save
Save a file using a standard file selection dialog.

6.1.5 Save as

Save a file under a new name using a standard file selection dialog.

6.1.6 Save as template

Save the file as a template-file.

6.1.7 Save library

Save all data in the library.

6.1.8 Import

Use File Import to import either a survey file in some ASCII format or survey data
from the RMSwellplan application. When the survey data file has been selected, the
survey data import dialog appears. Select the appropriate column delimiter, the
units used in the survey file and the number of header/footer lines to be skipped.

Figure 6-2. Survey import


The survey file must be in ASCII format with columns for measured depth,
inclination and azimuth. By default, the program assumes that the first column is
used for Measured depth, the second column for Inclination and the third for
Azimuth. If this is not the case, the column headers can be rearranged by drag and
drop: Click and hold the left mouse button on the column header, drag to the correct
position and release the mouse button.

6.1.9 Export

Use File Export to save the survey data in the RMSwellplan (*.dwf) file format.

6.1.10 Exit

Exits the application.

6.2 Edit

Standard windows functionality.

6.2.1 Cut

Standard windows functionality. In complex input tables the Edit option is not
available. A field must be active for edit before this option is active. To select and
cut a range of spreadsheet cells, highlight the cells and press Ctrl+X.

6.2.2 Copy

Standard windows functionality. In complex input tables the Edit option is not
available. A field must be active for edit before this option is active. To select and
copy a range of spreadsheet cells, highlight the cells and press Ctrl+C.

6.2.3 Paste

Standard windows functionality. In complex input tables the Edit option is not
available. A field must be active for edit before this option is active. To select and
paste a range of spreadsheet cells, highlight the cells, or alternatively the starting
cell for the area to paste, and press Ctrl+V.

6.2.4 Undo

Standard windows functionality.


6.3 View

Used to switch between windows, and to hide or show optional sub-windows and
diagrams.

6.3.1 Well schematic

A schematic plot that includes the riser, seabed, casing/liner program, open hole
and the drill string is shown by selecting View Well schematic or using the well
schematic button in the tool bar. A visual inspection of the well can reveal errors in
the input data. The well schematic has a view properties window to toggle items
and labels to be drawn, which can be opened from the popup menu item
Properties
The well schematic will provide live feedback on changes done in the well
specification by highlighting the well component currently selected for modification,
and by updating geometry changes as they happen.

Figure 6-3. Well schematic view

6.3.2 Survey plot

To view a three-dimensional representation of the survey, select View Survey


plot. The default view is in front of the XY-plane. To rotate the view around the well,
move the mouse in the direction of desired rotation while pressing the left mouse
button. To zoom in, move the mouse up while pressing the right mouse button. To
zoom out, move the mouse down while pressing the right mouse button. To move
the figure, move the mouse while pressing the left mouse button and the shift key.
There is a menu line in the survey plot with a File and a View menu. To reset the
view, select View Reset camera from the plots menu line. The plot can be saved
in a variety of formats by selecting File Save As from the plots menu line.

Figure 6-4. 3D survey plot view

6.3.3 Log view

By default, the log view is located in the lower part of the main window. It displays
errors, warnings and information messages concerning input data and calculations.
Use the check box on the View Log View menu to display or hide the log.
Double-clicking an error or warning leads the user to the input page that caused the
problem. Clicking the right mouse button over the log displays a menu offering the
following commands:
Copy message
This command copies the message on the current line to the clipboard.
Save messages
This command lets you save the log contents to a text file for later review.

Clear messages

This command empties the log.

Hide
This command hides the log window, and has the same effect as unselecting the
log window check box in the View menu.
Show timestamp

This check box toggles the use of timestamps for the lines in the log. This feature
can be used to distinguish messages from various runs and can be helpful when
the content of the log is saved to a file.

6.3.4 Navigation bar

Toggle the navigation bar on/off. Hiding the navigation bar can be useful to make
more room for the main input or simulation window. The state of this selection is
saved between sessions.

6.3.5 Basic input

Switch to an Input window.

6.3.6 Expert input

Switch to an Expert input window.

6.3.7 Simulation

Switch to a Simulation window.

6.4 Simulation

Simulation control commands can be found both in the menu bar and as a separate
toolbar.

6.4.1 Toolbar functionality


Figure 6-5 The simulation toolbar.

The toolbar has buttons for start/pause, single step and reset of a simulation. You
can also choose from a drop down menu which type of simulation you are going to
run: Interactive simulation, Batch simulation or Dynamic surge and swab simulation.
The simulation is started by clicking Start, and it will continue to run until it is
stopped by the user. When the simulation is started, this button changes to Pause
(Figure 6-6). The simulation can be stopped temporarily by clicking Pause and
resumed by clicking Start. By clicking One step, one time step is performed and the
simulator pauses until Continue or One step is chosen again. To start the simulation
from the very beginning, click the Reset button.

Figure 6-6 The simulation control while running a simulation

By using Pause, changes in the operational conditions can be made at any time
during the simulation.

6.4.2 Start/Pause/Continue

This menu item is context sensitive, and mimics the button in the toolbar. Used to
start and pause a simulation, and to continue a simulation after a pause.

6.4.3 Step

Run the simulation one step forward. A maximum step length can be specified in
the simulation window.

6.4.4 Reset

Reset the simulation. The simulation will start from the beginning the next time Start
is clicked. Clears all plots, unless keep previous results is active (see 6.5.1).

6.4.5 Load state from file

Load a previous run simulation that was saved as a state file, see below.

6.4.6 Save state

The current simulation state may be saved at any time during a simulation. This
way, the simulation can be continued at a later occasion. To save the state, choose
Simulation Save state. A save dialog appears asking for a file name. By default,
the state file is given the extension .pr. Later, the simulation can be continued by
first opening the same input file, then choosing Simulation Load state file. Load
the previously saved restart file and continue the simulation by pressing Start or
Run one time step.
All the results from a simulation are saved in a state file and can be viewed by
loading a state file into the simulator. Thus, Save state can also be used to save
results for later use.

6.5 Results

The Results menu in Steadyflodrill is only used for controlling the display of the
results. New pages for displaying graphics can be opened, renamed or removed.

6.5.1 Keep previous results

You can choose to keep the results from previous simulations and run a new
simulation. The new simulation will be plotted together with the previous
simulation(s). This makes it easier to compare different scenarios or procedures.
Starting a new simulation run with keep previous results disabled will clear out all
previous simulation results.

Figure 6-7 Results of running two simulations with keep results option on.

6.5.2 Import results

Imports previously saved simulation results. The loaded results will be added as the
oldest runs in the simulation result stack. The simulation results can be imported
across other Drillbench application and do not depend on the input file.

6.5.3 Export results


The simulation results may be saved at any time during a simulation. To save the
results, choose Results Export results. A save dialog appears asking for a file
name. By default, the result file is given the extension .dbr. Later, the results can
be imported independently of the input file and among all Drillbench application
supporting export and import of results, see Figure 6-8; by choosing Results
Import results. The loaded results will be added as the oldest runs in the simulation
result stack.

Figure 6-8, Import of results across Presmod and Kick

6.5.4 Add page

If you want to add more result pages for custom plots or special plot setups, you
can add a page where you can add new plots. Pages can also be added by typing
Ctrl-T.

6.5.5 Rename page

You can rename the custom plots pages to organize your plots. Pages can also be
renamed by double-clicking on the page tab.

6.5.6 Remove page

You can remove a plots page by selecting from the menu or by typing Ctrl-F4.

6.5.7 Load/save layouts


Custom chart layout and properties are stored in the DML file. All open plots and
customizations to plots are automatically restored when DML file is opened. Plot
and layout customizations can also be stored and loaded separately to override the
defaults or customizations in a DML. This function can also be used to create
templates for typical plot configurations used in different types of simulations.

6.6 Tools

Tools for functionality like reporting, data validation, screen capture of the graphics
window, changing unit settings and program options can be found in the Tools
menu. Some of these tools are used frequently. These have been given a separate
toolbar icon for easy access.

Figure 6-9. Toolbar.

6.6.1 Take snapshot

The snapshot feature places a snapshot of the active plot window on the Clipboard,
which can then be pasted into reports or presentations. Combined with customized
plot layouts this is a very useful tool for presentation of simulation results.

6.6.2 Report

The reports are opened by selecting Tools Report from the menu bar. All reports
use the HTML format. The Input report is a summary report showing the most
important input data. The Current results report includes some input information
and all the result plots that are selected for viewing in the results plot pages in the
simulation window. The tabular results report shows most of the result data as
columns in one big table. Another report, tabular results (printable), shows the same
information, but with the table divided into multiple tables and the table formats
specifically adjusted for printing. Use your web browsers commands to save or
print the report.

Figure 6-10: The Tools menu Report


The reports use standard HTML style sheets (CSS) to define the visual layout. This
makes it easy to customize the format (fonts, colors etc.). Dynaflodrill provides a
default style sheet (ircss.css) which can be edited or replaced to match the users
preferred report style. Figure 6-11 shows the layout of an excerpt from the input
report using the default style sheet. The other reports behave similarly and use the
same layout.

Figure 6-11: Layout of the Input report

The format of the reports makes it easy to export data to other applications like
Microsoft Excel. The reports can be opened by Excel directly, or the tables can be
copied from the reports to an Excel worksheet by standard copy and paste.
However, if you are using Internet Explorer to view the report, an even simpler way
is available. Data can be exported directly to an Excel sheet by right-clicking on a
table and selecting Export to Microsoft Excel. An Excel sheet will be opened,
containing the data from the selected report table.
Figure 6-12: Export of Survey data from a report to Excel

6.6.3 Validate parameters

Drillbench has a parameter validation tool. It can be started

by selecting Tools Validate parameters from the menu bar or using the
associated icon on the toolbar.

6.6.4 Edit unit settings

To edit the unit settings, select Tools Edit unit setting from the menu bar, or click
on the unit name in the status bar to pop up the unit menu.

Figure 6-13: Unit menu

The unit menu is allows quick change of unit sets and access to the unit edit page.
6.6.5 Options

To open the options tab window, select it from Tools Options from the menu bar
or click the associated icon on the toolbar.

This is a dialog that controls the Drillbench program settings. This window is divided
into three tab sheets: General, Appearance and Unit definitions, which are
described below.

Figure 6-14: The Drillbench option dialog.

6.6.5.1 General

Library path

Fluids, casings and string components are selected from a library. The location of
the library file is entered in this field. The library selected here is shared among all
Drillbench applications. Use the arrow in the right corner of the field to select from a
list of previous paths.

Template path
Path to Drillbench default template files.

At program startup

Reload last used file resumes the session you were working on when exiting
Dynaflodrill the last time.

Remember last selected page


Start at the page you were on when exiting Dynaflodrill the last time.

Reports

Option to indicate whether you want to include the default results in all result
reports. The default is to include.

View

Option to control whether the log window should open automatically when new
messages are produced by Drillbench. The default is to automatically open log.

Input file

Show input read diagnostics

This is an option to enable diagnostic messages when loading an input file. This
should normally not be used. It is only to be used when you have trouble loading an
input file. You may be asked by Drillbench support to turn this option on.
Load plot layout(s)

Custom chart layout and properties are now stored in the DML file. All open plots
and customizations to plots are automatically restored when DML file is opened.
Plot customizations are also preserved when using separate layout files. This option
controls whether Drillbench will load and use the last saved custom result plot
layout.

Load plot style

Drillbench will automatically save to the input file all custom changes to the plots
styles, e.g. line thickness, background colours etc. This option controls whether the
last saved changes are restored.
6.6.5.2 Appearance

Allow the user to modify colour theme, icon style and tab layout in Dynaflodrill
according to personal preference.

Figure 6-15 Editing color scheme


Figure 6-16 The Dynaflodrill summary window with different colour settings

6.6.5.3 Unit definitions

The unit settings can be changed by selecting the Unit definitions tab found under
Tools Options in the menu bar, see Figure 6.11. Each unit is defined separately
and saved in a specified unit file. However, predefined sets of units can be selected
from the drop down menu. By default, SI units, metric (European) units and field
units are available. You can create your own set of units by selecting the preferred
units and save to file with a new name.
6-17 Unit definitions

6.7 Help

To open the Help window in Dynaflodrill you can select it from Help Help topics
or you can open it by pressing F1.

The help window will give you a short description and explanation of all the different
windows in Dynaflodrill.
By pressing F1 from an input window, the help page for the current window will be
displayed.

6.7.1 About
The Help About option gives you information about Dynaflodrills version number
and the expiry date of the current license.

Figure 6-18. The About window in Dynaflodrill.


7. RUNNING A SIMULATION

7.1 Overview

Dynaflodrill gives the user an opportunity to perform a detailed design and analysis
of the drilling operation. It is a good approach to first establish an operating range
using the steady-state simulator Steadyflodrill, and with this input proceed to
Dynaflodrill to investigate potential dynamic problems.
Two different types of simulations can be performed:

Interactive simulation: Allows the user to modify the operational parameters


manually. During the simulation, messages from the simulator are given to inform
about events. The user may change the control parameters during the simulation
Batch simulation: The changes in operational conditions are specified before
starting the simulator. The whole simulation is performed without any interaction
from the user

7.2 Controlling a simulation

Three buttons for controlling the simulator run are found on the toolbar.

The simulation is started by clicking Start, and it will continue to run until it is
stopped by the user. Immediately after the simulation is started, this button changes
to Pause. Clicking Reset resets all operational parameters so the simulation can be
started from the very beginning. The simulation is stopped temporarily by clicking
Pause and continued after a pause by clicking Start. By clicking Run one time step,
one time step is performed and the simulator pauses until Start or Run one time
step is chosen again.

The simulator proceeds one step at a time with variable time-step length. The step
number and simulated time is updated after the computation in a particular step is
finished. The length of each time step is normally decided by the simulator. The
default is approximately 90 seconds, but can vary depending on the calculations.
The simulation type is selected from the dropdown list on the toolbar
7.3 Simulation window

The Simulation window is opened by selecting Calculation in the Navigator bar.

Figure 7-1 Simulation window

The Simulation window is divided into two sections:

Simulation control: The upper part is a panel for information and control of
operational parameters. This panel will change according to which type of
simulation is selected.
Simulation results: The lower part is a section with several views for display
of results as graphical plots or numerical values.

7.3.1 Graphical output

The different plot windows can be used for displaying the results as the simulation
runs. The results can be viewed both graphically and numerically.

The output area in the Simulation window is divided into different sections or views,
which are easily configurable. Dynaflodrill provides a set of commonly used default
plots in the first window. It is possible to customize the plots view according to
personal preference and also to add new custom plot pages.
To view a plot, click on the right mouse button in one of the views. A menu will then
appear with selections for adding plots, removing one or all plots, as well as some
options for printing, saving, renaming and customizing the plots.
There are several ways to add new plots. If there are currently no plots visible,
select Set in the menu. A new submenu will appear with all the available plots
listed. If you want to add new plots, select add in the menu (when right-clicking). A
new submenu will appear with several options for placement and with available
plots listed. Above the separator line the plots versus simulation time are listed,
below the line the parameters versus depth are listed.

Figure 7-2. Menu showing all plots available during simulation.

You can add as many plots as you want. You can also use the vertical splitter in a
window that has already been split horizontally. The split windows can be resized
by dragging the splitters (boundaries) to the desired position.

You can save the set of simulations in the active plot page by selecting Save layout
to file from the right-click menu. The plot page layout can then later be used in other
simulations by adding a new plot page and select load layout from file from the
right-click menu. In order to save all custom simulation plot pages select Save all
layout(s) to file; select Load all layout(s) from file to load or restore all custom plot
layout pages.
7.3.2 Plot properties

Some plot properties can be modified by clicking the right mouse button on the plot
and selecting the Properties option. The following window appears:

Figure 7-3. The plot properties window.

It is possible to modify plot title, axis settings, horizontal and vertical grid lines, line
style and point style. In case of a plot with multiple curves, these modifications
can be made for all curves.

7.3.3 Print and export

Using a plots right click menu, it can be printed directly from the plotting part of the
program, it can be copied to the clipboard or it can be saved as a file for inclusion in
reports or further manipulation in other programs. Saving to file is accomplished by
selecting Export, which opens the dialog shown in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4. Exporting results as picture

Several different file formats can be used for saving the plots:

Windows bitmap
Windows metafile
VML
PNG
PDF
PCX
JPEG

These file formats are widely recognized by Windows programs, and the exported
plot picture can be included in word processors, web pages and desktop publishing
programs.
There is also an option to save the contents of the simulation plots as numerical
data. The formats available are:
Text

XML

HTML table

Excel
Figure 7-5. Exporting results as data

7.3.4 Import data

There is an option to import data into the plots. This selection is available by
choosing Import from the plots right-click menu. An open file dialog box opens up
and you can import the data from a text file into your plot.

7.3.5 Zooming

There is an option to zoom in and out on plots to investigate the results in further
detail. To do this, left-click, hold and drag the cursor to the right to zoom in, and left-
click, hold and drag to the left to zoom out.
7.4 Interactive simulation mode

Figure 7-6 shows the simulation window when running an interactive simulation.
Changes in the operational conditions can be made prior to simulation start or
whenever the simulation is paused.

Figure 7-6. Interactive simulation

The initial bit depth can either be at the bottom of the wellbore or a distance from
the bottom. The simulator initially suggests the bottom of the wellbore.
The mud circulation rate and gas injection rate, through annulus or a parasite string,
can be modified during the simulation. Kill fluid can be injected through a parasite
string if a well kill scenario is defined in the input parameters (Injection system input
window).
The drilling mode is activated whenever the rate of penetration (ROP) is larger than
0.0. A negative ROP indicates tripping out of the hole.

Acceleration refers to the drillstring acceleration when tripping in and out of hole as
well as the acceleration of drilling velocity. The recommended range is between 0
2 2
and 1 m/s (0 - 3 ft/s ).
The status of the RCH and Choke can be set to open or closed. The choke is
controlled by interactively setting choke opening or choke pressure during the
simulation, depending on what choke operation mode is selected in the
Surface equipment input parameter window.
To use a shorter time step than the default, activate Max time step and enter the
desired upper limit for time step length.

During simulation, messages are written to the log window to inform about events.
For instance, a message is given when pipe joints reach the rig floor and it is time to
perform a connection. In this situation, the simulation will automatically pause and
await further input from the user,

7.5 Batch simulation mode

On the Simulation navigator bar there is an icon for Batch configuration. Selecting
this option will open a window with a large version of the batch table. Figure 7-7
shows an example of the batch configuration window. The user specifies a
sequence of time periods where a set of operational conditions are kept constant,
before being changed in the next time period. The operational parameters are the
same as for an interactive simulation.

To make it easier to specify the batch simulation, some parameters like


accumulated time and bit depth at the end of the time period are automatically
calculated and included in the table. This is very useful as reference when setting
up long and complicated batch jobs.
The specification of the operational parameters are stored as part of the case file
when using the File Save option from the menu bar. The batch specification is a
spreadsheet table and can easily be copied to another file or application using
Ctrl+C for copy and Ctrl+V for paste. Changing the entries in the table is done by
placing the cursor in a table cell and typing the desired value.

Figure 7-7. A typical Batch simulation setup.


The Batch simulation can be started and controlled by selecting Batch
simulation and using the control buttons in the toolbar. The results are viewed in
the Simulation window. Figure 7-8 shows the simulation window when a batch
simulation is running.
The simulation window shows a portion of the batch configuration table in the upper
part. This view has all the edit features of the full table, so the batch job can be
modified without having to go to the batch configuration window.

The lower part of the window shows the standard graphics display. The plot
functionality is described in detail in section 7.3.1.

The time period presently being simulated is highlighted in the batch table to give
the user feedback on batch job progress.

The user may at all stages in the batch simulation take manual control by switching
to an interactive simulation. This is done by clicking Pause, selecting the Interactive
simulation mode, and carrying on from there with full control over operational
parameters and simulator control.

Figure 7-8. Running a batch job in Dynaflodrill


8. WORKING WITH DYNAFLODRILL
The new Dynaflodrill includes tools and features that are very valuable for day to
day engineering as well as operation decision support.

8.1 Multiple runs keep results

A very useful feature in Dynaflodrill is the ability to use the interface directly to
compare results from different runs. This is extremely useful for sensitivity analysis.
It can be multiple runs with the same case file only with minor differences or it can
be different case files for the same well geometry. The example plots given below

are taken from Drillbench Presmod, and illustrate the effect of changing mud
system. The same possibilities as shown in these figures are available in
Dynaflodrill.
To perform multiple runs:

Go to Simulation Keep previous results. When the Reset button is pressed the
time is set back to zero, but all the parameters in the plots versus time are still
showing (the depth plots are cleared). When a new run is started (either from the
same or from another case) the new data is running on top of the previous run. The
effect of changed parameters is therefore easy to see in the graphics.

Figure 8-1 ECD as function of mud system in Presmod.


Figure 8-1 shows the ecd plot as function of ROP, RPM and circulation rate. The
operational parameters are included below the ecd plot to study the connection
between input system and the actual results.

8.2 Improved results view

During a simulation the current results of each time step are stored historically on a
result stack and the results can at any time be exported and imported, also across
other Drillbench applications. Previous time snap shots of plots can be access by a
time slider. For time plots an optional time line is drawn according to the position of
the time slider. In case of depth plots the according profiles are shown in respect to
the time sliders position. By default the check box to follow the simulation is
checked to plot the results at the current time step.

Figure 8-2, Time slider, showing previous time snap shot

8.2.1 Trend plots

Time plots have an optional time line showing the time in respect to the position of
the time slider. Beside the time axis, time plot curves can presented in respect to
pumped volume or bit depth. The time and value axes can flipped, e.g., useful in
conjunction with time axis as bit depth to present the plot familiar from profile plots.
Figure 8-3, Left: Pit gain in respect to pumped volume, right: x and y axis flipped

8.2.2 Profile plots

While running a simulation the previous profile curves of the current simulation can
be shown as faded curves. The faded curves will only be visible if the checkbox
follow simulation is checked. Depths plots can also calculate and draw the minimum
/ maximum curve(s) of the whole current simulation run. There is an option to show
the casing shoe depth, which is represented by horizontal thin line.
Figure 8-4, Left: fading out curves of previous time steps; right: minimum
and maximum of free gas during the whole simulation

8.3 Well schematic

The flow areas of the well schematic can be colored with respect to the values of a
profile plot by selecting Results <Value of interest>; select None to switch off the
coloring. The values to be colored depend on the actual position of the time slider
such that one can slide backward and forward in time or animate the values during
a simulation.

Figure 8-5: Selection of the profile to be visualized


The colors for minimum and maximum and the value range to be colored can be
customized in the data properties window.

Figure 8-6: Well schematic showing actual free gas

8.4 Add external data

It is possible to import external data sets and add these in the Dynaflodrill plots.
This way it is very easy to compare simulation results with measured data or with
results from other simulations.
Figure 8-7 Example of result from exporting and importing data

Figure 8-8 Export dialog select Excel format

Figure 8-7 shows an example of what we can achieve when using the advanced
options in Presmod. The temperature curve the red line has been exported to
an Excel file. The Export dialog is shown in
Figure 8-8. Note that to export the data to Excel the Data-tab has to be selected. In
Excel the data has been manipulated by adding synthetic noise by using a random
number. This is just one example of another data set it could just as well have
been from a logging tool or another data source.
To import the data to Dynaflodrill again, the file has been converted to a text file
(copy and paste to Notepad). By selecting Import from the plot menu a standard
Windows file selection box is opened, and an Import dialog as in Figure 8-9 is
opened. The Import tool shows the data-columns, the units as well as headers and
footers. Dragging the column header Temperature (Celsius) to column number 3
switch the data column from number 2 to 3. Pressing OK will import the curve in the
plot as in Figure 8-7.

Figure 8-9 Data file import


8.5 Create presentation graphics

Plots such as the one created in Figure 8-7 can easily be manipulated and
modified, by including legend, adding text and comments, changing background or
other colors, fonts etc. There is a large number of options. The following example
illustrates some of the possibilities.

Figure 8-10 Reconfigured temperature plot

In Figure 8-10 we have altered the plot from Figure 8-7. A legend has been added,
the line color of the modified temperature data has been changed from green to
blue, and the line thickness has been increased. Some of the fonts have also been
modified.

Figure 8-11 Plot properties menu


9. RHEOLOGY MODELS
The rheology model defines the shear stress of the fluid as a function of shear rate.
This in turn defines the frictional pressure loss.

9.1 Generalized Newtonian models

There are several rheological models to describe the non-linear proportionality


between shear stress and shear rate. Most of the drilling fluids behave like yield-
pseudoplastics, that is a minimum force must be applied to impart motion to them.
This force is known as yield-point. In the following the actual models will be
described.

9.1.1 Bingham plastic model

This is a two-parameter model with direct proportionality between shear stress


and shear rate , in addition to a yield stress y.
The equation is

y p,
(1)
0, y

where p = plastic viscosity. p is the slope of the curve relating and .

The weakness of this model is that it does not contain the non-linear relationship
between and .

9.1.2 Power law model

This model is the most common choice for oil based muds. It describes fluids
without yield stress by a non-linear flow curve
K n (2)

where
K = consistency index

n = flow behaviour index; n 1.

If n = 1, the equation becomes identical to the equation of flow of a Newtonian fluid


having the viscosity K.

9.1.3 Robertson-Stiff model


This is a three-parameter model includes Bingham and Power law as special cases.
The fluid is defined by
A(
C) (3)
B

where A, B and C are constants. The Robertson-Stiff model may be regarded as a


power law model where the shear rate is replaced by an effective shear rate C .

This introduces a yield stress equal to

0 AC B (4)

The model simplifies to the Bingham model if B 1, or to the power law model if
C 0.

9.2 Pressure and temperature dependent rheology

The pressure and temperature dependence of rheology is described by correlation


based models that have been developed by Rogaland Research. It is assumed that
the rheology curve that is specified by the user is valid at atmospheric pressure and
50 C. The correlation describes the rheology of:

WBM below 50 C

WBM above 50 C

OBM above 50 C

The form of the correlation reflects the fact that rheology at high and low shear rates
behave differently.
In the Dynaflodrill simulator, all correlations are normalized to unity at atmospheric
pressure and the temperature which the user specifies in the rheology input
window.

9.3 Friction factor

9.3.1 Friction factor in laminar flow

The friction factor defines a generalised Reynolds number NRe by

16
f N
Re

9.3.2 Friction factor in turbulent flow


Turbulent flow behaviour is usually described in terms of the two dimensionless
groups, Fanning friction factor f and Reynolds number.

The Fanning friction factor is calculated based on the selected friction factor
correlation.

9.3.3 Transition from laminar to turbulent flow

Turbulence starts for Newtonian fluids when the Reynolds number is approximately
2100. For Non-Newtonian fluids the onset of turbulence is depending on the value
of n, the flow behaviour index. If n is 0.4, turbulence would not start until the
generalized Reynolds number NRe reached approximately 2900. The dependence
of n is expressed in following relation for the critical generalised Reynolds number
[13]

NRe,cr 3470 1370n

9.3.4 Frictional pressure loss model

9.3.4.1 Single phase flow

The general equation for the frictional pressure loss gradient is [13].

2 fv
2
P

L Deff
f

where f is Fanning friction factor and Deff is the effective hydraulic diameter of pipe
or annulus. The Fanning friction factor is calculated according to the rheological
model chosen, and the prevailing flow regime.

9.3.4.2 Two phase flow

A number of correlations have been developed for the two-phase frictional pressure
losses and two of these are available in the simulator. These have been developed
for Newtonian fluids in vertical pipes.

9.3.5 Beggs and Brill correlation with angle correction for liquid hold-up

This is developed using a Newtonian medium. To use this on a Non-Newtonian


medium, we introduce the following changes:

1. We use a friction factor correlation that is developed for Non-Newtonian fluids.


2. The equivalent liquid viscosity is calculated according to a Non-Newtonian
equation.
9.3.6 Semi-empirical pressure loss calculation

In our simulator case we know the liquid hold-up at any time in the annulus.
Therefore basically we do not need any correlation for liquid hold-up. We can then
calculate the frictional pressure drop by the general equations for friction pressure
loss using the physical parameters of the mixture rather than one of the phases.
The two-phase friction factor is correlated to a generalised two-phase Reynolds
number

mvm Deff
NRe,tp f n
mix

by an appropriate friction factor correlation.


10. KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

Alt+F open File menu


Alt+E open Edit menu
Alt+V open View menu
Alt+S open Simulation menu
Alt+R open Results menu
Alt+T open Tools menu
Alt+H open Help menu

Ctrl+N New file


Ctrl+O Open
Ctrl+S Save
Ctrl+C Copy
Ctrl+X Cut
Ctrl+V Paste
Ctrl+Z Undo
Alt+BkSp Undo

Ctrl+Ins Insert rows in a table


Ctrl+Del Delete rows in a table

Ctrl+T Add custom plot page


Ctrl+F4 Remove custom plot page

F9 Start
F8 Step
Ctrl+F2 Reset
Ctrl+F12 Take snapshot
Ctrl+U Edit unit settings
11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Drillbench uses the following third-party tools:

JEDI Visual Component Library (JVCL)


JVCL portions are licensed from Project JEDI, and the source code can be obtained
from http://jvcl.sourceforge.net/
JEDI CODE LIBRARY (JCL)
JCL portions are licensed from Project JEDI, and the source code can be obtained
from http://homepages.borland.com/jedi/jcl/
TMS Component Pack
TMS Component Pack is copyright 2001-2009 by tmssoftware.com. All rights
reserved.
The Visualization ToolKit (VTK)
VTK is copyright 1993-2004 Ken Martin, Will Schroeder, Bill Lorensen All rights
reserved. VTK is available from http://www.vtk.org/
Nullsoft Scriptable Install System (NSIS)
NSIS is copyright (C) 1999-2006 Nullsoft, Inc. and is available from
http://nsis.sourceforge.net/
TeeChart
TeeChart is copyright David Berneda 1995-2006. All Rights Reserved.
http://www.steema.com/
LiquidXML
LiquidXML is copyright 2006 Liquid Technologies Limited. All rights reserved.
http://www.liquid-technologies.com/
FLEXlm
FLEXlm is copyright 2002-2006 Macrovision Corporation. All rights reserved.
http://www.macrovision.com/
www. sptgroup.
com
A product by