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86 AL Physics: Essay

Marking Scheme

when the tangential stress between adjacent layers of the

fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient perpendicular

to the direction of flow. 1

A

u + du

1

dz

u

F du F du

For a Newtonian fluid or 1

A dz A dz

unit is Nm-2s or kgm-1s-1 1

(b)

6av0

A

W-U

B

timed between marks A and B, where they should have reached

a constant terminal velocity v0, using a stop-watch. 1

6av0 = Weight W - Upthrust U

4 3

= a ( )g ,

3

where is ball bearing density and the liquid density 1

1 v2( 1)

For two liquids, 1

2 v1( 2)

Precautions/Procedures :

(I) ensure terminal velocity reached (vary position of A)

(II) drop ball bearings vertically and along axis of cylindrical container

(III) use wide container or make correction for walls

(could be estimated using different sizes)

(IV)timing accuracy could be increased by using laser

beams/photo-diode gates in positions A and B and

~

counting cycles of an a.c. oscillator ( f 1 kHz)

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.2

prevent air bubbles from adhering onto the ball

bearings

(any 4) 4

need to move starting mark level lower 1

(II) time to fall between marks decreased - and also

accuracy of measuring vT 1

(III) for very large sizes flow of liquid becomes

turbulent and Stokes law invalid 1

(viscous force vT2)

increases so does the velocity gradient keeping

the viscosity (the ratio) constant

for Non-Newtonian liquids the viscosity varies 1

as the tangential stress increases

Newtonian - most common liquids, e.g. water

Non-Newtonian - paints, glues, liquid cement 1

oscillations,

when oscillation amplitude a maximum, resonance takes

place with the frequency of the hand oscillation the same

as the natural frequency of oscillation of the mass/spring, 1

and at higher frequencies forced oscillations occur again.

Phase difference

/2

0

0 hand frequency 1

hand-in-phase. 1

opposite direction - out-of-phase. In fact, at resonance

phase difference is /2. 1

dQ d

Corresponding current, I = = (CV0 sint) = CV0 cos t

dt dt

that is voltage across capacitor lags behind current by /2. 1

Consider an inductor L through which is passed I = I0 sin t.

To keep this current flowing the applied supplied voltage

dI d

= back e.m.f. = L = L (I 0 sint) = LI0 cos t

dt dt

that is voltage across inductor is ahead of current by /2. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.3

Coil

VL VR VC

L R C

in phase. The coil will have both resistance (R) and

inductance (L).

be represented by the following phasors :

VL = LI, /2 ahead of I; VR = IR, in phase with I, and 1

1

VC = I , /2 lag behind I.

C

VL-VC V

1

I

VR

current

f0 applied frequency

Phase

/2

f0 applied frequency

0

-/2 1

(I) at low frequencies VC >> VL and phase angle

will be -ve, tend -/2, that is I ahead by /2. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.4

tend +/2, that I lags applied voltage by /2. 1

1

(III) at resonance, VL = VC ( L ) - at natural

C

oscillation frequency of circuit.

Then I = V/R and is a maximum. 1

with the applied voltage. 1

trap for interfering signal, vibrating

galvanometer, musical instrument involving

tensioned string (not organ pipe!) etc. 1

speed, unwanted oscillations in

amplifiers at high frequencies

(stray Cs), oscillations in suspended

bridges due to wind/marching across etc. 1

A

i P

P D v1 air

O v2 water

B

r

1

of disturbance and send out spherical waves, while

in turn the points P become centres of disturbance

along the interface. (If the time taken to travel

A D is t, distance AD is v1t. Since the speeds of

waves differ in the water (v2 < v1) the distance

travelled OB < AD.) The tangent to the wavefronts

of the secondary disturbances BD is the wavefront of

the wave travelling in the water and since r < i,

refraction occurs. 3

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.5

(ii) Dispersion

C

A

air P D

glass B

R

1

light of various wavelengths, and for these the

speeds of the waves differ - blue light, v1 < red

light, v2. Consider the centre of disturbance A

on the interface, in the time t taken for the wave

in air to travel CD the waves sent out into the

glass will have travelled AB for the blue light

and AR for the red light. BD and RD are the new

wavefronts - and clearly dispersion occurs. 3

(b)

C - collimator

T - Telescope

2

Optical Instrument Adjustments

(I) Telescope

- move the eyepiece until a clear image of the

cross-wires is observed to be in focus.

- the length of the telescope is adjusted until

a focused image of a distant object can be

observed at cross-wires location. 1

(II) Collimator

The collimator and telescope are rotated to being

in-line, with the prism removed from the table.

The slit of the collimator is illuminated by a

monochromatic light source and its position varied

so that a sharp image of this is observed, looking

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.6

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.7

(III) Reasons

- telescope is adjusted so that parallel light rays

entering it will be brought to a focus on the

cross-wires. 1

- collimator is adjusted so that light emerging from

the slit will be converted into parallel light

ray-beam, on exit. 1

- simple relation n = d sin . 1

(II) By using gratings of different line-spacing (d) a

wide spectrum range possible. Absorption serious

for glass lenses/prisms in U.V./I.R. Expensive/

practical difficulties using, e.g. rocksalt components. 1

4. (a)

B

F1 F2 B

F1

F2

I B

1

the coil. 1

to rotating torque. 1

(I) Due to free electrons which due to thermal energies

are able to move randomly from atom to atom. 1

metal the electrons are accelerated (gaining K.E.)

between collisions with the vibrating atoms. 1

on moving erratically in direction, but nevertheless

drifting with a mean speed against the direction of

the electric field forming an electrical current. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.8

(c)

C t

conventional D

current eE VH

electron d

F

metal 1

G

A

electrons and they will be moved to the lower surface. 1

field E and an upward force eE on each electron. When 1

eE = F no further build-up of charge will take place on

the lower surface. A p.d. (or Hall voltage) will be formed

between the upper/lower surfaces. 1

(d)

A electron copper wire

A

e

P v

I

conventional electron flow

current

If there are n free electrons per unit volume, in 1 second

a total charge of n(Av)e passes through the plane AP that is

current, I = nAve ..............(1) 1

at equilibrium, Ee = F = Bev ..........(2)

Since E = VH/d, then VH = Bvd 1

Factors adjustable :

use semiconductor. 1

t, thickness to be small -

(enscapulated in plastic to give mechanical

protection.) 1

magnetic field should be small. 1

In a gas discharge tube a high voltage (~ 1,000 V)

is applied across electrodes in a tube containing a

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.9

takes places with free electrons accelerating and

and on collisions with gas atoms raising these to

high internal energy states. 1

photons of energy, e.g. h40 = E4 - E0,

Where E4 is the energy of excited state and E0 the

ground state. 1

E4

E3

E2 photon emission

E1

E4 - E0 = h40

E0

violet green

blue blue red

1

440 nm 660 nm

e.g. hydrogen

in emitted spectra; with lines closer at low end

of the spectrum. Intensities of lines depend upon

transition probabilities. 1

In an x-ray tube the electrons, emitted from a heated

filament are accelerated to much greater kinetic

energies by a voltage ~ 100,000 V, in a vacuum, and

x-rays are emitted when they impinge upon a metal

anode. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.10

characteristic lines

continuous

(white)

intensity

background

~ 0.05

nm 40 kV

32kV

A B

0

min ~ 1 nm

( max) 1+1

O

N

L L

M

L

L

K

K

KS hLK = EL - EK

K

K

Electrons are arranged in shells around nucleus,

with K-shell nearest (lowest energy).

form the K-shell begin followed by a transition of

an electron from, say, the L-shell to the K-shell,

this being accompanied by the radiation of a K

photon (see diagram). 1

those for a discharge tube emission and so the

wavelength ~ 1 nm. 1

wave spectrum is produced by the deceleration of

the electrons inside the metal anode and is continuous

since the radiated energy loss per atomic collision

varies (and also heat produced). 1

accelerating potential, hmax = eV. 1

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.11

(b)

(1)

(1) (2) 1

(2)

(3)

(3) A B C D

P crystal

d L N

Q atomic

B 1 planes

A d M

crystal R

reflected from atoms spaced throughout crystal and in some

directions of reflection maxima are detected - enables the

separation of planes to be determined, since 2d sin = n. 1

a force acting on it and directed towards centre of

velocity = 2/T, T being period.

attraction of the earth. Magnitude = GmM/r2,

G being the gravitational constant.

2 2 mM

Hence, mr ( ) = G 2 - which leads to relation,

T r

T r3/2.

speed. Hence v2 = GM/r.

1

Kinetic energy of satellite, K.E. = mv2 = GMm/(2r)

2

Potential energy, P.E. = -GMm/r

Total energy of satellite, E = K.E. + P.E.

= -GMm/(2r)

1

(or E = mv2 )

2

in the total energy, E. It follows from expression

for E that r must reduce, making E a larger -ve value. 1

From relation for v, i.e. v2 = GM/r it follows that if 1

r is reduced v increases.

dE dE dr GMm dr

1

dt dr dt 2r 2 dt

the drag force, which is (Cv2)v.

GMm dr

Hence, 2

( ) = Cv3. 1

2r dt

86 AL Physics/Essay Marking Scheme/P.12

dr 2Cv

Using relation v2 = GM/r, we obtain = r

dt m

T = Kr3/2, K constant - we obtain

3 r

T/T = . 1

2 r

If (dr/dt) can be considered constant over an orbit

dr 2r dr

change in r, r = T = 1

dt v dt

T 3 r 3 dr 3 2Cv

and = = = r

T 2 r v dt v m

T 6Cr

that is = 1

T m

of earth. 1

increase with time and so drag force will increase,

as well as the satellite speed - which increases

drag force even more. 1

eventually, satellite burns up (vaporises). 1

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