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Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

Power System Protection

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

S.A.Soman

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Department of Electrical Engineering

Modeling of IIT Bombay

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Objectives

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation Objectives

and Modeling

of Apparatus Per unit calculation and its advantages.

Modeling Modeling aspects of static apparatus like transmission

Aspects of

Static line and transformers.

Apparatus Modeling of rotating machine like synchronous

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

machines and induction machines

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Formation of sequence admittance matrices.

Transformer

Evaluation of Thevenins equivalent.

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

Apparatus

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Actual Quantity

Review of Per Per Unit Quantity =

unit

Calculation

Base Quantity

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Base(KVA) 1000

Modeling Base Current(Amp) =

Aspects of

Static

3 Base Volts

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line Base(Volt)

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Base Impedence(Ohm) =

Modeling of 3 Base Current

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine Actual Impedance(Ohm) Base(MVA in 3 phase)

Sequence Modeling

ZP.U =

(Base(Line Voltage in kV))2

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Advantages of P.U computation

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

1 Manufactures usually provide equipment data with

unit

Calculation

name plate rating as base.

and Modeling

of Apparatus

2 Range for acceptable % or p.u. values can be easily

Modeling fixed.

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Especially useful in networks with multiple voltage

Modelling of

Transmission Line

levels interconnected through transformers.

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

4 P.U impedance of transformer is independent of the kV

Transformer

base.

Modeling of

Synchronous 5 Standard base conversion (scaling with MVA Base)

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

formulae are available.

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Modelling of Transmission Line

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modelling of Transmission Line contd..

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per Va Zs Zm Zm Ia

unit Vb = Zm Zs Zm Ib

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Vc Zm Zm Zs Ic

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Applying sequence transformation, we get

Apparatus

Modelling of

V1 = Z1 I1 , V2 = Z2 I2 and V3 = Z3 I3

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

where Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm and Z0 = Zs + 2Zm

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Thus, for a transposed transmission line, the positive

Modeling of and negative sequence impedances are equal. A

Synchronous

Machine commonly used approximation for Z0 is to assume it to

Sequence Modeling

of Induction be three times Z1 .

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

~ dl~ = inet .

H

Modeling of

Transformer

Amperes law H.

+

Modeling of

Synchronous

inet = ia+ (t) + ib+ (t) + ic+ (t) = 0

Machine

Sequence Modeling

inet = ia (t) + ib (t) + ic (t) = 0

of Induction

+

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

inet = I0

Utility Systems

Load Modeling Conlusion: Mutual coupling exhibits only in zero sequence

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

networks.

Mathematical Explaination

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per 1

a1 a2

v a

unit Zs Zm Zm I 1 1 1 I

Calculation 1 b1 b2

b

v = Zm Zs Zm I +j 1 1 1 I

and Modeling

of Apparatus

1 1 2

Modeling v c Zm Zm Zs Ic 1 1 1 Ic

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus Applying sequence transformation we will get

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

1

01

Transformer

v 0 Zs + 2Zm I 3

Modeling of 1 1 21

v = ZsZm I +j 0

Synchronous

Machine 1 1

Sequence Modeling v 1 Zs Zm I 2 0

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Ground

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

+ve sequence circuit, lground = 0, resistance/impenace

Review of Per

unit of ground or neutral wire plays no role. Hence ground

Calculation

and Modeling for +ve sequence circuit is equipotential surface.

of Apparatus

Modeling

Same Conclusion can be drawn for -ve sequence

Aspects of current.

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

For zero sequence current, ground potential or drop in

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually the neutral conductor is not zero. It (arrests) the voltage

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

profile.

Modeling of Usually, this drop orequivalent impedance is lumped

Synchronous

Machine with apparatus impedance to creates a equipotential

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

ground plane.

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Modeling of Core Type Transformer

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of +ve and -ve sequence impedance is

Modeling of

Transformer

staright forward - (Equation) net leakage impedance in

Modeling of

Synchronous p.u

Machine

Sequence Modeling

Zero sequence modeling

of Induction

Machines ~a + ~b + ~c = 0 [by KCL]

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems Hence 0 = 0

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Practically, zero sequence flux leaks through tank

Capacitors

creats heating. Tank is not (saturates)

Modeling of Shell Type Transformer

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer +ve and -ve sequence impedance = leakage

Modeling of

Synchronous

impedance

Machine

Sequence Modeling

Zero sequence impedance

of Induction

Machines Low reluctance to zero sequence flux

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems High impedance

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Bank of 1 transformer

Power System

Protection +ve seq impedance = -ve seq imp = zero sequence

S.A.Soman impedance

Review of Per

Role of circuit interconnections on + - and zero seq

unit

Calculation

circuits of transformers

and Modeling

of Apparatus

+, -ve sequence cirduits, staright forward,

Modeling

zero sequence circuit

Aspects of In delta winding zero sequence currents are exists

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

in star-ungrounded with I0 = 0 i.e. leads to o.c

Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

00

unit

Calculation

The subtransient reactance Xd determines the current

and Modeling

of Apparatus

during the first cycle after fault occurs.

Modeling In about 0.1sec, reactance increases to transient

Aspects of 0

Static reactance Xd .

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

In about 0.5sec to 2sec reactance increases to Xd , the

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines synchronous reactance; this is the value that

Modeling of

Transformer determines the current flow after a steady state

Modeling of

Synchronous

condition is reached.

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit During a fault, motor acts as a generator to supply fault

Calculation

and Modeling current. The rotor carrying the field winding is driven by the

of Apparatus

inertia of the rotor and load. Stator excitation is reduced due

Modeling

Aspects of to drop in voltage. The fault current diminishes as the rotor

Static

Apparatus decelerates. The generator equivalent circuit is used for

Modelling of

Transmission Line synchronous motor. The constant driving voltage and three

Modeling of Mutually 00 0

Coupled Lines reactance Xd , Xd , and Xd are used to establish the current

Modeling of

Transformer

values at three points in time. Synchronous condensers can

Modeling of

Synchronous be treated in same manner as synchronous motors.

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Negative sequence Impedance of Synchronous

Machines

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling For a synchronous machine, positive and negative

of Apparatus

sequence impedances cannot be equal.

Modeling

Aspects of

Static

Hence, double frequency emf and currents are induced

Apparatus

Modelling of

in rotor.

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Negative sequence impedance is 70-95% of

Modeling of

Transformer

subtransient reactance.

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Zero Sequence Impedance of Synchronous

Machines

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Zero Sequence currents cannot create rotating mmf. In

Review of Per fact, with sinusoidally distributed three phase windings,

unit

Calculation the net flux at any point in the air gap is zero.

and Modeling

of Apparatus Hence, zero sequence impedance is only a small %

Modeling

Aspects of

(0.1-0.7) of the positive sequence impedances

Static

Apparatus Since synchronous machines only generate positive

Modelling of

Transmission Line sequence voltage, the internal voltages used with

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

negative sequence and zero sequence networks are

Transformer

zero.

Modeling of

Synchronous If Y point is grounded through impedance Zg , then 3Zg

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

will have to be added to zero sequence impedance of

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

generator.

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Power System

Protection In asynchronous machines, transient state of current is

S.A.Soman damped quickly i.e. within 1-2 cycle. During a fault,

Review of Per

rotor is driven by inertia of load and rotor itself. There is

unit

Calculation

no dc field excitation on rotor. Rotor winding is short

and Modeling

of Apparatus

circuited. Hence, whatever rotor excitation is present, it

Modeling

is due to the induced fields in the rotor from the rotating

Aspects of

Static

stator mmf. As stator excitation is lost and rotor slows

Apparatus

Modelling of

down, this field is lost quickly. The current contribution

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

of an induction motor to a terminal fault reduces and

Coupled Lines

Modeling of disappears completely after a few cycles.

Transformer

Modeling of

As a consequence, only the sub transient value of

00

Synchronous

Machine

reactance Xd is assigned for positive and negative

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

sequence. This value is almost equal to the locked

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

rotor reactance. Subsequently, machine behaves as a

Utility Systems

kV 2

Load Modeling passive element with impedance of value Z = MVA

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

where rated LL voltage and 3 phase MVA rating is used.

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

The generator equivalent circuit can be used to represent a

and Modeling

of Apparatus

utility system. Usually, the utility generators are remote from

Modeling the industrial plant. The current contributed to a fault in the

Aspects of

Static

remote plant appears to be merely a small increase in load

Apparatus

Modelling of

to the very large central station generators, and this current

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

contribution tends to remain constant. Hence, it is

Coupled Lines

Modeling of represented at the plant by single valued equivalent

Transformer

Modeling of

impedance referred to the point of connection.

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Load Modeling

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit One approximate way of accounting prefault load flow

Calculation

and Modeling condition in short circuit analysis associated with

of Apparatus

transmission system is to model load as positive sequence

Modeling

Aspects of shunt impedance.

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

V1 |Vi2

=

I1

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines (Pi jQi )

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of old .

The shunt load impedances are added into diagonal of Ybus

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Network Admittance Matrix

Formulation

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Y11 12 Y1n

Review of Per

I2abc abc Y abc

Y21 22

abc

Y2n V2abc

=

unit

Calculation

.. .. .. .. .. ..

and Modeling

. . . . . .

of Apparatus

Inabc abc Y abc

Yn1 n2

abc

Ynn Vnabc

Modeling

Aspects of abc V 012

Static V1

[T ] 1

Apparatus

V abc V2012

[T ]

Modelling of

2

Transmission Line

=

.. .

..

[T ]

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines .

Modeling of

Transformer

Vnabc [T ] Vn012

Modeling of

Synchronous 0

0 0

Machine Ibus YBUS Vbus

Sequence Modeling

of Induction I1 = 1

YBUS V1

Machines bus bus

Modeling of Electrical 2

Ibus 2

YBUS 2

Vbus

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Differences between YBUS Modeling in SCA

and LF

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

Load flow analysis uses only positive sequence

and Modeling

of Apparatus

admittance matrix while short circuit analysis requires

Modeling

positive, negative and zero sequence admittance

Aspects of

Static

matrix.

Apparatus

Modelling of In load flow analysis, the voltage at generator terminal

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

is assumed to be fixed. Hence, source impedance and

Modeling of

Transformer

internal generator voltages are not modeled.

Modeling of

Synchronous

In SCA

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

SCA

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

1 , Y 2 andY 0

Step1: Build Ybus

Review of Per bus bus

unit

Calculation Step2: To compute Thevenins equivalent impeance at

and Modeling

of Apparatus bus i inject 1pu current in each network and solve for

Modeling

0 ][V 0 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 0

v i.e. solve [Ybus i ii

Aspects of

Static

1 ][V 1 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 1

[Ybus i ii

Apparatus 2 ][V 2 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 2

Modelling of [Ybus i ii

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Step3: Use Standard fault current calculate formulae to

Modeling of

Transformer solve for fault currents

Modeling of

Synchronous Remark: Solution in step-2 can be done by efficient

Machine

Sequence Modeling

sparse matrix computational technique.

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System

Protection

1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of

S.A.Soman Apparatus

Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus

unit

Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line

and Modeling

of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Modeling Modeling of Transformer

Aspects of

Static

Apparatus

3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Modelling of

Transmission Line

Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Modeling of

Transformer Load Modeling

Modeling of

Synchronous

Modeling of Series Capacitors

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Capacitors

Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Calculation

and Modeling

of Apparatus

Aspects of

Static S L G Short circuit MVA = ISLG (in pu) 3

Apparatus

Modelling of

Transmission Line

base MVA

Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines

Modeling of

Transformer

Modeling of

Synchronous

Machine

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

Closing Remarks

Power System

Protection

S.A.Soman

Review of Per

unit

Fault analysis methods are quasi steady state model of

Calculation

and Modeling

dynamic system. It uses Limited Data

of Apparatus

More accurate models requires EMTP -EMTP requires

Modeling

Aspects of large data

Static

Apparatus

Modelling of

approximate asymmetrical currents due to dc offset in

Transmission Line

Modeling of Mutually

fauls analysis are obtained by using approximate

Coupled Lines

Modeling of multiplier (... .....)

Transformer

Synchronous

Machine etc.....

Sequence Modeling

of Induction

Machines

Modeling of Electrical

Utility Systems

Load Modeling

Modeling of Series

Capacitors

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