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Power System

Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
Power System Protection
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
S.A.Soman
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Department of Electrical Engineering
Modeling of IIT Bombay
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Objectives

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation Objectives
and Modeling
of Apparatus Per unit calculation and its advantages.
Modeling Modeling aspects of static apparatus like transmission
Aspects of
Static line and transformers.
Apparatus Modeling of rotating machine like synchronous
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
machines and induction machines
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Formation of sequence admittance matrices.
Transformer
Evaluation of Thevenins equivalent.
Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
Apparatus
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Actual Quantity
Review of Per Per Unit Quantity =
unit
Calculation
Base Quantity
and Modeling
of Apparatus
Base(KVA) 1000
Modeling Base Current(Amp) =
Aspects of
Static
3 Base Volts
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line Base(Volt)
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Base Impedence(Ohm) =
Modeling of 3 Base Current
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine Actual Impedance(Ohm) Base(MVA in 3 phase)
Sequence Modeling
ZP.U =
(Base(Line Voltage in kV))2
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Advantages of P.U computation

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
1 Manufactures usually provide equipment data with
unit
Calculation
name plate rating as base.
and Modeling
of Apparatus
2 Range for acceptable % or p.u. values can be easily
Modeling fixed.
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Especially useful in networks with multiple voltage
Modelling of
Transmission Line
levels interconnected through transformers.
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
4 P.U impedance of transformer is independent of the kV
Transformer
base.
Modeling of
Synchronous 5 Standard base conversion (scaling with MVA Base)
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
formulae are available.
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Modelling of Transmission Line

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modelling of Transmission Line contd..

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per Va Zs Zm Zm Ia
unit Vb = Zm Zs Zm Ib
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus
Vc Zm Zm Zs Ic
Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Applying sequence transformation, we get
Apparatus
Modelling of
V1 = Z1 I1 , V2 = Z2 I2 and V3 = Z3 I3
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
where Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm and Z0 = Zs + 2Zm
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer
Thus, for a transposed transmission line, the positive
Modeling of and negative sequence impedances are equal. A
Synchronous
Machine commonly used approximation for Z0 is to assume it to
Sequence Modeling
of Induction be three times Z1 .
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
~ dl~ = inet .
H
Modeling of
Transformer
Amperes law H.
+
Modeling of
Synchronous
inet = ia+ (t) + ib+ (t) + ic+ (t) = 0

Machine
Sequence Modeling
inet = ia (t) + ib (t) + ic (t) = 0
of Induction
+
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
inet = I0
Utility Systems
Load Modeling Conlusion: Mutual coupling exhibits only in zero sequence
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
networks.
Mathematical Explaination

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per 1
a1 a2
v a

unit Zs Zm Zm I 1 1 1 I
Calculation 1 b1 b2
b
v = Zm Zs Zm I +j 1 1 1 I
and Modeling

of Apparatus
1 1 2
Modeling v c Zm Zm Zs Ic 1 1 1 Ic
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus Applying sequence transformation we will get
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
1
01
Transformer
v 0 Zs + 2Zm I 3
Modeling of 1 1 21
v = ZsZm I +j 0

Synchronous
Machine 1 1
Sequence Modeling v 1 Zs Zm I 2 0
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Ground

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
+ve sequence circuit, lground = 0, resistance/impenace
Review of Per
unit of ground or neutral wire plays no role. Hence ground
Calculation
and Modeling for +ve sequence circuit is equipotential surface.
of Apparatus

Modeling
Same Conclusion can be drawn for -ve sequence
Aspects of current.
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
For zero sequence current, ground potential or drop in
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually the neutral conductor is not zero. It (arrests) the voltage
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer
profile.
Modeling of Usually, this drop orequivalent impedance is lumped
Synchronous
Machine with apparatus impedance to creates a equipotential
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
ground plane.
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Modeling of Core Type Transformer

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of +ve and -ve sequence impedance is
Modeling of
Transformer
staright forward - (Equation) net leakage impedance in
Modeling of
Synchronous p.u
Machine
Sequence Modeling
Zero sequence modeling
of Induction
Machines ~a + ~b + ~c = 0 [by KCL]
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems Hence 0 = 0
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Practically, zero sequence flux leaks through tank
Capacitors
creats heating. Tank is not (saturates)
Modeling of Shell Type Transformer

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer +ve and -ve sequence impedance = leakage
Modeling of
Synchronous
impedance
Machine
Sequence Modeling
Zero sequence impedance
of Induction
Machines Low reluctance to zero sequence flux
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems High impedance
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Bank of 1 transformer

Power System
Protection +ve seq impedance = -ve seq imp = zero sequence
S.A.Soman impedance
Review of Per
Role of circuit interconnections on + - and zero seq
unit
Calculation
circuits of transformers
and Modeling
of Apparatus
+, -ve sequence cirduits, staright forward,
Modeling
zero sequence circuit
Aspects of In delta winding zero sequence currents are exists
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
in star-ungrounded with I0 = 0 i.e. leads to o.c
Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Transformer contd..

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
00
unit
Calculation
The subtransient reactance Xd determines the current
and Modeling
of Apparatus
during the first cycle after fault occurs.
Modeling In about 0.1sec, reactance increases to transient
Aspects of 0
Static reactance Xd .
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
In about 0.5sec to 2sec reactance increases to Xd , the
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines synchronous reactance; this is the value that
Modeling of
Transformer determines the current flow after a steady state
Modeling of
Synchronous
condition is reached.
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Modeling of Synchronous Machine

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit During a fault, motor acts as a generator to supply fault
Calculation
and Modeling current. The rotor carrying the field winding is driven by the
of Apparatus
inertia of the rotor and load. Stator excitation is reduced due
Modeling
Aspects of to drop in voltage. The fault current diminishes as the rotor
Static
Apparatus decelerates. The generator equivalent circuit is used for
Modelling of
Transmission Line synchronous motor. The constant driving voltage and three
Modeling of Mutually 00 0
Coupled Lines reactance Xd , Xd , and Xd are used to establish the current
Modeling of
Transformer
values at three points in time. Synchronous condensers can
Modeling of
Synchronous be treated in same manner as synchronous motors.
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Negative sequence Impedance of Synchronous
Machines
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling For a synchronous machine, positive and negative
of Apparatus
sequence impedances cannot be equal.
Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Hence, double frequency emf and currents are induced
Apparatus
Modelling of
in rotor.
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Negative sequence impedance is 70-95% of
Modeling of
Transformer
subtransient reactance.
Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Zero Sequence Impedance of Synchronous
Machines
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
Zero Sequence currents cannot create rotating mmf. In
Review of Per fact, with sinusoidally distributed three phase windings,
unit
Calculation the net flux at any point in the air gap is zero.
and Modeling
of Apparatus Hence, zero sequence impedance is only a small %
Modeling
Aspects of
(0.1-0.7) of the positive sequence impedances
Static
Apparatus Since synchronous machines only generate positive
Modelling of
Transmission Line sequence voltage, the internal voltages used with
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
negative sequence and zero sequence networks are
Transformer
zero.
Modeling of
Synchronous If Y point is grounded through impedance Zg , then 3Zg
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
will have to be added to zero sequence impedance of
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
generator.
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines

Power System
Protection In asynchronous machines, transient state of current is
S.A.Soman damped quickly i.e. within 1-2 cycle. During a fault,
Review of Per
rotor is driven by inertia of load and rotor itself. There is
unit
Calculation
no dc field excitation on rotor. Rotor winding is short
and Modeling
of Apparatus
circuited. Hence, whatever rotor excitation is present, it
Modeling
is due to the induced fields in the rotor from the rotating
Aspects of
Static
stator mmf. As stator excitation is lost and rotor slows
Apparatus
Modelling of
down, this field is lost quickly. The current contribution
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
of an induction motor to a terminal fault reduces and
Coupled Lines
Modeling of disappears completely after a few cycles.
Transformer

Modeling of
As a consequence, only the sub transient value of
00
Synchronous
Machine
reactance Xd is assigned for positive and negative
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
sequence. This value is almost equal to the locked
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
rotor reactance. Subsequently, machine behaves as a
Utility Systems
kV 2
Load Modeling passive element with impedance of value Z = MVA
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
where rated LL voltage and 3 phase MVA rating is used.
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
The generator equivalent circuit can be used to represent a
and Modeling
of Apparatus
utility system. Usually, the utility generators are remote from
Modeling the industrial plant. The current contributed to a fault in the
Aspects of
Static
remote plant appears to be merely a small increase in load
Apparatus
Modelling of
to the very large central station generators, and this current
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
contribution tends to remain constant. Hence, it is
Coupled Lines
Modeling of represented at the plant by single valued equivalent
Transformer

Modeling of
impedance referred to the point of connection.
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Load Modeling

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit One approximate way of accounting prefault load flow
Calculation
and Modeling condition in short circuit analysis associated with
of Apparatus
transmission system is to model load as positive sequence
Modeling
Aspects of shunt impedance.
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
V1 |Vi2
=
I1
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines (Pi jQi )
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of old .
The shunt load impedances are added into diagonal of Ybus
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Modeling of Series Capacitors

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Network Admittance Matrix
Formulation
Power System
Protection

I1abc abc Y abc abc V1abc



S.A.Soman
Y11 12 Y1n
Review of Per
I2abc abc Y abc
Y21 22
abc
Y2n V2abc
=

unit
Calculation
.. .. .. .. .. ..
and Modeling
. . . . . .
of Apparatus
Inabc abc Y abc
Yn1 n2
abc
Ynn Vnabc
Modeling
Aspects of abc V 012

Static V1
[T ] 1
Apparatus
V abc V2012
[T ]
Modelling of

2
Transmission Line
=

.. .
..
[T ]
Modeling of Mutually

Coupled Lines .
Modeling of
Transformer
Vnabc [T ] Vn012
Modeling of
Synchronous 0
0 0
Machine Ibus YBUS Vbus
Sequence Modeling
of Induction I1 = 1
YBUS V1
Machines bus bus
Modeling of Electrical 2
Ibus 2
YBUS 2
Vbus
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Differences between YBUS Modeling in SCA
and LF
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
Load flow analysis uses only positive sequence
and Modeling
of Apparatus
admittance matrix while short circuit analysis requires
Modeling
positive, negative and zero sequence admittance
Aspects of
Static
matrix.
Apparatus
Modelling of In load flow analysis, the voltage at generator terminal
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
is assumed to be fixed. Hence, source impedance and
Modeling of
Transformer
internal generator voltages are not modeled.
Modeling of
Synchronous
In SCA
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
SCA

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman
1 , Y 2 andY 0
Step1: Build Ybus
Review of Per bus bus
unit
Calculation Step2: To compute Thevenins equivalent impeance at
and Modeling
of Apparatus bus i inject 1pu current in each network and solve for
Modeling
0 ][V 0 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 0
v i.e. solve [Ybus i ii
Aspects of
Static
1 ][V 1 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 1
[Ybus i ii
Apparatus 2 ][V 2 ] = [e ] and obtain Z 2
Modelling of [Ybus i ii
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Step3: Use Standard fault current calculate formulae to
Modeling of
Transformer solve for fault currents
Modeling of
Synchronous Remark: Solution in step-2 can be done by efficient
Machine
Sequence Modeling
sparse matrix computational technique.
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Sequence Modeling of Power Apparatus

Power System
Protection
1 Review of Per unit Calculation and Modeling of
S.A.Soman Apparatus
Review of Per 2 Modeling Aspects of Static Apparatus
unit
Calculation Modelling of Transmission Line
and Modeling
of Apparatus Modeling of Mutually Coupled Lines
Modeling Modeling of Transformer
Aspects of
Static
Apparatus
3 Modeling of Synchronous Machine
Modelling of
Transmission Line
Sequence Modeling of Induction Machines
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines Modeling of Electrical Utility Systems
Modeling of
Transformer Load Modeling
Modeling of
Synchronous
Modeling of Series Capacitors
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
4 Sequence Network Admittance Matrix Formulation
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
5 Short Circuit Analysis Using Sequence Components
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA
Capacitors
Calculation of Short Circuit MVA

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Calculation
and Modeling
of Apparatus

Modeling 3 short circuit MVA = I3 (in pu) 3 base MVA


Aspects of
Static S L G Short circuit MVA = ISLG (in pu) 3
Apparatus
Modelling of
Transmission Line
base MVA
Modeling of Mutually
Coupled Lines
Modeling of
Transformer

Modeling of
Synchronous
Machine
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors
Closing Remarks

Power System
Protection
S.A.Soman

Review of Per
unit
Fault analysis methods are quasi steady state model of
Calculation
and Modeling
dynamic system. It uses Limited Data
of Apparatus
More accurate models requires EMTP -EMTP requires
Modeling
Aspects of large data
Static
Apparatus
Modelling of
approximate asymmetrical currents due to dc offset in
Transmission Line
Modeling of Mutually
fauls analysis are obtained by using approximate
Coupled Lines
Modeling of multiplier (... .....)
Transformer

Modeling of SCA ysed for relay coordination, breaker () selection


Synchronous
Machine etc.....
Sequence Modeling
of Induction
Machines
Modeling of Electrical
Utility Systems
Load Modeling
Modeling of Series
Capacitors