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SYLLABUS

4th YEAR 1ST & 2nd SEMESTER

TITLE OF THE PAPER - INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE

PAPER CODE HS 401

UNIT 1

ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY:

A. Pre-historic background of Indian culture.


B. Harappan culture cities society economy trade end of the harappan
cities.
C. Society and economy of the early vedic and later vedic periods.
D. Emergence and spread of puranic theism, Buddhism and Jainism.
E. Mauryans , post mauryans and sangam period.
F. The age of satavahanas and the guptas.
G. The pallavas , chalukyas and the cholas.

UNIT 2

MEDIEVAL INDIAN HISTORY:

A. General conditions under the delhi sultanate.


B. General conditions under the the vijayanagara empire.
C. General conditions under the mughals.
D. Shivaji and the rise of the Marathas.
E. Bhakthi movement.

UNIT 3

INDIAN CULTURE:

A. Salient aspects of art forms music and dance.


B. Language and literature.
C. Architecture and sculpture.
D. Paintings and places of cultural interest.

UNIT -4
BRITISH RULE IN INDIA:

A. The beginning of the European settlements.


B. Government and the economic policies of the british empire in india 1757
1857.
C. The first war of independence of 1857 and the consequent administrative
changes.
D. Religious and social reforms after 1858.

UNIT 5

STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM:

A. Economic impact of the british rule.


B. The national movement 1858- 1885, 1885-1905, 1905-1920, 1920-1947.
C. Contribution from various states.
D. India after independence post independence consolidation of states.

K.S.KALANIDHI

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

HUMANITIES CELL

VIGNAN UNIVERSITY
UNIT 1

ANCIENT INDIAN CULTURE

PRE- HISTORIC BACKGROUND OF THE INDIAN CULTURE

INTRODUCTION:
Earth is very old and so is the antiquity of man.the earliest human fossils
have been found in Africa dating about 4.2 million years.the primitive man
was shorter in height and had a smaller brain.homo sapiens evolved over a
period of these years about 50,000 years ago.unfortunately, except for the
solitary find of a hominid fossil from hathnaura in the narmada valley dating
back to 1.4 million years ago,no early human fossils have been found in
india.since their appearance, the humans have been using stone tools and
their life story is,therefore divided into Paleolithic,Mesolithic and Neolithic
ages.

1. Paleolithic age: [ 50,000 1,00,000 BC]


It was basically a hunting and food gathering culture paleo means old and
lithic means stone .paleolithic age in india divided into 3 phases.
a. Early or lower Paleolithic [ 50,000 1,00,000 BC]
It covers the greater part of the ice age an its characteristic feature is the
use of hand axe,cleaners and choppers.
Important sites- Kashmir,Punjab,narmada,Andhra
Pradesh,Karnataka,assam.
b. Middle Paleolithic [ 1,00,000 40,000 BC ]
The middle Paleolithic culture is characterized by flakes.the principal tools
are variety of blades,points and scrappers made of flakes.
Important sites nevasa,didwana,bhimbteka,narmada valley.
c. Upper Paleolithic [ 40,000 10,000 BC ]
It marks the appearance of homo sapiens and new flint industries,wide
spread appearance of a figurines and other artifacts reflecting art and
rituals.the appearance of wide range of bone tools,including
needles,fishing tools, harpoons,blades,burn tools.
Important sites Kurnool,chittor,Karnataka,rajasthan,Gujarat.

Rock paintings and carvings have been numerously found in bhimbetka


from different periods.the animals depicted in these paintings are mostly
bisons,elephants,tigers, rhinocerous,boars. And were based on their
huntinglives.the upper Paleolithic art is characterized by red and green
colours.
2. Mesolithic age: [ 10,000 4,000 BC ]
It was transitional period between Paleolithic and Neolithic ages.it
characteristic tools are microliths all made of stone.the microliths were
first discovered by Carlyle in 1867 from vindhya rock shelters.the
Mesolithic age people lived on hunting,fishing,food gathering. Earliest
domestication of animals has also witnessed from Madhya Pradesh and
rajasthan.
Important sites Karnataka,rajasthan,Gujarat,uttar Pradesh.
Mesolithic tools tools are characterized by parallel-sided blades taken
out from prepared cores of fine materials as
chert,crystal,jasper,carnelian.these are generally 1-5 centi metres long.
Paintings at various sites in bhimbetka, adamgarh rock and cave
paintings have been discovered.in these paintings various subjects
including animals and human scenes have been found.animals are the
most frequently depicted subject either alone or in large and small groups
and shown in various poses.
3. Neolithic age [ new stone age ] 6000 1000 BC
The word Neolithic was first coined bt sir john Lubbock in 1865.the 4
characteristics of Neolithic culture are,
a. Animal domestication
b. Agricultural practice
c. Grinded and polished stone tools
d. Pottery manufacture

The discovery of the tools and implements of the Neolithic age was made by le
mesurier in uttar Pradesh in 1860.later on,frasher discovered such objects in bellary
in south india.the people of this age used tools and implements of polished stone.

Neolithic people: the civilization and culture of the Neolithic age shows distinct
traces of progress.the Neolithic men had a settled life.they practiced agriculture and
grew fruits and corn.animals such as cow,dog,ox,goat were domesticated.the art of
producing fire by the friction of bamboos or pieces of stones was known to
them.instead of eating the uncooked flesh of various animals,they now started
roasting it.besides this bows and arrows were invented and wer used for the
purpose of hunting.they also learnt the art of pottery,at first by hand and then with
the potters wheel.they painted and decorated their pots.they lived in caves,the
walls of awhich were polished and painted with the scenes of hunting and
dancing.they used to bury their dead and construct tombs over them which wer
known as dolmens.

Neolithic tools the stone tools of the Neolithic age bear unmistakeable signs of
polish either all over the tools or at the butt end and the working-end or only at the
working end.they fashioned their tools out of fine-grained dark deepen trap,though
there are examples of the use of basalt,slate,chlorite,schist. Their tools included
stone celts,adzes,chisels,picks,ring stones,hammer stones,pounders,mortars,discs,
slick stones.

Important sites bihar,kotdiji,amri,mehargarh,assam.

Occupation: Neolithic settlers were cattle-herders and agriculturists.they produced


ragi,wheat,barley, rice,masoor,moong.hand made pottery is also found in the early
stage.elephant,rhino,buffalo,ox stag remains are also found in plenty.but there is no
specification of these being domesticated.the pottery were well made but were
coarse in nature not that much polished.

Red grey,black,black and red ware,black burnished ware and mat-impressed ware
are associated with this culture.tool making was another important occupation
which included a variety of picks,scrappers,eyed needles,bodkins and pierced
batons.

4. Chalcolithic age: towards the end of the Neolithic period began the use of
metals.1st metal to be used is copper and the culture of that time is called
chalcolithic culture.the earliest settlements belonging to this phase are
extended from the chhotanagpur pleateau to the upper gangetic
basin.some sites are found at bramhagiri near mysore and navada toil on
the narmada.
The transition from use of stone to the use of metals is slow and long
drawn.there is no doubt that there was an over lapping period when both
stone and metals were used.this proved by the close resemblance of
metallic tools and implements with those made of stone.the chalcolithic /
stone copper age of india produced a splendid civilization in the Indus
valley which spread in the neighbouring regions.
Occupation:their economy was based on subsistence agriculture,stock-
raising,hunting, fishing.their tools consisted of a specialized blade and
flake of silicious material like chalcedony and chert.copper and bronze
tools were also present in a limited number.the culture shares the
common characteristic of painted pottery.
Burial practices: another striking feature was the burial practice of the
dead.the dead were buried in north-south position in Maharashtra but in
east-west position in south india.in eastern india,only a fraction of
population buried their dead.
5. The copper phase:
More than 40 copper hoards consisting of
rings,celts,hatchets,swords,harpoons,spearheads and human like figures
have been found in a wide ranging from west Bengal and Orissa in the
east to Gujarat and Haryana in the west and from Andhra Pradesh in the
south to uttar Pradesh in the north.the largest hoard comes from gungeria
in Madhya Pradesh.it contains 424 copper tools and weapons and 102 thin
sheets of silver objects.but nearly half of the copper hoards are
concentrated in the ganga-yamuna doab.they had good technological skill
and knowledge on the part of the coppersmith and cannot be the handi
work of nomadic people or primitive artisans.some of these objects have
been discovered in association with ochre coloured pots and some mud
structures.stone tools have been found in excavations.all these
implements of the copper hoards supplemented by stone tools led a
settled life and were one of the earliest chalcolithic agriculturists and
artisans to settle in a good portion of the doab.
Pottery: this period was marked by 2 types of pottery.ochre coloured
pottery which can be roughly placed between 2000 b.c 1500 b.c on the
basis of scientific datings and black and red pottery from about 1000 b.c.
Ochre-coloured pottery: a new pottery type was discovered during the
excavations at badaun and bijonir in uttar Pradesh in 1950.it was called
ochre coloured pottery as it contained a wash of ochre.the colour of the
pottery ranges from orange to red.the chalcolithic sites with such type of
ware are ascribed to ocp culture.the period covered by the ocp culture is
roughly placed between 2000 b.c and 1500 b.c . the black and red ware
followed the ocp.
Black and red ware: excavations of atranjikheda in uttar Pradesh in the
1960s brought to light a distinct pottery.the pottery called the brw is
sandwiched between the ocp and the painted grey ware of iro age or the
early vedic age.black colour inside and near the rim on the outside and
red colour over the rest of the body are the main characteristics feature of
the brw.brw pottery has also been found in rajasthan,Madhya
Pradesh,bihar and west Bengal.
6. Iron age:
In southern india,use of iron came after the use of stone.in any case,there
were periods of overlapping in the use of stone,copper,bronze and
iron.our only evidence of the transition from copper-bronze age to the iron
age is the monuments like dolmens,cairns,cromolechs.these have been
found in wide areas all over india such as assam,bihar,Orissa,central
india,Gujarat and Kashmir.but by far the largest number has been found in
south india in karnataka and the deccan.these iron monuments appear to
have belonged to both pre-historic and histiric periods.
Monuments discovered in
Hyderabad,mysore,tinnevelly,Coimbatore,Malabar,penumbur also show
varied stages of development.neolithic,microlithic tools along with
copper,bronze and iron implements have been discovered making it
difficult to identify the actual period of transition from copper-bronze age
to iron age.at this stage of our limited knowledge,no definite conclusion in
this regard can be arrived at.iron age is normally associated with the
painted grey ware.
Painted grey ware: it refers to the ceramics which have been fired grey
and then painted with black designs.the name chosen is highly misleading
and can lead many beginners to think this,as a type,which is painted with
grey colour.

HARAPPAN CULTURE:

The harappan culture was the most extensive of the ancient civilizations in area.it
was essentially a city culture and among the centres of authority were the two cities
of mohanjadero & Harappa.its known extent in the west is upto suktagendor in
Baluchistan,alamgirpur in meerut district [ up],daimabad
[ ahmadnagar,maharastra]in the south and manda [akhoor district,jk].the harappan
settlements are mostly located on river banks of Indus and saraswati.

CITIES:

The most striking feature of the harappan culture is the town planning and
urbanization.harappa, mohanjadero,sutkagendor were built on similar plan.to the
west of each city was a citadel built on a high platform suggest division in society or
some upper class existence.it was defended by wall and on it

Were constructed the public buildings.below this citadel was the town proper.
Everywhere the main street ran from north to south and other streets ran at right
angles to the main streets.houses stood on both sides of the streets.the houses
were built with burnt bricks.the drains,wells and bathing platforms were made of
burnt bricks.an average house had kitchen,bath room,four to six living rooms.large
houses with thirty rooms and stair cases tell us that there were large two or three
storeyed buildings.most of the houses had wells within them and a drainage system
carried the waste water to the main under ground drain of the street.there were also
public baths with wells.the covered drains of the streets had soak pit and man holes
for clearing.there were also arrangements for street lighting.Burial sites are
generally outside the town.the granary at Harappa near ravi tells us that proximity
to river and hence trade has flourished.

SOCIETY:

a. Class:
There is no authentic evidence that there existed any classes or caste as the
Aryans [ varna system].so based on the mounds we can assume that there
were classes if not castes according to the occupation of the people, probably
priestly class and general people.
b. Dress & Ornaments:
Ornaments were popular among both men and
women.necklaces,fillets,armlets,finger-rings and bangles were probably used
by both the sexes.girdles,nose studs,ear studs,anklets etc. may have been
worn by women only as are proved by statues.
c. Script:
The script of the harappan people had nearly 400 500 signs and it were not
alphabetic.their script is not deciphered until nowthe overlaps of letters on
some of the potsherds from kalibangan show that the writing was from left to
right and from right to left.hence the script is termed as Boustrophedon.
d. Religion:
The chief male deity was pasupathi.he was represented in seals as sitting in a
yogi [posture on a low throne and having 3 faces and 2 horns.he is
surrounded by 4 animals[tiger,elephant,rhino, buffalo].2 deers were at his
feet.
The chief female deity was mother goddess who was depicted in various
forms to please fertility goddess. there was phallic worship.the worship of fire
is proved by the discovery of fire altars at lothal,kalibangan,Harappa.
The people also worshipped gods in the form of trees [papal]and
animals[unicorn].they also believed in ghosts and evil forces and used
amulets as protection against them.

ECONOMY:

The discovery of the graneries and the urban life style of the people proves that the
harappan people were prosperous.they had the knowledge of crop pattern and
seasons.

a. Agriculture:
The Indus people sowed seeds in the flood palins in November,when the flood
water receded and reaped their harvests of wheat and barley in april before
the advent of the next flood.they have used the wooden plough.nalas
enclosed by dams for storing water were a feature in parts of Baluchistan and
Afghanistan.there was no canal irrigation.the people produced wheat,barley,
jowar,ragi.they also produced mustard.the Indus people were the earliest to
produce cotton.
b. Domestication of animals:
They had practiced agriculture, animals were kept on a large scale.oxen,
buffaloes,goats,sheeps, pigs were domesticated.the humped bulls were
favoured by the harappans.the dogs were the pets. cats were also
domesticated and signs of the feet of both dogs and cats were found.the
camels and asses were used as beats of burden.they also known
elephants,rhinocerous,spotted dear,wild pig.

TRADE:

The thriving agricultural economy supported a flourishing trade both within the
northern and western areas of the sub continent and between the people of this
culture and other contemporary civilizations. The products of Indus have been found
in Mesopotamia .its seals and produce were also discovered at summer.their chief
merchandise was probably cotton exported from lothal harbor.there wer two
intermediate trading stations called dilmun and makan which lay between the
regions of two civilizations.

END OF THE HARAPPAN CITIES:

The harappan culture flourished until about 1800 B.C. Afterwards the culture began
to decline.there is no unanimity among the historians on the exact reason of the
decline of this urban civilization.different theories of decline have been put forward
by different scholars.

Reasons:

a. External aggression stuart piggot


b. Natural calamity k.u.r . kenedy
c. Climate change a.n. ghosh
d. Aryan invasion Mortimer wheeler
e. Earth quake Robert raikes

EARLY VEDIC PERIOD:

SOCIETY & ECONOMY:

TRIBAL ORGANISATION:

Kingship was the basis of the social structure.people gave primary loyalty to the
tribe,which was called jana.another important term which stands for the tribe in the
rigveda is vis.probably the vis was divided into grama or smaller tribal units meant
for fighting.when the gramas clashed with one another it caused sangrama or
war.the term for family[kula] is mentioned in the rigveda.

MARRIAGE AND STATUS OF WOMEN:

The institution of marriage was established although symbols of primitive practices


survived.we also notice the practice of widow marriage in the rigveda.the status
women was equal to men and women and they received upanayana and
education,studied Vedas and some of them even rose to the rank of seers
composing vedic hymns.monogamy was established though polygamy and
polyandry were also known.

VARNA SYSTEM:

Varna was the term used for colour and it seems that the Aryans were fair and the
indigenous inhabitants dark in complexion.the dasas and dasyus who were
conquered by the Aryans were treated as slaves and sudras.gradually the tribal
society was divided into 3 groups warriors,priests,people. The shudras were the 4 th
division appeared towards the end of the rigveda.the divisions were based on the
occupations have started.

OCCUPATION:

Their earliest life seems to have mainly pastoral.agriculture being a secondary


occupation.the Aryans did not lead a settled life.although they used several
animals,the horse played the most important role in their life.the rigvedic people
possessed better knowledge of agriculture.plough share is mentioned in the early
rigveda.it was made up of wood.they know sowing,harvesting,threshing.there was
reference of cow in the rigveda.they were a pastoral community.the term for war in
the rigveda is gavisthi .the rigveda mentions such artisans as the carpenter,the
chariot maker,the weaver,the leather worker,the potter.the term ayas used for
copper or bronze shows that metal working was known.

DRINKS:

The people freely indulged in two kinds of intoxicating liquor called soma and
sura.sura, probably was a kind of beer. soma was juice considered to be particularly
acceptable to the gods and was offered with eleoborate ceremonial. The sama veda
provides the chants appropriate for the ceremonies.

GODS:

The early vedic religion was naturalistic.there were neither temples nor idols.the
mode of prayer was recitation of mantras.sacrifice was offered for
praja[ children],pasu[cattle],dhana[wealth]and not for the spiritual upliftment.They
believed in one supreme god. Vedic gods were classified into 3 different categories
terrestrial,atmospheric,celestial.indra,agni,varuna,surya,rudra,yama,soma,vayu-
male gods. Saraswati,usha,aditi were the female gods.

LATER VEDIC PERIOD:

SOCIETY & ECONOMY:

In the later vedic period the 3 later Vedas[ yajurv,sama,atharva],the


bramhanas,Upanishads were composed.after the Upanishads the age

Of the epics followed.the later vedic texts show that the Aryans have expanded
from Punjab over the whole of western uttar Pradesh covere by the ganga-yamuna
doab.

OCCUPATION:

The Aryans now lived a sedentary life.domesticated the animals and cultivated on a
greater scale than earlier sugar-cane.cattle was still constituted the principal form of
movable property.elephants were tamed.

BUDDHISM:

Gautama Buddha or Siddhartha was a contemporary of mahavira.he was born in


563 b.c in a shakya [kshatriya ]family in lumbini near kapilavsatu.it is situated in the
foot hills of Nepal.gautamas father is suddhodana, was the ruler of kapilavastu.he
headed the republic of shakyas.his mothe r is mahamaya, was a princess from the
kosala dynasty.his teacher of meditation is alara kama.his charioteer was channa.his
hors name is kanthakas.he married at an early age.at the age of 29 he left home.he
kept on wandering for about 7 years and then attained the knowledge at the age of
35 at bodh gaya under a papal tree.fro then onwards he is called as Buddha or the
enlightened one.He delivered his 1st sermon at sarnath in benaras.buddha passed
away at the age of 80 in 483 b.c at a place called kusinagar.

4 noble truths:

a. The world is full of sorrow.


b. Desire is the cause of sorrow.
c. Sorrow can be overcome by conquering the desire.
d. If desires are conquered, nirvana can be attained.

8 fold path / asthanga marga:

1. Right observation
2. Right determination
3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
6. Right belief
7. Right memory
8. Meditation

Buddha also laid down a code of conduct for his followers.the main points in this
are,

a. Do not covet the property of others.


b. Do not commit violence.
c. Do not use intoxicants.
d. Do not tell lies.
e. Do not indulge in corrupt practices.

The 3 jewels of Buddhism are Buddha[ the enlightened one ],dhamma [ the
doctrine ], and sangha [ the order ].buddhism particularly won the support of the
lower sections of the society because as it attacked the varna system and did
not encourage animal sacrifices in the name of religion.

4 buddhist councils were held.in the 4 th Buddhist council convened by


kanishka,Buddhism got divided into heenayana and Mahayana.

The sacred books of Buddhism are called as tripitakas. They are


suttapitaka,vinayapitaka and abhidammapitaka.

JAINISM:

Rishaba was the founder of this religion.he is the 1 st thrithankara.he was succeded
by 23 thirthankaras. Parsvanath [ 850 b.c ] was the 23 rd thirthankara. But actually
Jainism became a popular religion under vardhamana mahvira,te 24 th thirthankara.
Vardhaman mahavira:

He was born in 540 b.c in a village [kundagrama]near vaisali.his father was the
head of a famous kshatriya clan [jnatrika] and his mother a lichachhavi princess.at
the age of 30 he became an ascetic.he kept wandering for 12 years from place to
place in search of truth of life.he attained perfect knowledge at the age of
42.through kaivalya he conquered misery and happiness.because of this conquest
he is known as mahavira or great hero or jina [the conquerer].and his followers are
called as jainas.he propagated his religion for 30 years.he passed away at the age
of 72 in 468 b.c at a place called pavapuri near modern rajgir in bihar.

5 doctrine s of Jainism:

a. Do not commit violence.


b. Do not speak lies.
c. Do not steal anything from others.
d. Do not acquire property.
e. Observe continence

Jainism has rejected the authority of the Vedas and vedic rituals.it also did not
believed in the existence of god. but it has believed in karma and the
transmigration of the soul [ nirvana ].according to Jainism attainment of moksha or
nirvana was the most important human desire.it says that maksha can be attained
through practicing the following 3 ratnas.

3 Ratnas of jainism:

a. Right faith in the lord mahavira.


b. Right knowledge of the doctrines of Jainism.
c. Right conduct [ fullfilmant of the great 5 vows of Jainism ].

5 vows of Jainism:

a. Ahimsa
b. Truthfulness
c. No stealing
d. No attachment to property
e. Chastity or bramhacharya

2 Buddhist councils were held.

MAURYAS:

The 2 main literary sources for the mauryan period are arthasastra written by
kautilya and the other one is indica written by megasthenes.

Chandragupta maurya[ 321 293 b.c ]:


Chandragupta maurya was the founder of this dynasty.he over threw the nanda
dynasty and established the mauryan empire with the help of chanikya.he took
advantage of the growing weakness and unpopularity of the nanda rulers.he built a
vast empire in the eastern,northern and deccan area.

Bindusara[ 293 273 b.c ]:

He was the son of Chandragupta maurya.he continued the expansion of the


empire.he continued friendly relations with the Greeks.

Ashoka [ 273 232 b.c ]:

He was the 3rd and the greatest king of the mauryas. he was coronated 4 years after
the death of his father bindusara. He has the title priyadarshi [ pleasing to look ],
devanam priya [ beloved of gods ]. after the battle of kalinga he was completely
changed person.he accepted Buddhism and started to preach non-violence.he took
measures to preach Buddhism by appointing dharma-mahamatras for the moral and
spiritual uplift of the subjects.

Mauryan administration:

Central administration:

The mauryan rule was vast and highly centralized bureaucratic rule.the king was
the head.the capital was patliputra.important cities are
Srinagar,indraprastha,Mathura,sarnath,kasi,prayag,gaya,Ujjain, maski.

The highest functionaries at the centre are called as trithas.there was a mantra
parishad to assist the king in the day to day administration.kautilya mentions about
27 superintendents [ adiyakshas] mostly to regulate the economic activities.

Provincial administration:

The empire was divided into 4 provinces controlled by a viceroy[ who is a prince or
a member of the royal family ].

a. Uttara path taxila


b. Paschim path Ujjain
c. Dakshin path suvarnagiri
d. Madhyam path pataliputra
e. Poorvi path tosali

District administration:

Each district has 3 main officers pradesikas , rajukas , yuktas.

Sub district administration:


Sub districts were administered by gopa [ accountant ] and sthanika [ tax
collector ].the villagers were administered by the village headmen.

City administration:

The administration of capital pataliputra has been described by megasthenes.the


capital was administered by 6 boards of 5 members eacxh being entrusted with
matters relating to industrial arts, care of the foreigners,registration of births and
deaths,regulation of weights and measures,public sale of manufactured articles and
last with collecting the toll on the articles.

Judicial administration:

Justice was done by the king,pradesika and rajukas.at the lowest level the justice
was administered by the village headman.there were 2 types of courts.
Dharmasthas civil courts redressing the cases of marriages and kantakasodhans
the criminal courts which tried the criminal cases and tax evasion.

Army:

Mauryas had a big army.according to pilny,Chandragupta maurya maintained


6,00,00o foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry and 900 elephants.according to
magasethenes,tha army was administered by 6 committees consisting of 5
members each taken from a board of 30 officers.

Espionage:

It was an intergral part of the mauryan administration.spies were of 2 types.sansha


and snachar.sansha worked by remaining stationed at a public place and the latter
by moving from place to place.the spies were the ears and eyes of the king. they
were also called gudhapurashas .women were also included in espionage.women
were also appointed as body-guards.

Revenue administration:

There were different sources of state revenues : cities[ durga] , rural areas [ rastra ],
mines [ khan ],road and traffic [ vanikpatha ],pasture [ vraja ], plantations [ setu ],
forests [ vana ].

Land taxes: different types of taxes werelevied upon the rural areas [ rashtras ] for
the extraction of land revenue.kautilya gives a detailed account of these taxes.they
are,

Bhaga the chief source of revenue levied at the rate of 1/4 th or 1/6th .

Pindaraka: assessed on group of villages and paid by husbandsmen.

Kara: taxes levied on fruits and flower garden.


Hiranya: taxes levied in cash on special class of crops.

Pranaya: imposed by the state during emergency periods.it amounted to 1/3 rd or


1/4th of the produce according to the nature of the soil.

Bali: a tax known since the vedic period continued under the mauryas.

Import duties:

Pradeshya or import duties were fixed at 20% of the cost price.panyadhyaksha and
pattanadhyaksha were responsible to verify every import to the state.they were
also responsible for the export of each article from the state and collected the
revenue known as nishkramya.

Sales tax:

Taxes were imposed on every article before it was sold pr puirchased by


sulkadhyaksha. 9.5% on items sold on the bais of calculation.5% on the items sold
on the basis of measurements and 6.5% on the goods sold on the basis of weight.
Besides there were many other taxes collected by the state such as taxes on
artisans and artists taxes on animal slaughter-houses,taxes on manufacturing
houses,taxes on gambling houses,on prostitutes,on the income of temples and on
the additional incomes of the wage earners.

Socio-economic conditions:

Kautilyas arthasastra and the other contemporary literature tells us about the
political,religious, social,economic conditions of the mauryan period.the
establishment opf a strong and standing army ensured peace and security.therefore
people could pay greater attention to the economic growth.

There also flourished internal trade.the state controlled and organized the
agriculture,industry,trade, animal husbandry,cattle breeding and commerce of the
country.the main livelihood of the people was agriculture.the state directly
controlled the agriculture of the crown lands.ship building was also there.trade and
commerce with the foreign countries were strictly regulated.textile manufacture
was one of the major industries.kautilya also tells about the metallurgical interest
and discusses about the manufacture of copper,lead,tin,bronze,iron.

Many other industries including dyes,gums,drugs,perfumes,potteries have


developed considerably.war equipment like swords,shields,armours,war chariots
were being manufactured in large quantities.the state itself has owned many
industrial and trading units.

Kautilyas arthasastra and megasthanes give account of the evidence of the


society and the social conditions of the people.varna or the caste system and stages
of religious discipline took a definite shape which corresponds to hindu caste
system.slavery was an established institution.women were placed in high
esteem.prostitution was also an established institution.ganikadhyaksha was the
officer-in-charge of its periodical supervision.festivals were common.the people led
a simple life and were inspired by the sense of morality and idealism.

Mauryan art:

The age of mauryas a contributed significantly to the development of arts including


architecture, sculpture,engineering,polishing.chandra gupta maurya built his
capital and palace at pataliputra.the wonderful palace was made of wood.ashoka
further improved the wooden walls and buildings of the capital and added many
attractive things which could be traced from the site at kumrahar on the outskirts of
patna.the 80 pillared hall found at kumrahar in patna represents the masterpiece of
mauryan sculpture.each pillar is made of single piece of sandstone.

Ashoka built a large number of stupas.he built as good as 84,000 stupas.these


structures were solid and domic made of rock or bricks.the art of sculpture or rock
cutting also reached its zenith during ashokas reign.7 rock cut sanctuaries lying
about 25 miles north of gaya,bihar 4 on the barabar hills and 3 on the nagarjuna
hills belong to the time of ashoka and his succesors.the caves are used for religious
ceremonies and also as assembly halls.

Another noticeable feature was art of polishing the monuments,pillars,caves made


of hard rocks.art of engineering equally flourished.civil engineering was highly
advanced state,therefore so many spectacular buildings stupas,pillars could be
constructed with perfection and efficiency.also the art of jewellery attained a
remarkable progress.single bull capital of rampurva,single lion at lauriya nandagarh
and four lion capital at sarnath and sanchi are another examples of mauryan art.the
punch-marked silver coins of the mauryas which carry the symbols of the peacock
and the hill and crescent are also a part of the court art.the abundance of beautiful
pottery called northern black polished ware[nbpw] and terra cotta figurines were
another item of popular art. terra cotta figurines are found at several mauryan
sites.they are usually made from moulds and depicts a standing female divinity.the
figurine has been identified with mother goddess associated with fertility.

POST MAURYAS:

The period which began in about 200b.c did not witness a large empire like that of
the mauryas but it is notable for intimate and widespread contacts between central
asia and india.in eastern india,central india and the deccan , the mauryas have
succeeded by a number of native rulers such as sungas,kanvas, chedis and the
satavahnas.

SUNGA DYNASTY [185 B.C 71 B.C]


The founder of this dynasty is pushya mitra sungs,the commander-in-chief of
brihadratha,the last mauryan knig.according to the puranas.pushya mitra ruled for
36 years and his reign ended in 149 b.c. he was succeeded by his son agni
mitra.from kalaidasa s drama malavakagni mitra ,we learn that agni mitra was
the governor of vidisha during his fathers reign.he ruled for 8 years.agni mitra was
succeeded by jyeshtha.the next important king of this dynasty was vasumitra,who
was the son of agni mitra.

The last king of this dynasty was devabhuti.according to the puiranas,he was an
incapable and ease-loving ruler.he was put to death by his minister called vasudeva
kanva.thus the kingdom of Magadha passed from the sungas to the kanvas.

The sunga dynastys greatest achievement was the safe guarding of india from the
invasion of hunas.they valiantly resisted the hunas attacks and saved india from
being destroyed.they have contributed a lot to the development of culture also.the
sunga kings have greatly encouraged the bramhin religion and literature.

KANVA DYNASTY [ 72 B.C 27 B.C]

The rule of the kanvas lasted for about 45 years.4 kings ruled during this
period.vasudeva ruled for a period for 9 years and bhumimitra for 14
years.narayana held the reigns of administration for almost 12 years susharma
was the last of the kanvas.he was a weak king wholly devoid of adminsitartive
ability. he could rule hardly for 10 years.during the kanva dynasty,the brahmanical
reaction persisted.

CHEDI DYNASTY:

It is evident that kalinga seeded from the mauryan empire in the years following the
death of ashoka though its history is not known with any degree of certainity till the
1st century B.C.the greatest king of this dynasty is kharavela.he assumed the title of
kalingadhipathi as a mark of his paramountacy.a follower of Jainism,kharavela
was a liberal patron of jain monks for whose residence he constructed caves on the
udayagiri hills near Bhubaneswar in Orissa.

THE INDO-GREEKS [190 B.C]

The 1st to invade india were the Greeks,who are called the indo-greeks or Bactrian
Greeks.in the beginning of the 2nd century b.c. the indo-greeks occupied a larger
part of north western india.2 greek dynasties ruled north-western india on parallel
lines at the same time.the most famous indo-greeks ruler was menander[165-145
B.C]with his capital at sakala in Punjab.we know this from the famous treatise milind
panho written by Buddhist scholar nagasena.

The indo-bactrian rule is important in the history of india because of the large
number of gold coins which the Greeks issued.the indo-greeks were the 1 st rulers in
india to issue coins which can be definetly attributed to the kings.the earlier coins
were not easy to be assigned with any dynasty.the indo-greeks were the 1 st to issue
gold coins in india.

THE INDO-SCYTHIANS OR SAKAS [90-100 B.C]

The Greeks were followedby the scyths or sakas who controlled a much larger part
of india than the Greeks did.there wer 5 branches of the sakas with their seats of
power in different parts of india and Afghanistan.1 branch of the sakas settle in
Afghanistan.the most famous saka ruler is rudradaman -1 [ 130 150
A.D].rudradaman was a great lover of Sanskrit.he settled in india though he is a
foreigner.he issued the 1st ever long inscription in Sanskrit the junagarh
inscription.

The saka era is used by the Indian national calendar and a few other hindu
calendars.

INDO PARTHIANS [19 45 A.D]

The saka domination in nort western india was followed by that of the
parthians.the most famous Parthian king was gondophernos in whose reign
st.thomas is said to have come to india for the propagation of Christianity.

KUSHANS [45 73 A.D]

The parthians were followed by the kushans who are also called yuechis.the 1 st
king was kadphises 1 who issued coins south of hindukush.kadphises 1 was
succeded by his son kadphises 2 or vima kadphises.he was a worshipper of shiva.he
was succeeded by kanishka.its kingdom extended the kushan power over the upper
india and the lower Indus basin.the early kushan kings issued numerous gold coins
with higher gold content than is found in the gupta coins.

Kanishka was the greatest kushana king.he spread his kingdom in and beyond the
western Himalayas.he is credited with popularizing Buddhism in Tibet,china,central
asia and other parts of the world.during the time of kanishka Buddhism got divided
into 2 sects namely hinayana and Mahayana after the 4 th Buddhist council.

Kanishka has patronized charaka who arote charaka samhita.another one is


sushruta also belonged to kanishkas time who wrote the sushruta samhita.the
successors of kanishka were weak and after his death slowly the kingdom
disintegrated.

SANGAM PERIOD:

sangam is the tamil form of the Sanskrit word sangha meaning a group of
persons or an association. The tamil sangam was an academy of poets and bards
who flourished in 3 different periods and in different places under the patronage of
the tamil kings.according to tradition,the 1st sangam was founded by sage agastya
and its seat was at thenmadhurai[ south madhurai].the sangam literature speaks
highly of 3 south Indian kingdoms chola , pandya , chera.

The 3 ancient kingdoms of the cholas , the pandyas , the cheras combinely were
known as tamilakham or the tamil realm.the Aryan influence did not penetrate to
this distant region till the 4th century b.c . the ancient literature of tamils known as
the sagam literature is very massive.

The Cholas:

The homeland of the cholas was the kaveri delta and the adjoining region of the
modern tanjore and tirichinopoly.they were the first to acquire ascendancy in the far
south with kaveripattanam or puhar as their capital.its early capital was uraiyur.one
of their early kings karikala[190 a.d] who figures very prominently in ancient
literature is credited with victories over the rulers of the neighbouring pandya and
chera kingdoms and is believed to have extended his authority over Ceylon.

Interesting glimpses into the history of the chola kingdom are also afforded by the
periplus of the erythraean sea and the accounts of Ptolemy.towards the beginning
of the 4th century a.d the power of the cholas began to decline mainly because of
the rise of the pallavas on one hand and the continuous wars waged by the pandyas
and the cheras on the other.

The Pandyas:

The ancient kingdom of the pandyas with its capital at madhurai comprised the
modern districts of madhurai , ramnad , tirunelveli and the southern parts of
Travancore.the pandhyas were 1st mentioned by megasthenes.according to him,the
kingdom was once ruled by a woman.but according to the ashokan edicts,the
pandyas wer independent people living beyond the southern border of the mauryan
empire.in the 1st century b.c king kharavela of kalinga led an expedition against this
kingdom.a pandyan king is also known to have sent an embassy to the court of the
roman emperor augustus.the greatest pandyan king who defeated cholas and
cheras is nedunchezian .

The Cheras:

The earliest reference to the chera kingdom occurs in the ashokan inscriptions.it
comprised the modern districts of Malabar,cochin,northern Travancore.its capital
was vanji.the early tamil literature describes at length the military exploits of aking
named nadunjeral adan has conquered the whole of india from the Himalayas to
cape comorin and carved his emblem of the bow on the face of the great mountain
after subjugating the kings of the north.the greatest chera king was senguttuvan
, the red chera.he is credited with having invaded the north and crossed the river
ganga.

Sangam literature:
Sangam is an assembly of poets held probably under royal patronage.it is stated in
the tamil commentaries that totally 3 sangams lasted for 9900 years.the available
sangam literature was compiled in circa AD 300 600.But parts of this literature
look back to at least the 2nd century.the sangam literature can be roughly divided
into 2 groups,narrative and didactic.the narrative texts are called melkanakka or
18th major works.they consist of 8 anathologies [ettutogai] and 10
idylls[pattuppatu].the didactic works are called padinenkilkanakku or 18 minor
works.8 anathologies were written by the poets of the 3 rd sangam.

Besides the sangam texts,we have a text called tolakappiyam written by


tolakapiyar which deals with grammar and poets.it is the only work which has
survived from the 2nd sangam.another important tamil text which deals with
philosophy is called as tirukkural [famously called as the bible of the tamil land].
In addition to this,we have the twin tamil epics of silappadikaram [ written by
ilango adingal ] and manimeghalai [ written by sattan of madhurai ].these 2
were composed around 6th century b.c. silappadikaram is considered to be the
brightest gem of early tamil literature.it deals with a love story in which a dignitary
called kovalan prefers a courtesan called madhavi of kaveripattanam to his noble
wedded wife kannagi.the other epic manimeghalai was written by a grain
merchant of madhurai.it deals with the adventures of the daughter born of the
union of kovalan and madhavi.

Sangam polity:

The tamils during the sangam age were ruled by great kings.the monarchs were
regarded as vendar while the local chieftains were called as mannar.the form of
government was hereditary monarchy.the eldest son usually succeeded the father.

THE AGE OF THE SATAVAHANAS:

The most important of the native successors of the mauryas in the deccan and in
central india were the satavahnas.the satavahanas are considered to be identical
with the andhras mentioned in the puranas. the early satavahana kings appeared
not in Andhra but in Maharashtra were most of their early inscriptions have been
found.the most interesting detail about the satavahanas relates to their family
structure.satavahanas show traces of a matrilineal social structure.it was customary
for their king to be named after his mother.such as gautamiputra and vasisthiputra
indicate that in their society,mother enjoyed a great deal of importance.

The satavahana rulers claim to have brahmanas and they represented the march of
triumphant Brahmanism.from the very beginning,kings and queens performed the
vedic ascrifices such as the asvamedha,vajapeya.they also worshipped a large
number of the vaishnava gods such as Krishna, vasudeva and others.they paid
liberal sacrificial fees to the brahmanas.
Under the latter satavahanas,coins with bilingual legends were issued.in addition to
the name of the king in prakrit these coins carried a legend in a south Indian
language.

However the satavahana rulers promoted Buddhism by granting land to the


monks.in their kingdom,the Mahayana form of Buddhism commanded considerable
following,especially in the artisan class. nagarjuna konda and amaravathi in Andhra
Pradesh became important seats of Buddhist culture under the satavahanas and
more so under their successors,the ikshvakus.

Administration:

The satavahana rulers strove for the royal ideal set forth in the dharma shastras.the
king was represented as the upholder of dharma.to him were assigned a few divine
attributes.the satavahana king is represented as possessing the qualities of ancient
gods such as rama,bhima,kesava,arjuna.the satavahanas restored some of the
administrative units found in ashokan times.the satavhanas restored some of the
administrative units found in ashokan times.the satavahana kingdom was divided
into janapadas which was further sub-divided into aharas.each ahara was under an
amatya.the basic unit of ahara was grama with the village headman called gamika.

The satavahana administration was simple,certain military and feudal elements in


the administration of satavahanas formed an important part of the administration.it
is significant that the senapati was appointed as the provincial governor.the
administration in the rural areas was placed in the hands of gaulmika who was the
head of a military regiment consisting of 9 chariots,9 elephants,25 horses,45 foot
soldiers.

The satavahana kingdom has 3 grades of feudatories.the highest grade was formed
by the king who was called raja and who had the right to mint coins.the second
grade was formed by the mahabhoja and the third grade by the senapati.it seems
that these feudatories enjoyed some authority in their respective localities.towards
the close of satavahana period,2 more feudatories were created maha senapati
and mahatarala veera.

Trade and commerce:

Increasing craft and commerce in this period brought many merchants and artisans
to the forefront.both artisans and merchants made generous donations to the
Buddhist cause.among the artisans,the gandhikas or the perfumers are repeatedly
mentioned as donor.

Art and Architecture:

In the satavahana reign,many temples and monasteries were cut out of the solid
rock in the north western deccan or maharastra with great skill and patience.in fact
the process has started about a century earlier from 200 b.c..the two common
structures were the temple which was called chaitya and the monastery which was
called vihara.the chaitya was a large hall with a number of columns and the vihara
consisted of a central hall entered by a doorway from a verandah in front.the most
famous chaitya is that of karle in the western deccan.the viharas or monasteries
wer excavated near the chaityas for the residence of monks in the rainy seasons.

THE GUPTAS:

Sri gupta is the founder of this dynasty.he was succeded by ghatokacha gupta.the
1st two kings of the dynasty were described as maharajas .it is generally believed
that the 1st two rulers ruled before 320 a.d. they were followed by some of the
mighty rulers of ancient Indian history.

Chandra gupta 1 [ 320-335 a.d]

chandra gupta 1,grandson of sri gupta and son of ghatotkacha gupta was the 1 st
great ruler of the line.he increased power and prestige of the empire to a great
extent by matrimonial alliance and conquests.he married kumaradevi,the lichchavi
princess.his empire included modern bihar,oudh,Allahabad,tirhut in addition to
Magadha.he assumed the title of mahrajadhi raja . He started the gupta era in
a.d 320 which marked the date of his accession.

The lichchavi princess kumara devi was the 1 st Indian queen featured on a coin.

Samudra gupta [ 335 375 a.d ]

Samudra gupta ascended the throne in 335 a.d. the basic information about his
reign is provided by an inscription prayaga prasasti composed by harisena,the
poet at his court and engraved on an ashokan,pillarat Allahabad pillar
inscription.the places and the countries conquered by samudra gupta can be
divided into 5 groups.

1.includes princes of the ganga Yamuna doab who were defeated.

2.includes the rulers of eastern Himalayan states and some frontier states such as
princes of Nepal, assam,bengal.

3. includes the forest kingdoms situated in the vindhya region known as atavika
rajyas .

4.includes 12 rulers of the eastern deccan and south india who were conquered and
liberated.

5. includes the names of the sakas and kushanas.


Samudra gupta embarked upon a policy of conquest.in fact digvijaya became
the ultimate goal of his life.he is popularly called as Indian napoleon .

Chandra gupta 2 [ 380 412 a.d ]

The reign of Chandragupta 2 [ vikramaditya ] saw the highest watermark of the


gupta empire.he extended the limits of the empire by marriage alliances and
conquests.chandragupta 1 married his daughter prabhavati with a vakataka prince
who belonged to the brahmana caste and ruled in central india.the prince died and
was succeeded by his young son.so prabhavthi became the virtual ruler.

Chanrdagupta exercised indirect control over the vakataka kingdom.this afforded a


great advantage to him.with his great influence in this area,Chandragupta 2
conquered western malwa and Gujarat which had been the rule of the saka
kshatrapas for about 4 centuries.the conquest gave Chandragupta the eastern sea
coast, famous for trade and commerce.this also contributed to the prosperity of
malwa and its chief city,Ujjain.ujjain seems to have been made the second capital
by Chandragupta 2.

Chandragupta 2 adopted the title vikramaditya which had been 1 st used by an


Ujjain ruler in 57 b.c. as a mark of his victory over tha saka kshatrapas of western
india.the court of Chandragupta 2 at Ujjain was adored by numerous scholars such
as kalidasa and amarasimha.it was during his reign the Chinese piligrim fahien
[ 399 414] visited india and wrote an elaborate account of the life of its people.

Administration:

The gupta kings adopted pompous titles such as parameshwara,maharajadhi raja


which signify that they ruled over lesser kings in their empire.kingship was
hereditary but royal power was limited by absence of a firm practice of
primogeniture.

The gupta bureaucracy was not as elaborate as that of the mauryas.the most
important officers in the gupta empire were the kumaramatyas.they were appointed
by the king in the home provinces and possibly paid in cash.the guptas organized a
system of provincial and local administration.the empire was divided into bhukthis
and each bhkti was placed under the charge of an uparika.the bhuktis wer divided
into vishayas[districts] which were placed under the charge of vishyapati.in eastern
india,the vishayas were divided into vithie which again were divided into
villages.the village headman became more important in gupta times.

Economic and social conditions:

Revenue and trade:

A study of the inscriptions of the gupta period reveals that 18 different taxes were
levied at that time.land revenue was the chief source of income.land tax between1 /
4 and 1/6 of the produce.it is known from the inscriptions of pallavas and vakatakas
that taxes were enforced on buffalo milk,curd and also on fruits and flowers.the
forests,meadows and salt, mines added to the income of the state.

Land taxes increased while those on trade and commerce decreased.visthi [ forced
labour ] prevailed. religious functionaries were granted land called agraharas.

Trade through rivers proved quite cheap and comfortable.during this period,the ship
building industry greatly flourished.tamralipti, a port in Bengal was an important
trade centre and from there trade was carried on with the eastern countires like
china,Ceylon,java,Sumatra.in Andhra there were ports on the banks of the rivers
Godavari,Krishna. Tondai was a famous port of chola state. Kalian,chol,broach and
cambay wer the important ports of the south.

UNIT - 2

GENERAL CONDITIONS UNDER THE DELHI SULTANATE:

GENERAL ADMINISTRATION:

a. Political theory of state:


1. The Turkish sultans in india have declared themselves as the lieutenant of
the abbasid calphite of bagdhad and included his name in khutba.
2. The political,legal,military authorities were vested in the sultan.
3. He was responsible for the administration and was also the commander-in-
chief of the military forces.he was also responsible for the maintenance of
law and justice.
4. No clear law of succession developed among the muslim rulers.thus the
military strength was the main factor in succession to the throne.
5. The country was divided into a number of tracts called as iqtas,which
assigned among the leading Turkish nobles.the holders of the office were
called muqti or wallis.
6. Below the province were the shiqs and below them the paragana.the
villages grouped into 100 are called as chaurasi.the paragana was headed
by the amil.
7. The most important people in the villages were the khuts[land owners]
and muqaddam or headman.the village accountant was called as patwari.
b. Central government:
1. The sultanate of delhi was a police state,whose strength or weakness
depended exclusively on the military power and the personality of the
despotic sultan.
2. The sultan was assisted by a number of officials to run the
administration.at the top level there were 4 ministers wazir,ariz-i-
mamalik,diwan-i-insha,diwan-i-risalat.
3. Later 2 more minsters were also added sadar-us-sadur and diwan-i-qaza.
4. The commander of the royal army next after the sultan was the crown
prince.
5. The wazir is the prime minister and his department is called as the diwan-
i-wizarat.he was the head of the finance department.
6. The department of the army was the diwan-i-arz.the commander-in-chief
was responsible for the organization and maintenance of the royal army.
7. The department of correspondence and records of the royal court was
called as diwan-i-insha.it was under the charge of a officer called amir
munshi.
8. Diwan-i-risalat was an important department during this period.
c. Provincial administration:
1. The provincial government of the sultanate was not so well developed as
that of the imperial mughals.the provincial governors of the region were
usually called as walis or muqtas.
2. The provincial government was an exact replica of the central
government.however in some provinces,the sultan appointed an imperial
officer called sahib-i-diwan for controlling the provincial revenues and he
exercised a power to check the activities of the governor.
3. The provinces were further divided into shiqs or districts,which were
governed by shiqdars. each shiq comprised a few paraganas which was
an aggregate of villages.at the lowest level stood the villages,which wer
governed by their local panchayats.
d. Judicial system:
1. The sultans implemented shariat or Islamic law of crime and
punishment.the main source was the quran.
2. The eccelestial cases wer separated from the civil and criminal suits.the
durbar of the sultan constituted the highest civil and criminal court of
justice.
3. Below the sultan,there was the court of qazi-ut-quzat or the chief justice of
the empire. Muhtasib,the censor of public morals,acted as police cum
judge in the observance of the canon law by the muslims.
4. The village panchayts enjoyed the sanction of the state to administer
justice according to the local tradition,customs and the personal law of the
populace.
5. The penal code was severe physical torture and capital punishment
constituted an essential part of it.
e. Army:
1. The army consisted of infantry,cavalry and elephants.
2. There were turks,Persians,afghans,Indians and others were recruited in
the army.
3. The army was organized on a decimal basis.the pay of soldiers varied
according to their service and rank.
4. Petty officials were paid from one to ten thousand tankas according to
rank and service.A khan was paid 2,00,000 tankas.
5. There was a fleet of river boats under an amir-i-bahr with police and
transport duties.
f. Revenue administration:
1. The sources of revenue wer 2 fold- religious and secular.the former is
called zakat,was due only from the muslims and the latter included land
tax and jaziya,which the non-muslims had to pay.1/5 th of the spoils of the
war,known as khams belonged to the state.
2. The heirless property of the people was taken over by the state.the main
heads of the expenditure wer the royal house hold,the administration,the
army,the charitable organizations,social services.public works including
irrigation.
3. 1/3rd of the produced was collected as the land revenue.it was called as
kharaj.ushra was 1/10th of the gross produce on land held by
muslims.transit and octroi duties were income from mines,forests.
Categories of land:
1. Khalisa:
It was the class of land which was directly administered by the central
government. revenue from such land was collected by the officials
appointed by the central government.
2. Muqtis or walis:
This was the category of land which was in the hands of provincial
governors.the provincial administration collected the revenue from this
land,after meeting the collection charges,deposited the surplus in the
central treasury.
3. Inam or waqf:
This was the land given to the people especially the muslim saints and
scholars in gift or charity.this class of land had no tax liabilities.
4. Land of feudatory hindu chiefs:
The sultan used to get annual tributes from these lands.
g. Socio- economic life during sultanate administration:
Social life:
1. Caste system: the hindu society was divided into 4 castes.the coming of
muslims and their constant condemnation of the caste system made the
system more rigid.the hindu society in order to strengthen itself recasted
the smritis and tried to bring back from the Islamic fold those muslims
who were converts from Hinduism.
2. Position of women:
The hindu women were given inferior position in society and their
educational development was prevented since the gupta age.her
condition deteriorated and she became a victim of many social evils such
as sati,jauhar.the devadasi systemhad become prevalent and widow
remarriage illegal.the introduction of dowry system in the name of
sridhana further depreciated her position.the status of muslim women
though not very much different was yet better.she had the privilege to
education and could remarry.
3. Slave system:
It was a common practice among the sultans and the nobles to maintain a
large contingency of slaves both males and females.the prisoners of
wars were generally the main constituents of this system.they were
supposed to perform every task free of cost.but they were not subject to
torture.
4. Dress, food and manners:
Salwar was introduced in north india under the muslim influence.the high
class womens dress was copied by almost all in the society.the food and
social manners and ceremonies were coiped.the vices of gambling and
drinking which were prevalent among the muslims of the age,were also
adopted by the hindus.the muslims took to Indian spices and eventually
some deeply ingrained hindu customs.
5. Relations between the hindus and the muslims:
The rulers generally kept themselves aloof from the general masses.the
masses whether hindu or muslim were subjected to similar
exploitation.the common people lived a harmonious life and influenced
each other in different fields of life.they were averse to the upper class
conflict of the ruling class and the ulema.

Economic life:

1. Fiscal policy:
a. The fiscal policy of the sultanate was based on the theory of taxation as
propounded by the hanafi school of thought among the muslim jurists.it
has prescribed the levy of 4 kinds of taxes zakat,kharaj,khams,jaziya.
Zakat was a religious tax paid by the muslims as an act of piety for the
benefit and welfare of their coreligionists.it was charged at the rate of 2.5 %
of the actual income or property.
b. The kharaj was the land revenue,which was varied from 10-15 % of the
agricultural produce and payable in cash or kind.
c. The khams constituted the states share of the booty required by the
soldiers in the course of the war.the Islamic law required soldiers to
surrender 1/5th of the spoils to the sovereign.
d. The jaziya was poll tax charged from the hindus in their capacity as
zimmis.
2. Trade and industry:
a. Due to the consolidation of the delhi sultanate,the improvement of
communication and the establishment of a sound currency system there
was a definite growth of trade in the country.
b. Ibn battuta has called delhi as the largest city in the eastern part of the
Islamic world.
c. Bengal and the towns in Gujarat were famous for textiles and for gold and
silver work.sonargaon was famous for raw silk and muslin.
d. During this period fine textiles wer introduced in china as well,wer it was
more valued than silk.
e. India imported high grade textiles[satin],glass ware and horses from west
asia.from china it imported raw silk and porcelain.the improvement of
communications and the growth of trade quickened economic life in the
period.
f. The turks have introduced/popularized a new craft and techniques.there
was use of the iron stirrup and a large scale use of armour which led to
the evelopment of the metallurgical industry and metal crafts.
g. The other crafts which showed an improvement included paper
making,glass making,the spinning wheel and an improved loom for
weaving.

GENERAL CONDITIONS UNDER THE RULERS OF THE VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE:

ADMINISTRATION:
The vijayanagara administration was a feudal organization but the king was the
fountain head of all authority with a distinct flair for autocracy. for administrative
convenience the king was assisted by a council of minsters or mantri
parishad,various military commanders,religious pundits and other learned men.they
were all responsible to the king and served as his advisers.some times the offices
were hereditary but it was not all compulsory.the council was headed by the chief
minister and included other members like the chief treasurer,the keeper of royal
jewels,the police and large secretariat of subordinates was based on the saptanga
theory of state formation.

The empire was divided into 6 provinces or prantas.each province or pranta was
placed under a governor,who was either a member of the royal family or royal
noble.the provincial administration was a miniature replica of the central
administration.the viceroy kept his own court,army and was a despot within his own
dominions.the powerful kings,however kept a constant vigilance on their governors.

The province was divided into kuttams.a kuttam into nadus.a nadu into aimbadin
melagram.below this came the agaram.

Pranta madalan- kuttams vallandu melagram ur gram sthala valitas.

Land tenures:

The land tenure were of 3 kinds.

1. Amaras: amaras were the villages granted by the kings to the


amaranayakas.75% of the village came under this category.amara villages
were the largest category of land tenure.the amaranayakas enjoyed
privileges over the incomes of their amaras,but they had no proprietary rights
in land.
2. Bhandaravadas: a bhandaravada was a crown village and the smallest
category of land tenure.a portion of its income was used in maintaining the
forts of the empire.
3. Manyas: the manya villages were tax free villages.

The nayankar system:

Under this system military chiefs were assigned places of land called amaram.the
nayakas or palaiyagars had the administrative and revenue rights on their lands.the
nayakas were independent in their areas.

The ayagar system:

The ayagar system weas an important feature of the village organization.body opf
12 functionaries known as ayagars conducted every village affair.they were granted
tax free lands manyams which they were to enjoy in perpetuity.in addition to land
tax there were various other taxes such as property tax,tax on sale of produce[rate
varied according to the type of soil,crop,method of irrigation].profession
taxes,military contribution,taxes on marriage.the anticedents of this system of
vijayanagara may be traced to the kakatiyas system of ayagar.

Society and economy:

The bramhanas exercised a predominant influences not only in social and religious
matters but also in the political affairs of the state.the practice of sati was largely
prevalent.the evil practice of taking exoribant dowries was greatly prevalent among
those who were economically well placed.however many women were fairly
educated and they were employed as clerks in the royal house hold.the status of
the women has improved during this period.

Unbounded prosperity prevailed in the vijayanagara empire.agriculture flourished in


different parts of the kingdom and the state pursued a wise irrigation policy.the
principal industries were related to textiles,mining,metallurgy.the most important of
the minor industries ws perfumery.craftsmen and merchant guilds played an
important part in the economic life of the kingdom.

The most important feature in the economic conditions of the kingdom was
commerce-inland,coasting and overseas.the most important port on the Malabar
coast was Calicut.it had commercial relations with the Indian ocean,the malay
archipelago,Burma,china,Arabia,Persia,south Africa,Abyssinia,Portugal. The principal
articles of exports were cloth,rice,iron,salpetre,sugar and spices and the principal
imports into the empire are horses,elephants,pearls,copper,china silk and velvet.the
cheap means of transport for inland trade were kavadis,head load,peak horses,peck
bullocks,carts,asses.ships were in use for coasting and overseas trade.

Coins of vijayanagara consisted of both gold and silver.they were embedded with
symbols of different gods and animals.the rulers issued gold coins called varahas or
pagodas.[ varaha because the most common symbol was the varaha the boar
incarnation of Vishnu].these help us know that they were Vishnu
worshippers.impressions found on vijayanagara coins include the bull,elephant and
various hindu deities and the gandaberunda.on the reverse,they contain the kings
name in nagara or kannada. The varaha was the main coin of gold with slight
copper content.the perta was half a varaha.the fanam was 1/10 th a perta.all were of
gold mixed with alloy with the fanam as the most useful.tar was a silver coin which
was a 6th of farman.the jinal was a copper coin worth a 3 rd of the tar.

Art and Architecture:

Prominence of pillars is evident in the vijayanagara architecture.horse was the most


common animal on pillars.another important feature is the mandapa or open
pavilion raised platform.
The vittalaswami temple,the hall of dance at lepakshi temple and the festival hall at
vellore are typical examples of vijayanagara architecture.in sculpture the
vijayanagara kingdom is exemplified by large monolithic carvings.the reclining
nandi near the lepakshi temple is considered the largest monolithic nandi in the
country.paintings at the virabhadra temple and lepakshi temple show the excellence
of vijayanagara painters.

Literature:

Sri Krishna deva raya wrote amuktamalayada in telugu.his court was adorned by
8 famous telugu poets famously called as ashtadiggajas .

a. Peddana wrote manucharitam and harikathasaransam .


b. Timmana wrote parijatapiharanam .
c. Madaya wrote raja sekhara charitra .
d. Dhurjati wrote sri kalahasthi mahatyam .
e. Surana wrote raghava pandaviyam and prabhavati pradyuman .
f. Tenali ramalingam wrote panduranga mahatyam .
g. Ayyala raju rama bhadra wrote sakala matasara sangrahrr .
h. Rama raja bhusan

Reasons for the growth of the vijayanagra empire:

1. Growth in agriculture and trade in the territories of karnataka.


2. Chola kingdom has declined.the re-emergence of powerful chieftains over
portions of tamil country outside of cholamandalam firmly established
independent bases of competitive power.
3. Early vijayanagar expansion came at the expense of great hindu kingdom
such as the hoyasala states of Karnataka and the reddy kingdom of
kondaveedu in Andhra.
GENERAL CONDITIONS UNDER THE RULE OF THE MUGHALS:

THE MUGHAL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE:


The centre of the whole structure of the government was the sovereign.so
before the sovereign all matters relating to
appointments,increments,jagirs,mansabs,government grants,orders of
payments,petitions of princes,governors,bakshis,diwans,faujdars and private
petetions sent through nobles were submitted.
a. Central administration:
Wazir,was the most important person.there was much power to the
wazir,bairam khan was a warning against the appointment of an all powerful
wazir.the office of the wazir was retained but none of the wazir after bairam
khan exercised the powers and influence of a prime minister.
b. Provincial administration:
Mughal empire was divided into sibah or province which was further
subdivided into sakars,paraganas and villages.however it also had other
territorial units as khalisa [crown land],jagirs[autonomus
rajas],inams[gifted land- mostly waste lands].there were 12 territorial units
[subah] during akbars reign which increased to 21 under auranzebs
reign.the administrative agency in the provinces under the mughal was an
exact miniature of that of the central government.the provincial
administration was based on the principles of uniformity and checks and
balances .
c. Judicial administration:
The mughals efficiently carried on the judicial administration wit the help of
the qazi-ul-quzat.he was the chief justice of the state and decided the
religious and criminal cases.local qazis wer appointed by him.he also used to
supervise the law courts within the empire.he could also hear appeals against
local law courts.at the provincial level,sadar,kotwal,muqaddam and
chowkidar heard the cases.the consumer cases were heard by amil.
d. Mansabdari system:
Mansabdari system introduced by akbar in 1573-74 was the steel frame of
the empires military policy.the term mansab means an officer or rank.the
mansabdar[ holder of the mansab,was an official who out of his pay was
expected to furnish a certain number of cavalry to the imperial army.
e. Land revenue system:
Land was classified into 4 types polaj[continuously cultivated],parauti[left
fallow for a 1 or 2 to recover productivity],chachar[left fallow for 3 or 4
years],banjar[uncultivated land for 5 years or more]. Todar mal,finance
minister under akbar later setup a standard system of revenue adminstartion
known as the zabti system.this system was applied from multan to
bihar.under this system ,lands were accurately surveyed.the settlement
under the this system was made directly with the cultivator.cash rates were
fixed on the average of 10 years.[past].
f. Religious policy:
Babar proclaimed jihad or religious war against the hindus especially rana
sangha.he levied stamp duties on the hindus alone but remitted them in case
of the muslims.he got many jain temples demolished.
Humayun too has adopted his fathers policy s far as his relations with hindus
were concerned.
Akbar - The credit of establishing a secular state in india goes to akbar.he
abolished jaziya and the priligrimage tax.he stopped the forcible conversions
of the prisoners of war into islam.he built ibadat khana at fatehpur sikri to
discuss religious matters.he invited many distinguished persons from other
religions at the ibadat khana.to curb the domianation of the ulemas,akbar
introduced a new khutba written by faizi,proclaimed
mahzarnama[1579]which made him the final interpreter of Islamic law.
Jahangir also followed the footsteps of his father.he was liberal and refused to
play in the hands of the ulemas.he was moved by religious ends to some
extent in adopting an oppressive policy towards guru arjun dev.
Shahjahan also followed the footsteps of his father,pursued a tolerant
religious policy although there were aberrations at times.
Aurangzeb was a bigoted sunni muslim who wanted to establish a muslim
state in india.he had demolished countless temples and erected mosques in
their places.he slaughtered cows in temples and confiscated lands previously
endowed to them.he imposed jiziya and piligrimage taxes on hindus.he
stopped celebrating hindu festivals I royal court.many hindus who had held
high positions under the government were removed from their high
posts.thus,under auranrzeb the mughal empire was turned into a fully Islamic
state.
g. Socio-economic conditions:
1. Feudal society:
The medieval Indian society was organized on a feudal basis.the emperor
as the absolute ruler was the head of the social system.
2. The aristocracy:
The mughal nobility collectively styled as umara,who belonged to the first
category of the mansabdari system.the feudatory chieftains who owned
allegiance to the mughal crown,compromised the aristocracy.the latter
wer also graded as mansabdars.the aristocracy was composed of muslims
as well hindus,although the number of the latter was small.
3. The middle class:
The middle class was heterogeneous in character.it was composed of
junior mansabdars, middle level civil and judicial officials.big
landlords,merchants,bankers and professional men including the
priests,men of letters,artists.social stratification of the hindus being based
on the hereditary caste system,only the prosperous and influential among
the high borns found their way into the middle class.neverthless,the
muslims alos tended to determine social status on the bais of birth and
racial considerations.
4. The masses:
They included the peasantry small peasant proprietors as well as the
agricultural labourers soldiers,artisans,craftsmen,shop keepers,lower
level government sewrvants,slaves and millions of the self employed
persons.
5. Status of women:
The mughal period produced several capable and intelligent women who
influenced the politics of their times jodha bai,nur jahan,mumtaz
mahal,jahanara,roshnara.however in general the women suffered from all
sorts of handicaps.women were not given education, they did not
command respect in the society and they had no independence
existence.the emperors and their nobles kept a large number of
wives,concubines and slave girls in their harems.the muslim women had
to observe purdah very strictly.social evils like sati,child
marriages,prohibition on widows marriage,polygamy had crept into the
hindus society and these continued during the rule of the mughals.
6. Education and learning;:
Akbar was the 1st among the muslim rulers of india who made a serious
attempt to reform the educational system to suit the national aspirations
of people.he brought about several reforms in the field of education.
h. Cultural development under the mughals:
The mughal emperors were very fond of art.under their patronage all arts
particularly architecture,painting and music made special progress and all
kinds of artists used to receive encouragement from state.they tried to
develop the art and tried utmost to advance it.
Architecture:
The mughal emperors were great builders and so their period is called as
golden age of architecture in the Indian history.the mughal rulers very fond
of building great mansions.the mughal architecture was the mixture of
various influences Indian,Turkish,Persian.babur and humayun had a great
liking for the Persian style but by the passage of time during the reign of
akbar some Indian elements got blended in it.the Persian style was modified
into mughal style.
Babar - he built 2 mosques one at kabulibagh in panipat and the other at
sambal in rohilkhand.
Humayun architectural highlights of his reign may be listed as city of
dinpanah at delhi.his tomb is called as the prototype of tajmahal.it has a
double dome of marble,while the central dome is octagonal.
Akbar he built the agra fort,Lahore palace,fatehpur sikri,buland
darwaza,Allahabad fort,panch mahal,diwan-i-khas,diwan-i-aam.salim chisti
tomb,mariyam mahal,jodhbai palace.
Jahagir he was influenced by the indo-persian style.the important feature of
this style are curved lines,bulbous dome,foliated arches,vigorous use of
marble instead of red sandstone and use of peitra dura for decorative
purposes.he built nurjahan mahal,moti masjid,akbars tomb at sikandra.
Shahjahan he was the most prolific and magnificent builder.the architectural
activity reached its climax in taj mahal agra.ustad isa was the master
architect.he also built jama masjid,moti masjid,sheesh mahal,red fort.
Auranrzeb he built the bibi ka makbara and badshah I mosque in Lahore.

SHIVAJI - THE RISE OF THE MARATHAS:

Shivaji was the son of shaji bhonsle.when he was 14 years old,his father
entrusted the administration of the pune jagir to him.the peasants living in
shivajis jagir had become fed up with the rule of the watandars.at this
juncture shivaji has realized that establishing an welfare state for the benefit
of his subjects.but it would be possible only by controlling the neighbouring
forts and building the new ones.
Shivaji has shown his mettle at a very young age of 18,when he overran a
number of hill forts near pune[raigarh,kondana,torana]during 1645-
1647.shivaji began his real career of conquest in 1656,when he conquered
javali from the Maratha chief- Chandra rao more.the mughal invasion of
bijapur in 1657 has saved shivaji from the latters attack in 1659.
Later after free from the mughal menace the bijapur sultan sent an army
against shivaji under afzal khan whom he murdered treacherously. In 1663 a
combined mughal and bijapur army attacked shivaji. But shivaji very
surprisingly attacked shayista khan [ maternal uncle of Aurangzeb ] and killed
one of his sons. In 1665 the fort of purandhar [ centre of shivajis activities ]
was besieged by jai singh.hence shivaji signed a treaty with him.he visited
agra and his escape from detention in 1666 proved to be the turning point for
mughal relations with the Marathas.
Later shivaji reached maharastra in September 1666.after consolidating his
position and reorganisng the administration,shivaji renewed his war against
the mughals and gradually recovered all the forts which his lost earlier to
them.
Factors that contributed to shivajis rise:
2 factors have contributed to the rise of the Maratha power under
shivaji[ politically speaking]. The comparatively advantageous position of the
Marathas under the deccan sultans and the threat to bijapur and Golconda
from the annexation policy of the mughal empire. On the other hand,the
weakiening of the mughals control over the deccan region has also
contributed to the success of shivaji.

Shivajis coronation:
Shivaji declared himself the independent ruler of the Maratha kingdom and
was crowned chatrapathi in 1674. Shivajis coronation symbolizes the rise
of the people to challenge the might of the mughals.it was significant due to
the following reasons.
a. By coronating himself king under the title hindava dharmodaraka of
the new and independent state hindava swarajya .shivaji proclaimed to
the world that he was not just rebel son of a sardar in bijapur court but
equal to any other ruler in india.
b. Only a coronation could give shivaji the legitimate right to collect revenue
from the land and levy tax on the people.

Shivajis administration:
Shivaji has laid the foundation of a sound system of
administration.shivajis system of administration was lagely borrowed
from the administrative practices of the deccan states. he designated 8
ministers,called as ashtapradhan.they are as follows,

1. Peshwa general administration


2. Amatya finance
3. Sachiv royal correspondence
4. Sumant foreign affairs
5. Senapathi army [ recruitment and training ]
6. Mantri personal safety of the king
7. Nyayadish administration of justice
8. Pandit rao religious matters

Military system:

In the army adminsitartion,shivaji has preferred to give cash salaries to the regular
soldiers though sometimes the chiefs have received revenue grants [ saranjam ].the
regular army consisted of 30,000 40,000 cavalry. Shivaji laid the foundation of a
strong state by curbing the power of the deshmukhs.the army was an effective
instrument of his policies where rapid movement is an important factor.the army
depended for its salaries to a considerable extent on the plunder of the
neighbouring states.

Revenue system:

The revenue system seems to have been on the lines of kathi system of malik
ambar in which land was carefully measured with the help of a measuring rod or
kathi.a new revenue system of assessment was completed by annaji datto in
1679.shivaji strictly supervised the mirasdars[ those who had hereditary rights over
the land]. Chauth and sardeshmukhi wer the important source of income in the
Maratha adminsitartion.shivaji abolished the jagirdari system and replaced it with
the ryotwari system.

RISE OF THE MARATHAS:

Balaji viswanath [1713 1720]:

He began his career as a small revenue official and was given the title sena karte
[maker of the army] by shahu in 1708.he became peshwa in 1713 an made the post
the most important and powerful as well as hereditary.he played a crucial role in the
final victory of shahu over the mughals by winning almost all the Maratha sardars to
the side of shahu.he concluded an agreement with the sayyid brothers[1719]by
which the mughal emperor[farukhsiyar] recognized shahu as the king of the
swarajya.

Baji rao 1 [1720-1740]:

He was the eldest son of balaji viswanath,became the peshwa at the young age of
20.he was considered the greatest exponent of the guriella war fare after shivaji.the
Maratha power has reached new heights during his time.baji rao 1 conquered
bassein and salsette from the portugese[1773].he also defeated the nizam-ul-mulk
near Bhopal and concluded the treaty of durai sarai by which he got malwa and
bundelkhand.he led innumerable successful expeditions into north india to weaken
the mughal empire and to make the Marathas the supreme power in india.

Balaji baji rao [17401761]:

He was popularly called as nana sahib.he succeeded his father at the age of
20.after the death of shahu[1749],the management of all state affairs was left in his
hands.in an agreement with the mughal emperor[ahmad shah], the peshwa[ 1752]
was to protect the mughal empire from the internal and external enemies in return
for the chauth.

Chauth:

The chauth amounted to 1/4th of the standard revenue assessment of the place.

Sardeshmukhi:

It was an additional levy of 10% .

shivaji claimed both chauth and sardeshmukhi from the areas outside his
kingdom.these taxes were leived as a safe guard against Maratha forces .

Causes for the downfall of the Marathas:

1. Lack of national spirit


Individually the Marathas were clever and bravebut internal jealousies and
treachery triumphed over public interest.
2. Weak economy
The economy of the Maratha state was not on a sound basis.agriculture was
the main source of income but it depended on the rainfall.no proper attention
was paid to industry and commerce.
3. Lack of scientific spirit
The Marathas tried to preserve religion at the sacrifice of science.they
avoided handling modern equipment for fear that they would loose their
religion.they failed to develop artillery as the amin support of defence.
4. Wrong defence policy
The Marathas recruited foreigners as soldiers to defend their country.thus the
Maratha army lacked homogeneity.also they failed to build a strong navy.

BHAKTI MOVEMENT:

The concept of the bhakthi was nothing new to the Indians.it is as old as the
hindu religion, offers 3 paths for attaining salvation the gyan mar or the
path of knowledge. Dharma marga or the path of law and the bkakthi marg
or the path of devotion to a personal god.there is evidence of this path in holy
scriptures like the Upanishads,Ramayana, mahabharatha,gita. These
scriptures distictinly refer to the 2 chief principles of unity of god and
devotion to a personal god.but it was in the 11 th and 12th centuries that the
bhakthi movement rose and grew stronger.
The basic principles of the bhakthi movement was the loving relationship
between the devotee and his personal god.the bhakthi saints discarded
rituals and sacrifices as modes of worship. Instead they emphasized the
purity of heart and mind as also kindness and love to all as the simple way to
the realization of god.they also discarded the castes,creed and gender based
discrimination in the society.

The bhakthi exponents were divided into 2 groups nirguna bhakthi and
saguna bhakthi.

Main characteristics of nirguna bhakthi are:


a. Belief in one supreme god.
b. Self surrender to god.
c. Faith in guru.
d. No belief in caste system, idol worship and ritualism.
e. No attachment to any particular language.

Main characteristics of the saguna bhakthi:


a. Belief in a particular form of god.
b. Non belief in caste system and rituals.
c. Belief in idol worship
d. Popularization of local languages.

Prominent exponents of nirguna bhakthi:

a. Guru nanak:
Nanak was born in a khatri family at talwandi in the Lahore district in 1469.he
spent his life preaching the gospel of tolerance.in order to put an end to thee
religious conflicts he had laid stress on moral virtues.basing on his teachings
his followers founded a new religion known as sikkism .sikh means
disciple.sikhism conceives god as nirakara[formless] and recognizes god by
various names[ram,rahim,gopi,hari].nanak preached his ideals through
kirtanas which are collected in the form of a book called adi granth .
b. Kabir:
Kabir a muslim weaver was one of the greatest pupils of
ramananda.according to tradition he was the abandoned child of a bramhin
widow,he grew up as the foster child of the weaver niru and his wife.he
flourished most probablyin the end of the 14 th century and early 15th
century.he composed beautiful verses in hindi which are still familiar in
northern india.his followers are called kabirpannthis .meaning the
travelers in the path of kabir . He is a contemporary of sikander lodhi.
c. Ramdas:
He was a contemporary of kabir and a fellow disciple of ramananda.a cobbler
by caste,ramdas composed songs about love and devotion more than 30 all
included in guru granth sahib.
d. Namdev:
He was born in 1270.some of his abhangas are included in guru granth sahib.
e. Ramananda:
Ramananda was a great devotee of sri rama.he opened his doors to all- upper
castes, untouchables,muslims ect. He propounded the bhakthi movement in
south india.

Prominent exponents of saguna bhakthi:

a. Ramanuja:
In the 12th century ramanuja tried to assimilate bhakthi to the tradition of
Vedas.he argued that grace of god was more important than knowledge
about him in order to attain salvation.the tradition established by
ramanuja was followed by number of thinkers such as madhavacharya,
ramananda, vallabhacharya.
b. Jnanadev:
He was propounder of the bhakti movement in maharastra.
c. Eknanth:
He was opposed to caste distinction and showed great sympathy for men
of low aste.
d. Tukaram:
He was a farmers son and great devotee of vitthal.
e. Ramdas:
He established ashramas all over india.it was from him that shivaji
received the inspiration to overthrew muslim authority and found the
kingdom.
f. Surdas:
He was a disciple of famous religious teacher vallabhachrya.he sang the
glory of krishnas childhood and youth in his sursagar.
g. Tulsi das:
h. He composed the famous ramacharitamanas .

Philosophies and founders:

1. Advaitha - shankaracharya
2. Vishistadvaitha - ramanujacharya
3. Dwaithadvaitha - madhavacharya
4. Nimbarakacharya - dvaitha advaith
UNIT 3

INDIAN CULTURE

SALIENT ASPECTS OF ART FORMS :

MUSIC :

The earliest treatise on music,drama and dance is bharatas natya shastra


,showing that by the time this treatise was composed,india had a fully developed
system of arts. Nada or sound is supposed to have been the very basis of
creation.infact there is a reference to the music in Vedas.rigveda and Yajurveda,The
Bramhanas,the Upanishads.Sama means music.initially the the saman recital had
only 3 notes,gradually the 4,5th came to be employed.occassionaly 6,7th notes too
have appeared.all later music is considered to have developed from saman.the
science of music called gandharva veda,is a upaveda of the sama veda.
Development of music commenced with the folk idiom evolving in consonance with
regional ingenuity and slowly blossoming into classical forms.

Basics :
The Basic scale [ grama ] of Indian music is heptatonic and its 7 notes or swara
sadja,rishaba,gandhara,madhyama,panchama,dhaivatva,nishada abbreviated to
sa,ri,ga,ma,pa,da,ni.

The sruthi is a theoretical interval of which the scale contains 22.there wer 18
melodic modes called jatis which gradually gave place to the more specific ragas
a note worthy change which has since remained the main characteristic of the
Indian music.

The concept and practice of raga, according to scholars,matured by 5 th century


a.d.raga is a series of 5 or more notes upon which a melody is based.

Talas are rhythmic cycles.they have a universal unity,besides being complicated.the


fundamental units of the Indian rhythmic structure are thisra [ 3],chatusra [4],
khanda [5],misra [7],sankeerthana[9].there is a complex range from the simple 2/4
time [ aditala ] and 3/4 [ rupaka ] to the 14 units of ata tala.these rhytms
ornamented with grace notes and varied by syncopation result in a remarkably
complex rhythmic structure.bharata mentions 32 talas but now there are 120 talas
formed by different combinations.

HINDUSTANI AND KARNATIC STYLES :

Indian music is now styled Hindustani [ north ] and Karnatic [ south ].though there
several common features but are distinguishable from each other.
How and when they developed as 2 different streams is not quite clear.it was in the
medieval age that the branching out became clear.the most acceptable popular
belief is that,the separate development of the Hindustani music was due to the
influence of amir khusrau.[ not accepted by some scholars ].it may have developed
as a consequence of regional influences.the names of the ragas remained the same
in both styles,the corresponding contents varies in each case;in the intonation of
notes and the execution of graces [ gamakas ],stylistic divergence arouse,so too in
the method of singing a raga.

Time and mood :

The hindustanic school began to observe strictly a time theory of ragas.probably a


historical survival from an earlier age when music dealt with as an accessory of
drama and its varying situations.ragas came to be classified in different ways in the
two systems.the north took 6 ragas as primary and also arranged them on the
analogy of family relationship husband and wife, sons, daughters.the 6 primary
ragas were bhairavi, kaushika, hindola, dipak, sriraga, megh. Bhairavi is suitable
for performance at dawn.megh in the morning, dipak and sriraga in the afternoon,
hindola and kaushika at night.on another level, ragas are associated with moods
and feelings- bhairavi with awe and fear, kaushika with joy and
laughter,hindola,dipak,sriraga with love and megh with peace and calm.in the
Karnataka style though there are indications in regard to time,in concerts this rigour
is not strictly adhered to.

Melakartha :
Karnataka music was put on scientific lines at the time of vidyaranya in the early
part of 14th century.his sangitasara may be regarded as the forerunner of the
southern system.the melakartha system conceives of janaka [ parent ] ragas and
janya [ derivative ] ragas.in the mid 17 th century venkatamakhin wrote the
chaturdandiprakasika which became the bed rock of Karnataka
music.venkatamakhin devised the 72 mela kartha ragas under which any
raga,old,obsolete,current or even of the future could be brought in.
In karnatic music there are no purely instrumental compositions,but in Hindustani
system there is a form called gat derived from plucked stringed instrumental
technique another called dhun apparently derived from folk tunes.neither of these
has text.but in both Hindustani and karnatic systems importance is given to
compositions for vocal delivery.

HINDUSTANI MUSIC COMPOSITIONS

The Dhrupad is an ancient form,probably developed from the prabhanda.raja man


singh tomar of Gwalior and Emperor Akbar played a distinguished part in the growth
and development of the Dhrupad.Tansen and Baiju Bawra are also credited with
having done much to develop this form. Dhrupad is a serious and sober composition
which demands effort from vocal chords and lungs.
Khayal is a word derived from Persian and implies idea or imagination.though its
origin is attributed to amir khusru.it is agreed that the form came into prominence
due to the efforts of sultan mohammed sharqui in the 15 th century and gained
classical status from time of nyamat khan.unlike the dhrupad,the khayal is more
delicate and romantic and has more freedom in structure and form.
The Ghazal is yet another product of the Persian influence on Hindustani
music.derived from the urdu poetic form of the same name,ghazals are composed
of independent couplets.though essentially love or erotic poetry,there is an
underlying sufi element,with god as the beloved.the verses of ghazals may be
interpreted in several ways secular,mystical,philosophical.the ghazal has achieved
great popularity in the north,some of its famous composers being mirza galib.

KARNATIC MUSIC COMPOSITIONS :

The vocal form, ragam-tanam-pallavi,is generally the main item in Karnataka music
concerts.the ragam is elaborately improvised alapana in completely free time and
the tanam though rhythmic is still unmeasured.it is the final section,pallavi that is
a composition of words and melody set to a tala.the statement of the composition is
followed by elaborate rhythmic and melodic variations still using the pallavi.

The kriti is ,perhaps the most popular form in Karnataka music.kriti means a
creation,krittanai to sing.though used interchangeably,there is a suitable difference
between the two the kirtanai refers more particularly to a devotional song,with
poetic beauty of the song dominating in the kriti it is the music which is more
important.the major part of the modern repertoire of kirtis set of kirthis comes from
the 3 composers thyagaraja,muthuswami dikshitar,syama shatri who lived in the
18th and early 19th centuries. Purandharadasa [ 1480-1564 ] contributed much to the
development of the kriti.the kriti is embellished by decorative phrases such as
sangathi,a built in a variation of a phrase;niraval,improvised melodic variations of
text;svara kalpana,improvisation based on the sargam passages;chittaswara,a set
of svara in the raga and tala of the kriti
The varnam is a completely composed piece, designed to show the characteristic
phrases and melodic movements of a raga and is usually performed at the
beginning of a concert.
The padam and javali are generally love songs, more lyrical than the kriti, using
poetic imaginary characteristics of the bhakti movement.padams are however, of a
slower tempo and graver import with the love-terms referring to the human
yearning for the adorned godhead.javalis are not quite as allegoric as padams; they
are direct descriptions of human love and faster in tempo than padams.
The tillana is the south Indian musical counterpart of the north Indian tarana
rhythmic and fast in tempo.sometimes a passage of meaningful words is
interspersed in the tillana which is otherwise composed of a variety of meaningless
syllables.

MODERN DEVELOPMENTS

In 1919.all india music academy was established in Bombay.it has opened


vast avenues for research,study,experiment and a better
understanding of different styles besides fostering an interest in music.in 1928 the
madras music academy was founded and it did much to revive interest in karnatic
music.gradually many Indian universities and schools had music on their academic
curricula,and several students of their rolls studying and doing research in this
field.

The spread of interest in music was also due to the part played by all india radio
which brought concerts by famous musicians right inside the home and gave
chance for budding talents to be aired.cinema too has popularized music,though
film sings are now very much influenced by the western techniques.

DANCE :

The sculptures of yore are silent evidence of the antiquity of the Indian classical
dance tradition.sacred texts show the close association of religion with dance.indian
dance like other Indian arts,has always been conscious of the relationship between
the human being and god.the divine concept of the cosmos and the philosophy of
Indian thought pervaded and formed a backdrop to the dance techniques.dance was
a ritual form of worship in temples.the much denigrated devadasis,in their
temples,in their rituals of worship,kept alive the art-form till a cultural revivial
brought the dances out of the temples into the theatres of the present.

The principles of Indian classical dance whatever the style derive from the
natyasastra [ 2nd century a.d] by bharatmuni.natya includes dance,music and
drama.bharatamuni traces the origin of the art form to bramha.it was bramha
who,on perceiving the growing desire,greed,jealousy,anger,misery in the world went
into meditation and created a 5th veda.the intellectual content of rigveda,the music
of the in samaveda,abhinaya of the yajurveda and the rasa from the ayurveda have
been brought together in the natyaveda to embody moral and spiritual truths.thus
the art form is meant not just to entertain but also to instruct and inspire discipline
and righteousness.

There are two basic concepts to Indian classical dance,namely tandava and
lasya.the former denotes movement and rhytm,the latter denotes
grace,bhava,rasa,abhinaya.nritta consists of dance movements in their form;nritya
is expressional,enacting the sentiments of a particular theme.these are expressed
through mudras / gestures and poses.the hasta is a hand gesture representing a
word or even an idea.there are 108 karana or fundamental poses.

Bharatha and other writers have emphasized that learning can only be through
gurus.the traditions the sampradaayas have been taught by gurus to their
sishyas through the centuries.

The nayaka-nayaki bhava,symbolic of the human soul surrendering itself as the


beloved [ nayaki ] of the songs too,can be interpreted on this higher plane.there
are 9 rasas : love,heroism,pathos,humour, anger,fear,digust,wonder,peace.

CLASSICAL DANCE FORMS:

Classical dance comes in many forms in india.each region has evolved its distinct
style with its special nuances, though the basic roots are the same.

BHARATANATYAM:

According to some scholars,the name derives from bharatas natyasastra .some


ascribe it to bha ra and ta standing for bhava,raga,talawhatever the significance of
the name,this ancient dance form has been nurtured in tamilnadu and most
probably derived from the sadir the solo dance performances by the devadasis,the
temple dancers.

the popular name associated with the revitalization of the form is that of rukmuni
devi arundale.in fact encouraged by the famous anna pavlova tolearn
dancing.rukmini devi arundale did much to uplift,enrich and propagate the arft
through her school,kalakshetra.the 2 famous styles of bharatanatyam arethe
pandanallur and the tanjore styles.

A bharatanatyam recital usually begins with alarippu,an inventory piece consisting


of simple rhythmic syllables and basic positions of the dance.the jatiswaram is
pure dance,creating forms of beauty through poses and rhythmic movements.the
shabdam is abhinaya to a song in praise of the glory of god.the varnam,a complex
item,combines nritta and nritua rhythm and expressional items,synchronizing
bhava,tala and raga.this is perhapsthe most challengingitem in bharatanatyam.in
padam,the dancer may reveal mastery over abhinaya.particularly all padams deal
with the theme of love.jawalis are short love-lyrics in a faster tempo.thillana usually
concludes the performance.it is again pure dance with intricate rhythmic variations
and exuberant movement.

Some famous dancers of the recent pat in bharatanatyam are


t.balasaraswathi,rukmuni devi arundale, yamini Krishnamurthy , sonal mansingh ,
padma subramanyam , mrinalini sarabhai.

KUCHIPUDI:

The dance is named after the village of its birth.kuchelapuram in Andhra


Pradesh.the kuseelavas were groups of actors going from village to
village.kuchipudi is the colloquial form of the Sanskrit term , kuseelavapuri.

Kuchipudi dance form may be traced back to the dance-dramas enacted by


bramhins in temples.it was traditionally a male preserve.under the impact of
vaishnavism,the theme began to be based on the bhagavat purana.it was
siddhendra yogi who in the 14/15 th centuries inspired the revival of kuchipudi which
had faced into obscurity.he composed the bhama kalapam which has now become a
part and parcel of the kuchipudi repertory.he prevailed upon young bramhin boys to
dedicate themselves to devotional dances that would lead them to salvation and
they were known as bhagavathulu .

The vijayanagara kings have patronized the dance form as did the Golconda rulers
after them.some of the leading families of kuchipudi dancers were given land shares
in the village.two famous names are vedantam and vempati.indrani rehman played
a pioneering role in popularizing this dance form.the strictly reserve was brought to
the people by the female dancers yamini Krishnamurthy,swapna sundari , shoba
naidu.raja and radha reddy era a famous husband and wife team excelling in
kuchipudi.vempati chinna satyam and vadantam satyanarayana became great
gurus as well as dancers. Kuchipudi combines lasya and tandava elements,folk and
classical shades.prescribed costumes and dancing with the feet on the edges of a
brass plate ]. And tala chitra nritya in which dancers draw pictures on the floor with
their dancing toes.
MOHINIATTAM:

The origin of this dance of kerala is not clear.it is generally held that it was created
in the reign of maharaja swathi thirunal of Travancore in early 19 th century.most of
the songs in its repertory are, indeed,composed by swathi thirunal.the dance of an
enchantress,mohiniatttam has elements of bharatnatyam as well as kathakali the
grace and elegance of the former and thew viguor of the latter. Danced solo by the
girls,it is more erotic,lyrical and delicate than the other two.

The make-up and costumes are distinctive and refined.

The dance-form had sunk into obscurity when vallathoi narayana menon made
efforts to revivie it.with difficulty he was able to get kalyani amma one of the few
existing exponents to teach the dance at kalamandalam.later the dance was
popularized by artists like vyjayanthimala,shanta rao,hema malini.

ODISSI:

According to cultural historians,odissi derives its name from odra nritya which is
mentioned in the natya sastra.after the 12 th century a.d odissi was greatly
influenced by the vaishnavism and the bhakthi cult. jayadevas asthapadi became a
compulsory item in its repertoire.the mahari system soon fell prey to
system,introduced the practice of getting young boys to dance the ritual dances in
the temples.these boy dancers were known as gotipuas.odissi had has some famous
gurus mohan mahapatra,kelucharan mahapatra,pankaj charan das,hare Krishna
behra,mayadhar raut.

The repertory of odissi usually consists of mangalacharan:batunritya [ pure


dance ];pallavi,in which song is celebrated through graceful movements and facial
expressions and interspersed with pure dance and poses.tharjiham,again pure nritta
[ like the thillana of bharatnatyam or tarana of khatak ].moksha the concluding
item,which is the dance of liberation through joyous movements.the trikhanda
majura is another way of concluding,indicating a leave-taking from the gods,the
audience and the stage.Famous dancers of odissi include sanjukta panigrahi,sonal
mansingh,kiran sehgal,rani karna,madhavi mudgal.

MANIPURI:

Rather different from the other classical dance forms of india,the Manipuri style
emphasizes on bhatki or devotion and not at all on the sensuous.manipuri too
traces its origin to mythology.it flourished especially with the advent of vaishnavism.

The drum pung is the very soul of this dance.there are several choloms or
dances in Manipuri the pung cholom,kartal [ cymbal ] cholom,dhol cholom and so
on.the rasaleela is almost inseperable from it.in the choloms,Manipuri presents both
the thandava and the lasya aspects.there are several varieties of rasaleela which
exude devotional love.the songs in Bengali,Maithili,brajbhasaha and Sanskrit are
compositions of jayadeva.chandidas and others.

In the 20th century,it was the poet rabindranath tagore who introduced it in
shantiniketan and helped it to gain prominence.the striking name associated with
the dance is that of the jhaveri sisters nayana,suverna,ranjana and
darshana.besides them charu mathur,sadhone bose,bipin singh have excelled at
this dance form.

Characterized by lyrical grace and soft undulating movements and serene


expression the Manipuri dance style is well known for iys typically gorgeous
costumes.it has limited use of mudras and the dancer wears no ankle bells.

KATHAK:

Born in uttar Pradesh,kathak most probably had its origin in the rasleela of
brajbhoomi.influenced by vaishnavism with the central concept of Krishna as the
divine dancer and radha as his partner the dance was originally associated with
temples and accompanied by keertanas .it derived its name from kathika who
recited verses from the epics with gestures and music.gradually it assumed an
elaborate style involving nritta and ntritya.under the mughals it was influenced by
Persian costumes and styles of dancing.

The revival of the classical style came in the 20th century through efforts of lady
leela-sokhey [ menaka ].any discussion of kathak would be incomplete without
mentioning the gharanas the most famous being
lucknow,jaipur,Varanasi,raigarh.kathak achieved a peak in the reign of nawab wajid
ali khan in lucknow who learnt the dance himself from thakur Prasad.in modern
times birju maharaj has done much to popularize the dance.the jaipur
gharana,launched by bhanuji emphasizes on fluency, speed, long rhythmic
patterns.the lucknow gharana pays more attention to expressiveness and grace.the
gharana of Varanasi is said to have evolved in rajasthan and developed a style of its
own characterization by moderate tempo,grace,precision.

The typical characteristics of kathak are its intricate footwork and pirouettes.it may
be noted that the knees are not bent or flexed.both Indian and Persian costumes are
used.the themes range from dhrupads to taranas,thumris,ghazals.a solo recital
begins with ganesh vandana or a salaami [ mughal style ].aamad ,the item through
which a dancer enters upon the stage;then comes the that comprising soft and
varied movements.items of pure rhythmic beauty todas,tukdas follow.an
interesting aspect of kathak is the mime performed to the accompaniment of
musical compositions in which just a single variations in facial expressions and
hastas.a special feature of kathak is padhant in which the dancer recites
complicated bols and demonstrates them.the concluding item is kramalaya or
tatkar which concentrates on intricate and fast footwork.solo items apart several
ballets are being choreographed in the kathak style by artistes like kumudini lakhia
and birju maharaj.

Some well known kathak dancers are birju maharaj,kumudini lakhia,damayanthi


joshi,rani karna,sarswathi sen,durgalal,devilal,roshan kumari,alka nupur , uma
Sharma,gopi Krishna.

FOLK DANCES:

a. Jammu Kashmir damali,rou,hikit,kud,dandi nach


b. Haryana ghumar,phag,khoria,dhamal,daf,chaurayya
c. Gujarat garbha,zeriyun,kudaniyun,dhamal,goph,gheraiya rasa
d. Maharashtra tamasha,lezim,dahikala
e. Rajasthan jhumar,suisini,jhulan leela,gopika leela
f. Himachal Pradesh gaddi,mahasu thali,nati,jadda,jhainta
g. Punjab bhangra,giddha
h. Uttar Pradesh rasaleela,jhora,chappeli
i. Bengal kathi
j. Assam bihu,khel gopal,tabal chongbi
k. Bihar jata jatin
l. Andhra Pradesh kolattam
m. Kerala kaikottikali
n. Tamilnadu kummi,karagam

LANGUAGE AND LITTERATURE

The literary tradition of india clearly goes back to more than 3000 years and this
period was dominated by the Sanskrit, first in its vedic and later in its classical
form.by the time panninis grammar had standardized Sanskrit [ about 5 th century
B.C ] language had developed another branch besides Sanskrit-language of the
masses,prakrit or middle indo-aryanthe term prakrit has various dialects
Maharashtri,Sauraseni,Magadhi,Arthamagadhi.
The Emergence of the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages dates from the period after
1000 A.D when already the division of regional languages was assuming the shape
that it has today.The main group of the Indo-Aryan languages stretches across north
and central india.the literary development of these languages took place at various
times.after the 18th century,under the impact of the British Rule and European
contact as well as the introduction of Printing,the range of subjects for literature
widened and was modernized.Literary output increased.the process initiated at that
time have continued till the present day.

The Dravidian languages are Tamil,Telugu,Kannada,Malayalam of which Tamil was


the earliest to be developed for literary purposes.The Dravidian languages came
into being before the Indo-Aryan,the Tamil language was less influenced by the
Sanskrit than the other 3 Dravidian languages and the number of Sanskrit words
are fewer in it.kannada and telugu were inhibited at first because their region was
the dominion of the Andhra empire whose administrative language was Sanskrit.By
the end of 9,10th centuries there are plenty of literary works in both the languages.
India never really had a common language used by the masses.even when Sanskrit
grew to prominence and was widely used,it was still the language of the learned
sections of the population.with independence the question of a common language
came up and it was decided by a very narrow margin that hindi would be the
national language of india.

SANSKRIT:
Sanskrit has been instrumental in lending a continuity to the Indian civilization.The
hymns of Rigveda are the seeds of Sanskrit literature.orally handed down for
long,these hymns not only served the purpose of religion but also as a common
literary standard for the Aryan groups in india.The next milestone in the history of
Sanskrit is the Grammar of Pannini the Ashtadhayayi .The form of the Sanskrit
language as described by him became accepted universally and was fixed for all
time.
In the field of secular literature Sanskrit Epic Poetry [ Maha kavya ] was the next
most important development.the story of mahabharatha was handed down orally
for at least a 1000 years after the battle it celebrates before becoming relatively
fixed in writing is written by vyasa.the story of the battle of 18 days between the
kauravas and the pandavas on the battle field of kurukshetra.the Ramayana
traditionally ascribed to valmiki whom bhavabhuthi and others call the 1 st kavi is
considered to have been composed around the 1 st century B.C.
Asvaghosas [ 1st century A.D ] are the earliest epics now available to show the full-
fledged kavya technique.His Buddhacharita present the Buddhist philosophy of the
shallowness of the world through the delights of poetry- the ornament of language
and meaning.later in the 5th century A.D came kalidasa with his kumarasambhavam
which gives the story of the origin of kartikeya,son of shiva and Raghvamsa,a
portrait gallery of the kings of Ramas line,illustrating the 4 ends-
virtue,wealth,pleasure,release pursued by different rulers.to the 6 th century
belongs Bharavi whose epic Kiratarjuniyam presents a short episode from the
Mahabharatha as a complete whole.Rich description and brilliant characterization
are matched by a heroic narrative style.
Sanskrit literature shows a variety of forms and types.the dramatic literature has
been dealt with in detail in the chapter on drama.the katha tradition is exemplified
in the Panchatantra,apparently written in the 4 th century A.D by Vishnusarma.
[ belongs to the vakataka empie in the deccan ].Banas kadambari [ 7 th century ] is
a novel about the timidities and missed opportunities of youth leading to tragedy.in
the 11th century we have Somadevas kathasaritsagara is a huge collection of
stories skillfully narrated. kshemendras illustrating novels are bitter satires on
corrupt bureaucracies and deceit and vice.some of his works are
kalavilasa,Darpadalana,Desopadesa.
The use of Sanskrit prose for scientific,technical and philosophical purposes is 1 st
exemplified patanjalis mahabhashyam,a commentary on katyayanas vartikas on
pannis grammar.after this time and during the early centuries of the Christian
era,much technical and scientific literature came into being.Aryabhatta and
Bhaskara wrote on Mathematics and Astronomy,Charaka and Susrutha on
Medicine.Kautilya on Politics and Administration.

TELUGU:

Telugu is found recorded as early as the 7 th century a.d but as a literary


language it came into its own probably in the 11 th century when nannaya
translated the mahabharatham into this language. However, Nannayas work is
quite original because of the freshness of the treatment.Bhima kavi wrote a work on
telugu grammar besides the Bhimeswara puranam.Tikkana [ 13 th century ] and
yerrana [ 14th century ] continued the translation of the mahabharatam as begun by
nannaya.in the 14,15th centuries evolved the telugu literary form called pradbhanda
[ a story in verse with a tight metrical system ] popularized by Srinatha.in this
period we also have the Ramayana translated into telugu the earliest such work
being Ranganatha Ramayanam by Gona Buddha reddy.potana,jakkana are
important during this period as known religious poets of the day.vemana wrote a
sataka on morals.

The reign of krishnadevarayas of vijayanagara may be considered the golden age


in the literature of the language.krishna deva rayas Amuktamalyada is an
outstanding poetic work.Allasani Peddana was another great poet who wrote Manu
charitra.Nandhi Timmanas Parijatapiharanam is another famous work.Tenali
Rama krishnas popularity lay in his being a poet as well as jester at
krishnadevarayas court. He wrote the Pandu ranga mahatyam.After the fall of the
vijayanagar empire,Telugu literature flourished in pockets of the south,such as the
capitals of the various nayaka rulers.

The modern period in Telugu literature begins in the 19 th century and the initiators
of this period were chinnaya suri and kandukuri veerasalingam.the latter writer
influenced practically all branches of telugu literature.he wrote the 1 st novel,the 1st
play,the 1st research thesis on telugu poets,the 1st autobiography and the 1st book
on popular science in the language.he used literature to eradicate social
evils.famous younger contemporaries of Veerasalingam were Chilakamarthi Lakshmi
Narasimham,Gurajada Appa Rao, K.V. Lakshmana Rao and Visvanatha
Satyanarayana [ won jnanapith award ].

TAMIL:

The Oldest of the Dravidain languages,tamil is at once a classical language like


sanskrit and a modern language like other Indian languages.tamil literature has had
unbroken development over 20 centuries. Dating ancient tamil literature is however
a problem.most scholars agree that Tolakappiyam is the earliest tamil grammar
and literary work.the influence of Sanskrit on it was peripheral.Tolakappiyar who
wrote it is supposed to have been a disciple of rishi Agastya,the author of
Agatiyyam a magnus opus on grammar.

The Earliest known phase of tamil literature is termed as sangam literature


because the anthologies of odes,lyrics and idylls which form the major part of that
literature were composed at a time when pandyan kings of madhurai maintained in
their court a body of eminent poets,called as Sangam .the sangam anthologies
are in 2 parts the aham [ dealing with love ] and puram [ dealing with war ].the
work Thirukkaral by Thiruvalluvar is accepted as a work of great importance,has
drawn from the Dharmasastra,the Arthasastra and the Kamasastra and is written in
a masterful style.the chapters deal with virtue,wealth,pleasure.the Naladiyar is an
anathology in the venba metre.the palamoli by munrurai araiyar adopts the novel
method of exemplifying morals by proverbs.

The epics Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adingal and Manimekalai by Sattanar


belong to the early centuries of the Christian era.there are 3 more epics written
later in the series Jeevaka Chintamani [ by a jain author ].The end of the sangam
age saw the advent of devotional poetry,saiva and vaishnava. Ottakuttan was the
poet-laureate of the chola court.the village of kuttanur in thanjavur district is
dedicated to this poet.kamban rendered the Ramayana in tamil.It is not mere
translation by any means,it is a celebrated work on its own with original touches in
plot,construction and characterization.

After the cholas and pandyas the literature in tamil showed a decline.but in the 15 th
century, Arunagirinathar composed the famous Tiruppugazh .vaishnava
scholars of this period wrote elaborate commentaries on religious texts.Personalities
like Vedanta desikar,manavala mahamuni,pillai lokacharya were patronized by the
discerninig Tirumala Nayaka of Madhurai.Brilliant commentaries were written on the
Tolakappiyam and the Kural.

Christian and Islamic influences on Tamil literature are to be perceived in the 18 th


century. Umaruppulavar wrote a life of prophet mohammed in verse,
Sirappuranam.christian missionaries like father Beschi introduced modern prose as
a form of writing in tamil.his tembavani is an epic on the life of st.joseph.his aviveka
purana guru katha may be called the forerunner of the short story in tamil.
Vedanayagam pillai and Krishna pillai are two Christian poets in tamil.

In the 20th century tamil has made immense progress.Subramanya Bharathis


poems have inspired readers to national and patriotic feelings as he writes of
Personal Freedom,National Liberty and Equality of human beings.there is a spiritual
strength in his kuylipattu,kannnanpattu,and the dramatic poem Panchali
Sabadam.He got the title Bharathi of a literary contest.he also founded the Daily
india and worked for Swadeshamitran.
The modern short story was pioneered by v.v.s.iyer and well established in the
writings of Pudumaippithan,R.krishna Murthy and M.Varadarajan,C.Rajagopalachari
did much to reinterpret the classics in simple prose for the common people to
understand.The post-independence period has brought up several promising writers
ka-na subramanyam,P.v.akhilandam [ Jnanapith award winner ], Indira
Parthasarathy,Neela Padmanabhan,Jayakanthan and others.

KANNADA:

Kannada inscriptions begin to occur about 450 A.D.the earliest kannada literary text
dates from the 9th century.Voddaradhana by a jain is supposed to be the earliest
work in kannada.however the earliest extant work in kannada is the
kavirajamarga,generally ascribed to the Rashtrakuta king, Amoghavarsha.in the 10 th
century the campus style of composition was perfected.Pampa was the master-
pioneer of this art.He is called the Father of kannada Poetry.continuing the epic
tradition were Ponna and Ranna.Pampa, Ponna,Ranna are considered the three
gems and the epithet Golden Age is used for their periodbase.

With Basaveswara introducing the vachana style in writing a revolution came about
in the style in the 12th century.pithy,simple and drawn from daily life,these sayings
spoke up for the quality of men and dignity of labour.around 1260 A.D kannadas
1st standard Grammar,Sabdamani Darpana was written by kesi Raja.under the
patronage of the later Hoyasalas,several literary works were produced.kannada
literature flourished under the vijayanagara kings and their fedutories during the
14-16 centuries.the kannada bharatha by kumara vyasa is an outstanding
work.jainas,virasaivas and bramhins produced poetic works and biographies of
saints.some of the notable names of the period were Ratnakara Varni
[ Bharateswara Charitra ].Abhinavavadi Vidyanada [ kavyasara ],Salva [ Rasa
Ratnakara ],Nanjunda kavi [ kumara Ramane kathe ],Bhimakavi [ Basava
Purana ],Chamarasa [ Prabhulinga ]Narahari [ Toravae Ramayana ].the vaishnava
movement produced the immortal songs of Purandaradasa and kanakadasa.a great
poet of the 17th century was Laksmisa who composed the Jaimini
Bharatam.Sarvajana was the peoples poet.

Modern kannada literature began in mid 19th century and incorporated two aspects
absorption of western ideas and a rediscovery of the past.Lakshminaranappa
[ Muddana ] wrote some good prose works.B.S.SriKanthayya [ Inglis Gitagalu ] gave
kannada poetry conscious modern direction.D.V.Gundappa and k.V.Puttanna were
the other poets of note.Most famous was Puttana [ Ramyana Darshanam ] and
D.R.Bendre [ Nakuthanthi ] have won the Jnanapith Award.the novel in kannada
made lasting impact. M.S.Puttana wrote novels rooted in the kannada soil. A
novelist of note is k.Shivaram karanath whose Chomana Dudi and Marali Mannige
are outstanding works.He has received the Jnanapith Award.Masti Venkateswara
Iyengar is another Jnanapith Award Winner is considered the Father of the Kannada
short story.yet another Jnanapith Award Winner is Prof.V.K.Gokak,poet and
novelist.some dramatists of note are Basavappa Sastri,T.P.Kailasam and
Sansa.Today kannnada literature is flourishing in the hands of writers
P.Lankesh,Girish karnard,U.R.Anantha Murthy.

MALAYALAM:

Pancha Malayalam [ the pure Malayalam ] stream consists of ballads and folk songs
difficult to date.by the 10th century or so,Malayalam had come into its own.as a
literary language,Malayalam was influenced by tamil in its early stages of
development.to this period belongs Chiramans Ramacharitam [ 12 th century
A.D ].then came the works of the niranam poets who show a little less of tamil
influence. Sanskrit also influenced Malayalam,resulting in a special variety of
literary dialect known as manipravalam.in the 14 th century was written lilathiilakam
which is concerned with grammar,especially of the manipravalam
compositions.such compositions were either sandesa kavyas or champus.among
sandesa kavyas,the best known is the Unnunli Sandesan [ 14 th century ] whose
authorship is not known. among the champus a well known work is
th
Unniyaticharitam.in the 15 century there was a move to avoid excessive use of
Sanskrit or tamil idiom.A Pioneer in this class of literature was Rama Pannikar wrote
Kannassa Ramayanam.

Ramanuja Ezhuthachan [ 16th century ] represented grandeur in poetic quality.his


Adhyayama Ramayanam and Bhagavatam are classics in Malayalam literature.his
literary modes were anticipated to an extent by Cherusseri Namboodri who wrote
krishnagatha.Ezhuthachan made popular the literary form known as kilipattu or
song of the parrot.

In the 18th century came Kunchan Nambiar who took literature to the common
masses through his Thullals popular narrative poems full of social criticism and
satire.in the same period we have atta-katha the literature form for the kathakali
performance.kottarakara Thampurans Ramanattam is the 1 st full-fledged atta-
katha.

In the 19th century 2 factors gave a fillip tom the development of Malayalam as a
literary language, namely,the new system of education that had taken roots through
the activities of missionaries and the influence of the madras university established
in 1857.kerala vermas name is famous for devising a programme for developing
the language by the productionof suitable text books for all classes.the venmani
school of poets broke off the shackles of Sanskrit and developed a popular diction to
take literature to the masses.besides there were missionaries like Benjamin Bulley
and Hermann Gundhert who compiled dictionaries.Raja Raja Varma gave Malayalam
an authoritative grammer [kerala paniniyam ] and standadised Malayalam
metres.with kumaran Asan and Vallathol Narayana Menon,Modernism gathered
Momentum.Vallathol brought the spirit of Nationalism into Malayalam
Literature.Asans writings were motivated by Deep Social urges.Sybolism became
prominent and G.Sankara Kurup,the 1 st ever Jnanpith Award Winner was its
outstanding exponent.

HINDI:

The term hindi is used somewhat loosely to denote several dialects which had
evolved distinct literary forms of their own over some five centuries.there was ,and
still is the brij bhasa in which surdas sang,the avadhi in which tulsidas
wrote,rajasthani in which the earliest secular literature in the form of heroic ballads
appeared in north india and in which mirabai sang,Bhojpuri.the mother tongue of
kabir,Maithili which in he hands of vidyapati attained immense grace and
power.what is called hindi today has its vast heritage behind it.but in its present
standard literary form it is of comparatively recent origin not earlier than the 1 st
decade of the 19th century.it is built on the basic structure of a western indo-aryan
dialect spoken in and around delhi known as khari boli an epithet originally used in
a degogatory sense implying rough and crude speech.

The early period of hindi literature is known as adikala.this period comes upto mid
14th century.it may be noted that while the origin of hindi is traced by scholars to the
period between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D.it was only in the late 12 th century and
early 13th centuries that hindi literature could be said to have crossed the stage of
infancy.the adikala period was embellished by the siddhas,the jain poets,the
nathapanthis and the heroic poets.chand bardais prithviraja rasau was the earliest
representation of the tradition of secular writing in hindi [of rajasthani dialect ].one
of the pioneer experimenters in hindi was Amir khusrau.

From the middle of the 14 th century to the middle of the 17 th century Bhakthi kavya
dominates hindi literature.kabir is the outstanding poet of the Nirguna school which
believed in a formless or abstract god.Guru Nanak is another great poet of this
school.The saguna school believed in a god with attributes a human incarnation and
this school is represented by the vaishnava poets singing in praise of either rama or
Krishna.if the great champions of Krishna are sudras and vidyapathi,tulsidas sang of
rama.

There was another school of writing called the Ritikavyakal.Literally the word Riti
means a way .in hindi it refers to the special form giving predominance to the
erotic element.Historic poetry and epics were also written in this period.Muhammad
Jaisi composed his Padmavat a romantic epic in Hindi metre and dialect,but based
on Persian Masnavi Style and written in Persian characters.

The 2nd half of the 19th century saw hindi literature enter the modern period.hindi
had to face the difficult task of cutting a new broad channel into which the waters of
its many tributaries could flow and which could be perennially fed from the vast
reservoir of Sanskrit.this feat was performed by Bharatendu Harishchandra and
Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi says Krishna kripalani.Bharatendu is regarded as the Father
of Modern Hindi Literature.Like wise,Mahavir Prasad dwivedi brought a new viguor
to literary activities and rejuvenated prose writing.writers like Gupta reflected in
their work a simultaneous growth of the old and the new.in his poetry traditional
style in all its vitality is combined with the force of new ideals.he revived the epic
tradition.it was an age when social,political and economic problems were taken
up.notable names of this school are Makhanlal Chaturvedi,Bal Krishna
Sharma,Ramandhir Singh Dinkar.

Then came the romantic upsurge which came to be known as chayavada,jaya


Shankar Prasad.suryakant tripathi Nirala and Sumitranandan pant were the
leaders of this movement.Jaya shankarprasads kamayani published in 1936
presents the psyco-biological journey of amen through time and space. Mahadevi
Varma is another major poet of the chayavad school.Nature was given importance
by these writers who wrote according to their inner urges.

After Chayavad came two rival trends.one was progressivism Pragativada or


peoples poetry inspired by Marxian ideology.Yashpal,Nagarjuna,Rameshwar Shukla
and Naresh Mehta belong to this school.the other was Prayagavada or
Experimentalism,lookin upon experiment or constant quest as the basic element of
life and literature.Vatsayanam [ Agyeya ] initiated this movement.His Sekhar Ek
Jivani is a note worthy work.others in this school are Dhar Amvir Bharathi,Girija
kumar Mathur,Lakshmi kant verma.

In the field of fiction the name of premchand stands out.he brought contemporary
realism into the hindi novel and short story.his imaginative insight into the life of the
common folk, especially in the villages and his simple and direct delineation of that
life had a great influence on many other writers of the time.

In the field of drama the 1 st original drama in the real sense was Gopal Chandras
Nahusa Nataka.but it was Gopal Chandras Son Bharatendu who effected a
compromise between the technique of Sanskrit and western drama to evolve hindi
prose drama in the real sense.

URDU:

The same khari boli thet gave rise to hindi also gave rise to urdu around the 11 th
century ad. The western Sauraseni Ababhramsa is the source of the grammatical
structure of urdu though the vocabulary of the language,its idioms and literary
traditions owe heavily in Turkish and Persian.the term urdu literally means
camp .Amir khusro was the 1 st to employ the language for literary
purpose.however it was in the Deccan in the Bahamani,Golconda and Bijapur courts
that it 1st achieved literary status.urdu poetry has a few literary genres the
Masnavi,a long amorous or Mystical Narrative Poem;Qasida,something like an ode,a
Panegyric;a Ghazal,Lyrical poem composed of self-contained couplets with a single
metre and mood;Marsia [ Elegies ]; Rekhtis and Nazm.

In the North urdu literature flourished when political decadence came about in early
18th century and Persian lost ground.names of notable writers are; Mirzajan-i-janan
mazhar,khwaja mir dard,Muhammad rafi sauda,mir hasan.perhaps the best known
name in connection with urdu ghazal is that of Mirza Asadullah khan Ghalib who
sang of life in all its phases,and was perhaps the most cosmopolitan and original
poet in urdu .

Altaf Hussain Ali was the pioneer of the modern movement in urdu in the 19 th
century.his subject went beyond love and mysticism to hope,justice,patriotism.poets
like Brij Narain Chakbast,Durga Sahai Suroor, Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Mohammad
Iqbal used the medium of poetry to speak of social and cultural problems of the day.

Urdu prose was slow to develop and it was Syed Ahmad khan who set the style with
a plain,matter of fact prose.the tradition was carried on by talented writers like
krishan Chander,Sajjad Zaheer, k.A.Abbas,Ismat Chugtai.The field of fiction projects
names like Ruswa [umra jan ada ] and Premchand.

Jnanpith award winners for urdu writing and Firaq Gorakhpuri [ gul-e-nagma ] and
Qurratul ain haidar [Aag ki Darya,Pathar ki Awaz ].urdu incidentally is written in
the Perso-Arabic script as well as the Devnagari script.

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE:

ART:

Art is an valuable heritage in the culture of a people.when one speaks of art,one


generally means the visual arts architecture,sculpture,painting.

INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION:

Statues and seals:

Based on the archeological evidences,the Indus valley civilization is well spread and
apparently was advanced.it was aculture of high order.it was natural that arts and
crafts should flourish greatly in a society that was so advanced.among the surviving
works of art of this civilization,the most beautiful perhaps is a miniature bronze girl
with thin,stick like limbs who holds a bowl against her thigh.of all the preserved
pieces the best preserved is a 7 inch high head and shoulder of a man.the face
wearing a short beard and a closely cut moustache,and the body draped in a shawl
passing round the left shoulder and under the right arm,suggesting the image of a
priest.there are a variety of objects made in terracotta which include all kinds of
small figurines and ceramic vessels of various shapes and designs. among
numerous small square steatite seals with carved designs along with pictographic
scripts.the seals may have belonged to individuals who used them to mark property
and authentic contracts.

MAURYAN ARTEFACTS:

The splendor of the power that the mauryas tried to create is reflected in an
account of the capital city of patalipautra given by megasthenes.the city occupying
a parallelogram about 10 miles long and 2 miles wide was grided by a stupendous
wooden wall pierced with loopholes for the archers.the wall was topped by over 500
towers and provided with as many as 64 gates.when the Chinese Buddhist piligrim,
fa-hien saw it in 400 A.D he was so impressed by the walls,doorways and the
sculptured designs that he felt sure that they could not have been executed by
human hands.ashoka,the grand son of Chandra gupta maurya,embraced Buddhism
and the immense Buddhist missionary activities that followed encouraged in the
field of art,the development of distinct sculptural and architectural styles.

Pillars:

The court art of asoka is best seen in the white-grey sandstone columns erected by
him all over his empire either to mark a sacred site associated with buddhas life or
to commemorate a great event.on mant of these pillars are inscribed the famous
edicts of asoka propagating the dharma .the pillar in its original form had a
gigantic stone wheel crowning the top of the lions.the crisp craving,smooth polish
and high quality of craftsmanship have earned this work,particularly the capital,a
reputation as one of ancient indias greatest artistic achievements.

ROCK-CUT ARCHITECTURE:

Asokas reign also saw the firm establishment of one of the most important and
characteristic art traditions of south-Asia the rock-cut architecture.the series of
rock-cut sanctuaries in the barabar and nagarjuna hills, near gaya in bihar, contain
a number of inscriptions which show that they were donated for the habitation of
certain ajivika ascetics,perhaps followers of the jain religion.

The dominant features of the Dravidian rock-cut style are the mandapa and
ratha.the mandapa is an open pavilion excavated out of a rock.it takes the form of a
simple columned hall with two or more cells [ compartments for the deity ]in the
back wall.the ratha [ literally chariot ] is a monolithic shrine carved out of a single
rock.

THE STUPA:

The stupa was not unknown in india before the time of asoka.it was originally a
simple burial mound of earth and bricks erected by the vedic Aryans.from the time
of ashoka the stupas became the objects of cult worship.gradually,in Buddhist art
and religion,the stupa became to be accepted as a sort of architectural body
representing the Buddha himself.
CAVE ARCHITECTURE:

The early Buddhist architecture covers the period from the 2 nd century b.c to 2nd
century a.d.the first phase of the excavations in western india was related
exclusively to early Buddhism,which meant the worship of the budda represented
symbolically.the excavations took the shape of,

A. Chaitya prayer hall


B. Vihara monastery

Both initiated in rock the structural forms practiced in less permanent materials like
wood.the chaitya is the more important of the two.

Ex: Buddhist architecture can be seen at karla, kanheri, nasik, bhaja, ajantha.

Before the gupta period, the chief architectural remains, other than stupas and their
surrounding gateways and railings are artificial caves, excavated for religious
purposes. later cave temples and monasteries are to be found in many parts of
india.but it was in the western deccan, under the satavahanas empire and its
successors,that the largest and famous artificial caves were excavated.

Ex:elephant caves,ajantha and ellora caves,junagadh caves,undavalli caves.

HUMAN FIGURES:

Several stone sculptures of human figures demonstrating characteristics of the


mauryan period have been found.of these,one is an extremely well-preserved statue
of a female chowrie [ fly whisk ] bearer [ now in the patna museum ] which was
found by villagers at didarganj.the technique surface refinement and highly polish
undoubtedly relate it to the maurya period.

The figure wears a hip-hugging garment over her lower body,its diaphanous folds
are depicted by double-incised lines across her legs.heavy ornaments,including a
jeweled or beaded girdle,anklets, armbands,necklaces and ear rings adorn the
figure.this type of femininie attire will be seen throughout the development of the
Indian art with some varitation,but essentially,the clinging lower garment,bare torse
and abundant jewellery became the norm.

KUSHAN PERIOD:

The rise and growth of the kushans as a political power [ 1 st century to 3rd century
a.d ] coincided with a great cultural ferment in the country.the age of maturity in the
Indian classical art began now.

Kanishka, the 3rd member in the kushan royal line who developed the empire to its
fulliest extent,was a great patron of the Buddhist religion and under him Buddhist
art has received a significant stimulus. Artistic activities weer fairly widespread and
2 main spheres of kushan art are generally recognized the broader bactria
gandhara region in the north- west lower Kabul valley and the upper Indus around
Peshawar, where strongly hellenised and iranicised works are produced and
northern india,particularly the Mathura region,the winter capital of the
kushans,where works in the Indian style were produced. While the early Buddhist
artists used symbols to represent the presence of the Buddha,beginning with the
kushan rule,the Buddha was represented in human form.

GANDHARA SCHOOL OF ART :

The most notable of the gandharan icons was that of Buddha seated in the position
of a yogi.dressed in .a monks garment.his head displays the signs of his
supernatural powers the large ears,the third eye on his fore head and the
protuberance on his head.these three indicate that he hears all,sees all,knows
all.although the forms are clearly influenced by foreign art,the iconography is
strictly Indian,showing that this art represents a fusion of native and foreign
elements.the great strength of the classical elements in the art of the gandhara
province is best seen in the portrait heads and the representations of classical
deities which found their way into the Buddhist art of the noth-western india.Most of
the gandharan reliefs portray episodes from the life of the Buddha or scenes from
Buddhist.

In the Indian context,the style of gandhara has a Rather insipid flavor .the
Buddha images lack the spirituality of the images of the gupta period.however,it
would be only fair to note that the images have a gentle,graceful and
compassionate look about them.there are 2 phases in the development of this
school the first in stone and the second,from about the 4 th century onwards,in
stucco.

MATHURA SCHOOL OF ART :

This style flourished in the regions round Mathura.the 1 st three centuries of the
Christian era are considered as the golden age of the Mathura school of art.the new
ideals of the Mahayana Buddhism inspired the sculptors.according to the Indian
authorities the creation of the Buddha Image was the greatest contribution of the
artists of this school.

Sculptures are related to Hinduism,Jainism,Buddhism.striking remains show a


female figure from the railings of a stupa,probably jaina.richly jeweled,figures
exaggeratedly broad of hip and slender of waist, with their graceful,almost
provocative,attitude,these sculptures exemplify the remarkable ancient Indian
outlook on life which did not see anything incongruous in the juxtaposition of frank
sensuality in the context of peity and renunciation of the monastery.
Politically prominent people sculptures are carved.jain thirthankaras statues are
sculpted initially in the 1st phase [ eg; Rishabanathas statue with hair upto the
shoulders.parsvanath with a snake.buddha meditating under the bodhi
tree.saraswathi,sun,lakshmi,kartikeya,shiva,kubera,yaksha sculptures are
present ].hindu gods are shown with special features [ eg; saraswathi devi in writing
style.sun on a chariot ].

AMARAVATHI SCHOOL OF ART :

This Art has flourished in the Krishna valley Amaravathi,Nagarjuna


konda,Jaggaiahpeta.the important events in the jataka tales is represented in the
sculpture form in this school of art.the speciality of this art is,the human emotions
are well depicted.[ anger,pity,tears ].

THE GUPTA ART :

The Gupta period may be described as classic in the sense of the degree of
perfection never achieved before or since.this art has the perfect balance and
harmony of all elements in style and iconography. The gupta art is marked by a
deep spiritual quality and a vision which tries to record the higher and deeper truths
of life.while the early gupta period shows an emphasis on hindu art,the climax of
Buddhist art,with all the previous tendencies combined into a classical
statement,comes during the latter period.

Eg; udayagiri caves,eran,deogarh.

In the Gupta images,the Buddhist ideal of serenity finds a noble expression.with the
forms of the buddhas body,the expression of his face and the smile suggesting the
ultimate harmony achieved by the enlightened one.the 4 four Buddha images which
were placed at the entrances of the great stupa at sanchi during the 5 th century
demonstrate the delicacy,grace and tranquility of the sculptural style that
characteristics the art of the mature gupta period.

PALA SCHOOL :

Under the Pala and Sena rulers of Bihar and Bengal [ 8-12 centuries ]both Buddhists
and hindus made fine icons,many in the local black basalt.the special characteristic
of the pala art is its fine finish;figures are much decorated and well polished-often
appearing to be made of metal rather than stone.stone sculptures of the pala school
are found at nalanda,rajagriha,bodhgaya.iconographically 3 stages of nalanda art is
recognized Mahayana phase of Buddha and bodhisattva images,sahajayana
images and finally the kalachakra of kapalika system.

HOYASALA ART:

The hoyasala style [ 1050-1300 A.D ] developed in the southern region of


Karnataka.hoyasala art may be said to have its starting point ,in the temples of the
early chalukyas at aihole,badami and patadakal but when it finally developed in the
mysore region.it manifested a distinctly individual approach which has been called
The Hoyasala Style .one of the principal features of the style at its maturity relates
to the plan and general arrangement of architecture.An important monument is the
kesava temple at Belur [ in Hassan district ].erected on the orders of
vishnuvardhana to commemorate his victory over the cholas at talakad,the deity of
the temple infact Vishnu in his kesava form-was named vijaya narayana.

In a large number of cases the struictures,the structures are double temples,having


most of their essential parts in duplicate and quite often they are triple,quadruple
and even quintiple in plan.at Halebid [ ancient dwara samudra ] the hoyasala
capital,the most prominent structure is the Hoyasaleswara temple dedicated to
shiva.

TEMPLES OF ORISSA:

The temples of Orissa,dated from the 8th to about mid 13th century give us the
information about the indo-aryan architectural style of architecture.outstanding is
the lingaraja temple dedicated to shiva as the lord of the lingam. the parabolic
curve of the great tower [ shikara ] over the sanctum is a striking specimen of the
style.at bubaneshwar,is the mukteshwara temple,frequently called the gem of
orissan architecture.the Sun temple at konark not far from Puri also known as
Black Pagoda is the last and perhaps the most remarkable of all the great hindu
temples of northern india.

CHANDELA SCHOOL OF ART KHAJURAHO:

Under the Chandelle kings of Bundelkhand,a great school architecture flourished in


the 10th and 11th centuries.The chief work of this style is a beautiful group of
temples at khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh.the finest is the saivite temple known as
kandariya Mahadev,built around 1000.other temples are dedicated to Vishnu and
jaina ponotiffs.these temples stand on high terraces.the standard type of khajuraho
temple has a shrine room [ or sanctuary ],an assembly hall and an entrance
portico.these entities were treated as awhole,where as in the orissan style they
were conceived as separate elements joined by vestibules.the shikara is curved for
its whole length and miniature shikaras emerge from the central tower.in the shiva
temple of vishvanatha and the Vishnu temple of chaturbhiya the panchayata
system with four additional corner shrines is exemplified.

VIJAYANAGARA LEGACY:

Hampi was the capital of the kingdom of vijayanagara and its most important ruler
was krishnadevaraya credited with having got built important temples,pillared
mandapas and gopurams.the vittalaswami temple is considered to be the finest
specimen of the vijayanagara architecture.it contains the typical features of the
main temples pillared halls,subsidiary shrines and elaborately decorated
pillars,figural carvings and animal motifs.typically vijayangara period structures in
the temple are the amman shrine and the kalayana mandapam.resembling the
main temple,although on a smaller sczale,the amman shrine is dedicated to the
consort of the male deity of the temple.on some occasions,the bronze deities of the
temple and the amman shrine would be transported from their abodies to the
kalyana mandapam for exhibition and worship.square in shape and containing a
central raised platform surrounded by rows of intricately carved pillars this open but
rich pavilion is one of the highlights of the vijayanagara arts.

Another notable structure is the hall of dance at lepakshi,with shiva surrounded by


huge musical figures on pillars.also remarkable is the festival hall at vellore with its
exquisite carvings of equestrian and other figures on the pillars.Sculptures of this
period are exemplified by large monolithic carvings.the reclining nandi near the
lepakshi temple is believed to be the largest monolithic nandi in the country.even
more impressive is a gigantic representation of seated ugra narasimha at
vijayanagara.

RAJASTHAN ART AND GUJARAT:

The chalukyan [ solanki ] kings of Gujarat patronized a school of architecture that


flourished from the 11th to the 13th centuries.several jaina and hindu temples were
built in their reign in Gujarat and rajasthan.the vimala,tejpala and vastupala
temples at mount abu [ rajasthan 13 th century ] exhibit a style not fundamentally
different that of kajuraho.built on high platforms with the shikara adorned with a
large number of miniature towers,the ceilings in the form of corebelled domes,the
most outstanding feature of this style is its minute and lovely decorativeness.at
modhera are the ruins of a sun temple.three principal components are revealed - a
rectangular resorviour with flagged fights of steps interspaced by small shrines,the
lofty kirtitorana,and the open pillared hall of cruciform shape.among other great
monuments there are the gateway at dhabuli,the jayasthamba at chittor [ 12 th
century ] and the kirthistamba of Rana kumbha at chittor [ 12 th century ].these are
civic types and reveal craftsmens skill.

CHALUKYAN STYLE:

The vesara style of Indian temple architecture has been equated with what is known
as the chalukyan style.the style is also known as Karnataka after the name of the
territory in which it developed. however,this style cannot be said to have an
independent origin,it represents an outgrowth of the earlier Dravidian style.so
modified in its development are to be found in the early Chalukyan kings of the 7 th
and 8th centuries.at Aihole [ Ancient Aryapura ],Badami and Pattadakal,Dravida and
Nagara temples were being erected side by side.thus an admixture of the two ideas
took place,leading to the evolution of a hybrid style.the chalukyan temple like the
dravida consists of 2 principal components the Vimana and the Mandapa joined by
the Antharala.in course of time the storeyed stages of the vimana got compressed
and the ornamental niche motifs one above the other up the tower simulate the
vertical bands of the nagara shikara.ratha offsets break up the walls in
characteristic nagara fashion,further spaced at regular intervals by pilasters in
accordance with the usual dravida mode.the chalukyan temple is characterized by
an exuberant plastic ornament covering all its external surfaces.the virupaksha
temple at pattadakal near badami was built about 70 A.D in imitation of the
kailasanatha Temple of kanchi and displays architectural excellence of a high
order.The Rameshwara cave temple at Ellora belongs to the Chalukyan Period [ 7 th
century ].inside the cave is a four armed dancing shiva.in the Dashavatara cave
temple of the same century at Ellora is a very fine sculpture showing the death of
Hariyankasipu.

RASHTRAKUTA ART:

In 753 A.D,the rashtrakutas established themselves in the deccan as the successors


of the chalukyas.the kailash temple at ellora,built in the time of Krishna 2 and
representing the boldest attempt in the field of rock cut architecture,reproduces all
the details of a structural temple in the intricacies of rock excavation.probably in the
second half of the 8th century,on an island near the west coast was built the cave
shrine of elephant.it was dedicated to shiva,whose image as mahesha [ popularly
known as trimurthi ] counts amongst the most magnificent art creations of india.the
3 faces represent shiva as creator,preserver and destroyer.

PALLAVA ART:

In the south,the pallavas created beautiful monuments in the 7 th century


a.d.mahendravaram [ 600-625] and his son narasimhavarman [ 625-670 ].ppularly
known as mahamalla,were great builders.these pallavas created 3 rock-cut types of
monuments.at mahabalipuram are rock-cut caves known as mandapas displaying
splendid sculptures.in one of these the adivaraha cave [ 1 st half of the 7th century ]
we have effigies of mahendravarman and his 2 queens,the latter typified by their
slender forms.in the durga cave is the figure of mahishasuramardhini.in the
panchapandava cave there are 2 impressive reliefs Krishna lifting govardhana and
the other depicting him in a scene of milking cows.the 5 monolithic temples known
as rathams belong to the reign of mahamalla.they are the earliest specimens of
rock-cut temple art,illustrating different types of superstructure.the dharmaraja
ratham is the highest and has a portrait of mahamalla himself.the draupadi ratham
is an elegant piece,its root plainly a copy of a thatched structure.the shore temple
of jalashayana swami at mamallapuram is built of dressed stone of excellent
workmanship.the kailasanatha temple at kanchipuram built about 700 a.d and
consisting of 3 separate parts,a sanctum with a pyramidal tower,a mandapa and a
rectangular courtyard showing a series of subsidiary shrines or cells.it may be
considered as one of the key monuments of the early dravida style.in the early
pallava monuments the dravida temple may be said to have attained its definitive
form and character.

CHOLA PERIOD:

The pallava heritage was passed on to the cholas [ 10-11 centuries]who revived it
with a fresh approach.2 great creations of the dravida style are the brihadeswara
temple at thanjavur and the temple at gangai-konda chola puramthe vimana or tall
pyramidal tower dominates the whole structure of the shrine with its mandapa and
imparts a sense of power and dignity to it.the brihadeswara temple is dedicated to
lord shiva and contains a huge lingam.a massive monolithic bull chiseled out of a
single rock and which is the second biggest bull in the country [ the 1 st being at
lepakshi temple in a.p ] upto 66mts.an immense gopuram marks the entrance to
the temple complex.chola temple style is characterized by a stringcourse with a row
of griffin heads in the stylobate.

INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE:

The last decade of the 12th century A.D marked the beginning of the permanent
settlement of the muslims in india.the establishment of the muslim rule in the north
india brought together 2 great architectural traditions.certainly a synthesis and
fusion of the best in both traditions evolved.all the more remarkable because of the
basic differences between the two.the mode of prayer and rituals of the muslims
differed essentially from the hindu traditions.the mosque and the mausoleum wer
the centres of Islamic architecture in india.[ concepts which again differed from the
hindu tradition ]

The muslims under religious injunction,avoided representation of living beings, their


decoration taking the form of flat surface ornament,depicting arabesque or
geometrical and floral patterns,inscriptions in various styles of
writing,gliding,painting.inlay on marble through opus sectile or pietra dura.the
hindus revelled in a rich ornamentation,expressive of natural,particularly human
forms.

The features introduced by the musilims in india are minar and minaret.stalacite
and half-domed double portal on the structural side.the monuments more than
anything else,of this period speak of the fusion of diverse elements that embodies
the composite culture .

The indo- Islamic architecture falls into 2 phases: the pathan [ 1206 1550 A.D ]
which ends with sher shah of the sur dynasty and the mughal dynasty [ 1556 1707
A.D ] beginning with akbar and ending with aurangazeb.while the 1 st period has
been called one of uncertainity and improvisation.it was during the mughal period
that what may be called a universal Indian style of Islamic architecture came
into being.
Most of the templates were converted into mosques by making changes in the roofs
and towers. Though the design was chalked out by Islamic architects, delhi rulers
employed hindu craftsmen in construction of this architecture.

The building of the Quwwatul-islam mosque by Qutubuddin aibak in delhi during


1191-98 marks the beginning of the new style of architecture in india.

the qutub minar [ 1206 36 A.D] founded by qutubuddin,completed by illtutmish


and subsequently repaired by firuz shah tuglaq and sikander lodhi is a remarkable
piece of architecture,near quwwatul mosque.the qutub minar is striking for its
symmetry and ornament.

The arhai- din ka- jhonpra at ajmer,originally started by qutubuddin aibak and
provided with the arched screen by illtutmish has a beautiful prayer hall and an
exquisitely carved mirhab of white marble in the west wall.the arch screen is
admirable in decoration though the arches are not true.

In the buildings of the early period,the method of construction of the arch and dome
remained the same.the tomb purportedly that of ghiyasuddin balban,in mehrauli is
usually cited as the 1st example of voussoired arch.but in the khalji period [ 1290-
1320 ] the usage of voussoired arch and dome was established permanently.

The alai darwaza forms part of the ambitious scheme of allauddin khilji to enlarge
the quwwatul Islamic mosque in delhi.it is considered as a gem of the indo- Islamic
architecture.it shows exquisite symmetry of form,perfect shape,fine decorative
carving and a pleasing colour effect through the use of red sand stone and white
marble on its exterior walls.

The tomb of hazrat nizamuddin aulia at delhi provides the earliest example of a
mosque constructed wholly in accordance with Islamic principles.the entrance arch
of the central chamber has under it a in beam-on-brackets, which came to be
almost regularly employed in subsequent pre-mughal buildings.

THE DECCAN STYLE:


The deccan style developed a distinct architectural style in the 14 th to 17th
century.the deccan style is influenced by the building art of Persia.however it
developed as an individuality of its own marked by grandeur of conception and
soundness of structural principles.the hindu influence is seen in the later mature
phase in architectural form as well as in decoration such as door jambs made of
polished,carved black stone,beautiful brackets supporting its cornice.most
noteworthy in architectural terms were the adil shahis and the qutub shahis.
during the time of adil shahi rulers,the deccan style developed into a mature style
in conception, methods of construction,ornament and decoration.features special to
it are the 3 arched faade,the central one wider than others,the bulbous dome
almost spherical in shape.the graceful,tall and slender minaret,frequent use of a
masonery pier of considerable size instead of a pillar,substantial bold projecting
chhajas or cornices constructed on richly carved brackets an dvertical projections
above the skyline,frequently carrying miniature domes.the bijapur buildings are
remarkable for another striking feature [ the treatment of its ceilings they seem to
be built without any apparent support,as the slabs of stones are bound together by
iron clamps and strong mortar.also typical is the richly artistic stucco or stone
carving.
The most out standing monument of the bijapur style is the gol gumbaz, the
mausoleum of Muhammad adil shah constructed during his own life time.it is
famous for its gigantic hemi-spherical dome and its whispering gallery.it is a great
cube with 4 turrets at 4 corners,lifting the dome pillar-wise.the gol gumbaz is said to
possess the largest domical roof in existence in the world.
The qutub shahi or the Golconda style was another powerful style in vogue in the
deccan after the bahamanis.its most distinctive features are the design and
luxuriant ornament in stucco of the facade of buildings including parapet and
minars.the hindu influence in the buildings of the qutub shahis is illustrated in its
motifs of decoration,while the architectural forms and artistic designs are Persian in
character.
The royal tombs of Golconda are prominent among the buildings of this style.most
outstanding of these is that of Muhammad quli qutub shah constructed on a
double terrace and adorned with a majestic dome and minarets and 3 over hanging
galleries in the interior.the most imposing of the qutub shahi monuments is the
charminar at Hyderabad which probably served as a stately gateway.grand in
conception and perfect in workmanship it consists of a central square structure with
lofty arched openings on 4 graceful minars.the different parts are perfectly balanced
and the decorative details elegant.
THE SUR PERIOD:

The sur period architectural style has been described as the latest and most
imposing form of the lodhi style.it has 2 phases.the first,represented by the group of
tombs at sasaram in bihar-indicates soberness with elegance,while the other,as
manifested in sher shahs mosque at the purana quila at delhi.it illustrates the
lavishness of decoration.sher shahs tomb as sasaram lies in the midst of a lake.the
foundation is a stepped basement rising directly out of the water.above it is a
square terrace serving as a courtyard for the tomb proper,which is octagonal and
designed in three dimensional stages,the last one surmounted by a broad,low
dome.

THE MUGHAL PERIOD:

The Mughals had appeared on the Indian scene early in the 16 th century with
babur.He defeated Ibrahim lodhi in the 1 st battle of panipat.he was succeded by his
son Humayun who also could not do anything specifically to art and architecture.the
reason is neither Babur nor Humayun lived long enough to enjoy the benefits of the
new empire and it was the reign of Akbar [ 1556-1605]that witnessed the most
extraordinary transformation of the arts of the land.it was in his time that the
characteristic mughal architecture took a concrete form.

Mughal buildings through out india have a distinctly common style characterized by
imposing facades with four-centred arches and semi-domed roofs,vaults of
intersecting arches,bulbous domes with constricted necks and inverted lotus
tops,pinnacles,ornament in stone or marble carving,inlay,pietra dura,gliding.an
important structural contribution of this style to indo-islamic architecture is the
double dome.

The 1st monument in the real mughal style is the tomb of humayun constructed by
his widow in 1569. the 1st building on the Indian soil in the typical timurid design.it
also represents the 1st of the mughal rooms with arched fronts.the plan and design
of the tomb are indicative of strong foreign,mostly central asian-persian
influence.eg;it is square in plan but its corners are flattened.the maousoleum is a
great architectural achievement on account of the perfect proportions of its
different parts,the pleasing contrast of red sandstone and white marble,the graceful
curves of its bold arches and grand volume of its dome.

Akbar was an enlightened patron of architecture.his building projects are many and
varied,mostly constructed of red stand stone with limited use of white marble.liberal
out look and catholic of taste he patronized indegineous building traditions.as a
result the forceful architectural style of his reign is marked by a judicious mix of
purely indeginous and foreign forms.the central theme of Akbars buildings is the
use of the trabeate system,arcuate forms being adopted mainly for decorative
purposes.the ornament consists chiefly of carvings or bold inlay,perforted screen
work and artistically painted design on the walls and ceilings in gold or colours.

The 1st major building project of akbars was the Red fort in Agra, on the banks of
the Jamuna.an irregular semi-circle in plan, its massive walls are of concrete and
ribble faced entirely with huge blocks of finely dressed red sandstone.within the
fort, most of the extant buildings are those that were constructed in the reign of
Shah Jahan.of Akbars buildings in the fort,only the Jahangiri Mahal is preserved a
large square palace of red sandstone.the hindu influence is strong in the carving
and style of the building.

Akbars most remarkable architectural project was the creation of the city of
fatehpur sikri about 36 kms west of agra.all the buildings are almost wholly of red
sandstone.among the residential buildings,the most important are the
panchmahal,a 5 storeyed structure of open pavilions of traditional inspiration.the
palace of jodhbai offering a sharp contrast between its almost plain exterior and its
richly carved interior with balconies and perforated stone windows and ornaments
niches.
Regarding the official buildings,the diwan-i-khas is a remarkable for its interior with
over hanging galleries projecting from the sides and a central pillar,supporting on its
elaborately bracketed capital a circular seat,joined by radiating bridges to the
galleries.the jama masjid is a magnificent structure,Islamic in general design but
the hindu style employed in construction especially in the side wings of the rich in
carving,painting.another impressive monument is the buland darwaza,built to
commemorate akbars victory return from his deccan campaign and forms the
southern gateway to the mosque.in form it is dominantly Persian and with its semi-
dome which the actual portal is fixed.

The architecture of jahangirs period is more or less a continuation of akbars


period.the most important of the monuments of this period is akbars tomb at
sikandra near agra which was conceived by akbar himself in his life time.with its
marble trellis work and cloisters,surrounded by colonnades on the raised platforms
with walls full of lovely arabesque traceries,the tile decoration and the paintings in
gold and colours it gives a superb effect.some scholars feel it is designed on the
principles of the Buddhist viharas.

The tomb of itimadud-daula built by nurjahan is built wholly of marble and has
exquisite inlay work.it forms a connecting link between the style of akbar and that
of shah jahan.the style assumes a delicate and refined character.the beautiful
pietra-dura or inlay in precious stones over its surface is very much striking.the
tomb of abdur-rahim khan-i-khanan constitutes a significant link between
humayuns tomb and the taj mahal.jahangirs tomb at shahdara near Lahore is in
the centre of a garden.its main ornamental features are the rich surface decorations
of marble inlay,glazed tiles and painting.

From the forceful and robust early mughal style of akbar,there is a transition to the
pretty and elegant late mughal style under shah jahan his is an age of marble
buildings.the domes of shah jahans buildings with their bulbous shape,have a
pleasing effect.shah jahan started his building activities with replacements in the
agra fort.the diwan-i-khas with its graceful double columns carrying multifoil
arches,the khas mahal in which the Bengali curvilinear cornice appears for the 1 st
time in north india.the sish mahal is another noteworthy work in marble.the most
impressive work is the moti masjid situated on a elevation on a red sandstone
basement and covered by three graceful domes of great beauty.the red fort at delhi
is an imposing structure of encircling massive walls,broken at intervals by boldly
projecting bastions topped by domed kiosks and entered through 2 main gateways
the delhi and the Lahore gates.the jama masjid at delhi is one of the most
impressive maosques in the world.the faade of the prayer hall in red sandstone
and white marble and 3 shapely domes of white marble ornamented with strips of
black marble impart beauty and dignity to the whole building.

The piece-de-resistance of shah jahans period and indeed,indo-islamic architecture


is considered to be the taj mahal at agra.built as a mausoleum for his wife mumtaz
maha,who died giving birth to her child in 1631.it was designed by a Persian ustad
isa.it took 14 years to complete and is one of the most renowned buildings in the
world.

ART STYLES:

A. GANDHARA STYLE
B. MATHURA STYLE
C. AMARAVTHI STYLE
A. GANDHARA STYLE :

This style is an amalagamation of the indo-greek styles.the main centres of this


style are jalalabad, bamiyan,beggram [ Afghanistan ],Peshawar
[Pakistan ].historically these places are ruled by the
Greeks,mauryas,sakas,kushans.hence this style has flourished as a mixed cultural
centre.here only the gandhara style prospered in th indo-greek style.mainly
Buddhist religion related sculptures are present.in the buddas statue,features of
apolo are imbibed.buddhas statue has curly hair.

B. MATHURA STYLE :

This style has flourished in the regions around the Mathura.sculptures are related to
Hinduism,Jainism and Buddhism.politically prominent people sculptures are
carved.jain thirthankaras statues are sculpted initially in the 1 st phase [ eg;
rishabanathas statue with hair upto shoulders.parsvanath with a snake ]. Buddha
meditating under the bodhi tree.saraswathi, sun, lakshmi, kartikeya, shiva, kubera,
yaksha sculptures are present.hindu gods are shown with special features [eg;
saraswathi devi in writing style. sun on a chariot ].

C. AMARAVATHI STYLE :

The Krishna valley amaravathi, nagarjuna konda,jaggaiah peta are the areas were
this style has flourished.the important events in the jataka tales is represented in
sculpture form.the speciality of this style is human emotions are well depicted [ eg;
anger,pity,tear ].

PAINTINGS:

The origin of painting in india is related to a legend that bramha taught a king how
to bring back to life the dead son of a bramhin by executing a portrait of the
deceased, which he endowned with life.bramha, as a creator is also associated with
vishnukarma, the divine architect and the presiding genius of art and crafts.

Vatsayana, who lived in the 3 rd century a.d listed painting as one of the 64 kalas or
fine arts in his kamasutra.he enumerates 6 canons or principles of the art,having
extracted them from still more ancient works.the principles are as follows :

1. RUPABEDHA knowledge of appearance


2. PRAMANAM correct perception,measure and structure
3. BHAVA action of feelings on forms
4. LAVANYA YOGANAM infusion of grace,artistic representation
5. SADRISYAM similitude
6. VARNIKABHANGA artistic manner of using the brush and colours.

The subsequent development of painting indicates that these canons were put into
practice by Indian artists.

1. JAIN [11 15 A.D]

This style of painting has flourished in Gujarat.in the Vishnu temple of


madhunapur,u.p we find the jain paintings.they are related to
kalpasutras,kumparala charitra.in the western india,the oldest palm leaf manu
scripts belong to the 11th century.later even some paper manu scripts are available [
eg; vasanatha vilasa balagopala sthuthi ] , history of silabadra.some pictures of
this art are even found in Nepal,Bengal,Orissa regions.

2. MUGHAL [ 1526 1707 A.D ]

This style of painting has initially made paper printing popular.later it had
spread all over india.in the 16,17 th centuries mughal painting reached its zenith as
the kings patronized it very much.babur when he invaded india,has brought along
with him,pictures of timur.in mughal painting,we can see the influence of
Persian,western,Indian styles.[ the combination of these 3 is coined as mughal
painting ]. Humayun brought mir sayyed ali,khwaja abdul samad parsi painters
with him.these 2 made the base for mughal painting.akbar patronized nearly 100
painters in fatehpur sikri.during his time manohar,
daswant,basavan,mukund,harbans.signaturing of the painter in the lower part of the
pictures started this time.during akbars time miniature painting,bird illustrations
styles developed very much.later during Jahangir,mughal painting reached its
zenith.he himself is a good painter.he invited painters from other places central
asia [ farukh begh],Persia [ abdul Hassan ,ustad Mansur,bishan das ].they painted
plants,flowers,animals,birds,nature fantastically.during his time portraits were
maximum.especially pictures of zebra,turkey,chicken,eagle were painted
exceptionally.

3. RAJASTHANI :

This style of painting has started from the 16 th century.the influence of


music,literature of that time has lot of influence on this style.in this style of
paintings normal human life,religion became prominent
aspects.ramayana,mahabharatha incidents,lord Krishna activities are depicted.

4. PAHARI :
This style of painting has flourished between 16-19 centuries.in this
mountains,valleys,forests,nature, way of life of the people are prominent in this
style [ Punjab region ].birds are also painted very well.famous are, baramas
painting , raja ragini pictures , Ramayana , mahabharat,bhagavatgitam, gita
govind,mirabai bhajans,bhakti literature are found in this pictures.at the bottom /
top of the painting poetry is found in this style.color combination in this style is
fabulous.in pahadi styles we can see the influence of basoli,kangra,guleru
[ regionalstyles ] influence very much.

5. PALAS :

The Pala school of Bengal [ 9 12 century ] in the East developed illustrations on


palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on their wooden covers.these illustrations are
almost all inspired by vajrayana Buddhism.the art is charcterised by sinuous
lines,subdued tones and simple compositions.however the miniatures do not
represent a separate style of book illustrations,they are infact,mural paintings in
reduced dimensions.

6. VIJAYANAGARA :

The painting style of vijayanagara period is rooted in the deccan,eg; at ellora and in
the south as in the chola paintings.the best preserved and well known paintings are
those at the virbhadra temple.the ceilings panels are as long as 11 mts [ one is in
fact 18 mts ]. And painted borders with abstract motifs set the compositions off
from their architectural settings.

The lepakshi paintings are characterized by the earth tones and the nearly
complete absence of blue.in fact,primary colours in general.the forms of the figures
and the details of their costumes are outlined in black and the colours applied in a
flat manner.the faces are essentially profiles to which a detached farther eye is
appended giving the suggestion of a 3 quarter view.trees,rocks and other elements
of the landscape are arranged almost like textile designs,filling in the space and
setting the scene without attempting to capture the likeness of the physical world.

PLACES OF CULTURAL INTEREST:

1. AMRITSAR :

It was founded in 1581 A.D by the 4 th sikh Guru Ram Das and named after the holy
tank amritsars [ sacred ambrosial tank ] by which the golden temple,the holiest
shrine of the Sikhs is built.The temple site was granted by Emperor Akbar.Ram Das
restored the tank at the site and named it Amritsagar [ ocean of immorality ].He
began constructing a temple which was completed by the 5 th sikh guru,Arjun Dev
[ 1531 1606 ].Maharaja Ranjit Singh had gold applied to the exterior of the
temple.hence it is called the Golden Temple . It houses the original copy of the
Granth Sahib .

2. AYODHYA :

Earlier called saket and located on river sarayu [ ghagra ] in u.p.it is one of the 7
sacred hindu cities.it was founded by the 1 st king of the solar
dynasty,ikshavaku.rama,the main character in Ramayana was born and cremated
here.many sites in the city are associated with episodes in the Ramayana.the jains
hold ayodhya as sacred as it is the birth place of the jain thirthankaras-
adinath,rishaba and ajitha.

3. BADRINATH :

Snow-capped peaks surround this abode of Vishnu.it is one of the holiest hindu
places near haridwar.a visit to the place is a must for any piligrim according to the
shastras.the main badrinath temple is a small, brightly painted ediffce from beneath
which hot water flows out to form two springs.

4. BELUR MATH :

The head quarters of the Ramakrishna mission and the centre of the Ramakrishna
order of monks was set up by swami Vivekananda in 1899 on the banks of river
Ganga near Calcutta.

5. BODH GAYA :

Holy Buddhist centre near river niranjana where the Buddha attained enlightenment
under the bodhi tree.The tree is said to have been destroyed by king ashoka before
he embraced Buddhism.the tree standing at present at the site is believed to have
grown from a sapling from the original stock.

6. BRINDAVAN GARDENS :

These pleasant extensive gardens near Mysore are laid out below the
krishnarajsagar reservoir across river Cauvery.They are an ideal picinic spot owing
to their flowing lawns,cascades and fountains.

7. CHIDAMBARAM :

The ancient temple complex and holy town of utmost importance.the site of akasa
linga [ the ethereal linga ] is located here.The magnificent Dravidian-style temples
display superior sculptural work and stone carving.The temple is dedicated to
nataraja [ the dancing shiva ]is a magnificent structure with large gopurams.the hall
of 1000 pillars and beautiful carvings depicting scenes from hindu mythology.the
town has produced many tamil saints and poets.
8. CHURCH OF BOM,JESUS [OLD GOA ] :

An important shrine for catholic Christians around the world as it houses the body of
st.francis

Xavier died in 1552 brought from the island of sancian.The body can be viewed
on the death anniversary of the saint.the event is of great significance.

9. DERA BABA NANAK [ NEAR AMRITSAR ] :

The Samadhi of Guru nanak,founder of Sikhism,is found here.the Samadhi,earlier


elsewhere on the banks of the river ravi,was shifted to dera baba after the river
changed its course.it has a gurudwara with silver decorations which was built by
maharaja ranjit singh.

10. DWARAKA :
In the khathiawar peninsula,it is on e of the 4 most holy hindu piligrimage sites and
one of the 7 hindu holy cities.it was the gate way of india [ dvara for door in Sanskrit
] in ancient times for trading ships.the dwarakadish temple [ 12 th century ] devoted
to Krishna and said to have been built in one night has a more interesting exterior
than interior.it was enlarged in the 15,16 th centuries.

11. GAYA :

The town, south of patna, was inhabitated by the magas [worshippers of the sun]
and magicians in the ancient periods.a hindu piligrim centre,it is believed that
Vishnu has endowed it with the power to absolve all earthy sins and so performing
of shraddhas at the Vishnu temple her will open the route to heaven for a man and
his ancestors.the shikhara- style vishnupad temple has a long foot print of Vishnu
imprinted on a rock.

12. HARIDWAR :

It literally means vishnus door.at the base of the shivalik hills where the ganga
river, coming from the Himalayas, passes through a gorge is this sacred city of the
hindus.it was sacked by timur in 1399.in the har-ki-pauri, it is said, lies a stone
bearing the inprint of vishnus foot.here,daksha performed a great sacrifice and sati
[ parvathi ] gave her life.the ardhkumbh and kumbh melas are held every once in 6
and 12 years respectively in January and February.

13. JAIPUR [ CITY OF VICTORY ]:

Built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh 2 in 1728 and designed by vidyadhar


chakravarthy who assimilated hindu,mughal and jain architectural features for the
purpose,it is called th pink city . of india as its buildings have a pink exterior.of
interest are hawa mahal,the amber palace,the city palace and jantar matar.

14. KAILASA MANASAROVARA :


To almoras north in the west Tibetan valley is the mount kailasa, with the
manasarovara lake situated near by.they are holy places for both hindus and
Buddhists.

15. KALAKSHETRA [ MADRAS ] :

A private organization emphasizing unity of all true art whose efforts are aimed at
recognition of arts as an essential element of life.the dance centre imparting the art
of bharatanatyam was founded by rukmini devi arundale.

16. KANYAKUMARI :

The piligrimage destination of spiritual significance is at the lands end,the southern


tip of the country.the bay of Bengal,the Indian ocean and the Arabian sea meet at
this place.it is possible to view the sun and the moon on the same horizon from here
at the time of the full moon in april,it is dedicated to goddess kanyakumari
[ meaning,youthful virgin ],shivas consort.the kanyakumari temple is the most
famous one.

17. KODAIKANAL :

Nort-west of madhurai on the palani hills is this spectacular mountain resort with
beautiful picnic spots and a lake offering boating and fishing pleasures.the breath
taking water falls, like the famous fairy, glen and the silver cascade,add to the
scenic beauty of the place.the observatory here,established in 1899,is a centre for
the study of solar physics,meterology and related subjects.

18. LUCKNOW :

The capital of up on river Gomatis banks was founded by Lakshmana according to


the Ramyana epic.It attained fame as the capital of the Nawabs of Oudh.The city
has many ancient buildings and gardens including the bostan dostan [ 1630-31 ]
built by Muhammad sharif,subedar of avadh.the place is famous for gold and silver
embroidery work,calico printing,ivory carving and clay modeling.

19. MADHURAI :

A temple city in Tamilnadu on the banks of river Vaigai.a legend indicates that
nectar drops from shivas locks fell here and so it was called Madhuram
[ Madhurai Nectar City ].it was the literary and cultural centre during the last three
sangam periods and the capital of the pandya kings.many of its beautiful temples
display the vijayanagar architectural style,prominent being the meenakshi temple.it
is the centre of chugandhi craft a traditional tie and dye craft.

20. NAGARJUNA KONDA :


Located in the Guntur district [ AP ] on the banks of river Krishna.it was earlier
vijayapuri.it was an important Buddhist centre during the ancient times.it receives
the present name from Nagarjuna, a famous Buddhist monk who lived around 2 nd
century a.d and founded the reputed Madhyamaka school.it became the Hill of
Nagarjuna in the 3rd century.Discovered in 1926 excavations at the site have
revealed pottery,viharas,stupas,chaityas,Buddhist sculptures as well as an amphi
theatre of the ikshavaku times.it was found that the site has been continuosly
occupied from early stone age era.the valley was excavated in order to construct
the Nagarjunasagar dam at the site.

21. NALANDA :

South of patna, it was once one of the most renowned centres of Buddhism.this site
presented to the Buddha was where he preached the law.Here are the ruins of the
worlds oldest university founded in the 5 th century A.D the university flourished till
the 12th century when muslim invaders destroyed the monasteries.when Hiuen
Tsang visited the university in the 7 th century, it had a 10,000 students and monks
and attracted scholars from China, Japan, Korea, Sumatra.

22. PURI :

A popular destination for the devoutees.It is famous for the Jagganth temple
dedicated to the Jagganath [Lord of the Universe].All hindus are allowed to visit the
temple, without any caste distinctions being made.every june or july the famous
rath yatra one of indias greatest festivals takes place when massive raths set
forth from the temple to commerate krishnas journey from gokul to Mathura.

23. RAMESWARAM :

An island in the Gulf of Mannar at the Southern tip of the mainland and called
Varanasi of the south .it is a major piligrimage centre.It has the Ramanatha Swamy
Temple,one of the most important temples which was founded by the Cholas but
mostly built in the Nayaka period [ 16,17 th centuries]the over 45 mts high
magnificent edifice has long corridors and beautifully sculputured pillars with
intricate designs and carvings.Rama is said to have made the place sacred by
worshipping lord shiva here after defeating Ravana.

24. SARNATH :

Near Varanasi, it is a holy hindu city and a major Buddhist centre as well.Buddha
preached his 1st sermon after attaining nirvana at the deer park here.the 1 st
Buddhist sangha was founded here.Asoka built the dhamekh stupa and the
dharmarajika stupa to contain relics of the Buddha.The main shrine is where asoka
is said to have meditated and where Buddha settled when in sarnath.it is a centre of
Heenayana Buddhism.

25. SRAVANBELAGOLA :
One of the most Ancient and important jain piligrimage cetre famous for its 17 m
high monolithic nude jain statue representing bahubali,son of the 1 st
thirthankara,after he attained enlightenment.the statue said to be the worlds
tallest monolithic statue,stands on the Indragiri hill and is sculptured from a single,
solid vertical rock.

26. ST. THOMAS MOUNT :

An important Christian shrine housing the remains of st.thomas the apostle


[ doubting Thomas ] who was martyred at the great mount in A.D 52.built in 1504
but rebuilt in 1893,it is one of the few churches constructed over the tomb of an
apostle.

27. SALARJUNG MUSEUM :

One of the 3 National Museums of India.It stores the art collection of Yusuf Ali Salar
Jung 3, the Wazir of the Nizam between 1899 1949.The art collection is said to be
the largest in the world.The museum has 35,000 exhibits from all over the world
arranged countrywise in its rooms.It has a library with a vast collection of oriental
manuscripts.

28. SOMNATH :

Famous for the somnath temple,a major place of piligrimage.it is dedicated to shiva
and houses one of the 12 sacred jyothilingas,which are believed to derive shakthi
from within themselves.said to have been earlier built of gold by the moon
god,somraj,it was later rebuilt in silver,wood and stone.because of its richness it
was plundered by Mahmud Ghazni [ 1024 ad ] others but rebuilt each time.the final
reconstruction began in the 1950s.

29. KASHMIR :

Capital of jammu & Kashmir.flanked by the Himalayan ranges, the beautiful city
stands on the Jhelum river and a number of lakes.Dal lake being the main one.The
city is divided into two by the river was built by Raja Pravarasen.The Mughals
constructed beautiful terraced gardens such as the Shalimar Gardens,Nishat
Bagh,Naseem Bagh,Chashma shahi.Hari Parbat and Takht i-Suleman on which
stands the Shankaracharya temple are two famous hills.

30. SRIRANGAPATNAM :

It is 16 kms from Mysore and situated on a rocky island in the Cauvery river.It was
the capital of the Hindu vodeyars of Mysore and later,of Haider Ali and his Son Tipu
from whom it was captured by the British [ 1799 ].Its main attractions are the
town fort,built by the vijayanagara kings in 1454.The Sri Ranganatha Swamy
Temple,with a black stone figure of Vishnu at rest,which is a hindu piligrimage
centre.Darla Daulat Bagh [ Tipus Summer Palace and Garden ] and the
Gumbaz,Tipus family Mausoleum.

31. ST.PAULS CATHEDRAL [ CALCUTTA ] :

Built in Gothic Architectural Style between 1839 and 1847.It is one of the important
churches in india.it was the First Anglican Cathedral to be set up in India.Hence its
importantance for the Christian Anglicans in the land.

32. TANJORE :

City of temples in Tamilnadu which was the Ancient Capital of the Chola Kings.of its
93 temples, of main attraction is the 63 m high Brihadeswara temple built by raja
raja [985-1014 A.D]from a single piece of Granite.The Gangaikonda Cholapuram
temple,Kampahareswara temple,the city palace and the Saraswathi Mahal Library
are famous.Tanjore is well-known for a special style of painting in which glass is
painted with bright colours.

33. TIRUMALA :

The holy hill 20 kms from Tirupathi has the Sri Venkateswara Temple,a piligrim
centre of extreme importance,dating from the 10 th century.of all the Indian temples
this one draws the largest number of piligrims and is the richest in terms of the
income it earns.to Lord Venkateswara [ Vishnu ] is ascribed the power of granting
any wish made by the visiting piligrims.

34. UDAIPUR :

It is popularly called as The Venice of the East .It is set in the Girwa Valley in the
Aravalli Hills [ South Rajasthan ] by the side of the Beautiful Pichola lake.It was
founded by Maharana Udai Singh in 1586 who named it The City of Sunrise .It has
shining marble and granite palaces,with the huge city palaces being the largest
palace complex in the state.the choti chitrasala is famous for its peacock mosaic
and the moti mahal for its mirror decorations.the two island palaces,jog niwas and
jogmandir,stand in lake pichola.

35. UJJAIN :

One of the several holy cities of the hindus,it is one of the 4 cetres of the triennial
kumbh mela.it is on the banks of River Shipra.Legend reveals that shiva,after
defeating the demon of tripuri,changed the name of his capital from Avantika to
Ujjayini [ one conquering with pride ] and thus the city derived its name.at one
time,even Jainism and Buddhism flourished in this place.

36. VASCO DA GAMAS CHURCH :


It is also called as the St.Francis Church.It was the 1 st in india to be built in the
European tradition.the original wooden building of 1510 was later replaced by
another of stone.vasco de gama was buried here in 1524 though his remains were
moved to Lisbon in 1538.

UNIT 4

BRITISH RULE IN INDA

THE BEGINNING OF THE EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS:

BATTLE OF PLASSEY - 1757

The British Conquest of India,Politically Started with the Victory,in the Battle of
Plassey [ 1757 ].Before this Battle,Lord Hastings [The Then Governor General ],has
alone Conquered 350 kingdoms in different parts of the country.

Conquest of Bengal :

In 1717,Murshid Quli khan [ a Governor ] declared himself as the Ruler of Bengal.But


he failed as an Administrator.Hence the situation in the Bengal province became
Chaotic.He was Incompetent to Control a Huge Province like Bengal.Taking this
situation as an advantage in 1756, Siraj-ud-Daula came to power in Bengal.He
was dead against the British.He firmly beleieved that British Intervention in the
Administration of Bengal was unacceptable. Gradually differences crop up between
British and Siraj-ud-Daula.

There are a few causes for the Battle of Plassey.

a. Misuse of the Trading Privileges


b. The British Interference in the Administration
c. Capture of Fort.William by Siraj-ud-Daula
d. Black Hole Tragedy Incident [ immediate cause for the battle ] the nawab
of Bengal siraj-ud-daula ,followed the practices of war. the English prisoners
[ 146 ] at Calcutta which included some women and children were lodged in a
small room which did not had enough ventilation. most of them died [ 23 ]by
the next day. siraj-ud-daula had been painted as a monster of cruelty and
directly responsible for the tragic incident.
In the Battle of Plassey , Siraj-ud-Daula was killed by the British.The British
forces in this war were led by Robert Clive. The battle was held on 23 rd
june,1757.With the victory in this battle, the British virtually became the
Masters of Bengal.This victory has consolidated their position in India. They
completely conquered the Bengal Region.For the next 190 years they ruled
india as per their needs, benefits, requirements. From then onwards they
have started the concept of drain of wealth .
The battle of plassey is important because of the events that followed it.the
new nawab,mir jafar was dependent on british mercy for the maintenance of
his position in Bengal and for the protection against foreign invasions.an
English army of 6,000 troops was maintained in Bengal to help the nawab his
position.gradually all the power has passed into the hands of the company.
A great transformation came about in the position of the English company in
Bengal.before battle of plassey the English company was just one of the
European companies trading in Bengal and suffering various exactions at the
hands of the nawabs officials.te English has virtually monopolized the trade
and commerce of Bengal.from commerce the English proceeded to
monopolise political power in Bengal.

CONSOLIDATION OF THE BRITISH RULE :

The British after acquiring the province of Bengal , shifted their focus towards the
south india. It is in this context they had fought the Carnatic wars [ 4 ] with the
Rulers of Mysore.

Sri Krishna Deva Raya has created the Mysore province, with Srirangapatnam as the
Headquarters. Later the Nayakars looked after the Administration. A Nayakar ,
Vodeyar has declared independence in 1610.In due course of time this Vodeyar
was defeated by a Muslim Officer, Haider Ali in 1761-62.Earlier Haider Ali was
appointed as a Faujdar of Dindigal by Vodeyar. Between 1761-99, Haider Ali and
his son Tippu Sultan ruled Mysore.

1st Anglo-Mysore War : [ 1766 69 ]

It was fought between Haider Ali and Lord Mccarthy [ the then Madras
Governor ].This war ended with the Treaty of Madras. It is also called as Status quo
Treaty. [ no loss ,no gain to any party ].

2nd Anglo-Mysore war : [ 1780 -84 ]


The 1st two years of the war was fought by Haider Ali.The later 2 years of the war
were fought by his Son Tippu sultan. on the British side Warren Hastings took the
Leadership for 4 years. This war ended with the Treaty of Mangalore.

3rd Anglo-Mysore war : [ 1790-92 ]

This war was fought between Tippu sultan and Lord Cornwallis. The British in this
war were supported by Nizam of Hyderabad & Marathas. Tippu sultan was
completely defeated. The war ended with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam. Almost
50% of the territories were taken by the British. 3 crores of money was taken as
Compensation.

4th Anglo-Mysore War : [ 1799 ]

This war was fought between Lord Wellesley and Tippu Sultan.In this war Tippu
sultan was killed.The British occupied Mysore completely.

With these victories the british became the undisputed masters in the political
matters of india and virtually became the rulers of india.

REVOLT OF 1857

The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of the colonial rule.
the cumulative effect of british expansionist policies , economic exploitation and
administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all
rulers of Indian states,sepoys,zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans etc. the
simmering discontent burst in the form of a violent storm in 1857 which shook the
british empire in india to its very foundations.

The revolt expressed the underlying dissatisfaction and anger among the masses.it
reflected the prevalent mood of the Indian society which was reeling under pressure
from several quarters most of which were a product of british policies.these policies
have a profound impact on the Indian society.

CAUSES :

1. POLITICAL :
Lord Dalhousie in the pursuit of imperialistic policies introduced the concept of
Doctrine of Lapse .under which he annexed the kingdoms of Satara, Jhansi,
Jaithpur, Sambalpur. in the guise of misrule Awadh was kept under the
supervision of a chief commissioner.In 1849,Lord Dalhousie declared that the
successor of Bahadur 2 had to leave the Red Fort.In 1856 Lord Canning
declared that the sons of Bahadur shah 2 will be just considered as princess
but not as rulers.

2. MILITARY :
Lot of Discrimination was showed towards the Indian soldiers in the British
Army.In terms of Promotions Allowances.They were denied of the foreign service
Allowance.The activities of the Christian Missionaries encouraged by the British
Military Officers invited the wrath from the Indian soldiers. Lord Canning
introduced General Services Analystment Act in 1856,which has wounded the
Traditional Hindu soldiers in british army.the 5:1 ratio [ british-indian ] was also
an discrimination.

3. RELIGIOUS :

The social reforms measures of the British Government like Abolition of the
Practice of Sati and the Act of Legalising Widow Remarriage [ 1856 ] has
offended the orthodox hindu community as they felt that british were interfering
in the religious aspects.

The immediate reason for the out break of the mutiny was the introduction of
the greased cartridges to be used in the rifles called as Enfield . These
catridges were coated with cow fat and pig fat. As cow is an sacred animal for
Hindus and pig is an utmost contempt for Muslims.

4. ADMINISTRATIVE :

Rampant corruption in the companys Administration, especially among the


Police, Petty officials and lower law courts, and the absentee sovereigntyship
character of British rule imparted a foreign and alien look to it in the eyes of the
Indians.

5. INFLUENCE OF THE OUTSIDE EVENTS :

The revolt of 1857 coincided with certain outside events in which the British
suffered heavy losses. The 1 st Afghan war [1838-42], Crimean wars [1854-
56].These had obvious psychological repercussions.

Different leaders have led this movement at different places.

a. Delhi - General Bakht khan [Real],Bahadur shah [ Nominal ]


b. Lucknow Begum Hazrat Mahal
c. Jhansi Lakshmi Bai
d. Kanpur Nana Saheb
e. Bihar kunwar Singh
f. Bareli Khan Bahadur khan

The British Military Officers who suppressed the revolt in different places are as
follows,

a. Campbell Kanpur,Bareli,Lucknow
b. Nicolson Delhi [ Nicholson shot down the sons of Bahadur shah 2 ]
c. HughRose Jhansi [ he hailed Lakshmi bai as the only one man among many
rebels ]
d. William Taylor Lucknow
e. Col.oneil Allahabad,Benares

THE REASONS FOR THE FAILURE:

A. There was no centralized leadership to chalk out a common plan of action


and to coordinate the activities of the rebels.
B. Lack of latest ammunition and war techniques heavily costed the rebels.
C. Rebels could not match up with the sophisticated weapons of the British.
D. The able military generals of the British from time to time out smarted the
rebels with their plans.
E. With the end of the Crimean war the British could deploy all the forces to
suppress the revolt.
F. The rebels failed to channelize their energies in a coherent manner.
G. Non participation of certain sections of the society was also a major
cause.Educated indians did not showed any interest in this revolt.
H. The hostile attitude of some native rulers towards the revolt was also
responsible for the failure of the revolt.

Eg : Gulab singh of Kashmir,Nizam of Hyderabad,the Sikhs also helped the


british.

i. Non participation of certain regions like western Punjab, Rajputana,


Madras, Bombay, West Bengal.

CONSEQUENT ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGES AND THE POLICY OF THE


GOVERNMENT

1. The direct responsibility for the administration of the country was assumed
by the british crown and company rule was abolished.
2. The assumption of the government of india by the sovereign of great Britain
was announced by lord canning at a durbar at Allahabad in the queens
proclamation issued on november 1.1858.
3. The era of annexationand expansion has ended and the british promised to
respect the dignity and rights of the native princess.
4. The Indian states wer henceforth to recognize the paramountacy of the
british crown and were to be treated as parts of a single charge.
5. The army,which was at the forefront of the ourbreak was thoroughly
reorganized and british military policy came to be dominated by theidea of
division and counterpoise .
6. Racial hatred and suspicion between the Indians and the English was
aggravated.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1858 / QUEENS PROCLAMATION 1858:

All sections of political opinion in England came to the conclusion that the East India
Companys Economic and Administrative Policies were largely responsible for the
wide spread discontent among the different sections of the Indian society which had
erupted in the revolt of 1857.The government also got alarmed and took the
decision to end the companys rule in india.The government decided to put Indian
Administration under the Direct rule of the Crown.

The British Parliament passed the Government of India Act, 1858 which transferred
the government territories and revenues from the company to the crown. A viceroy
will be appointed on behalf of the Queen to Administer the Indian Territories.Under
the Act of 1858, the Secretary of State became the Constitutional Adviser of the
crown in all matters relating to india. He was assisted by a 15 member council.

Reorganization of the Army :

The Major Changes introduced were,

a. The East India Companys European Forces were amalgamated with those of
the Crown.
b. The Strength of the European troops in india was increased from 45,000 to
65,000.The number of the india troops was also reduced from 2,38,000 to
1,40,000.
c. Various steps were taken to encourage regional loyalities among the soldiers,
so that they may not unite on national considerations.
d. The Economic policy of the British also under went a change. the character of
Drain of Wealth from india which operated on merchantilist principles
under the east india company underwent a change under the crown and took
the form of exploitation through the policy of forced free trade, at a later
stage it took the form of british india finance capitalism.
e. The queens proclamation of 1858 promised To respect the rights, dignity
and honour of the native princess as their own .the new policy was to punish
the princely rulers for mismanagement but not to annex their states.

Coclusion :

The Act of 1858 gave Political unity, Establishment of Peace and Internal stability,
Organization of an all India Administrative System, Development of Economic
Infrastructure by Rapid means of Transport and Communications, Inflow of foreign
finance capital.

SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS


The Dawn of the 19 th century witnessed the Birth of a New Vision a Modern Vision
among some Enlightened sections of the society.This enlightened vision was to
shape the course of events for decades to come and even beyond.The National
Awakening is an inherent quality of the socio-religious reform movements of the 19 th
century.These movements are of two kinds. Revivalist movements & Reformists
movements.The term Renaissance means Revival or Rebirth.In this context some
movements took place in the 19th century.They tried to revive the past glory of the
India and self esteem in Indians to counter the cultural onslaught of the western
education and religious ideas.

The reformist movements were aimed at the elimination of the social abuses and
unequalities.These movements brought national consciousness and awakening.

1. BRAMHA SAMAJ :
The most important of all these movements was Bramha samaj.It is founded
by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.He made a life long crusade against a social evil
called as sati.with his efforts only Lord William Bentinck has promulgated the
abolition of the practice of sati in 1829.
Principles of Bramha Samaj :
a. Unity of god
b. It condemned the caste system and unequality in the society.
c. This samaj was against idol worship.
d. This samaj has resented the bramhinical domination.
e. This samaj has invited the scientific temperament of the western system
of education.

The ideas of the samaj were propagated through the journals Samvada kaumudhi [
Bengali ] and Meerat ul- Akbar [ Persian ].

Raja Ram Mohan Roy authored a book called as A Gift to Monotheism .

2. ARYA SAMAJ :

It was founded by Dayanand Saraswathi in the year, 1875.He was well Educated in
the Vedas under his Guru,Vrijananda Swamy of Madhura.He was given the name
Dayanand Saraswathi by Paramananda Saraswathi of Sringeri math.Dayanand
Saraswathi gave a slogan to the people of india , Back to the Vedas .In his
opinion, the Vedas are Infalliable and Impeccable.Every problem of the human being
is having a remedy in the Vedas.

He was against the idol worship and firmly believed the unity of men.He undertook
the cause of Education for women and fought for the social equality.He authored the
book , Satyarth Prakash [The True Exposition ].His vision included a classless and
casteless Indian society.He employed Hindi language for spreading his ideas.He
introduced a Programme named as shuddhi for bringing back the hindus who
were earlier converted into other religions.

The 10 Guiding Principles of the Arya Samaj,

a. God is the primary source of all true knowledge


b. God,as all-truth,all-knowledge,almighty,immortal,creator of universe,is alone
worthy of worship
c. The Vedas are the books of knowledge
d. An arya,should always be ready to accept the truth.
e. Dharma,that is, due consideration of right or wrong,should be guiding
principles of all actions.
f. The principal aim of the samaj is to promote worlds well-being in the
material,spiritual and social sense.
g. Everybody should be treated with love and justice.
h. Ignorance should be dispelled and knowledge has to be increased.
i. Ones own progress should depend on uplift of all others
j. Social well-being of Mankind is to be placed above an individuals well-being.

3. THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY :

The word Theosophical means divine.This society was founded by Madam


Blavaksky and Col.Olcott in New York in 1875. Madam Blavatsky authored a book,
Secret Datton .

This society was founded to know the Esoteric religions of the East, Promotion of
Universal Brotherhood, Equality of Men, Equality of all religions.These are the basic
objectives of this society.

The Branch of the Theosophical society was founded in india,1882 at Adayar near
Madras.Annie Besant,an Irish Lady.she came to india in the Mission of Theosophical
Society.she was inspired by the book, secret -datton .After she came to india,she
developed Reverence towards the Hindu culture and Religion.she opined that if
there is no Hinduism,there is no India..The theosophical society provided a
common denominator for the various sects and fulfilled the urge of the Educated
Hindus.

4. PRARTHANA SAMAJ:
it was founded in 1867 in Bombay by dr.atmaram pandurang.it was an off
shoot of bramha samaj.it was a reform movement within Hinduism and
concentrate on social reforms like inter-dining,inter caste marriage,widow
remarriage and uplift of women in the depressed classes.
Justice m.g.ranade and r.g.bhandarkar joined it in 1870 and infused new
strength to it.
5. RAMA KRISHNA MISSION:
Swami Vivekananda[ 1863- 1902 ] his original,name is narendranath dutt.he
became the most famous disciple of shri rama Krishna paramahamsa.he was
born in a prosperous Bengali family of Calcutta and educated in Scottish
church college.
In 1886,narendranath took the vow of sanyasa and was given the
name,Vivekananda.he preached vedantic philosophy.he condemned the caste
system and the emphasis on rituals and ceremonies.he participated the
parliament of the religions held in Chicago in September,1893 and raised the
prestige of india.
It is a social service and charitable society.the objectives of this mission are
providing humanitarian relief and social work through the establishment of
schools,colleges,hospitals and orphanages.

UNIT 5

STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRITISH RULE


The major difference between the british colonists in india and the earlier invaders
was that the earlier invaders did not made any structural changes in the Indian
economy or drained away indias wealth as tribute.but the british rule in india has
made a transformation of indias economy into a colonial economy[the structure
and operation of Indian economy were determined by the interests of the britsh
economy].

DEINDUSTRIALISATION RUIN OF THE ARTISANS AND HANDICRAFTSMEN

Cheap and machine made imports flooded the Indian market after the charter act of
1813,which allowed one way free trade for the british citizens.on the other
hand,Indian products found it more and more difficult to penetrate the European
markets.after 1820,European markets were virtually closed to Indian exports.the
newly introduced rail network helped the European products to reach the remotest
corners of the country.

The loss of traditional livelihood was not accompanied by a process of


industrialization in india as happened in other rapidly industrailising countries of the
time.this resulted in deindustrialization of india at atime when Europe was
witnessing a reintensified industrial revolution.this happened at a time when Indian
artisans and handicraftsmen were already feeling the crunch due to loss of
patronage by princess and the nobility, who were now under the influence of new
western tastes and values.

Another feature of deindustrialization was the decline of many cities and a process
of ruralisation of india.many artisans,faced with diminishing returns and repressive
policies abondened their professions moved to villages and took to agriculture.this
resulted in increased pressure on land.an over burdened agriculture sector was a
mojor cause of poverty during british rule and this upset the village economic set
up. From being a net exporter,india became a net importer.

Impoverishment of the peasantry:

The government,only interested in maximaisation of rents and in securing its share


of revenue,had enforced the permanent settlement system in large
parts.transferability of land was one feature of the new settlement which caused
great insecurity to the tenants who lost all their traditional rights in land.there was
little spending by the government on improvement of land productivity.the
zamindars,with increased powers resorted to summary evictions,demanded illegal
dues and begar to maximize their share in the produce and as such had no
incentive to invest for improvement of agriculture.the overburdened peasants had
to approach the money lenders to be able to pay their dues to the zamindars.the
money-lender who was often also the village grain-merchant forced the farmer to
sell the produce at low prices to clear his dues.the powerful money lender was also
able to manipulate the judiciary and law in his favour.
Emergence of new land land relations, ruin of old zamindars:

By 1815,half the total land in Bengal had passed into new hands.the new zamindars
with increased powers but with little or no avenues for new investments,resorted to
land grabbing and subinfeudation.

The increase in the number of intermediaries to be paid gave rise to absentee land
lordism and increased the burden on the peasant.since the demand for land was
high,prices went up and so did the liabilities of the peasant.with no traditional or
benevolent ties with the tenants,the zamindar had no incentive to invest for the
improvement of agriculture.the interests of the zamindars lay only in the
perpetuation of british rule and in opposing the national movement.

Stagnation of agriculture and deterioration of agriculture:

The cultivator had neither the means nor any incentive to invest in agriculture.the
zamindar had no roots in the villages while the government spent little on
agricultural,technical or mass education.all this,together with fragmentation of land
due to sub-infeudation,made it difficult to introduce modern technology which
caused a perpetually low level of productivity.

Commercialization of Indian agriculture:

In the latter half of the 19th century, another significant trend was the emergence of
the commercialization of agriculture.untill now agriculture had been a way of life
rather than a business enterprise.now agriculture began to be influenced by
commercial considerations.certain types of crops began to be grown not for
consumption in the village but for sale in the national and even international
markets.commercial crops like cotton,jute,ground nut,oil seeds,sugarcane,tobacco
were more remunerative than food grains.again,the cultivation of crops like
condiments,spices,fruits and vegetables could cater to a wider market.perhaps,the
commercialization trend reached the highest level of development in the plantation
sector.[ tea,coffee,rubber,indigo] which was mostly owned by Europeans and the
produce was for sale in a wider market.

The new market trend of commercialization and specialization was encouraged by


many factors spread of money economy,replacement of custom and tradition by
competition and contract,emergence of a unified national market,growth of internal
trade,improvement in communications through rail and roads gave boost to
international trade given by entry of british finance capital.the Indian peasant
viewed it as a forced process.there was hardly any surpless for him to invest in
commercial crops given the subsistence level at which he lived.while
commercialization linked Indian agriculture with international market trends and
their fluctuations.
DRAIN OF WEALTH THEORY

This Theory was put forward by Dadabhai Naoroji [ the Grand old man of india ].In
his book, Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India , he very categorically has explained
how british had drained the wealth of india for its needs back home in England.

The term Economic Drain ,refers to a portion of national product of india which
was not available for consumption of its people, but was being drained away to
Britain for political reasons and india was not getting adequate economic or
material returns for it.

The major components of this drain were salaries and pensions of civil and military
officials,interests on loans taken by the Indian government from abroad, profits on
foreign investment in india, stores purchased in Britain for civil and military
departments, payments to be made for shipping, banking and insurance services
which stunted the growth of Indian enterprise in these services.

The drain of wealth checked and retarded capital formation in india while the same
portion of wealth accelerated the growth of the british economy. the surpless from
the british economy has re-entered india as finance capital,further draining india of
its wealth.this had immense effect on the income and employment potential within
india.

THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT [1858


1885]

GROWTH OF MODERN NATIONALISM:

Gradually the people of india came to realize that colonial rule was the major cause
of indias economic backwardness and that the interests of the Indians involved the
interests of all the sections of the society
peasants,artisans,handicraftsmen,workers,intellectuals,the educated and the
capitalists.

The factors which have contributed for the growth of modern nationalism are as
follows,

1. Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of the Country:


The british rule in the subcontinent extended from the Himalayas in the north
to the cape comorin in the south and from assam in the east to Khyber pass
in the west.the british has created a larger state than that of the mauryas
and mughals.while the Indian provinces were under the direct british rule.the
Indian states were under the indirect british rule. A professional civil service,a
unified judiciary and codified civil and criminal laws throughout the length
and breadth of the country imparted a new dimension of political unity to the
hitherto cultural unity that had existed in india for centuries.the necessities of
administrative convenience,considerations of military defence and the urge
for economic penetration and commercial exploitation were the driving forces
behind the planned development of modern means of transport and
communication such as railways,roads,telegraph and electricity.
This process of unification had a two fold effect,
a. Economic fate of the people in different regions got linked together,for
instance,failure of crops in one region affected the prices and supply in
another region.
b. Modern means of transport and communication brought people especially
the leaders from different regions together.this was important for
exchange of political ideas and for mobilization and organization of public
opinion on political and economic issues.
2. Western thought and education:
The introducation of a modern system of education afforded opportunities for
assimilation of modern western ideas.this in turn gave a new direction to
Indian political thinking,although the English system of education had been
conceived by the rulers in the interest of efficient administration.the liberal
and radical thought of European writers helped many Indians imbibe modern
rational,secular,democratic and nationalistic ideas.
The English language helped nationalist leaders from different linguistic
regions to communicate with each other.those among the educated who took
up liberal professions often visited England for higher education.this ever
expanding English educated class saw how the basic rights are denied to
Indians.hence they constituted the nucleus for the newly arising political
unrest.
3. Role of the press and literature:
The 2ns half of the 19th century saw an unprecedented growth of Indian
owned English and vernacular newspapers,despite numerous restrictions
imposed on the press by the colonial rulers from time to time.in 1877 there
were about 169 news papers published in vernacular languages and their
circulation reached 1,oo,ooo. The press while criticizing official policies on the
one hand urged the people to unite on the other.it also helped spread modern
ideas of self government,democracy,civil rights and industrailaisation.the
news papers,journals,pamphlets and nationalist literature helped in the
exchange of political ideas among nationalist leaders among different
regions.
4. Rediscovery of indias past:
The historical researches by European scholars such as max muller and by
Indian scholars such as r.g.bhandarkar and later even swami vivekannada has
created an entirely new picture of indias past.this picture was well
characterized by well developed political,economic and social institutions,a
flourishing trade with the outside world,a rich heritage in arts and culture and
numerous cities.the self respect and confidence so gained helped the
nationalists to demolish colonial myths that india had a long history of
servility to fereign rulers.
5. Progressive characrte of socio-religious reform movements:
These reform movements sought to remove social evilswhich divided the
Indian society.this had the effect of bringing different sections together and
proved to be an important factor in the growth of Indian nationalism.

6. Rise of middle class intelligentsia


The british administrative and economic innovations gave rise to a new urabn
middle class in towns. The new middle class was a well-integrated all india
class with varied background but a common foreground of knowledge,ideas
and values.it was a minority of Indian society but a dynamic minority.it had a
sense of unity of purpose and of hope .the leadership of the indian national
congress in all its stages of growth was provided by this class.
7. Impact of the contemporary movements world wide:
The rise of a number of nations on the ruins of Spanish and portugese empire
in south America and the nationalist liberation movements of Greece and
Italy in genral and of Ireland in particular deeply influenced the nationalist
ranks.
8. Reactionary policies and racial arrogance of rulers:
Racial myths of white superiority wer sought to be perpetuated by a
dileberate policy of discrimination and segregation.indians felt deeply hurt by
this.lord lyttons reactionary policies such as reduction of maximum age limit
for the i.c.s examination from 21 to 19 years[1876],the grand delhi durbar of
1877 when the country was in the severe grip of famie,the vernacular press
act[ 1878] and the arms act[1878] have provoked a storm of opposition in the
country. then the illbert bill controversy.

Conclusion:
All these factors have paved the way for the growth of modern nationalism
among the citizens of india.

INDIAN COUNCILS ACT OF 1861

It was an Act of the Parliament of UK that Transformed the Viceroy of Indias


Executive Council into a Cabinet run on the Port Folio System.This Cabinet has 6
ordinary members who each took charge of a separate department in Calcuttas
Govt.[ Home,Revenue,Military,Law,Finance,Public works ].The Military Commander
in-chief sat in with the council as an extraordinary member.The viceroy was
allowed,under the provisions of the act,to over rule the council on affairs if he
deemed it necessary as was the case in 1879,during the tenure of Lord Lytton.

The Secretary of State, at the time the act was passed is, Sir Charles wood, believed
that The Act of immense importance. The act is a great experiement.That
everything changing in india is obvious enough and that the Old Autocratic
government cannot stand unmodified is disputable .

The 1861 Act resorted the legislative power taken away by the Charter Act of
1833.The legislative council at Calcutta was given excessive authority to pass laws
for the british india as a whole,while the legislative councils at Bombay and madras
were given the power to make laws for the peace and good govt of their
respective presidencies.The governor general was given the power to create new
provinces for legislative purposes.He also could appoint the governors for the
same.However from indias point of view the act did little to improve the influence
of Indians in the legislative council.the role of the council was limited to advice.No
financial discussions could take place.

VERNACULAR PRESS ACT, 1878

After 1858, the European press always rallied behind the government in political
controversies while the vernacular press was critical of the government.There was a
strong public opinion against the imperialistic policies of Lytton, compounded by
terrible famine [1876-77] on the one hand and lavish expenditure on the Imperial
Delhi Durbar, on the other.

The vernacular press act was designed to Better Control the vernacular press and
effectively punish and repress seditious writing.the provisions of the act included
the following.

a. The District Magistrate was empowered to call upon the printer and publisher
of any vernacular newspaper to enter into a bond with the government
undertaking not to cause disaffection against the government or antipathy
between persons of different religions, caste, race through published
material.the printer and publisher could also be required to deposit security
which could be forfeited if the regulation were contravened and press
equipment could be seized if the offence re-occurred.
b. The Magistrates action was final and no appeal could be made in a court of
law.
c. A vernacular newspaper could get exemption from the operation of the act by
submitting proofs to a government censor.
The worst features of the act are ,
1. Discrimination between English and vernacular press.
2. No right of appeal.
There was a strong opposition to the act and finally Lord Rippon has
repealed it in 1882.

THE ILLBERT BILL 1884


This controversy took place during the tenure of viceroy,Lord Rippon.Sir
C.P.Illbert,was the Law Member of the viceroys council.At the instance of the
viceroy he introduced a bill popularly known as the iilbert bill,in the legislative
council on 2 february 1883.the bill sought to abolish at once and completely every
disqualification based merely on race distinction .

Before 1857 there were two separate systems of law and jurisprudence in the
companys territories.the first was the mohammadan law administered in the rural
areas by the companys courts based on the de jure authority of the mughal
emperor.the second was the English law administered in the presidency towns by
the supreme court.most of the governor-generals had felt that it would be unfair to
submit Englishmen in india to the mohammadan law,and as such,except in the
presidency towns.no Indian judge could try criminal cases involving the European
british subjects.indian judges however could try but the dual system of all civil
cases even the Europeans were a party to a dispute.this dual system of law and
courts was abolished in 1861,when the Indian penal code of the year gave a uniform
criminal law to the country and high courts were established in the
provinces.however,disparity between Indian and European judges continued.the
iilbert bill sought to correct this anamoly and gave equal powers to Indian and
European judges.

The bill was most unpopular with the European community in india.Englishmen
particularly of the Planters class iil-treated and even on occasions beat their Indian
servants to death.Those Englishmen were tried by English judges have usually let
off them with no or light punishment.They thought that the viceroy had launched an
attack on his own countrymen.They hurled abuses at him and passed Resolutions
urging the British Government to recall Lord Rippon,before the expiry of his
term.Ripon bowed to the storm of agitation and a compromise was reached in 1884
which virtually surrendered the very principle for which the bill had been
introduced.The amended bill was enacted on 26 january,1884.

THE MODERATE PHASE [1885 1905]

FORMATION OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 1885

The various political associations in the different parts of the country had given the
people a scope to form into a relatively big association which would fight for the
cause of independence to the people of this country.
The efforts of the Indian Association of Calcutta and its leader Surendranath
Banerjee in organizing the Indian national conference deserve special mention.In
December 1883,met the first Indian national conference to which representatives
drawn from all the major towns of india were invited.Shri Anand Mohan Bose,the
president has expressed that the conference would prove to be the first stage in the
formation of a National Parliament.The second national conference met at Calcutta
during the Christmas week of 1884.However the indian national conference was
soon eclipsed by more powerful and popular representaitive,Indian national
congress.
It was left to A.O.Hume,a retired official of the government of india to give a
practical and definite shape to an organization of an all india
character.W.C.Banerjee has popularized the view that the idea of the Indian National
Congress was a product of Lord Dufferiens Brain.Actually Duffereins idea was to
have a political organization through which the government could ascertain the real
wishes of the people and thus save the administration from any political outburst in
the country.Lala Lajpat Rai has maintained that,the Indian National Congress was
organized to serve as a safety valve for the growing unrest in the country
against the british empire.
The Indian National Congress was formed in the year 1885 in
Bombay.W.C.Banaerjee was the 1st President.It was decided in the meeting that
Every year there will be Annual Session of the Indian National Congress.72
delegates have attended the 1st inaugural meeting.

Aims and objectives of the Indian national congress:


a. Form a democratic and nationalist movement.
b. Politicize and politically educate people.
c. Establish the headquarters for a movement.
d. Promote friendly relations among nationalist political workers from different
parts of the country.
e. Develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology.
f. Formulate and present popular demands before the government with a view
to unify the people over a common economic and political programme.
g. Develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among people irrespective
of religion, caste or province.

INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1892

The main provisions of this act were as follows,

Number of additional members in the imperial legislative councils and the provincial
legislative councils was raised .in imperial legislative council, now the governor-
general could have 10 to 16 non- official members.[ previously 6 to 10 ].
1. Some of these additional members could be indirectly elected. thus an
element of election was introduced for the first time in india.
2. The budget could be discussed.
3. Questions can be asked.

Limitations :

1. The officials retained their authority in the council, thus leaving ineffective
the non-official voice.
2. The reformed imperial legislature legislative council met, during its
tenure till 1909,on an average for only 13 days in a year. the number of
unofficial Indian members present was only 5 out of 24.
3. The budget could not be voted upon nor could any amendment be made to it.
4. Supplementaries could not be asked nor could answers be discussed.

THE DIVISION OF BENGAL - VANDEMATARAM MOVEMENT [ 1905 ]

This Movement primarily is the outcome of the Reactionary policies of Lord Curzon.A
sharp reaction was created in the Indian mind by curzons 7 year rule in india which
was full of missions,commissions and omissions.He refused to recognize india as a
nation and insulted Indian nationalists and the intelligentsia by describing their
activities as letting of the gas . He spoke derogatorily of Indian character in
general.the Administrative measure adopted by him during his reign the official
secrets act, the Indian universities act and most importantly the division of Bengal ,
left no doubts in Indian minds about the basically reactionary nature of british rule
in india.

Bengal was the biggest province in the british india.It consisted of


Assam,Bihar,Orissa and chota Nagpur.Assam was separated in 1874 for the
Administrative convenience.Lord Curzon has put forward his political designs in the
name of Administrative convenience.The partition of Bengal was aimed at
reducing the spirit of nationalism and to create the gap between hindus and
muslims.one province was East Bengal with muslim majority [ 31 million ] and west
Bengal with hindu majority [ 47 million ].the motives of Lord Curzon are,

1. Reducing Bengalis into minorities in both the provinces and to damper the
spirit of nationalism in Bengal.As Bengal has been the base for the spreading
of nationalist ideas across the country.
2. To separate muslims on pure communal lines and to win over them.infact
muslims did not demand separate province at that time.

As a result of this partition-harthals,processions and meetings were held and the


evil designs of Lord Curzon was exposed to all the people.the journals like
Sandhya,Yuganthar,Amrith Bazaar Patrika have spreaded vandemataram
movement.The leaders of this movement are Bal Gangadhar Tilak,Lala Lajpat
Rai,Bipin Chandra pal.They invoked the National Awakening by their writings and
speeches.The whole country protested against the Partition of Bengal.severe law
and order problem has occurred.the vandemataram movement has showed
negative impact on the british economy.on the verge of king George 5 to india,Lord
Hardinge was compelled to Annual the Partition of Bengal.

Results :
1. Vandemataram movement was the 1 st successful movement of Indian people
against the British.The national nature of this movement transformed
regionalism into nationalism.
2. Indian national congress became the popular organization and reached out
the masses, unlike in moderate era where it was mainly confined to educated
class.
3. It prepared the ground for non- cooperation movement later launched by
Mahatma Gandhi.

THE EXTREMIST PHASE [1905 1920]

A. REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM :

The Main leaders of this revolutionary terrorism are Bhagat Singh,Surya


Sen,Sukhdev,Chandra Sekhar Azad,Jatin Das.2 separate strands of revolutionary
terrorist groups emerged during this period one operating in Bengal and the other
in Punjab-Up-Bihar.

Major influences :

1. Upsurge of the working class trade unionism after the war.the revolutionaries
wanted to harness the revolutionary potential of the new emergent class for
nationalist revolution.
2. Russian revolution [ 1917] and the success of the young soviet state in
consolidating itself.
3. Newly sprouting communist groups with their emphasis on
Marxism,socialism.
4. Novels and books such as Bandi Jeevan by sachin sanyal.pather dabi by
sharat Chandra chateerjee.
a. Punjab Up-Bihar :
The activities were under taken by Hindustan Republican Army [ HRA ].it was
founded in October,1924 in Kanpur by Ram Prasad Bismil,Sachin
Sanyal,Jogesj Chandra Chatterjee.The aim was to organize an armed
revolution to over throw the colonial power.
b. Kakori robbery case [ 1925 ]
the most important action of the HRA was the kakori robbery.the men held
up the 8-down train at kakori,an obscure village near lucknow and looted its
official railway cash.government crackdown after the kakori robbery led to
arrests of many,of whom 17 were jailed,4 were transported for life ram
Prasad Bismil,Ashfaqullah,Roshan Singh,Rajendra lahiri.
c. Murder of saunders [ Lahore,December-1928 ]

The death of lala lajpat rai due to the lathi blows received during the lathi charge on
a anti-simon commission procession[October 1928]led them once again to take to
individual assassination.bhagat singh,azad,rajguru shot dead saunders,the police
official responsible for the lathi charge in Lahore.

d. Bomb in the central legislative assembly [ 1929 ]:


Bhagat singh and Batukeshwar dutt had throwed a bomb in the central
legislative assembly on april 8,1929 against the passage of the public safety
bill and trade disputes bill aimed at curtailing civil liberties of the citizens in
general and workers in particular.
e. Chittagong armoury raid [ 1930 ]:
Surya sen was the secretary of the Chittagong district congress committee.he
organized an group with his associates Anant singh, Ganesh ghosh,Lokenath
baul.they showed that the mighty british empire can be challenged.they
planned to occupy two main armouries in Chittagong to seize and supply
arms to revolutionaries to destroy telephone and telegraph lines and to
dislocate the railway link of Chittagong with the rest of Bengal.

B. SURAT SPLIT OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 1907 :

In December 1905,at the Benares session of the Indian National Congress presided
over by Gokhale,the moderate-extremist differences came to the fore.the extremists
wanted to extend the boycott and swadeshi movement to regions outside Bengal
and also to include all forms of associations [ such as government service,law
courts,legislative councils etc ].within the boycott programme and thus start a
nation wide mass movement.the extremists wanted a resolution supporting their
programme at the benares session.the moderates on the other hand were not in
favour of extending the movement beyond Bengal and were totally opposed to the
boycott of councils.they advocated strictly constitutional methods to protest against
the partition of Bengal.

At the Calcutta session of the congress in December 1906,the moderates


enthusiasm had cooled a bit because of the popularity of the extremists and the
revolutionary terrorists and because of communal riots.here ,the extremists wanted
either tilak/lala lajpat rai as the president,while the moderates proposed the name
of dadabhai naoroji,who was widely respected by all the nationalists.finally ,
dadabhai naoroji was elected as the president and as a concession to the
militants,the goal of the Indian national congress was defined as Swarajya or Self
Government like the united kingdom or the colonies .also a resolution supporting
the programme of swadeshi,boycott and national education was passed.

The extremists gave a call for wide passive resistance and boycott of
schools,colleges,legislative councils, municipalities,law courts.the moderates
encouraged by the news that council reforms were on the anvil,decided to tone
down the Calcutta programme.the two sides heading for a show down.the
extremists thought that the people had been aroused and the battle for freedom
had begun.they felt that the time had come for the big push to drive the british out
and considered the moderates to be a drag on the movement.they concluded that it
was necessary to part company with the moderates,even if it meant a split in the
congress.the moderates thought that it would be dangerous at that stage to
associate with the extremists whose anti-imperialistic agitations would be
ruthlessely suppressed by the british.the moderates were no less willing to part
company with the extremists.

The moderates did not realsie that the council reforms were meant by the
government more to isolate the extremists than to reward the moderates.the
extremists did not realize that the moderates could act as their outer line of defence
in face of state repression.both sides did not realsie that in a vast country like india
ruled by a powerful imperialist country, only a broad based nationalist movement
could succeed.

The extremists wanted the 1907 session to be held in Nagpur [ central provinces]
with tilak or lajpat rai as the president and reiteration of the swadeshi,boycott and
the national education resolutions.the moderates wanted the session at surat in
order to exclude tilak from the presidency.since a leader from the host province
could not be session president [ surat being in tilaks home province of Bombay ].
instead they wanted rashbihari ghosh as its president and sought to drop the
resolutions on swadeshi, boycott and national education. both sides adopted rigid
positions, leaving no room for compromise. the split became inevitable and the
congress commitment to the goal of self-government within the british empire
appeared as a distant dream.

MINTO MORLEY REFORMS-1909

The reforms were very crucial from an Indian point of view,as it announced separate
electorates for the muslims for the 1 st time.british openly followed the policy of
divide and rule .

1. The number of elected members in the imperial legislative council and the
provincial legislative councils was increased.in the provincial councils,non-
officials majority was introduced,but some of these non- officials were
nominated and not elected,the overall non-elected majority remained.
2. In the imperial legislative council,of the total 68 members,36 were to be the
officials and of the 32 non-officials,5 were to be nominated.of the 27 elected
non-officials,8 seats were reserved for the muslims under separate
electorates [only muslims could vote here for the muslim candidates ],while 6
seats were reserved for the british capitalists,2 for the landlords and 13 seats
came under general electorate.
3. The elected members were to be in directly elected.the local bodies were to
elect an electoral college,which in turn would elect members of provincial
legislatures,who in turn would elect members of the central legislature.
4. Besides separate electorates for the muslims,representation in excess of the
strength of their population was accorded to the muslims.also,the income
qualification for muslim voters was kept lower than that for hindus.
5. Powers of the legislature both at the centre and in the provinces were
enlarged and the legislatures could now pass resolutions [ which may not be
accepted ],ask questions and supplementaries,vote separate items in the
budget but the budget as a whole could not be voted upon.
6. One Indian was to be appointed to the viceroys executive council [ satyendra
sinha was the first to be appointed in 1909 ].

THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT

The Home rule was the Indian response to the first world war in a less charged but a
more effective way than the response of the Indians living abroad which took the
form of the romantic ghadr adventure.
The Indian home rule leagues were organized on the lines of the irish home rule
leagues and they represented the emergence of a new trend of aaggresive
politics.annie besant and tilak were the pinoneers of this new trend.
Factors leading to the movement :
Some of the factors were as follows:
1. A section of the nationalists felt that popular pressure was required to attain
concessions from the government.
2. The moderates were disillusioned with the minto-morley reforms.
3. People were feeling the the burden of wartime miseries caused by high
taxation and a rise in prices,and were ready to participate in any aggressive
movement of protest.
4. The war,being fought among the major imperialist powers of the day,and
backed by naked propaganda against each other,exposed the myth of white
superiority.
5. Tilak was ready to assume the leadership after his release in june 1914,and
had made conciliatory gestures to reassure the government of his loyalty and
to the moderates that he wanted,like the irish home rulers,a reform of the
administration and not an overthrow of the government.he also said that the
acts of violence had only served to retard the pace of political progress in
india.he urged all Indians to assist the british government in its hour of crisis.
6. Annie besant,the irish theosophist based in india since 1896,had decided to
enlarge the sphere of her activities to include the building of a movement for
home rule on the lines of the irsih home rule leagues.

Tilak and annie besant realized that the sanction of a moderate-dominated congress
as well as full cooperation of the extremists was essential for the movement to
succed.tilak and annie besant have set up their separate leagues to avoid any
friction.

Tilaks league it was set up in april 1916 and was restricted to Maharashtra
[ excluding Bombay city ],Karnataka,central provinces and berar.it has 6 branches
and the demands included swarajya,formation of linguistic states and education in
the vernacular.

Besants league it was set up in September 1916 in madras and


covered the rest of india [ including Bombay city ].it had 200
branches ,was loosely organized as compared to tilaks league and had George
arundale as the organizing secretary.besides arundale,the main work was done by
b.pwadia and c.p.ramaswamy aiyar.

The league campaign aimed to convey to the common man the message of
home rule as self-government.it carried a much wider appeal then the earlier
mobilizations did and also attracted the hitherto politically backward regions of
Gujarat and sindh.the aim was to be achieved by promoting political education and
discussion through public meetings, organizing libraries and reading rooms
containing books on national politics,holding conferences,organizing classes for
students on politics,propaganda through newspapers,pamphlets,posters,illustrated
post-cards,plays,religious songs etc.collecting funds,organizing social work , and
participating in local government activities.the Russian revolution of 1917 proved to
be an added advantage for the home rule campaign.

Positive outcomes from the movement :


1. The movement shifted the emphasis from the educated elite to the masses
and permanently deflected the movement from the course mapped by the
moderates.
2. It created an organizational link between the town and the country,which was
to prove crucial in later years when the movement entered its mass phase in
a true sense.
3. It created a generation of ardent nationalists.
4. It prepared the masses for politics of the gandhian style.
5. The august 1917 declaration of montague and the chelmsford reforms were
influenced by the home rule agitation.
6. Tilak and besants efforts in the moderate-extremist reunion at lucknow [ 1916
] which revived the congress as an effective instrument of the Indian national
movement.
7. It lent a new dimension and a sense of urgency to the national movement.
CHAMPARAN SATYAGRAHA - 1917

The first satyagraha which Gandhi took up in india.[ Gandhi returned back to india in
January,1915 ]. gandhi was requested by rajkumar shukla to into the problems of
the indigo planters of champaran in called tinkathia system].when towards the end
of the 19th century german synthetic dyes replaced indigo,the European planters
demanded high rents and illegal dues from the peasants in order to maximize their
profits before the peasants could shift to other crops.besides the peasants were
forced to sell the produce fixed by the Europeans.

When Gandhi,joined by Rajendra Prasad,J.B.kripalani reached champaran to probe


into the matter,the authorities ordered him to leave the area at once.gandhi defied
the order and preferred to face the punishment.this passive resistance of civil
disobedience of an unjust order was a novel method at that time.finally the
authorities retreated and permitted Gandhi to make an enquiry.now the government
appointed a committee to look into the matter and nominated Gandhi as a
member.gandhi was able to convince the authorities that tinkathia system should
be abolished and that the peasants should be compensated for the illegal dues
extracted from them.as a compromise with the planters ,he agreed that only 25 %
of the money taken should be compensated.

KHEDA SATYAGRAHA - 1918

Because of the drought in 1918,the crops failed in kheda district of


Gujarat.according to the revenue code,if the yield was less than the normal
produce,the farmers were entitled to remission.the authorities refused to grant
remission.gandhi supported the peasants cause and asked them to with hold
revenue.the authorities,not willing to openly concede the peasants demands issued
secret instructions that only those who could afford to pay should pay.during the
kheda satyagraha many young nationalists such as sardar vallabhai patel and
indulal yagnik became gandhis followers.

JALLIANWALLAH BAGH TRAGEDY-1919

On Baisakhi day,a large crowd of people mostly from neighbouring villages,unaware


of the prohibitory orders in the city,had gathered in this small park to protest
against the arrest of their leaders,saifuddin kitchlew and satyapal.the army
surrounded the gathering under the orders of from general dyer and blocked the
only exit point and opened fire on the unarmed crowd killing 1000 innocent people.
The incident was followed by uncivilized brutalities on the inhabitants of
Amritsar.the entire nation was stunned.rabindranath tagore had renounced his
knighthood in protest.gandhi was over-whelmed by the total atmosphere of violence
and withdrew the movement [ satyagraha ] on april 18,1919.

MONTAGUE-CHELMSFORD REFORMS 1919

Montague made a statement regarding the Indian leaders demands.

the Government policy is of an increasing participation of Indians in every branch


of administration and gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view
to the progressive realization of responsible government in india as an integral part
of the british empire .

The important points are,

A. Dyarchy was introduced at the provincial level.


B. Bicameralism was introduced at the imperial level.
C. central public service commission was set up [ in 1926 ].
D. The provincial legislative councils were empowered to enact their budgets.
E. The position of high commissioner was set up in London.
F. The concept of separate electorate was further extended to Sikhs,anglo-
indians,Indian Christians and the Europeans.

NON- COOPERATION MOVEMENT : [ 1920-22 ]

It is the 1st movement led by mahatma Gandhi, which assumed the national
character.
Reasons :
1. Failure of the the 1919 act
2. Rowlat act 1919
3. Jallianwallah bagh massacre
4. Khilafat issue

Major Objectives :

a. To address the khilafat issue.


b. To remedy the wrongs of the british in jallianwallah bagh episode.
c. To achieve swaraj

The Montague- chelmsford act of 1919,failed to bring responsible govt in india.in the
guise of diarchy,the british dampened the aspirations of the Indian national
congress and Indian people at large in achieving the responsible government.

The rowlatt act gave unlimited powers to the british.


a. It conferred on the police and the magistrate to arrest any person suspective
of over throwing the govt.
b. It empowered the british to inflict the punishments including death penality.
c. Any person can be taken into custody as an untrail prisoner for any length of
period.the british could take the possession of property and restrict the
movement of any individual.
d. The central legislative assembly passed rowlat act on march 21,1919.

Gandhi called this act as, black bill and on 6 th april he appealed to the people to
start satyagraha [ harthals,prayers,fasting ].

On 10th april, local leaders namely satyapal and saifuddhin kitchelew were arrested
in Amritsar.following this incident,many people led some processions to the deputy
commissioner and followed by many oppressive measures of the govt to restore the
law and order situation general odyer was appointed. Without the notice of
curfew,general dyer opened the indiscriminate firing on 20,000 people who have
gathered at jallianwallah bagh.it resulted in a great death toll and many people
were victimized.this led to a country wide protest from all sections of the
society.rabindranath tagore relinquished his knighthood.

With the rowlatt act and jallianwalah bagh incident,the momentum was gathered for
launching a national movement against the british.the non-co-operation movement
was adopted at the Nagpur session of the Indian national congress in 1920.

Programmes:

a.destructive boycotting of the foreign goods,government jobs,educational


institutions,courts and non-payment of the taxes.

b. constructive using swadeshi- emcouragement to the handlooms,national


education,panchayats to solve the disputes,abolition of untouchability and hindu-
muslim unity.

Due to the chauri-chaura incident,which happened on February 4,1922 in Gorakhpur


district in u.p, Gandhi immediately summoned the executive body of inc at bardoli
and suspended the movement.

Subash Chandra bose called it as national calamity .lala lajpat rai commented, it
is unfair to punish the entire nation for the mischief of a village .

Evaluation :

The 3 major goals of this movement were not all fulfilled.even though it is wrong to
come to the conclusion that it had not achieved anything.

It has promoted hindu-muslim unity.gandhi became the leader of the Indian national
congress and the people of india.it has paved the way for the success to come in
civil disobedience movement [ 1931] and quit india movement [ 1942 ].
SWARAJ PARTY :

The President of the party was C.R.Das and the secretary was motilal Nehru.

Their view:

a. They argued that,entering the councils would not negate the non-
cooperation movement.in fact it would be like carrying on the movement
through other means opening a new front.
b. In a time of political vaccum council work would serve to infuse the masses
and keep up their morale.
c. Entry of nationals would deter the government from stuffing the councils with
undesirable elements who may be used to provide legitimacy to government
measures.
d. Their only intention was to use the councils as an arena of political
struggle,they had no intention to use the councils organs for gradual
transformation of colonial rule.

Their achievements :

1. With coalition partners,they out voted the government several times,even on


matters relating to budgetary grants and passed adjournment motions.
2. They agitated through powerful speeches on self-government,civil
liberties,industrialization.
3. Vittalbhai patel was elected speaker of central legislative assembly in 1925.
4. A note worthy achievement was the defeat of public safety bill in 1928,which
was aimed at empowering the government to deport undesirable and
subversive foreigners.
5. By their activities,they filled the political vaccum at a time when the national
movement was recouping its strength.
6. They exposed the hallowness of the montford scheme.
7. They demonstrated that the councils be used constructively.

Their draw backs :

1. The swarajists lacked a policy to coordinate their militancy inside legislatures


with the mass struggle outside.they relied totally on newspaper reporting to
communicate with the public.
2. An obstructionist strategy had its limitations.
3. They could not carry on with their coalition partners very far because of
conflicting ideas,which further limited their effectiveness.
4. They failed to resist the perks and privileges of power and office.
5. They failed to support the peasants cause in Bengal and lost support among
muslim members who were pro-peasant.

GANDHI IRWIN PACT :

On January 25,1931 gandhi and all other members of the cwc were released
unconditionally.the cwc authorized Gandhi to intiate discussions with the viceroy.as
result of these discussions,a pact was signed between the viceroy,representing the
british indian government and Gandhi,representing the Indian people,in delhi on
februaury 14,1931.this delhi pact is popularly called as Gandhi-irwin pact .it has
placed congress on equal footing with the british.

Lord Irwin on behalf of the government has agreed on,

a. Immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted for violence.


b. Remission of all fines not yet collected.
c. Return of all lands not yet sold to third parties.the next round table
d. Lenient treatment to those government servants who had resigned.
e. Right to make salt in coastal villages for personal consumption [ not for sale ].
f. Right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing.
g. Withdrawal of emergency ordinances.

The viceroy however,turned down 2 of gandhis demands,

a. Public enquiry into police excesses


b. Commutation of bhagat singh and his comrades-death sentence to life
sentence.

Gandhi on behalf of congress has agreed to,

a. To suspend the civil disobedience movement


b. To participate in the next round table conference on the constitutional
question around the three lynch-pins of federation, Indian responsibility and
safeguards that may be necessary in indias interest.

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT :[ 1931 ]

Many factors have culminated into the making of this movement.

Motilal Nehru report has demanded for the dominion status to india.but the british
paid no respect to this demand.gandhiji warned the british govt that if they dont
comply with this demand,civil-disobedience movement would be started within one
year.

The world economic depression in 1929 effected india adversely and the working
class went on strikes. the british was alarmed at the terrorist activities of bhagat
singh and his associates.[ they murdered saunders and threw bomb on the central
legislative assembly ].

The historical congress session at Lahore in 1929 declared poorna swaraj as the
ultimate goal of the Indian national congress.gandhi has demanded the british
government with 11 points scheme,the important are as follows,

1. Reduction of land tax by 50 %


2. Reduction of military expenditure by 50 %
3. Reduction of the salaries of higher officials
4. Complete prohibition
5. Abolition of the salt tax
6. Abolition of cid department
7. Reserving coastal shipping for the Indian ships
8. Issue of the licenses to Indians for keeping arms for self-defence.

On 12th march Gandhi with his 19 followers started from shabaramathi ashram and
in 24 days he reached dandi,a village in surat district on sea shore on 6 th april after
morning prayers,Gandhi picked up a handful of salt and symbolically broke the salt
law.it took different forms in different places,breaking the salt law became wide
spread in the entire country.no tax campaigns were held in
bardoli,Karnataka,Bengal.

The british government with barbaric repressive measures tried to contain this
movement.large number of women also participated in this movement.the british
won over the minorities,especially the muslim league did not join this
movement.but khan abdul gaffer khan popularly known as frontier Gandhi led
this movement in north west with his followers known as khudai kidmatgars -
servants of god [ red shirts ]

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935

1. The concept of all-india federation was mooted.


2. The administrative items was divided into 3 lists
a. Federal list 59 items
b. Provincial list 54 items
c. Concurrent list 36 items
3. Federal court was set up in 1937.
4. Provincial and joint public commissions were provisioned.
5. Diarchy at the provinces was cancelled, provincial autonomy was granted.
6. Out of all provinces, in 6 provinces bicameralism was introduced.
AUGUST OFFER [ 1940 ]

Hitlers astounding success and the fall of Belgium,Holland,france put England in a


conciliatory mood.To get Indian cooperation in the war effort,the viceroy announced
the august offer which proposed,

a. Dominion status as the objective for india.


b. Expansion of viceroys executive council
c. Setting up of a constituent assembly after the war where mainly Indians
would decide the constitution according to their social, economic and political
conceptions,subject to fulfillment of the obligation of the government
regarding defence,minority rights,treaties with states,all india services.
d. No future constitution to be adopted without the consent of the minorities.

The congress rejected the august offer.nehru said dominion status concept is dead
as a door nail .

That the decleration had widened the gulf between the nationalists and the british
rulers.

The muslim league welcomed the veto assurance given to the league,and reiterated
its position that partition was the only solution to the dead lock.

CRIPPS MISSION

In March 1942, a mission headed by Stafford Cripps was sent to India with
constitutional proposals to seek Indian support for the war.He was a left wing
labourite.The leader of House of Commons and a member of the British war cabinet
who had actively supported the Indian National Movement.
Why cripps mission :
Because of the Reverses suffered by Britain in South-East Asia,The Japanese threat
to invade india seemed real now and Indian support became very crucial.
There was a pressure on Britain from Allies [ USA,USSR,CHINA ] to seek the Indian
cooperation.
The Indian nationalists had agreed to support the allied cause if substantial power
was transferred immediately and complete independence given after the war.
Main proposals :
1. An Indian union with a dominion status would be set up.it would be free to
decide its relations with the common wealth and free to participate in the
united nations and other international bodies.
2. After the end of the war,a constituient assembly would be convened to frame a
new constitution.members of this assembly would be partly elected by the
provincial assemblies through proportional representation and partly
nominated by the princess.
3. The british government would accept the new constitution subject to two
conditions.
a. Any province not willing to join the union could have a separate constitution
and form a separate union.
b. The new constitution making body and the British government would
negotiate a treaty to effect the transfer of power and to safeguard racial
and religious minorities.
4. In the meantime, defence of india would remain in the hands of the british and
all the powers will be intact.

Why cripps mission failed :

The cripps mission proposals failed to satisfy the Indian nationalists and turned out
to be merely a propaganda device.the draw backs of the proposals as pointed out
by congress are,

1. The offer of dominion status instead of a provision for complete


independence.
2. Representation of the states by nominess and not by elected representatives.
3. Right of provinces to seduce as this went against the principle of national
unity.
4. Absence of any plan for immediaite transfer of power and absence of any real
share in defence, the viceroys supremacy had been retained.
5. The demand for viceroy being only the constitutional head had not been
accepted.

Mahatma Gandhi described the scheme as Post Dated Cheque .

QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT - 1942

After cripps departure Gandhi framed a resolution calling for british withdrawal and
a non-violent,non-co-operation movement against any Japanese invasion.the cwc
meeting at wardha [ july 14,1942 ] has accepted the idea of a struggle.

Reasons :

a. the failure of the cripps mission to solve the constitutional deadlock exposed
britains unchanged attitude on constitutional advancement and made it
clear that any more silence would be tantamount to accepting the british
right to decide the fate of Indians without consulting them.
b. There was a popular discontent because of rising prices and shortage of
rice,salt etc.and because of factors such as commandeering of boats in
Bengal,Orissa.there were fears of Britain following a scorched earth policy in
assam,Bengal,Orissa against possible Japanese invasion.
c. News of reverses suffered by the British in south-east asia and an imminent
british collapse enhanced to discontent.popular faith in the stability of british
rule was so low that people were withdrawing deposits from banks and post
offices.
d. The leadership wanted to condition the masses for a possible Japanese
invasion.

Aicc meeting Gowalia tank,Bombay [ August 8,1942 ] :

The Quit India resolution was ratified and the meetingresolved to,

a. Demand an immediate end to british rule in india.


b. Declare commitment of free india to defend itself against all types of fascism
and imperialism.
c. Form a provisional government of india after british withdrawal.
d. Sanction a civil disobedience movement against british rule.
e. Gandhi was named as the leader of the struggle.

Gandhis general instructions to different sections :

1. Government servants do not resign but declare your allegiance to the


congress.
2. Soldiers do not leave the army but do not fire on compatriots.
3. Students if confident,leave studies.
4. Peasants if the zamindars are anti-government,pay mutually agreed rent
and if zamindars are pro-government,do not pay rent.
5. Princes support the masses and accept sovereignity of your people.
6. Princely statess people support the ruler only if he is anti-government and
declare yourselves to be a part of the Indian nation.

The slogan given by Gandhi for this movement is Do or Die .

Public on Rampage :

The general public attacked symbols of authority,hoisting national flags forcibly on


public buildings.satyagrahis offered themselves up to arrest ,bridges were blown
up,railway tracks were removed and telegraph lines were cut.this king of activity
was most intense in eastern up,bihar.students responded by going on strikes in
schools and colleges,participating in processions,writing and distributing illegal
news sheets [ patrikas ] and acting as couriers for underground networks.workers
went on strike In Ahmedabad,Bombay,Jamshedpur,Ahmednagar,Poona.

Underground activity :

This was undertaken by the socialists,forward bloc members,Gandhi


ashramites,revolutionary terrorists and local organizations in
Bombay,poona,satara,baroda,Gujarat,Karnataka, kerala,Andhra,up, bihar,
delhi.underground activity was carried out by ram manohar lohia,jaya praksah
narayan,aruna asaf ali,usha sarma,biju patnaik,achyut patwardhan,sucheta
kripalani,r.p.goenka.usha sarma has started an underground radio in Bombay.this
phase of underground activity was meant to keep up popular morale by continuing
to provide a line of command and guidance to distribute arms and ammunition.

Estimate :

1. main centres of the storm were eastern


u.p,bihar,midnapore,Maharashtra,Karnataka.
2. Students,workers,peasants were the backbone of the movement while the
upper classes and the bureaucracy remained largely loyal.
3. Loyalty to the government suffered considerable erosion.this showed how
deep nationalism had reached.
4. The movement established the truth that it was no longer possible to rule
india without the wishes of Indians.
5. The congress had been ideologically,politically,organizationally preparing
itself for a long struggle.
6. The great significance was that the movement placed the demand for
independence on the immediate agenda od the national movement.
7. In this movement,the common people displayed unparalleled
heroism,militancy.the repression they faced was the most brutal and the
circumstances under which resistance was offered wer most adverse.

C.R. FORMULA

C.Rajagopalachari,the veteran congressleader,prepared a formula for congress-


league cooperation.it was a tacit acceptance of the leagues demand for
Pakistan.Gandhi supported the formula.the main points in the c r plan were,

a. Muslim league to endorse congress demand for independence.

b. League to cooperate with congress in forming a provisional government at


centre.

c. At the end of the war,the entire population of muslim majority areas in the north-
west and north-east india to decide by a plebiscite,whether or not to form a
separate sovereign state.

d. In case of acceptance of partition,agreement to be jointly made for safe guarding


defence,commerce, communications.

The above terms to be operative only if England transferred full powers to india.

WAVELL PLAN - 1942

The plan was to reconstruct the viceroys executive council pending the preparation
of a new constitution.for this purpose,a conference was convened by the
viceroy,lord Wavell at shimla,in june 1945.the main proposals of the Wavell plan
were as follows,

a. With the exception of the viceroy and the commander-in chief,all members
of the excutive council were to be Indians.
b. Caste hindus and muslims were to have equal representation.
c. The reconstructed council was to function as an interim government within
the frame work the 1935 act.
d. Viceroy was to exercise his veto on the advice of ministers.
e. Representatives of different parties were to submit a joint list to the viceroy
for nominations to the executive council.if a joint list was not possible,then
separate lists were to be submitted.
f. Possibilities were to be kept open for negotiations on a new constitution once
the war was finally over.

THE CABINET MISSION PLAN [ 1946 ]

The Atlee government announced in February, 1946 the decision to send a high-
powered mission of 3 british cabinet members [ Patrick Lawrence, secretary of state
for india-stafford cripps,president of the board of trade,a.v.alexander]to india to find
out ways and means for negotiated,peaceful transfer of power to india.

The mission reached delhion march 24,1946.it had prolonged discussions with the
Indian leaders of all parties and groups on the issues of,
a. Interim government
b. Principles and procedures for framing a new constitution,giving freedom to
india.

As the congress and muslim league could not come to any agreement on the
fundamental issue of the unity or partition of india,the mission put forward its own
plan for the solution of the constitutional problem in may,1946.

The main points :

1. The Pakistan so formed would include a large non-muslim population


[ 38%] in the north-west and 48% in the north-east.
2. The very principle of communal self determination would claim separation
of hindu-majority western Bengal and sikh-and hindu-dominated ambala
and jallandhar divisions of Punjab.[ already some Sikh leaders were
demanding a separate state if country is portioned ].
3. Deep-seated regional ties would be disturbed if Bengal and Punjab were
partitionied.
4. Partition would entail economic and admionistrative problems,for
instance,the problem of communication between the western and eastern
parts of Pakistan.
5. The division of the armed forces would be dangerous.

Grouping of the existing provincial assemblies into 3 sections,

Section a Madras, Bombay,Central Provinces,United Provinces,Bihar,Orissa


[ Hindu-majority provinces].

Section b Punjab,North-Western Frontier Province and Sindh [ Muslim Majority


Province ]

Section c Bengal and Assam [ Muslim Majority Provinces ]

1. The Three tier executive council and legislature at provincial,section and


union levels.
2. A constituient assembly to be elected by provincial assemblies by
proportional representation [ voting in three groups-general
muslims,Sikhs ].this constituent assembly to be a 389 member body with
provincial assemblies sending 292,chief commissioners provinces sending
4,and princely states sending 93 members.
3. This was a good,democratic method not based on weightage.

Other points :

1. A common centre would control defence,communication and external affairs.


2. Communal questions in central legislature were to be decided by a simple
majority of both communities present and voting.
3. Provinces were to have full autonomy and residual powers.
4. Princely states wer no longer to be under paramountacy of the british
government.they would be free to enter into an arrangement with successor
governments or the british government.
5. After the first general elections, a province was to be free to come out of a
group and after 10 years, a province was to be free to call for a
reconsideration of the group or the union constitution.
6. Meanwhile, an interin government to be formed from the constituent
assembly.

THE MOUNTBATTEN PLAN: [ JUNE 3,1947 ]


The Freedom with partition formula was coming to be widely accepted well
before mountbatten came.one major innovation [ actually suggested by v.p.menon]
was the immediate transfer of power on the basis of grant of dominion status,with
right to secession],thus obviating the need to wait for an agreement in the
consttuient assembly on a new political structure.

Main points:
1. Punjab and Bengal legislative assemblies would meet in two groups-
hindus and muslims to vote for partition.if a simple majority of either
group voted for partition,then these provinces would be partitioned.
2. In case of partition,two dominions and two constituient assemblies would
be created.
3. Sindh would take its own decision.
4. Referendum in nwep and sylhet district of Bengal would decide the fate of
these areas.
5. Since the congress had conceded a unified india,all their points would be
met.
a. Independence for princely states ruled out,they would join either india
or Pakistan.
b. Independence for Bengal ruled out.
c. Accession of Hyderabad to Pakistan ruled out [ mountbatten had
strongly supported the congress on this ].
d. Freedom would come on august 15,1947
e. A boundary commission would be set up if partition was to be effected.

Thus ,the muslim leagues demand was conceded to the extent that
Pakistan would be created and the congress position on unity was
taken into account to make Pakistan as small as
possible.mountbattens formula was to divide india but retain
maximum unity.

Why congress accepted the Dominion Status :

The congress was willing to accept the dominion status despite being against the
Lahore congress [ 1929 ] because,

a. It would ensure a peaceful and very quick transfer of power.


b. It was more important for the congress to assume authority to check the
explosive situation.
c. It would allow for some much needed continuity in bureaucracy and army.

For briatin,the dominion status offered a chance to keep india in the common
wealth,even if temporarily,considering the economic strength,defence
potential and greater value of trade and investment in india.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT : [ 1947 ]

On july 18,1947 The British Parliament ratified the Mountbatten plan as the
Independence of India Act 1947 . The act was implemented on August 15,1947.
The Act provided for the Creation of Two Independent Dominions of India and
Pakistan with effect from August 15,1947. Each dominion was to have a Governor-
General to be responsible for effective operation of the act.The Constituient
Assembly of each new dominion was to exercise the powers of the legislature of
that dominion and the existing central legislative assembly and the council of states
were
to be automatically dissolved.for the transition period [ till a new constitution was
adopted by each dominion,the governments of the two dominions were to be
carried on in accordance with the Government of India Act,1935.

As per the provisions of the Indian Independence Act,1947,Pakistan has became


independent on August 14 while india got its freedom on August 15,1947.M.A.
Jinnah became the First Governor-General of Pakistan.for india,however Lord
Mountbatten to continue as the Governor General of India.

4 TH YEAR 1ST SEMESTER ALL UNITS

QUESTION BANK QUESTIONS

UNIT -1

I MARK QUESTIONS:

1. What are the N.o of Hyms in the Rigveda.


2. The script of Harappa is called as.
3. The sacred books of Buddhism are called as.
4. Who is the Greatest Satavahana king.
5. Who is the Author of Indica .
6. Which Veda Deals with Music.
7. In which year the Kalinga War is being fought.
8. The 2nd Jain council was held at.
9. Which School of Art developed due to the amalgamation of Indo-Greeks.
10.Who is called as Father of Indian Archeology .
11.Which Kushan king has patronized the Buddhism.
12.Which Animal is not known to the Indus valley people.
13.What is called as the Bible of the Tamil Land.
14.Who is the Author of Arthasastra.
15.Which Gupta king is called as Indian Napoleon.
16.Who is the founder of the Pallava Dynasty.
17.The Aryans are Original Habitants of which place.
18.Which Metal is not known to the Indus Valley People.
19.Which Dynasty Rule is termed as the Golden Age.
20.What is meant by Sangam.

10 MARKS QUESTIONS:

1. What are the Literary Sources of Ancient Indian History.


2. Write about the Economic life of the Indus Valley People.
3. What are the reasons for the Rise of Religious Movements.
4. What are the causes for the Decline of the Mauryan Empire.
5. Give an account of the Art and Architecture of the Pallavas.
6. Write about the Economy of the Sangam Age.
7. Write a note on the 8 Fold Path of Buddhism.
8. Write about the Social Conditions during the Later Vedic Period.
9. Write about the Economic Conditions during the Satavahana period.
10.Give an account of the cholas administration.

UNIT 2
1 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. Who is the 1st Woman Ruler of India.


2. In which year the 1st battle of Panipat took place.
3. Which Mughal Emperor founded the New Religion Din-I - Ilahi.
4. Who founded the Vijayanagara Empire.
5. What is the title of Shivaji.
6. How many dynasties have ruled the Delhi Sultanate between 1206-1526.
7. Which Delhi sultan title is Sultan of Hindustan .
8. Allauddin khilji patronized which famous musician.
9. The Bahamani kingdom got disintegrated into how many kingdoms.
10.Which poet original name is Mahesh.
11. In which year Shivaji was coronated.
12.Which Delhi sultan introduced the market reforms.
13.What is meant by Dagh system.
14.In which year the 2nd battle of Panipat took place.
15.The Vijayanagara rule ended with what battle.
16.A unique feature of the Vijayanagara empire is.
17.Who is the only women saint during the Bhakti Movement.
18.Which Mughal emperor was a Great Painter.
19.What are Iqtas.
20.How many dynasties have ruled the Vijayanagara empire.

10 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. Write a note on the Bhakti Movement.


2. What are the causes for the Downfall of the Mughals.
3. Write about the Amara Nayakara System.
4. What are the general conditions during the Delhi Sultanate.
5. Write a note on the Administration of Shivaji.
6. What are the Market and Military Reforms of Allauddin khilji.
7. Write about the Religious Policy of Akbar.
8. What are the causes for the Downfall of the Marathas.
9. Write an Estimate on the Vijayanagara Empire.
10.Explain about the Golden Age of the Mughals in terms of Art and
Architecture.

UNIT 3

1 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. The South Indian Music is popularly called as.


2. What is the Earliest book on Music,Dance and Drama.
3. What is the Basic scale of the Indian Music.
4. The North Indian Music is popularly called as.
5. Who is the author of Amukthamalyada .
6. The Rock cut caves at Mahabalipuram are built by.
7. The Cholas built which temple at Tanjore.
8. Which Delhi Sultan completed the Qutub Minar.
9. What is the Most outstanding Monument of the Bijapur Style.
10.What is the 1st monument in real Mughal Style.
11.What is the oldest Dravidian Language.
12.Who is the author of Asthadhyayini .
13.What are the 2 distinct styles of Indian Music.
14.What is meant by khayal .
15.Which temple is also called as Black Pagoda .
16.What is the cultural centre of Vijayanagara Empire.
17.Which goddess temple is in Madhurai.
18.The famous Kailasanatha Temple is at.
19.Who are the 3 Great Musicians of the Carnatic Music.
20.The famous Panch Mahal is situated in.
10 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. Write about any 2 South Indian Dance forms and exponents in them.
2. Write about the Sultanate painting and Mughal painting.
3. Write a note on the Development of Art and Architecture during the Mughal
period.
4. Give an Account of the Gandhara School of Art.
5. Write a note on the Pallavan Art.
6. Evaluate the Development of Carnatic Music in south India.
7. Give an Account of any 3 places of Cultural Interest in south india.
8. Write a note on the Emergence of the Telugu Language.
9. Give an account of the Metal Sculpture.
10.Give an account of any 3 Famous Literary Personalities of Ancient India.

UNIT 4

1 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. Who founded the Prarthana Samaj.


2. In which year Bramho Samaj was founded.
3. Who was the British Governor General, introduced Dual Government in
Bengal.
4. In which year the Widow Remarriage Act was passed.
5. Who designed the Ryotwari System.
6. Who was the king of Calicut when vasco-de-gama came to india.
7. Who was the Governor General of India when the Revolt of 1857 took place.
8. What was the Policy adopted by Lord Dalhousie to conquer India.
9. What was the 1st Act made by the British in India in 1773.
10.In which year the Battle of Plassey took place.
11.In which year Arabs have blocked the Constantine Nople.
12.Who became the Governor of the French settlements in India in 1742.
13.Who designed the Permanent Settlement System.
14.Who fired the 1st shot of the Revolt of 1857.
15.Who propounded the Drain of Wealth Theory.
16.Who is popularly called as the Father of Indian Renaissance .
17.Which Act of British parliament gave a death blow to the Indian exports to
European Markets.
18.What is the Policy adopted by Lord Wellesley to conquer the territories in
India.
19.In which year did the French Established their 1 st factory in Surat.
20.What was the Main trading centre of the Dutch in India till 1690.

10 MARK QUESTIONS:
1. What are the causes for the Revolt of 1857.
2. What are the 10 guiding principles of the Arya Samaj.
3. Write a note on the Economic Policies of the British before 1857.
4. Write about the Drain of Wealth Theory.
5. What are the Consequent Administrative Changes after the Revolt of 1857.
6. What are the Positive contributions of the Reform Movements.
7. Write a note on the Socio-Religious Reform Movements in the 18 th century.
8. Write a note on the European Settlements in India.
9. What are the ideals of the Bramha Samaj.
10.Write a note on the changes brought out in the Education system by the
British in India.

UNIT 5

1 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. Who was the 1st viceroy of India.


2. The initial phase of the Indian National Movement was dominated by.
3. The Civil Disobedience Movement was started in which year.
4. In which year the word Swaraj was mentioned for the 1 st time.
5. Who founded the Servants of India society .
6. In which year the congress has accepted Poorna Swaraj.
7. Who has represented the Telugu people in the inaugural session of the Indian
National Congress.
8. Who is called as the Father of India Unrest .
9. In which year Gandhi has come back to India from south Africa.
10.How many Representatives from across the country have attended the
inaugural session of the Indian National Congress.
11.Who is called as Father of Local Self Government .
12.In which year the Jalianwallah Bagh incident took place.
13.Who was the 1st president of the Indian National Congress.
14.The Quit India movement was started in the year.
15.The Vernacular Press Act was passed in which year.
16.The Partition of Bengal took place in which year.
17.Who has started the Home Rule Movement.
18.Who are the Prominent Extremist Leaders.
19.Where did the Inaugural Session of the Indian National Congress held.
20.Who propounded the Economic Drain theory.

10 MARK QUESTIONS:

1. What are the factors responsible for the growth of modern nationalism.
2. Write a note on the economic impact of the british rule on india.
3. What are the provisions of the montague chlemsford reforms.
4. Write a note on the mountbatten plan of 1947.
5. What are the main provisions of the government of india act 1935.
6. Write a note on the Indian national movement.
7. What are the main points of the cabinet mission plan.
8. What are the causes for the growth of communalism.
9. What are the 3 new characteristics of thought introduced by the british in
india.
10.What are the reasons for the growth of militant nationalism.