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Construction Technology Notes: a. A dead load is weight of a structure or vehicle,


not including the live load on the structure,
1. What are properties of materials? examples of a dead load are a bridge, house,
a. Elastic materials return to their original shape school, boat
when after you bend or pull them, like rubber b. A live load is any moving or variable weight that
b. Plastic materials keep their shape after you bend can be added to a dead load, examples of a live
or pull them, like plastic bags load are people, animals, chairs, or other objects
c. Brittle materials break when you try to bend or that can de added to a structure
pull them, like chalk c. The total load is the sum of the live and dead
d. R value is how good a thermal insulator is, load
jackets have a high R value d. Total Load = Dead Load + Live Load
e. Density is how much mass a material has for its
volume, feathers are less dense than rocks 5. What is the proper use of tools in construction?
2. What is tension, compression, torsion, and shear? a. Always read the manual before using a power
a. Tension is a pulling force that pulls a material tool
apart, like a weight hanging from a rope or b. Always wear proper safety equipment (e.g. safety
pulling a piece of string apart goggles, apron, face shield)
b. Compression is a squeezing force that pushes in 6. What are zoning laws and building codes?
on a material, like squeezing someones hand or a. Zoning laws tell us what we can use a building or
pushing a button land for, they also help local governments plan
c. Torsion is a twisting force that rotates a material, the layout of a city by deciding what type of
like screwing in a bolt into a piece of wood or building go where
opening a jar of peanut butter b. Building codes are a set of standards or rules
d. Shear is a cutting force that pushes a material in established and enforced by local government to
opposite directions, like scissors cutting paper or ensure that the structures we use are safe
shaving
3. What is Bernoullis principle?
Construction Technology Problems:
a. Bernoullis principle states that as fluids (like 1. A pickup truck fully loaded with cargo weighs 5000 lb. If
liquids and gases) move faster their pressure the cargo weighs 1000 lb., what is the dead load of the
decreases truck?
b. Bernoullis principles is why airplanes fly, sail A 1000
boats move forward, and why a pitcher can throw . lb.
a curve ball
B 4000
. lb.
4. What are live and dead loads?
C 5000
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. lb. subjected to torsional force. Which of the following should
the engineer consider when selecting a material for this
D 6000 product?
. lb. A The material should be rigid.
.

2. Highway overpasses contain concrete. Which of the B The material should be elastic.
following statements describes how engineers increase .
tensile strength when building a highway overpass? C The material should be
A They use concrete that sets more quickly. . expandable.
.
D The material should be
B They put steel bars within the concrete. . compressible.
.
C They add a layer of asphalt on top of the concrete. 5. When winds blow around a skyscraper at high speeds,
. the air pressure outside some parts of the building
becomes lower than the air pressure inside the building. If
D They reduce the amount of water in the concrete Bernoullis principle was not considered when designing
. mixture. this building, which of the following problems might occur?
A The roof might cave in.
3. The amount of commercial development that the local .
government allows in a certain part of a city is limited by
which of the following? B Some windows might pop out.
.
A zoning laws
. C The building might catch on fire.
.
B building codes
. D Some elevator shafts might
. collapse.
C OSHA regulations
.
6. A steel cable helps move an elevator from one floor to
D board of health another, as shown in the diagram below.
. requirements

4. An engineer wants to be certain that a product he is


designing will return to its original shape after being
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which of the following is the best estimate of the snow
load on the doghouse?
A 10
. lbs.
B 15
. lbs.
C 25
. lbs.
D 60
. lbs.
What is the primary type of stress on the cable above the
elevator? 8. The foundation of a building carries the weight of the
A compressi structure above it. Which of the following is the primary
. on type of force on the foundation?
B tension A compressi
. . on

C torsion B friction
. .

D vibration C shear
. .
D torsion
7. The drawing below shows a doghouse. .

9. For safety, a person using a power tool should comply


with which of the following rules?
A Cut power by pulling on the electrical cord.
The roof area of this doghouse is 10 square feet. The .
doghouse is covered with a layer of snow that is 0.25 feet
deep.If the density of the snow is 6 lbs. per cubic foot, B Use the tool only for the specific task the tool is
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. designed to do. . escape
C Wear loose, baggy clothing that completely covers
. any exposed skin. 12. A prairie dog burrow is shown below.

D Make sure the power switch is set to ON before


. plugging the tool in.

10. A bridge is to be built in New England and needs to


withstand the regions very cold winters and hot summers.
Which of the following properties of steel
is most important in determining the design of the
bridge?
A melting point
.
B strain rate
. Prairie dogs build raised mounds around both entrances to
their burrow. The mound around one entrance is taller
C thermal than the mound around the other entrance. Because the
. conductivity mounds are at different heights, the air pressure at
D thermal expansion entrance 1 is lower than the air pressure at entrance 2
. when the wind blows. This causes air to flow in at
entrance 2 and out at entrance 1.In theory, the ventilation
in a prairie dog burrow relies on which of the following
11. Building codes in many cities require houses to have concepts?
at least one open vent pipe that extends from the
plumbing system through the roof of the house. Which of A Bernoullis
the following is a main reason for this requirement? . principle
A to protect the house from fire B conduction
. .
B to allow fresh air into the house C Ohms law
. .
C to protect the roof from damage D Pneumatics
. .
D to allow accumulated gases to
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Open Response Questions
1. The diagram below shows four common tools.

Use the right tool for the right task is an important c. Describe a task for which a rubber mallet is better
safety rule in any situation. suited than a steel hammer. Explain your reasoning.
a. Describe a task for which the right tool to use is a
wrench but not pliers. Explain your answer.

2. The illustration below shows the Amundsen-Scott South


Pole Research Station.
b. Describe a task for which the right tool to use is
pliers but not a wrench. Explain your answer.
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The research station is located in an area where more than


eight inches of snow accumulates each year without ever
melting. Architects utilized Bernoullis principle when
designing the exterior of the building. The station has an
adjustable elevation and is built facing the prevailing wind
direction. The front of the building slopes downward and c. Describe one other possible design feature that
inward. would make a building suitable for this environment.
Explain your answer.
a. Explain why the research station has an adjustable
elevation.

b. Describe in detail, using Bernoullis principle, how


the inwardly sloping design of the building has an
impact on snow management.