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Cidades- Comunidades e Territrios

Dez. 2010, n.0 20/21, pp. 1ll-121

As Cidades Fazem-se por Dentro


Desafios de etnografia urbana

Graa ndias Cordeiro*

Resumo: Este artigo discute um problema central na etnografia urbana: a delimitao de um


terreno de pesquisa que acaba por coincidir, em larga medida, com a delimitao do prprio
objecto de estudo. Numa primeira parte, faz uma retrospectiva histrica sobre este problema,
desde a Escola de Chicago at institucionalizao da antropologia urbana nos EUA nos
anos 1970 e, numa segunda parte, exemplifica com tipos de recorte etnogrfico usados em
investigaes passadas. A relao entre a parte da cidade etnograficamente apreendida e a
totalidade urbana aqui analisada, utilizando noes intermdias ou planos intermdios de
anlise sugeridos por alguns autores, como possibilidades criativas que abrem janelas sobre
a cidade, ajudando a descrev-la e a pens-la numa perspectiva etnogrfica.

Palavras-chave: Etnografia urbana; Cidade relacional; Micro e macro; Bairro; Sociabilidade.

Apresentao

Este texto uma verso ligeiramente modificada -se pouco a pouco medida que o trabalho de campo
da lio de sntese das minhas provas de agrega avana (Valentine, 1972: 179).
o em Antropologia Urbana que tiveram lugar no No caso das cidades, a mobilidade, a segrega
ISCTE em Maio de 20041. Debrua-se sobre um o de domnios de vida social, a sobreposio e
problema central na investigao etnogrfica em multiplicidade de escalas e nveis organizacionais
contexto urbano: o da seleco das unidades de constituem desafios srios prpria capacidade
observao, ou, por outras palavras, o da escolha etnogrfica, no sentido de conseguir percepcionar
de um terreno que acaba por ser, em larga medida, e, nalguns casos, isolar unidades de interaco, com
o da definio do prprio objecto de estudo2 Este projeco socioespacial ou no , que possibilitem
problema, crucial na etnografia urbana, merece que esse misto de insero social, observao,
uma ateno muito particular, uma vez que as suas recolha documental e entrevista informal - a que
unidades de estudo e limites da indagao no ter chamamos de etnografia - possa ocorrer.
reno no so definidos rigidamente, constituindo a Em termos mais genricos, podemos dizer que
identificao das entidades observveis, j em si esta questo se insere numa discusso de mbito
prpria, parte substancial do prprio processo de mais alargado, j antigo no interior da antropologia
investigao etnogrfico que tem de desentranhar a urbana, expressa, desde os anos 70, na dicotomia
forma e os limites dos sistemas sociais e dos mundos simplificada entre uma antropologia da cidade e
culturais. No processo etnogrfico, o permetro das uma antropologia na cidade (Fox , 1972) e que j
descobertas no se estabelece de antemo, revelando- questionava as prprias possibilidades heursticas

ISCTE-IUL, Instituto Universitrio de Lisboa. graca.cordeiro@iscte.pt


1 Agradeo aos membros do jri que discutiram comigo esta lio: Joan Josep Pujadas, Joo Pina Cabral, Raul lturra, Vtor Matias Ferreira; e, tambm,
aos colegas que, posteriormente, comentaram e sugeriram melhorias ao texto apresentado: Antnio F irmino da Costa, Tim Sieber, Gilberto Velho,
Frdric Vida], Rita d'vila Cachado, Heitor Frgoli Jnior e Jos Guilherme Magnani.
2 Muito embora as diferenas entre antropologia e sociolog.ia estejam longe de ser claras, pelo menos no que se refere ao estudo das realidades
urbanas, o meu ponlo de vista o da antropologia. A este propsito, julgo que vale a pena referir a excelente sntese de Jacques Hamel (1997: 93
e seguintes), quando postula a necessidade de se definir os objectos de estudo em funo da disciplina de referncia, no plano prtico: "O objecto
de esludo sempre habitado por um ponlo de vista, o da disciplina que o preconiza, e, consequentemente, deve ser fonnulado nos Lermos que o
exprimem, de um modo irrefutvel" (95)

Cidades Comunidades e Territrios, n.0 20/21, 2010, pp. 111- 121 111
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