Você está na página 1de 9

# Uncertainty Evaluation for Tensile Test Date: 5/dec/2016

Step 1

## Specifying the Measurand for Tensile Test

Measurand are:
1 Yield Stregth
2 Ultimate Tensile Stregth
3 Percentage Reduction in Area
4 Percentage Elongation

## Where: sample 1 sample 2 sample 3 sample 4 sample 5 Average

Range of Machine = 600000 N 600000 600000 600000 600000 600000.00
DO = Original Dia = 16.00 mm 16.00 16.10 16.00 16.00 16.02
AO = Original Area = 201.14 mm2 201.14 203.66 201.14 201.14 201.64
DF = Fractured Dia = 10.50 mm 10.20 10.50 10.30 10.50 10.40
AF = Fractured Area = 86.54 mm2 81.67 86.54 83.29 86.54 84.92
LO = Original Gauge Length = 80.00 mm 80.00 81.00 80.00 81.00 80.40
LF = Fractured Gauge Length = 104.20 mm 106.00 106.30 106.20 105.50 105.64
PY = Yield Load = 74430 N 73290 71310 74850 73770 73530.00
PU = Ultimate Load = 99660 N 103320 104040 103830 103350 102840.00
%A Percentage Reduction in Area = 56.98 % 59.40 57.51 58.59 56.98 57.89
%E Percentage Elongation = 30.25 % 32.50 31.235 32.75 30.25 31.40
SY = Tensile Yield Strength = 370.035 N/mm2 364.373 350.142 372.129 366.759 364.69
SU = Ultimate Tensile Strength = 495.468 N/mm2 513.672 510.851 516.208 513.821 510.00
Ts Temperature correction factor for UTM = 0.027 % / Deg C 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.0270
TC Proving Ring Calibration temperature = 23
TT Tensile Test Temp. (working temp.) = 28
dT Difference in temperatures (TT -TC) = 5
Note: The temperature correction factor should be applied in the working temperature, T T from the calibration temperature, TC (correction will be positive for rise
and negative for fall in temperature)

## Corrected Load considering affect of Temperature

PYC = PY + ((PY x Ts x dT) / 100) 73629 N

1
PUC =
PU + ((Pu x Ts x dT) / 100) 102979 N

## Corrected Strengths considering corrected loads

SYC = PYC / AO = 365.14 N/mm2
SUC = PUC / AO = 510.69 N/mm2

Step 2

## Sources of Uncertainty are identified as -

1 Repeatability-Human Error
2 Equipment- Universal Testing Machine
3 Equipment-Vernier Caliper
4 Equipment- Temperature Indicator
5 Degree of Inhomogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

Step 3

Repeatability of Result

## 1 Human error and Repeatabiltiy of Tensile Test

The value of variation for repeated measurements can be found out by calculating the standard deviation -repeated 5 times

## S. Results, Average, Xi X (Xi-X)2 Standard

No. Deviation, Sx =
Xi (N/mm2) X (N/mm2) N/mm2 N/mm2 [(Xi X)2/n-1]

## 1 495.468 510.0041443958 -14.535746 211.2879202 8.3443482832

2 513.672 0 0 N/mm2
3 510.851 0.84727464 0.717874309
4 516.208 6.20347219 38.48306721
5 513.821 3.81707466 14.57005893
(Xi - X)2= 265.0589207

Standard uncertainty:
UA = Sx / n = 3.7317059979 N/mm2

2
Relative uncertaitny:
UAR = UA / X = 0.0073170111

Step 4

## a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration cert= 0.50 % of range = 3000

(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2) N

## b. Relative Resolution of UTM, (N) = 0.10 % of range = 600

N
2 Equipment- Vernier Caliper

## a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration cert. = 0.017 mm

(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)

## a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration certificate, UT1(OC) = 0.4 Deg C

(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)

## b. Readability of Temperature Indicator, UT2 (OC) = 0.1 Deg C

4 Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

Assuming the factor of inhomogeneity is taken as 0.2% (for yield strength) = for Yeild strength 0.73 N/mm2

## for Tensile strength = 1.02 N/mm2

3
for % Elongation = 0.06 %

## for % Reduction Area = 0.12 %

Step 5

Conversion of Quantified Uncertainty Components into Std. Uncertainties and Relative Std. Uncertainties

## a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of UTM as Quoted in its calibration

cert., UM1 (at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

## Uncertainty Quoted in Calib. Cert.

Standard Uncertainty, UM1 =
Coverage Factor, K

## b. Uncertainty due to Relative Resolution of UTM,

UM2 (N) assuming rectangular distribution =

Relative Resolution
Standard Uncertainty, UM2 =
3

## Standard Uncertainty, UM2 = 346 N

Combined Uncertainty:

UMC 1539
UMYR = = = 0.021

4
UMYR = = = 0.021

UMC 1539
UMUR = = = 0.015

## a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of Vernier Caliper as Quoted

in its calibration certificate (at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

## Standard Uncertainty, UV1 Uncertainty quoted in Calib. Cert.

=
Coverage Factor, K

## b. Uncertainty due to Readability or L.C. of micrometer

considering half of the least count and assuming rectangular distribution

## Least count of Vernier Caliper

Standard Uncertainty, UV2 =
23

## 1. For Dia Measurement

UVC 0.0103
UVDR = = = 0.0006
Original Dia (DO) 16.02

5
2. For Length Measurement
UVC 0.0103
UVLR = = = 0.0001
Original Gauge Langth (LO) 80.40

## a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of temparature indicator as Quoted in its calibration certificate

(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

## Uncertainty quoted in calib. Cert.

Standard Uncertainty, UT1 =
Coverage Factor, K

## b. Uncertainty due to Readability of Temperature Indicator considering

half of the least count and assuming rectangular distribution =

=
23

## Relative Standard Uncertainty related to temperature indicator:

UTC 0.202
UTR = = = 0.007

6
UTR = = = 0.007

4. Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

## a. Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material within a processing batch

obtained from a single heat assuming 0.2% and assuming ractangular distribution =

## For Yield Strength

UHY 0.421
UHYR = = = 0.0012
Corrected Yield Strength (SYC) 365.14

## For Tensile Strength

UHT 0.589
UHTR = = = 0.0012
Corrected Tensile Strength (SUC) 510.69

For % Elongation
UHE 0.036
UHER = = = 0.0012
% Elongation 31.40

## For % Reduction Area

UHR 0.067
UHRR = = = 0.0012
% Reduction in Area 57.89

Step 6

7
Calculation of Combined Uncertainty

## For Yield Strength

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Yield Strength are analysed to get the
combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

## UCRY = (UAR)2 + (UMYR)2 + (UVDR)2 + (UTR)2 + (HYR)2 = 0.0233

UCY = UCRY x SYC = 8.52 N/mm2

## Relative Standard uncertainties related to Ultimate Tensile Strength are analysed to

get the Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

## Relative Standard uncertainties related to Percentage Reduction in Area are analysed

to get the Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

## For Percentage Elongation

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Percentage Elongation are analysed to get the
Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

## UCE = UVLR x %E = 0.04 %

Step 7

8
Calculation of Overall Uncertainty or Expanded Uncertainty

## For Yield Strength

UYE = UCY x k = 17.04 N/mm2
Therefore Actual Result
Yield Strength = 365.14 + 17.04 N/mm2
For Ultimate Tensile Strength
UUE = UCU x k = 18.58 N/mm2
Therefore Actual Result

## For % Reduction in Area

UAE = UCA x k = 0.15 %
Therefore Actual Result
% Reduction in Area = 57.89 + 0.15 %

For % Elongation
UEE = UCE x k = 0.07 %
Therefore Actual Result
% Elongation = 31.40 + 0.07 %