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Uncertainty Evaluation for Tensile Test Date: 5/dec/2016

Step 1

Specifying the Measurand for Tensile Test

Measurand are:
1 Yield Stregth
2 Ultimate Tensile Stregth
3 Percentage Reduction in Area
4 Percentage Elongation

Where: sample 1 sample 2 sample 3 sample 4 sample 5 Average


Range of Machine = 600000 N 600000 600000 600000 600000 600000.00
DO = Original Dia = 16.00 mm 16.00 16.10 16.00 16.00 16.02
AO = Original Area = 201.14 mm2 201.14 203.66 201.14 201.14 201.64
DF = Fractured Dia = 10.50 mm 10.20 10.50 10.30 10.50 10.40
AF = Fractured Area = 86.54 mm2 81.67 86.54 83.29 86.54 84.92
LO = Original Gauge Length = 80.00 mm 80.00 81.00 80.00 81.00 80.40
LF = Fractured Gauge Length = 104.20 mm 106.00 106.30 106.20 105.50 105.64
PY = Yield Load = 74430 N 73290 71310 74850 73770 73530.00
PU = Ultimate Load = 99660 N 103320 104040 103830 103350 102840.00
%A Percentage Reduction in Area = 56.98 % 59.40 57.51 58.59 56.98 57.89
%E Percentage Elongation = 30.25 % 32.50 31.235 32.75 30.25 31.40
SY = Tensile Yield Strength = 370.035 N/mm2 364.373 350.142 372.129 366.759 364.69
SU = Ultimate Tensile Strength = 495.468 N/mm2 513.672 510.851 516.208 513.821 510.00
Ts Temperature correction factor for UTM = 0.027 % / Deg C 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.0270
TC Proving Ring Calibration temperature = 23
TT Tensile Test Temp. (working temp.) = 28
dT Difference in temperatures (TT -TC) = 5
Note: The temperature correction factor should be applied in the working temperature, T T from the calibration temperature, TC (correction will be positive for rise
and negative for fall in temperature)

Corrected Load considering affect of Temperature


PYC = PY + ((PY x Ts x dT) / 100) 73629 N

1
PUC =
PU + ((Pu x Ts x dT) / 100) 102979 N

Corrected Strengths considering corrected loads


SYC = PYC / AO = 365.14 N/mm2
SUC = PUC / AO = 510.69 N/mm2

Step 2

Identification of Uncertainty Sources

Sources of Uncertainty are identified as -


1 Repeatability-Human Error
2 Equipment- Universal Testing Machine
3 Equipment-Vernier Caliper
4 Equipment- Temperature Indicator
5 Degree of Inhomogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

Step 3

Repeatability of Result

1 Human error and Repeatabiltiy of Tensile Test

The value of variation for repeated measurements can be found out by calculating the standard deviation -repeated 5 times

S. Results, Average, Xi X (Xi-X)2 Standard


No. Deviation, Sx =
Xi (N/mm2) X (N/mm2) N/mm2 N/mm2 [(Xi X)2/n-1]

1 495.468 510.0041443958 -14.535746 211.2879202 8.3443482832


2 513.672 0 0 N/mm2
3 510.851 0.84727464 0.717874309
4 516.208 6.20347219 38.48306721
5 513.821 3.81707466 14.57005893
(Xi - X)2= 265.0589207

Standard uncertainty:
UA = Sx / n = 3.7317059979 N/mm2

2
Relative uncertaitny:
UAR = UA / X = 0.0073170111

Step 4

Quantification of Uncertainty Sources

1 Equipment- Universal Testing Machine

The UTM used has following uncertainty sources-

a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration cert= 0.50 % of range = 3000


(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2) N

b. Relative Resolution of UTM, (N) = 0.10 % of range = 600


N
2 Equipment- Vernier Caliper

a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration cert. = 0.017 mm


(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)

b. Readability or L. C. Vernier Caliper, = 0.02 mm

3 Equipment- Temperature Indicator for room temperature measurement

a. Uncertainty Quoted in its calibration certificate, UT1(OC) = 0.4 Deg C


(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)

b. Readability of Temperature Indicator, UT2 (OC) = 0.1 Deg C

4 Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

Assuming the factor of inhomogeneity is taken as 0.2% (for yield strength) = for Yeild strength 0.73 N/mm2

for Tensile strength = 1.02 N/mm2

3
for % Elongation = 0.06 %

for % Reduction Area = 0.12 %

Step 5

Conversion of Quantified Uncertainty Components into Std. Uncertainties and Relative Std. Uncertainties

1. For Equipment - UTM

a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of UTM as Quoted in its calibration


cert., UM1 (at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

Uncertainty Quoted in Calib. Cert.


Standard Uncertainty, UM1 =
Coverage Factor, K

Standard Uncertainty, UM1 = 1500 N

b. Uncertainty due to Relative Resolution of UTM,


UM2 (N) assuming rectangular distribution =

Relative Resolution
Standard Uncertainty, UM2 =
3

Standard Uncertainty, UM2 = 346 N

Combined Uncertainty:

UMC = (UM1)2 + (UM2)2 = 1539 N

Relative Standard Uncertainty related to UTM

For Yield Load


UMC 1539
UMYR = = = 0.021

4
UMYR = = = 0.021
UTM Reading (PYC) 73629

For Ultimate Load


UMC 1539
UMUR = = = 0.015
UTM Reading (PUC) 102979

2. For Equipment - Vernier Caliper

a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of Vernier Caliper as Quoted


in its calibration certificate (at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

Standard Uncertainty, UV1 Uncertainty quoted in Calib. Cert.


=
Coverage Factor, K

Standard Uncertainty, UV1 = 0.0085 mm

b. Uncertainty due to Readability or L.C. of micrometer


considering half of the least count and assuming rectangular distribution

Least count of Vernier Caliper


Standard Uncertainty, UV2 =
23

Standard Uncertainty, UV2 = 0.0058 mm

Combined Uncertainty due to Vernier Caliper:

UVC = (UV1)2 + (UV2)2 = 0.0103 mm

Relative Standard Uncertainty related to Vernier Caliper

1. For Dia Measurement


UVC 0.0103
UVDR = = = 0.0006
Original Dia (DO) 16.02

5
2. For Length Measurement
UVC 0.0103
UVLR = = = 0.0001
Original Gauge Langth (LO) 80.40

3. For Equipment - Temperature Indicator

a. Uncertainty due to uncertainty of temparature indicator as Quoted in its calibration certificate


(at 95 % Confidence Level for Coverage Factor, K = 2)
assuming normal distribution =

Uncertainty quoted in calib. Cert.


Standard Uncertainty, UT1 =
Coverage Factor, K

Standard Uncertainty, UT1 = 0.2 Deg C

b. Uncertainty due to Readability of Temperature Indicator considering


half of the least count and assuming rectangular distribution =

Standard Uncertainty, UT2 Least Count


=
23

Standard Uncertainty, UT2 = 0.0288675135 Deg C

Combined uncertainty due to temparature indicator:

UTC = (UT1)2 + (UT2)2 = 0.2020725942 Deg C

Relative Standard Uncertainty related to temperature indicator:

UTC 0.202
UTR = = = 0.007

6
UTR = = = 0.007
Temp. Indicator Reading (TT) 28

4. Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material.within a processing batch obtained from a single heat

a. Degree of in homogeneity, which exist within a material within a processing batch


obtained from a single heat assuming 0.2% and assuming ractangular distribution =

For Yield Strength Std. Uncertainty, UHY = 0.421 N/mm2

For Tensile Strength Std. Uncertainty, UHT = 0.589 N/mm2

For % Elongation Std. Uncertainty, UHE = 0.036 %

For % Reduction Area Std. Uncertainty, UHR = 0.067 %

Relative Uncertainties related to Inhomogeneity:

For Yield Strength


UHY 0.421
UHYR = = = 0.0012
Corrected Yield Strength (SYC) 365.14

For Tensile Strength


UHT 0.589
UHTR = = = 0.0012
Corrected Tensile Strength (SUC) 510.69

For % Elongation
UHE 0.036
UHER = = = 0.0012
% Elongation 31.40

For % Reduction Area


UHR 0.067
UHRR = = = 0.0012
% Reduction in Area 57.89

Step 6

7
Calculation of Combined Uncertainty

For Yield Strength

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Yield Strength are analysed to get the
combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

UCRY = (UAR)2 + (UMYR)2 + (UVDR)2 + (UTR)2 + (HYR)2 = 0.0233


UCY = UCRY x SYC = 8.52 N/mm2

For Ultimate Tensile Strength

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Ultimate Tensile Strength are analysed to


get the Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

UCRU = (UAR)2 + (UMUR)2 + (UVDR)2 + (UTR)2 + (UHTR)2 = 0.0182

UCU = UCRU x SUC = 9.29 N/mm2

For Percentage Reduction in Area

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Percentage Reduction in Area are analysed


to get the Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

UCA = (UVDR)2 + (UHRR)2 = 0.0013209

UCA = UVDR x %A = 0.08 %

For Percentage Elongation

Relative Standard uncertainties related to Percentage Elongation are analysed to get the
Combined Uncertainty, which is as given below-

UCE = (UVLR)2 + (UHER)2 = 0.0011618

UCE = UVLR x %E = 0.04 %

Step 7

8
Calculation of Overall Uncertainty or Expanded Uncertainty

For Confidence Level approximately 95% for Coverage Factor, k=2

For Yield Strength


UYE = UCY x k = 17.04 N/mm2
Therefore Actual Result
Yield Strength = 365.14 + 17.04 N/mm2
For Ultimate Tensile Strength
UUE = UCU x k = 18.58 N/mm2
Therefore Actual Result

Ultimate Tensile Strength = 510.69 + 18.58 N/mm2

For % Reduction in Area


UAE = UCA x k = 0.15 %
Therefore Actual Result
% Reduction in Area = 57.89 + 0.15 %

For % Elongation
UEE = UCE x k = 0.07 %
Therefore Actual Result
% Elongation = 31.40 + 0.07 %