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CERN Courier digital edition

Welcome to the digital edition of the May 2017 issue of CERN Courier. Colliders face
The first meeting at which the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was officially the future
discussed took place in March 1984, almost a quarter of a century before
the first beams circulated in the machine. Following the outcome of the
2013 European Strategy for Particle Physics, CERN launched a Future
Circular Collider (FCC) project to help assess what tool should come next
after the LHC to continue its journey to the heart of matter. The FCC,
which is among a handful of other high-energy colliders currently under
consideration, envisages a 100km-circumference tunnel in which three
different collider modes could be realised: an e+e collider that would improve
by orders of magnitude the measurement precision on the Higgs boson and
other StandardModel particles; an electronproton collider that would
probe the protons substructure with unmatchable precision; and a 100TeV
protonproton collider with a discovery potential more than five times greater
than the LHC. This months cover feature describes the enormous physics
potential of such a facility, in particular its ability to measure in detail the
properties of the Higgs boson. We also describe the history of dark matter,
the search for which is another key goal of the LHC and future colliders, and
describe how ESAs Euclid probe will unearth the true nature of the dark
energy that is driving the accelerating expansion of the universe. Sticking
with the darkness theme, we interview theorist Erik Verlinde, who argues that
dark matter is not real.

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Crab cavities for
HL-LHC pass
Erik Verlinde explains
why dark matter ENERGY
E D I TO R : M AT T H E W C H A L M E R S, C E R N high-voltage tests might be an illusion Euclid to identify source of
DIGITAL EDITION C R E AT E D B Y D E S I G N S T U D I O / I O P P U B L I SH I N G , U K p7 p43 cosmic acceleration p23

CCMay17_Cover.indd 2 05/04/2017 15:58


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17


Covering current developments in high-energy

physics and related fields worldwide
CERN Courier is distributed to member-state governments, institutes and laboratories
affiliated with CERN, and to their personnel. It is published monthly, except for
January and August. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the CERN

Editor Matthew Chalmers Volume 57 Number 4 may 2017

Books editor Virginia Greco
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
E-mail cern.courier@cern.ch
5 ViEWpOint
Fax +41 (0) 22 76 69070
Web cerncourier.com

7 nEWs
Advisory board Peter Jenni, Christine Sutton, Claude Amsler,
Philippe Bloch, Roger Forty
LHC cold and preparing for beam Crab cavities promise
Laboratory correspondents:
brighter collisions Sterile neutrinos in retreat GBAR falls into
place ATLAS pushes SUSY beyond 2 TeV CMS inches to the top
Argonne National Laboratory (US) Tom LeCompte
Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) Achim Franz

of the Higgs-coupling mountain LHCb brings cosmic collisions

Cornell University (US) D G Cassel
DESY Laboratory (Germany) Till Mundzeck

down to Earth ALICE reveals dominance of collective ow

EMFCSC (Italy) Anna Cavallini
Enrico Fermi Centre (Italy) Guido Piragino
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) Katie Yurkewicz
Nominal current : 3450 A Forschungszentrum Jlich (Germany) Markus Buescher
GSI Darmstadt (Germany) I Peter 15 sCiEnCEWatCh
Nominal field : 4,2 T IHEP, Beijing (China) Tongzhou Xu
IHEP, Serpukhov (Russia) Yu Ryabov
Bore diameter : 600 mm INFN (Italy) Antonella Varaschin
Jefferson Laboratory (US) Kandice Carter
17 astrOWatCh
Length : 4 m JINR Dubna (Russia) B Starchenko
KEK National Laboratory (Japan) Saeko Okada
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (US) Spencer Klein
Los Alamos National Laboratory (US) Rajan Gupta
NCSL (US) Ken Kingery
19 Euclid to pinpoint nature of dark energy
Nikhef (Netherlands) Robert Fleischer Due for launch in 2020, ESAs Euclid probe will track galaxies and
Novosibirsk Institute (Russia) S Eidelman
Orsay Laboratory (France) Anne-Marie Lutz large areas of sky to nd the cause of the cosmic acceleration.
PSI Laboratory (Switzerland) P-R Kettle

On February 27, 2017, 3 large superconducting magnets Saclay Laboratory (France) Elisabeth Locci
Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) Jane Binks 26 How dark matter became a particle
designed and manufactured by Sigmaphi passed their final acceptance tests.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US) Farnaz Khadem
TRIUMF Laboratory (Canada) Marcello Pavan Over time, an increasing number of particle
physicists became interested in the problem
Congratulations to both teams ! Produced for CERN by IOP Publishing Ltd
IOP Publishing Ltd, Temple Circus, Temple Way, of dark matter, partly driven by new scientic
Bristol BS1 6HG, UK
Tel +44 (0)117 929 7481
results but also by sociological changes.
Publisher Susan Curtis
Production editor Lisa Gibson 34 Physics at its limits
Technical illustrator Alison Tovey A 100 km-circumference collider would address many of the
Other SIGMAPHI products include outstanding questions in modern particle physics.
Group advertising manager Chris Thomas
Advertisement production Katie Graham
Marketing & Circulation Angela Gage

Head of B2B & Marketing Jo Allen 43 Doubting darkness

Art director Andrew Giaquinto
An interview with Erik Verlinde, who argues that dark matter is an
Particle beamlines & components Advertising
Tel +44 (0)117 930 1026 (for UK/Europe display advertising)
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In certain countries, to request copies or to make address changes, contact: 59 rECruitMEnt
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E-mail: jiangyo@mail.ihep.ac.cn 63 BOOkshELF
Germany Antje Brandes, DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
RF source solutions E-mail: desypr@desy.de
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Tel +41 (0) 22 767 61 11. Telefax +41 (0) 22 767 65 55 VOLUME 57 NUMBER 4 MAY 2017

Colliders face
Printed by Warners (Midlands) plc, Bourne, Lincolnshire, UK the future

2017 CERN ISSN 0304-288X

Sigmaphi Magnets Sigmaphi Electronics CR A B KICKS

Crab cavities for
Erik Verlinde explains
On the cover: CERNs Future Circular Collider (FCC) project. (Image credit:
D Dominguez and M Chalmers.)
HL-LHC pass why dark matter
high-voltage tests might be an illusion Euclid to identify source of
p7 p43 cosmic acceleration p23

Rue des frres Montgolfier 1 rue Branly

56 000 VANNES (France) 67 500 HAGUENAU (France) 3
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CCMay17_Contents.indd 3 05/04/2017 16:00


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

AM61 Solid State
CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

X-Band Klystron Driver Birth of the high-energy network
The CERN Alumni Programme will offer unique networking opportunities for all its members.
Microwave Amps has long been students, fellows, staff, and any member of personnel

S Bennett / CERN
at the cutting edge of Solid who has held a contract of either employment
or association with CERN, may join the alumni
State Amplifiers for High Energy community simply by registering. Current members
Physics applications. Our AM61 of personnel will also be able to register and interact
with the alumni, as well as partner companies. The
offers users a step change in final objective is to establish a dynamic, long-lasting
reliability, affordability, and and high-energy network of engaged members.
Since November 2016 it has been possible for
flexibility. With Industry leading previous and current members of personnel who
wish to become members of the network to leave their
Phase and Amplitude stability, contact details on the alumni webpage (see below),
the AM61 is the right amplifier which CERN will use to contact them once the new
web platform is up and running. Registered members
to drive your Klystron. of the CERN alumni community will have access to
dedicated editorial content, opportunities to exchange
A career networking event at By Laure Esteveny experiences and establish contacts with other alumni,
CERN organised by the LHC in addition to career development opportunities. The
experiment collaborations With over 60 years of history and currently more than aim is to gather a large number of members, whether
in 2016. 13,000 users from all over the world, CERN clearly they are former colleagues still working in academia,
has great potential to bring together a varied alumni have set up their own businesses, have moved into
11.424GHz and 11.992GHz Models available community. Today, CERN alumni are distributed completely different professional environments, or
around the world, pursuing their careers and passions have retired but wish to stay connected.
across many fields including industry, economics, CERN alumni will themselves be actively involved
Modular Topology offers 400W, 800W, 1.2kW Power Levels information technology, medicine and finance. in building the community, which will evolve with
Several have gone on to launch successful start-ups, them. The advisory board of the new programme
RMS Amplitude Stability p-p 0.02% Typical some of them directly applying CERN-inspired will include representatives from the community
technologies. as well as members of CERN management. Alumni
Setting up and nurturing this important network will be able to set up thematic groups within the
RMS Phase Stability p-p 0.036 degrees Typical is a strategic objective for CERN management. community based on factors such as regional interests
Following 12 months of careful preparation, the new and scientific topics. A mobile app will help them to
CERN Alumni Programme will be launched in June stay connected with news, events and networking
Waveguide Output this year. activities that are published by the community.
The new community, united by a shared pride in The CERN Alumni Programme kick-off event
Integrated Input & Output Circulators having contributed to CERNs scientific endeavours, will be held on 23 February 2018. In addition to
See you at IPAC 2017 Stand 3 will provide an opportunity for alumni to maintain offering unique networking opportunities, it will be
links with the Organization. It will allow them possible to visit the LHC and its experiments as well
19 Rack to continue to share CERNs values and support as experimental areas that are usually not accessible
its activities, and serve as a valuable resource for to the public. Inspiring seminars and several panel
members of personnel in the transition to work sessions will complete the programme. The event is
outside the laboratory. Physicists, in particular, often designed to be a valuable experience for all different
consider CERN as a prime environment that comes types of alumni, from young scientists who have
just after academia. The prospect of having to leave recently left CERN to those with long-standing
For more information on our X-Band AM61, or any other of our L, S, & C-Band PAs for CERN may be daunting, with no guarantee that ones careers in different fields, and many others.
High Energy Physics Applications, please visit our website: professional future will offer a similar environment We are aware that it will be a challenge to reach
Laure Esteveny, and possibilities. However, preliminary statistics all of our alumni spread across the planet over such
on the CERN alumni community demonstrate that a long period. If you are one of them, do not hesitate
www.microwaveamps.co.uk senior adviser on
strategic planning professional experience at CERN nurtures skills and to leave your contact details at https://alumni.cern/.
and evaluation for talents that are highly sought after by employers and It is the best way to show your interest, join the new
or send us an email to sales@maltd.com CERNs director for can aid the development of alumni careers in many community and stay connected with CERN. We
international relations, is project different fields. also invite you to get in touch with any questions by
Coates House, 4 High St, Nailsea, leader for the CERN Alumni The CERN Alumni Programme has been purposely emailing alumni.relations@cern.ch. We will be very
Programme. designed to be inclusive. Former users, associates, happy to welcome you back to CERN again!
North Somerset, BS48 1BT, England.
Tel +44 01275 853196 5

CCMay17_Viewpoint.indd 5 05/04/2017 16:01


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

European Chamber Manufacturer News

LHC news

LHC cold and preparing for beam

Following a longer than usual technical stop,

M Brice / CERN
which began in December last year to allow
for the replacement of the CMS inner tracker,
all eight sectors of the Large Hadron Collider
(LHC) have been cooled to their operating
temperature of 1.9 K. The machine is now
being prepared for the return of proton
beams in May.
During the extended year-end technical
stop (EYETS), one full sector of the
LHC lying between the ATLAS and
ALICE experiments was warmed up to
room temperature to replace of one of its
15 m-long superconducting dipoles, which
had exhibited abnormal behaviour on a few
occasions during the 2016 physics run. The
rest of the machine was maintained at 20 K.
To make sure none of the LHCs precious A 360 photo of the LHC tunnel, in which the machines proportions are distorted.
liquid-helium coolant would be lost during
the EYETS interventions, the machine scheduled for mid-April and the start of and installed in the SPS. This will allow the
was emptied and its 130-tonne supply was commissioning with beam during the first SPS to reach its full performance again for
temporarily stored on the surface. week of May. the 2017 run, and in particular will lift the
Following the successful replacement Several other changes were made during limit on the number of bunches for the LHC
and reconnection of the dipole magnet, the EYETS, not only to the LHC but also from 96 to 288 per SPS extraction.
pre-cooling of the sector to 80 K started on to the injectors. The PS Booster (PSB) With the LHC handed from the
17 February using 1200 tonnes of liquid underwent a massive de-cabling campaign, engineering department to the operations

High Precision UHV nitrogen carried by 60 thermally insulated

trucks, and was completed by 4 March.
The re-filling of the arcs with liquid helium
which has paved the way for the installation
of new equipment for the LHC Injector
Upgrade (LIU) project in the coming years.
group on 14 April, the second phase of LHC
Run 2 will soon be under way, with first
collisions due approximately end of May.
started about one week later, with electrical In response to a vacuum leak that developed

Chambers Delivered On Time quality-assurance tests taking place at the

end of the month. Powering tests took place
during April, with the machine check-out
in the SPS internal beam dump in April
last year, a new internal beam dump was
designed and constructed in record time
Sommaire en franais
Le LHC est froid et se prpare pour les 7
HigH-Luminosity LHC
which is a measure of its collision rate, Les cavits en crabe promettent des 7
Customise & Build Your Own Vacuum Chamber -
Use Our Free Online Chamber Builder Service Crab cavities requires new magnets located on either
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Les neutrinos striles battent en retraite
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316LN flanges & materials in stock As the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) CERN and in the US, have larger apertures LHCb ramne les collisions cosmiques 12
gears up for its 2017 restart, teams in the than the present LHC magnets and are sur Terre
Unique Hydra~Cool water cooling technology -

background at CERN and around the world based on more advanced niobium-tin
are making rapid progress towards a major superconducting technology (CERN Courier ALICE rvle la prpondrance du flux 13
unrivalled performance, low cost LHC upgrade due to be operational from March 2017 p23). collectif
Contact us for a chamber enquiry today! 2025. A significant milestone towards the Crab cavities are essential to fully exploit LADN tend les capacits de stockage 15
High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), which the inner-triplet upgrade, since they allow de donnes
will boost the number of protonproton the crossing angle of the proton beams to be
collisions, was passed in late February with compensated so as to maximise their overlap Les dbuts de lUnivers rvlent une 17
the first tests of a new accelerator structure at the collision points. Constructed from surprise sur la matire noire
called a crab cavity. high-purity niobium sheets, the HL-LHC
www.lesker.com | Enabling Technology for a Better World Increasing the luminosity of the LHC, crab cavities will operate at 2 K to reach


CCMay17_News.indd 7 05/04/2017 16:03


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

News thalesgroup.com

their nominal performance. Unlike the First niobium crab cavity fabricated at CERN

F Ulysse / CERN
accelerating RF cavities currently used at for the High-Luminosity LHC project.
the LHC, which accelerate protons in their
direction of motion, the crab cavities give the
bunches a time-dependent transverse kick
in the plane perpendicular to their motion to
and magnetic fields on the cavity surfaces:
57 MV/m and 104 mT, respectively. By the
end of 2017, the two crab cavities will have
Worldwide leader
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improve luminosity levelling. been inserted into a specially designed
So far, two superconducting crab cavities cryomodule that will be installed in the
have been manufactured at CERN and RF Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to undergo
tests at 2 K performed in a superfluid helium validation tests with proton beams. This will
bath. The first cavity tests demonstrated a be the first time that a crab cavity has ever
maximum transverse kick voltage exceeding been used for manipulating proton beams,
5 MV, surpassing the nominal operational
voltage of 3.4 MV. This kick voltage
and a total of 16 cavities (eight near ATLAS
and eight near CMS) will be required for the
Wherever safety and security matter, we deliver
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Sterile neutrinos in retreat

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An experiment in Korea designed to search Exclusion curves for 3 + 1 neutrino INNOVATION FOCUSED
for light sterile neutrinos has published RAA allowed oscillations in the sin2214m41
parameter Pushing boundaries with
its first results, further constraining the 90% C.L. space. The solid blue curve is based on the pro-active R&D, such as in
possible properties of such a particle. Even
95% C.L.
99% C.L. comparison with the Daya Bay spectrum, high-efficiency RF solutions
though the number of light neutrinos cannot while the dashed grey curve is from Bugey-3,
exceed three, it is still possible to have and the dotted curve from Daya Bay. The

additional neutrinos if they are sterile. Such shaded area is the allowed region from the
NEOS 90% C.L.

particles, which are right-handed singlets reactor antineutrino anomaly fit, and the

Bugey-3 90% C.L.

under the electromagnetic, strong and weak Daya Bay 90% C.L.s star is its optimum point.
interactions, are predicted by extensions of the
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by altering the rate of oscillation between the stringent upper limits on the 14 mixing
three standard neutrino flavours. An early hint 101 angle (see figure) of sin2214 less than 0.1
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for m241 ranging from 0.22.3 eV2 at 90% AN ESTABLISHED PARTNER
mixing between electron and muon neutrinos 10
10 1 confidence level. The results further improve Committed to serving the global
by the LSND experiment, although more the constraints to the LSND anomaly scientific community in particle
recent results from other experiments are so spectrum over an eight-month period, parameter space, say the team. With the physics & thermonuclear fusion
far inconclusive. the NEOS team found no evidence for NEOS experiment now completed, the
The NEOS detector is a Gd-loaded liquid oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. On the team is discussing a further reactor neutrino
scintillator located just 24 m from the core other hand, the team recorded a small excess programme using commercial reactors to be
of the 2.8 GW Hanbit nuclear power plant of antineutrinos above an energy of around built in the near future in Korea.
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flux of antineutrinos. Based on precise at longer-baseline neutrino experiments. Further reading For decades Thales has been at the forefront of
measurements of an antineutrino energy With no strong evidence for 3 + 1 NEOS Collaboration 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 121802. RF source production and associated solutions

to produce antihydrogen ions, which will
GBAR falls into place
M Brice / CERN

be slowed almost to a standstill using lasers EXPERTISE AT EVERY STAGE

and then allowed to fall under gravity over a All the critical industrial processes
On 1 March, the first component of a vertical distance of 20 cm. of the engineering cycle mastered,
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at Rest) was installed: a 1.2 m-long linear difference between the rate at which matter For over 60 years, Thales solutions have been used by the worlds most
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CCMay17_News.indd 8 05/04/2017 16:04


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17


LHC experiments

ATLAS pushes SUSY beyond 2 TeV

The ATLAS looking for final states with multiple jets
experiment has but little missing transverse momentum. In
squark-gluino-neutralino model, m(1) = 0 GeV
released several ATLAS 0 leptons, 26 jets
s = 13 TeV, 36.1 fb1 all limits at 95% CL.
the absence of deviations from background
new results in its 5000 obs. limit (1SUSY theory) predictions, strong exclusion limits are
search for supersymmetry (SUSY) using exp. limits (1 exp) extracted that complement those of R-parity
the full 13 TeV LHC data set from 2015 and conserving scenarios.
observed limit (20.3 fb1, 8 TeV)

mq~ (GeV)
2016, obtaining sensitivity for certain new The production of metastable SUSY
Meff or RJR (best expected)

particles with masses exceeding 2 TeV. 3000

particles could give rise to decay vertices
SUSY is one of the most studied 2000
~ ~ ~ ~~~
qL+ qR (u,d,s,c) that are separated by from the protonproton
extensions of the Standard Model (SM) collision point in a measurable way. An
and, if realised in nature, it would introduce 1000 ATLAS search [7] based on a dedicated
partners for all the SM particles. Under 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 tracking and vertexing algorithm has now
the assumption of R-parity conservation, m~g (GeV) ruled out large regions of the parameter
SUSY particles would be pair-produced space of such models. A second search [8]
and the lightest SUSY particle (LSP) Exclusion limits (95% C.L.) for a SUSY exploited the new layer of the ATLAS pixel
would be stable. The strongly produced model with production of squarks and tracking detector to identify short track
partners of the gluon and quarks, the gluinos and subsequent decays to quarks segments produced by particles decaying
gluino and squarks, would decay to final and massless neutralinos. The dashed line close to the LHC beam pipe, yielding
states containing energetic jets, possibly and yellow band indicate the expected sensitivity to non-prompt decays of SUSY
Light Transport Systems Self-mixing Sensor leptons, and two LSPs. If the LSP is only sensitivity and one standard-deviation charginos with lifetimes of the order of
weakly interacting, which would make it a range of the search, respectively, while the a nanosecond. The result constrains an
A major challenge in radiation-intense We offer a compact laser dark-matter candidate, it would escape the solid red line represents the exclusion based important class of SUSY models where the
environments is the signal transfer from diode based sensor for detecting
detector unseen, resulting in a signature on the observed data yields. The x axis dark-matter candidate is the partner of the
the source to the (often expensive and not a small displacement and measuring the
radiation-hard) detection system. Lens-based vibration with an accuracy of better than
with missing transverse momentum. represents the mass of the gluino while the W boson.
light transport systems suffer from aberrations, 300 nm. This easy-to-use sensor can be easily A recent ATLAS analysis [1] searched y axis is the mass of the squark. The ATLAS SUSY search programme
misalignment and radiation damage. D-Beam used for many purposes including cryogenic for this signature, while a second [2] targets with the new data set is in full swing, with
offers optical fibre based light transport chamber vibration detection or referencing the models where each gluino decays via processes, excluding stop masses up many more signatures being investigated
systems that can replace conventional displacement of wired or translational stages the partner of the top quark (the stop), to 950 GeV. to close in on models of electroweak-scale
lens-based systems. for diagnostics. Moreover, it can also be used producing events with many jets originating SUSY might alternatively be manifested supersymmetry.
Amongst others, we are experienced in the
for velocity measurements of gas-jets and fluid from a b quark (b jets). Both analyses in more complicated ways. R-parity violating
targets. Our sensor provides a reliable, low
development, optimisation and experimental find consistency with SM expectations, (RPV) SUSY features an LSP that can Further reading
D-Beam, a new spin-off company from the cost and robust solution that can be used in
University of Liverpool and the Cockcroft exploitation of synchrotron radiation-based even the harshest environments. excluding squarks and gluinos from the decay and hence evade missing transverse [1] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-022.
Institute in the UK provides a range of profile monitors, novel micro mirror array-based first two generations at 95% confidence momentum-based searches. Moreover, [2] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-021.
reliable and cost-efficient beam diagnostics
beam halo monitors for the measurements with level up to masses of 2 TeV (see figure). SUSY particles could be long-lived or [3] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-020.
for use at accelerator and clinical facilities,
high dynamic range, and advanced sensor
D-Beam offers easy-to-use and user Pair-produced stops could decay to final metastable, leading to unconventional [4] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-019.
technologies, such as silicon photomultipliers.
light sources, and reactors for applications friendly diagnostics for charged particle states containing up to six jets, including detector signatures. Two dedicated searches [5] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-013.
in research, healthcare, security, beams. This includes custom-build diagnostics two b jets, or through the emission of a [5, 6] for the production of gluino pairs and [6] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-025.
environment and manufacturing. Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) for your specific needs. We have a wide range Higgs or Z boson. Two dedicated ATLAS stop pairs decaying via RPV couplings [7] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-026.
Beam diagnostics is a highly specialised area Based on Fibres
of numerical and analytical tools for modelling
searches [3, 4] find no evidence for these have recently been studied by ATLAS, both [8] ATLAS Collab. 2017 ATLAS-CONF-2017-017.
and optimising our products for even the most
where it takes many years to develop a new challenging projects. We have established

CMS inches to the top of the Higgs-coupling mountain

sensor technology. The first advantage of D-Beam offers BLMs based on fibres with
a collaborative network with universities,
D-Beam is the availability of a broad range of unique features compared to the commonly
research centres and industry partners from
cutting edge beam diagnostics solutions that used BLMs. The fibre-based BLM gathers the
all over the world.
are not currently offered by any other company. information from the entire beam line you are
interested in, and not only one point.
Secondly, we have the required skilled experts
Further information can be found at The discovery of the the Higgs boson. Precise measurements of mode, while proceeding at a rate about 100
to optimise a given diagnostics technology Due to the large number of monitors necessary www.d-beam.co.uk
Higgs boson in 2012, a such processes therefore provide a sensitive times smaller than gluon fusion, provides a
platform towards your specific applications. to cover all beam modules in latest generation
Alexandra Alexandrova fundamentally new type means to search for new physics. highly distinctive signature in the detector,
large scale accelerators, it is desirable to
find a solution which minimises also the overall
Email: a.alexandrova@d-beam.co.uk of scalar particle, has The top-Higgs coupling is crucial for the which includes leptons and/or jets from the
Custom-designed Radiators costs of the system. The use of optical fibres
Telephone: +44(0)1925 864 430 or provided the particle-physics production of Higgs bosons at the LHC, decay of the two top quarks.
in different configurations allows covering
+44(0)7449 618 935 community with a new tool with which to since the process with the largest production Combined ATLAS and CMS results on
We offer radiators for high current/high larger segments of the machines. This allows Prof. Carsten P. Welsch search for new physics beyond the Standard cross-section (gluongluon fusion) proceeds ttH production based on the LHCs Run 1
energy beam applications, as well as highly to find new sources or losses and to protect Email: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk Model (SM). Originally discovered via its via a virtual top-quark loop. In this sense, data set showed an intriguing excess: the
sensitive radiators for low intensity beams
where a small number of particles need to be
the equipment. Telephone: +44(0)1925-864 352 decay into two photons or four leptons, the Higgs production itself provides indirect measured rate was above the SM prediction
detected. Our radiators can be used for single Our systems provide a resolution of around
Or +44(0)7973 247 982 SM Higgs boson is also predicted to interact evidence for the top-Higgs coupling. Direct with a statistical significance corresponding
particle detection as well as for beam loss 10 cm, which gives an accurate determination
Fax: +44(0)1925 864 037 with fermions with coupling strengths experimental access to the top-Higgs to 2.3. With the increase of the LHC
monitoring applications. They are based on of the loss position. Due to their intrinsic D-Beam proportional to the fermion masses. The coupling, on the other hand, comes from the energy from 8 to 13 TeV for Run 2, the ttH
the generation of scintillation and Cherenkov design advantages our systems are Keckwick lane, Daresbury laboratory top quark, being the heaviest elementary study of the associated production of a Higgs production cross-section is expected to
radiation in different types of optical fibres completely insensitive to magnetic fields Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD fermion known, has the largest coupling to boson and a top-quark pair. This production increase by a factor four putting the

and cutting edge photo detectors. and neutron radiation. United Kingdom


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17 CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

News News
ttH analyses in the crosshairs of the CMS
ttH production The top section summarises the ATLAS and limited by poor knowledge of the antiproton collisions per hour. By operating SMOG be isolated from the much more abundant
collaboration in its search for new physics. LHC Run 1 CMS combined analysis of the Run 1 data, production cross-sections, however, and with helium, LHCb physicists were able interactions with the helium nuclei. The
2.3 +0.7
Compared to the first evidence for Higgs 0.6
which exhibit a 2.3 standard-deviation no data are available so far on antiproton to mimic cosmic collisions between cross-section for protonelectron elastic
production in 2012, namely Higgs-boson excess above the SM prediction, while the
CMS Run 2
production in protonhelium collisions. 6.5 TeV protons and at-rest helium nuclei scattering is very well known and allows the
decays into clean final states containing two lower section shows the latest CMS results
1.9 +1.5
1.2 The LHCbs recently installed internal a configuration that closely matches the density of atomic electrons to be computed.
photons or four leptons, the ttH process is 4I
0.0 from Run 2. Results that include the full 2016 gas target SMOG (System for Measuring energy scale of the antiproton production The result for the antiproton production
much more rare, and the expected signal bb 0.2 0.8 data, presented for the first time in March, Overlap with Gas) provides the unique observed by space-borne experiments. has been compared to the most popular
yields in these modes are just a few events. For multileptons 1.5 0.5 are indicated in orange. possibility to study fixed-target proton Data-taking was carried out during May cosmic-ray models describing soft
this reason, searches for ttH production have h + X 0.7 +0.6 collisions at the unprecedented energy 2016 and lasted just a few hours. hadronic collisions, revealing significant
been driven by the higher sensitivity achieved hadronic -lepton decays are studied offered by the LHC, with the forward LHCbs advanced particle-identification disagreements with their predictions. The

in Higgs decay modes with larger branching 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 separately. geometry of the LHCb detector well suited capabilities were used to determine the yields accuracy of the LHCb measurement is
fractions, such as H bb, H WW, and signal strength relative to SM prediction
The latest results of ttH searches at CMS for this configuration. The SMOG device of antiprotons, among other charged particles, below 10% for most of the accessible phase
H . The search in the H bb final to WW*, ZZ* and pairs, and make use (see figure) show that we are on the verge of allows a tiny amount of a noble gas to be in the momentum range 12110 GeV. A novel space, and is expected to contribute to the
state is challenging because of the large of events with two same-sign leptons or measuring this crucial process with sufficient injected inside the LHC beam pipe near method has been developed to precisely continuous progress in turning high-energy
background from the production of top-quark more than three light leptons produced in precision to confirm or disprove the previous the LHCb vertex detector region. The determine the amount of gas in the target: astroparticle physics into a high-precision
pairs in association with jets, and the results association with b-quark jets from top-quark observed excess. With a larger data set it gas pressure is less than a billionth of events are counted where a single electron science.
are currently limited by systematic and decays. Multivariate techniques allow should be possible to have clear evidence for atmospheric pressure so as not to perturb elastically scattered off the beam is projected
theoretical uncertainties. the background due to jets misidentified ttH production by the end of Run 2. LHC operations, but this is sufficient to inside the detector acceptance. Owing to Further reading
A compromise between expected signal as leptons to be reduced, while similar observe hundreds of millions of beamgas their distinct signature, these events could LHCb Collaboration LHCb-CONF-2017-002.
yield and background uncertainty can algorithms provide discrimination against Further reading
be obtained from final states containing irreducible background from tt + W and
ALICE reveals dominance of collective flow
CMS Collaboration 2017 CMS-PAS-HIG-17-003.
leptons. Such analyses target Higgs decays tt + Z production. Events with reconstructed CMS Collaboration 2017 CMS-PAS-HIG-17-004.

LHCb brings The study of the anisotropic

flow in heavy-ion collisions v2 v2 ansatz
scaling relation between vn[P2] coefficients
of momentum correlations and the regular
cosmic collisions
ALICE, PbPb sNN = 2.76 TeV
v3 v3 ansatz
at the LHC, which measures 0.03
0.2 < PT < 2.0 GeV/c
v4 v4 ansatz flow coefficients vn. The presence of other
the momentum anisotropy sources of particle correlation, generically
of the final-state particles, called non-flow, are expected to break this
down to Earth
0.02 0.2 || 0.9 0.9 || 1.9

has been effective in characterising the 0.01
simple scaling, however.
extreme states of matter produced in such ALICE has now found that the scaling
collisions. Much evidence of collective 0 (a) (c) relation between vn[P2] and regular vn
In an effort to improve anisotropic flow and the production of a 1.2 coefficients is well verified for particle
our understanding of

quarkgluon plasma (QGP) in heavy-ion 1.0
(b) (d) pairs with a minimum separation of 0.9
cosmic rays, the LHCb collisions has already been reported. 0.8
unit of rapidity (figure, right panel), but
0 30 60 0 30 60
collaboration has generated However, ALICE recently devised a new centrality (%) centrality (%) breaks down for shorter intervals (left
high-energy collisions between protons technique to test for the collective nature of panel) where non-flow effects such as
and helium nuclei similar to those that the flow using measurements of differential Flow coefficients for two rapidity ranges resonance decays and jet fragmentation
take place when cosmic rays strike the transverse-momentum correlators, P2. plotted as a function of centrality (top), with play an important role. The observed
interstellar medium. Such collisions are These quantities measure the degree ratios of the coefficients from experimental scaling at rapidity greater than 0.9 thus
expected to produce a certain number of correlation between the momenta of data and corresponding flow ansatz values confirms that collective flow determined
of antiprotons, and are currently one of produced particles and are used to probe the (bottom). by the geometry of the collision system
the possible explanations for the small evolution of the QGP fireball produced in dominates the correlation dynamics in
fraction of antiprotons (about one per heavy-ion collisions. For specific dynamic formed by the impact parameter and the heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. ALICE
10,000 protons) observed in cosmic rays processes, one can derive how the shape beam direction. This produces pressure also observed, in the five per cent most
outside of the Earths atmosphere. By and strength of momentum correlations gradients that are largest in the reaction central collisions, that the third-order
measuring the antimatter component of is related to those of particle-number plane. Particle production thus becomes an coefficients v3[P2] are larger than the
cosmic rays, we can potentially unveil new correlations. anisotropic and collective process mostly second-order coefficients, v2[P2]. Such
high-energy phenomena, notably a possible Collective-flow models posit that the determined by the orientation relative to coefficient hierarchy is also observed in
contribution from the annihilation or decay enormous energy density achieved in the reaction plane. The anisotropy in the particle-number correlations but only for
of dark-matter particles. heavy-ion collisions generates large transverse plane is quantified in terms the two per cent most central collisions.
In the last few years, space-borne detectors pressure gradients that drive the expansion of Fourier coefficients (vn), whose values The observable P2 thus provides better
devoted to the study of cosmic rays have of the QGP fireball. In non-central depend on the initial spatial anisotropy of sensitivity to initial state fluctuations that
dramatically improved our knowledge of the collisions, the nuclear overlap region is the fireball as well as pressure gradients. engender finite third-harmonic values.
antimatter component. Data from the Alpha anisotropic and approximately almond If the geometry of the system and the
Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is shaped, with the longer axis oriented pressure gradients dominate correlations of Further reading
attached to the International Space Station perpendicular to the reaction plane produced particles, one expects a specific ALICE Collaboration 2017 arXiv:1702.02665.
and operated from a control centre at CERN,
published last year are currently the most
precise and provide the antiproton over proton Les physiciens des particules du monde entier sont invits apporter leurs CERN Courier welcomes contributions from the international
fraction up to an antiproton energy of 350 GeV (Top) A fully reconstructed protonhelium collision event in the LHCb detector, with the contributions au CERN Courier, en franais ou en anglais. Les articles retenus particle-physics community. These can be written in English or French,
(CERN Courier December 2016 p26). The particle identified as an antiproton shown in pink. (Bottom) An event with a single electron seront publis dans la langue dorigine. Si vous souhaitez proposer un article, and will be published in the same language. If you have a suggestion for
interpretation of these data is currently elastic scattering. faites part de vos suggestions la rdaction ladresse cern.courier@cern.ch. an article, please send proposals to the editor at cern.courier@cern.ch.

12 13

CCMay17_News.indd 12 05/04/2017 16:04 CCMay17_News.indd 13 05/04/2017 16:04


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

Spanish Science Industry at IPAC 2017
CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Spanish industrial companies are relevant partners in developing, building and maintaining scientific facilities, Compiled by John Swain, northe aStern UniverSit y
components and instruments, specially in the field of accelerators and matter sciences. High precision

Data-storage record for DNA

manufacturing, superconductive magnets, special power supplies, detectors, mechatronic systems, vacuum
and cryogenic chambers and structures, highly specialized engineering services, encoders and synchronizing
equipmentare just a few of their capabilities that will be presented at IPAC 2017 in Copenhagen.

Come and visit us at the Spanish Pavilion (#137) Until recently, attempts to store information The new study improves the amount of data
in DNA strands have only been able to stored in DNA by a factor 10.
reach a fraction of the theoretical maximum
storage capacity. A new method developed a Pioneer plaque and a 1948 work by
by Yaniv Erlich and Dina Zielinski of the Claude Shannon, after compression) in
New York Genome Center goes much DNA oligonucleotides, which they could
further towards this goal. Based on a then perfectly retrieve using a process
class of computer code called a fountain, that allows 2.18 1015 retrievals. The
the researchers were able to approach results indicate that perfect data storage
the so-called Shannon capacity while and retrieval is feasible at a density of
protecting against data corruption. As a 215 petabytes per gram of DNA, improving
result, they were able to store 2.14 106 on previous work by an order of magnitude.
Quadrupole Magnets for CERN, ISOLDE & SESAME
(Switzerland, Jordan) ELYTT ENERGY (Madrid)
bytes of information (including a full
computer operating system, a short French Further reading
X-ray Mirror Nanobender ALBA Synchrotron
(Barcelona) SENER (Barcelona) film from 1895, a $50 Amazon gift card, Y Erlich and D Zielinski 2017 Science 355 950.

Cadinox, welded solutions for complex and unique Supersolid firms up two elements formed a compound (Na 2He).
installations (Belauntza, Guipzcoa)
Fluorescent frogs The compound, which is expected to be
A supersolid is a bizarre quantum state stable up to at least 1000 GPa, has a crystal
that is rigid like a solid, yet can flow like a Fluorescence is rare in land animals, being structure made of cubes of eight sodium
zero-viscosity liquid (a superfluid). After largely limited to parrots and marine turtles. atoms, half of them filled with helium and
many years of theoretical arguments as to Now, for the first time, it has been found in a frog. the rest filled with an electron pair that
whether this sort of material could even Carlos Taboada of CONICET in Buenos Aires and binds the sodium atoms together.
Complete RF passive solutions for scientific exist, two groups have now reported making colleagues studied South American polka-dot
applications RYMSA (Madrid) it. Jung-Ru Li and colleagues of MIT tree frogs (Hypsiboas punctuatus) collected Further reading
started with sodium atoms configured in a near Santa Fe in Argentina. The colours of these X Dong et al. 2017 Nature Chemistry doi:10.1038/
BoseEinstein condensate such that lasers frogs are normally a combination of muted nchem.2716.
could nudge them to line up spatially as if greens, yellows and reds, but in dim light and
they were in a crystal. Julian Lonard and UV illumination they glow bright blue and green. Tools for bees
Absolute linear encoders of micro-accuracy and colleagues of ETH Zrich also began with This is genuine fluorescence, not the more
nano-resolution for undulators, wigglers and wire an atomic superfluid, but placed it in an common bioluminescence in which organisms Tool use was originally thought to be
Solid State Driver, 600W c. wave at 500MHz, scanners controls. FAGOR AUTOMATION, S.COOP.
Soft X-ray Spectrometer, ESRF (Grenoble) optical cavity and excited the atoms with make their own light. The fluorescent molecules uniquely human, although it has since been
liquid cooled, ALBA Synchrotron (Barcelona) AVS (Elgoibar) a laser causing them to emit photons into are unlike those in any other animals, being reported in primates, marine mammals and
BTESA (Madrid)
the cavity and thus create a standing wave derived from dihydroisoquinoline. In twilight birds. Now, Olli Loukola and colleagues
that guides the atoms into orderly positions. or night-time conditions, the fluorescence of Queen Mary University in London have
The two studies open up a new field of contributes 1829% of the total emerging light, found that bees also use tools. The team
investigation in which many interesting enhancing a creatures visibility, particularly trained bees to know a correct location
questions, even including whether or for amphibians, but the reasons for the for a small ball, after which the bees were
not supersolids are in thermodynamic fluorescence are still not known. able to move a ball to the correct location
equilibrium, remain open. to obtain a sucrose-solution reward. The
Further reading bees learnt better from watching a live or
Further reading C Taboada et al. 2017 PNAS doi/10.1073/ model demonstrator than from a ghost
J Lonard et al. 2017 Nature 543 87. pnas.1701053114. demonstrator in the form of a magnet
J-R Li et al. 2017 Nature 543 91. moving the ball, the results showed. The
creatures also knew that in cases where more
Helium joins chemistry than one ball was present they had to move
the closest one, even if it was a different
Long thought to be chemically inert, helium colour, indicating an unprecedented neural
has now been coaxed into forming a stable flexibility. Apparently, novel behaviour
compound. Artem Oganov and colleagues in simple animals can emerge quickly in
of Stony Brook University in New York put Meet the fluorescing South American response to environmental pressures.
thin pieces of sodium together with helium polka-dot tree frog. (Image credit:
gas under pressures up to 155 GPa and C Taboada and J Faivovich.) Further reading
found that at pressures above 113 GPa the O Loukola et al. 2017 Science 355 833.


CCMay17_Sciencewatch.indd 15 05/04/2017 14:41


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Compiled by m a r C T r l e r , i S d C and o b S e r vaTo r y of The UniverSiTy of Gene va, and C h i p p, U n i v e r S i T y of ZUriCh

Dark-matter surprise in early universe

New observations using ESOs Very disc galaxies were much more turbulent

ESO / L Calada
Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile indicate than the spiral galaxies we see in our cosmic
that massive, star-forming galaxies in the neighbourhood. Both effects seem to become
early universe were dominated by normal, more marked as astronomers look further
baryonic matter. This is in stark contrast back in time into the early universe. This
to present-day galaxies, where the effects suggests that three to four billion years after
of dark matter on the rotational velocity of the Big Bang, the gas in galaxies had already
spiral galaxies seem to be much greater. The efficiently condensed into flat, rotating discs,
surprising result, published in Nature by an while the dark-matter halos surrounding
international team of astronomers led by Schematic representation of rotating disc them were much larger and more spread out.
Reinhard Genzel at the Max Planck Institute galaxies in the local (left) and the distant, Apparently it took billions of years longer
for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, early universe (right). The effect of dark for dark matter to condense as well, so its
suggests that dark matter was less influential matter (shown in red) is to increase the dominating effect is only seen on the rotation
in the early universe than it is today. rotation speed of the outer regions of local velocities of galaxy discs today.
Whereas normal matter in the cosmos can galaxies. This explanation is consistent with
be viewed as brightly shining stars, glowing observations showing that early galaxies
gas and clouds of dust, dark matter does not local universe, but is now challenged by the were much more gas-rich and compact
emit, absorb or reflect light. This elusive, latest observations of galaxies in the distant than todays galaxies. Embedded in a wider
transparent matter can only be observed universe. The rotation curve of six massive, dark-matter halo, their rotation curves
via its gravitational effects, one of which star-forming galaxies at the peak of galaxy would be only weakly influenced by its
is a higher speed of rotation in the outer formation, 10 billion years ago, was measured gravity. It would be therefore interesting to
parts of spiral galaxies. The disc of a spiral with the KMOS and SINFONI instruments explore whether the suggestion of a slow
galaxy rotates with a velocity of hundreds on the VLT, and the results are intriguing. condensation of dark-matter halos could help
of kilometres per second, making a full Unlike local spiral galaxies, the outer regions shed light on this mysterious component of
revolution in a period of hundreds of millions of these distant galaxies seem to be rotating the universe.
of years. If a galaxys mass consisted entirely more slowly than regions closer to the core
of normal matter, the sparser outer regions suggesting they contain less dark matter Further reading
should rotate more slowly than the dense than expected. The same decreasing velocity R Genzel et al. 2017 Nature 543 397.
regions at the centre. But observations trend away from the centres of the galaxies is
of nearby spiral galaxies show that their also found in a composite rotation curve that
inner and outer parts actually rotate at combines data from around 100 other distant Editors note
approximately the same speed. galaxies, which have too weak a signal for an
It is widely accepted that the observed flat individual analysis. After 13 years as the Couriers Astrowatch
rotation curves indicate that spiral galaxies Genzel and collaborators identify two contributor, astronomer Marc Trler is moving
contain large amounts of non-luminous probable causes for the unexpected result. to pastures new. We thank him for his numerous
matter in a halo surrounding the galactic Besides a stronger dominance of normal lively columns keeping readers up to date with the
disc. This traditional view is based on matter with the dark matter playing a much latest astro results.
observations of numerous galaxies in the smaller role, they also suggest that early

Picture of the month

NASA, ESA and R Kirshner; P Challis

Thirty years ago, a massive stellar explosion sent shock waves not only through
space but also through the astronomical community. Detected on 23 February
1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way
SN 1987A was the nearest supernova explosion observed in hundreds of years.
Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed the expanding
dust cloud of SN 1987A several times to give astronomers a better understanding
of these cosmic explosions. Its latest image, shown here, was taken earlier this
year to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the supernova. Supernova 1987A is
visible in the centre of the image amid a backdrop of stars and surrounded by
gaseous clouds. The bright ring around the remains of the exploded star is about
one light-year across and was probably ejected about 20,000 years before the star
exploded. The origin of the two fainter rings, which extend like mirror images in an
hourglass-shaped structure, is still not fully understood.


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KH_pub_Prod_213x282mm.indd 1 28/03/17 14:30


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Dark energy
A new Large Research Infrastructure
based on a linac with unprecedented reliability requirements
Euclid to pinpoint nature
of dark energy
Due for launch in 2020, the European
Space Agencys Euclid probe will use its
unprecedented sensitivity and reach to identify
what is causing the expansion of the universe
to accelerate.

The accelerating expansion of the universe, rst realised 20 years

Since 1998 SCKCEN is developing the collaborative effort and supported by several acknowledged from the early design stage ago, has been conrmed by numerous observations. Remarkably,
MYRRHA project as an accelerator driven consecutive Euratom FPs. Today the design that such a level of availability/reliability whatever the source of the acceleration, it is the primary driver of the
system (ADS) based on the lead-bismuth effort is pursued under the H2020 MYRTE clearly requires a coherent approach to all dynamical evolution of the universe in the present epoch. That we are
eutectic (LBE) as a coolant of the reactor and project complemented by several bilateral accelerator components, but also that it
unable to know the nature of this so-called dark energy is one of the
a material for its spallation target. MYRRHA is collaboration agreements. compels to implement a global fault tolerant
a flexible fast-spectrum pool-type research concept. most important puzzles in modern fundamental physics. Whether An artist
irradiation facility, also serving since the FP5 The MYRRHA linac consists of 2 fundamental due to a cosmological constant, a new dynamical eld, a deviation view based on industry
EURATOM framework as the backbone of entities: (i) the injector and (ii) the main linac. This has since been confirmed by extensive from general relativity on cosmological scales, or something else, drawings of the Euclid spacecraft showing the large sunshield
the Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T) The injector is fully normal conducting and reliability modeling. The final design of the dark energy has triggered numerous theoretical models and experi- covered by solar cells and the telescope bafe on the payload
strategy of the European Commission brings the proton beam from the source linac introduces the possibility of fault
mental programmes. Physicists and astronomers are convinced that module containing the cold parts of the instruments. Also visible
concerning the ADS development in the through a 4-rod RFQ followed by a series of tolerance at the level of the superconducting
third pillar of this strategy. CH-type multigap cavities to 17 MeV. cavities through conservative nominal pinning down the nature of this mysterious component of the uni- is the K-band antenna to transmit the large amount of data from
MYRRHA is proposed to the international conditions on beam dynamics and on cavity verse will lead to a revolution in physics. the second EarthSun Lagrangian point, located 1.5 million
community of nuclear energy and nuclear A MEBT line matches the beam into the main set points. Based on the current lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) model kilometres from Earth. The spacecraft measures approximately
physics as a pan-European large research linac, which is fully superconducting and of cosmology which has only two ingredients: general relativ- 4.5 m tall and will have a launch mass of around 2100 kg. (Image
infrastructure in ESFRI to serve as a operated at 2K. A similar fault tolerant concept is applied in
ity with a nonzero cosmological constant and cold dark matter credit: ESA/C Carreau.)
multipurpose fast spectrum irradiation 2 families of spoke cavities prepare the the solid state RF amplifiers, which may
facility for various fields of research. beam for final acceleration in a sequence of therefore continue feeding the accelerating we identify at this time three dominant components of the uni-
5-cell elliptical cavities. The 600 MeV proton cavities even in case of failing components. verse: normal baryonic matter, which makes up only 5% of the decoupled using several complementary cosmological probes. Type
The subcritical core of the MYRRHA reactor beam is then transported through an However, such a scheme, based on total energy density; dark matter (27%); and dark energy (68%). 1a supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are very good
(~100 MWth) has to be driven by a 600 MeV achromatic line for vertical injection from redundancy from modularity, may not be This model is extremely successful in tting observations, such probes of the expansion rate, for instance, while gravitational lens-
proton beam with a maximum intensity of above into the reactor. A beam window applied in the injector. Fault tolerance is then
as the Planck missions measurements of the cosmic microwave ing and peculiar velocities of galaxies (as revealed by their redshift)
4 mA. The ADS application requires this centered in the subcritical core closes the recovered by a mere duplication of the
beam to be delivered in a continuous regime line. injector: 1 active, 1 hot standby. background, but it gives no clues about the nature of the dark- are very good probes of gravity and the growth rate of structures
the resulting beam power of 2.4 MW matter or dark-energy components. It should also be noted that (see panel overleaf). It is only by combining several complemen-
classifies the driver machine as a High Power A specific requirement for ADS The phased approach of MYRRHA will the assumption of a nonzero cosmological constant, implying a tary probes that the source of the acceleration of the universe can
Proton Accelerator. application is the high level of the proton primarily concentrate on its linac limited to nonzero vacuum energy density, leads to what has been called be understood. The changes are extremely small and are currently
Already in the early design phase of beam reliability, in other words the absence 100 MeV (first spoke family), albeit with 1
the worst prediction ever made in physics: its value as measured undetectable at the level of individual galaxies, but by observing
MYRRHA the choice for linac has been of unwanted beam trips. In the case of injector only. This installation will be a
endorsed, motivated to a large extent by the MYRRHA it is defined as follows: during a relevantly sized test platform of various fault by astronomers falls short of what is predicted by the Standard many galaxies and treating them statistically it is possible to accu-
unprecedented reliability requirements. 3-months operational period the number of tolerance mechanisms, and thereby it will Model for particle physics by well over 100 orders of magnitude. rately track the evolution and therefore get a handle on what dark
beam trips longer than 3s should be limited allow for a thorough investigation and Depending on what form it takes, dark energy changes the energy physically is. This demands new observing facilities capa-
The design of the MYRRHA linac has been to 10. Shorter beam trips, on the other hand, extrapolation of the realistic capabilities of dynamical evolution during the expansion history of the universe ble of both measuring individual galaxies with high precision and
conducted through an intense European are tolerated in large numbers. It has been the full size 600 MeV linac.
as predicted by cosmological models. Specically, dark energy surveying large regions of the sky to cover all cosmological scales.
modifies the expansion rate as well as the processes by which
cosmic structures form. Whether the acceleration is produced Euclid science parameters
by a new scalar eld or by modied laws of gravity will impact Euclid is a new space-borne telescope under development by the
www.sckcen.be/MYRRHA differently on these observables, and the two effects can be European Space Agency (ESA). It is a medium-class mission


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Dark energy Accelerate with

The geometry of the universe accelerating expansion of our universe from the time it kicked in
around 10 billion years ago to our present epoch, using four cos-
power and efficiency
mological probes that can explore both dark-energy and modified- As the market leader in terrestrial broadcasting, we raise the standard
primordial CMB dark matter gravity models. It will capture a 3D picture of the distribution of
quantum for efficiency and precision in particle acceleration. Choose from our
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inflation measured to per-cent-level accuracy, and measure possible varia-
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factor 1030
knowledge of these parameters by a factor 2060. Euclid will Amplifiers up to 100 kW and more for the storage ring Visit us at
observe the dynamical evolution of the universe and the formation High-speed linear drive amplifiers for the klystron in
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The evolution of structure is seeded by quantum fluctuations in the very of its cosmic structures over a sky area covering more than 30% linear accelerators (LINAC)
early universe, which were amplified by inflation. These seeds grew of the celestial sphere, corresponding to about five per cent of the Fast-response amplifiers for stochastic cooling Booth 46 and 47
to create the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies after volume of the observable universe. Amplifiers with low additive phase noise for prebuncher cavities
approximately 100,000 years and eventually the dark-matter distribution The dark-matter distribution will be probed via weak
Rohde & Schwarz offers a dedicated portfolio of T&M instruments and
of today. In the same way that supernovae provide a standard candle for gravitational-lensing effects on galaxies. Gravitational lensing
astronomical observations, periodic fluctuations in the density of the by foreground objects slightly modifies the shape of distant back- power amplifier solutions for development, commissioning, optimization
visible matter called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) provide a standard ground galaxies, producing a distortion that directly reveals the and operation of particle accelerators.
cosmological length scale that can be used to understand the impact of distribution of dark matter (see panel overleaf). The way such lens-
dark energy. By comparing the distance of a supernova or structure with ing changes as a function of look-back time, due to the continuing www.rohde-schwarz.com/ad/particle-accelerators
its measured redshift, the geometry of the universe can be obtained. growth of cosmic structure from dark matter, strongly depends
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a clear signature of the amount and nature of dark energy. Spec-
troscopic measurements, meanwhile, will enable us to determine
tiny local deviations of the redshift of galaxies from their expected
value derived from the general cosmic expansion alone (see image
p24). These deviations are signatures of peculiar velocities of gal-
axies produced by the local gravitational fields of surrounding
massive structures, and therefore represent a unique test of grav-
ity. Spectroscopy will also reveal the 3D clustering properties of
galaxies, in particular baryon acoustic oscillations.
Together, weak-lensing and spectroscopy data will reveal signa-
tures of the physical processes responsible for the expansion and
the hierarchical formation of structures and galaxies in the pres-
ence of dark energy. A cosmological constant, a new dark-energy
Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a CDM universe at three component or deviations to general relativity will produce different
different epochs (left-to-right above), corresponding to redshift z = 6, z = 2 signatures. Since these differences are expected to be very small,
and our present epoch. Each white point represents the concentration of however, the Euclid mission is extremely demanding scientifically
dark matter, gas and stars, the brightest regions being the densest. The and also represents considerable technical, observational and data-
simulation shows the growth rate of structure and the formation of galaxies, processing challenges.
clusters of galaxies, filaments and large-scale structures over cosmic By further analysing the Euclid data in terms of power spectra
time. Euclid uses the large-scale structures made out of matter and dark of galaxies and dark matter and a description of massive nonlin-
matter as a standard yardstick: starting from the CMB, we assume that ear structures like clusters of galaxies, Euclid can address cos-
the typical scale of structures (or the peak in the spatial power spectrum) mological questions beyond the accelerating expansion. Indeed,
increases proportionally with the expansion of the universe. Euclid will we will be able to address any topic related to power spectra or
determine the typical scale as a function of redshift by analysing power non-Gaussian properties of galaxies and dark-matter distributions.
spectra at several redshifts from the statistical analysis of the dark-matter The relationship between the light- and dark-matter distributions
structures (using the weak lensing probe) or the ordinary matter structures of galaxies, for instance, can be derived by comparing the galaxy
based on the spectroscopic redshifts from the BAO probe. The structures power spectrum as derived from spectroscopy with the dark-matter
will evolve with redshift also due to the properties of gravity. Information on power spectrum as derived from gravitational lensing. The physics
the growth of structure at different scales in addition to different redshifts of inflation can then be explored by combining the non-Gaussian
is needed to discriminate between models of dark energy and modified features observed in the dark-matter distribution in Euclid data
gravity. (Image credit: MPA Garching/Millennium.) with the Planck data. Likewise, since Euclid will map the dark-
matter distribution with unprecedented accuracy, it will be sensi- THx9 Amplifier
tive to subtle features produced by neutrinos and thereby help to
of ESAs Cosmic Vision programme and was selected in October constrain the sum of the neutrino masses. On these and other top-
2011 as the first-priority cosmology mission of the next decade. ics, Euclid will provide important information to constrain models.
Euclid will be launched at the end of 2020 and will measure the The definition of Euclids science cases, the development of


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CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Dark energy
the scientific instruments and the processing and exploitation of the
data are under the responsibility of the Euclid Consortium (EC) and Tracking cosmic structure
carried out in collaboration with ESA. The EC brings together about
1500 scientists and engineers in theoretical physics, particle physics,
astrophysics and space astronomy from around 200 laboratories in
14 European countries, Canada and the US. Euclids science objec-
tives translate into stringent performance requirements. Mathemati-
cal models and detailed complete simulations of the mission were
used to derive the full set of requirements for the spacecraft pointing
and stability, the telescope, scientific instruments, data-processing
algorithms, the sky survey and the system calibrations. Euclids per-
formance requirements can be broadly grouped into three catego-
ries: image quality, radiometric and spectroscopic performance. The
spectroscopic performance in particular puts stringent demands on
the ground-processing algorithms and demands a high level of con-
trol over cleanliness during assembly and launch.

Dark-energy payload
The Euclid satellite consists of a service module (SVM) and a pay-
load module (PLM), developed by ESAs industrial contractors
Thales Alenia Space of Turin and Airbus Defence and Space of
Toulouse, respectively. The two modules are substantially ther-
mally and structurally decoupled to ensure that the extremely
rigid and cold (around 130 K) optical bench located in the PLM
is not disturbed by the warmer (290 K20 K) and more flexible
SVM. The SVM comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsys-
tems and also hosts the instruments warm electronics units. The
Euclid image-quality requirements demand very precise pointing
and minimal jitter, while the survey requirements call for fast
and accurate movements of the satellite from one field to another.
The attitude and orbit control system consists of several sensors
to provide sub-arc-second stability during an exposure time, and
Mileon the longest hollow cold gas thrusters with micronewton resolution are used to actuate
the fine pointing. Three star trackers provide the absolute inertial Gravitational-lensing effects produced by cosmic structures on distant

conductor in the world attitude accuracy. Since the trackers are mounted on the SVM,
which is separate from the telescope structure and thus subject to
galaxies (top; image credit: NASA/ESA & Calada). Numerical simulations
(above) show the distribution of dark matter (filaments and clumps with
thermo-elastic deformation, the fine guidance system is located on brightness proportional to their mass density) over a line of sight of one
Developed in response to the customer demand the same focal plane of the telescope and endowed with absolute billion light-years. The yellow lines show how light beams emitted by distant
pointing capabilities based on a reference star catalogue.
for seamless magnetic windings. The PLM is designed to provide an extremely stable detection
galaxies are deflected by mass concentrations located along the line of sight.
Each deflection slightly modifies the original shape of the lensed galaxies,
system enabling the sharpest possible images of the sky. The size increasing their original intrinsic ellipticity by a small amount. Since all
of the point spread function (PSF), which is the image of a point distant galaxies are lensed, all galaxies eventually show a coherent ellipticity
source such as an unresolved star, closely resembles the Airy pattern projected on the sky that directly reveals the projected distribution
Meet us at IPAC17, Copenhagen May 14-19 disc, the theoretical limit of the optical system. The PSF of Euclid of dark matter and its power spectrum. The 3D distribution of dark matter
images is comparable to those of the Hubble space telescopes, con- can then be reconstructed by slicing the universe into redshift bins and
sidering Euclids smaller primary mirror, and is more than three recovering the ellipticity pattern at each redshift. The growth rate of cosmic
times smaller compared with what can be achieved by the best structures derived from this inversion process strongly depends on the
ground-based survey telescopes under optimum viewing condi- nature of dark energy and gravity, and will be detected by the outstanding
tions. The telescope is composed of a 1.2 m-diameter three-mirror image quality of Euclids VIS instrument. (Image credit: CNRS/UPMC/IAP/S
anastigmatic Korsch arrangement that feeds two instruments: Colombi/Y Mellier.)
www.luvata.com a wide-field visible imager (VIS) for the shape measurement of
galaxies, and a near-infrared spectrometer and photometer (NISP)
for their spectroscopic and photometric redshift measurements. which is mapping the stars of the Milky Way with high precision,
An important PLM design driver is to maintain a high and sta- all mirrors, the telescope truss and the optical bench are made of
ble image quality over a large field of view. Building on the herit- silicon carbide, a ceramic material that combines extreme stiff-
age of previous European high-stability telescopes such as Gaia, ness with very good thermal conduction. The PLM structure


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

M a y 2 0 17 M a y 2 0 17

CERN Courier CERN Courier

Dark energy Dark energy

Ground control

Airbus / Thales / ESA

fine guidance FOM1 mirror dichroic NISP
One Euclid field of 0.5 square degrees will generate 520 Gb/day of

VIS compressed data and 240 Gb/day of NISP compressed data,

and one such field is obtained in an observing period lasting about

VIS focal 1 hour and 15 minutes. All raw science data are transmitted to
plane assembly
the ground via a high-density link. Even though the nominal mis-
sion will last for six years, mapping out the 36% of the sky at the
required sensitivity and accuracy within this time involves large
amounts of data to be transmitted at a rate of around 850 Gb/day
during just four hours of contact with the ground station. The com-
plete processing pipeline from Euclids raw data to the final data
products is a large IT project involving a few hundred software
engineers and scientists, and has been broken down into functions
handled by almost a dozen separate expert groups. A highly varied Integrated Engineering Software
collection of data sets must be homogenised for subsequent combi-
nation: data from different ground and space-based telescopes, vis- our LORENTZ series will impress
VIS shutter FOM3 ible and near-infrared data, and slit-less spectroscopy. Very precise with its speed, accuracy,
unit mirror and accurate shapes of galaxies are measured, giving two orders of
M3 mirror
magnitude improvement with respect to current analyses. intuitive nature, and ease-of-use.
The cold compartment of the Euclid payload module, into which Based on the current knowledge of the Euclid mission and the
light comes from the telescope primary and secondary mirrors present ground-station development, no showstoppers have been 2D/3D Beam Optics and Charged Particle
2D map of the large-scale galaxy distribution observed by the (not shown). The beam is then folded by two flat mirrors (FOM1 identified. Euclid should meet its performance requirements at
Trajectory Analysis
Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our galaxy is at the centre. and FOM2) and converged by an elliptical mirror (M3) to a all levels, including the design of the mission (a survey of 15,000
Regions with redder colour have a higher density of galaxies; dichroic plate, which transmits the near-infrared light to the square degrees in less than six years) and for the space and ground Application Programming Interface
regions of greener colour have lower galaxy densities, and black entrance pupil of the NISP instrument and reflects the visible segments. This is very encouraging and most promising, taking
regions have no galaxies. The elongated structures of a higher light to a third flat mirror (FOM3), which finally bends the light into account the multiplicity of challenges that Euclid presents. Extremely precise calculation of Electromagnetic
density of galaxies pointing toward the centre are signatures of the towards the focal plane of the VIS instrument. The entire On the scientific side, the Euclid mission meets the precision and fields using our proprietary BEM solvers
peculiar redshifts (or velocities) of galaxies. Euclid will measure structure, including mirrors and most of the support brackets, is accuracy requested to characterise the source of the accelerating
structures as far out as z = 2 over a larger area of the sky. made of silicon-carbide ceramic material (dark grey). The expansion of the universe and decisively reveal its nature. On the LORENTZ

compartment, irregularly shaped, about 2.5 m diameter, is technical side, there are difficult challenges to be met in achieving
is passively cooled to a stable temperature of around 130 K, and a thermally controlled, with a large radiator (light grey) the required precision and accuracy of galaxy-shape, photometric
secondary mirror mechanism will be employed to refocus the tele- transferring excess heat to space, and is separated structurally and spectroscopic redshift measurements. Our current knowledge v
scope image on the VIS detector plane after launch and cool down. and thermally from the rest of the spacecraft by six struts made of the mission provides a high degree of confidence that we can
The VIS instrument receives light in one broad visible band cover- of glass fibre and titanium (yellow). To get an impression of the overcome all of these challenges in time for launch.
ing the wavelength range 0.550.90 m. To avoid additional image physical dimensions: the size of M3 is 54 40 cm.
distortions, it has no imaging optics of its own and is equipped with Further reading
a camera made up of 36 4 k 4 k-pixel CCDs with a pixel scale of caused by gravitational lensing and are not a result of artefacts in L Amendola et al. 2016 arXiv:1606.0018.
0.1 arc second that must be aligned to a precision better than 15 m the optics. The telescope will deliver a field of view of more than R Laureijs et al. 2011 arXiv:1110.3193.
over a distance of 30 cm. Pixel-wise, the VIS camera is the second 0.5 square degrees, which is an area comparable to two full Moons, G Racca et al. 2016 Proc. SPIE 9904 9904-19, arXiv:1610.05508.
largest camera that will be flown in space after Gaias and will pro- and the flat focal plane of the Korsch configuration places no extra
duce the largest images ever generated in space. Unlike Gaia, VIS requirements on the surface shape of the sensors in the instru- Rsum
will compress and transmit all raw scientific images to Earth for ments. As the VIS and NISP instruments share the same field of Euclid sur la piste de lnergie noire
further data processing. The instrument is capable of measuring view, Euclid observations can be carried out through both channels
the shapes of about 55,000 galaxies per image field of 0.5 square in parallel. Besides the Euclid satellite data, the Euclid mission will Nous savons depuis prs de 20 ans que lexpansion de lUnivers
degrees. The NISP instrument, on the other hand, provides near- combine the photometry of the VIS and NISP instruments with sacclre, mais nous ignorons toujours ce quest l nergie noire
infrared photometry in the wavelength range 0.922.0 m and has complementary ground-based observations from several existing lorigine de cette acclration. La sonde Euclid de lAgence spatiale
a slit-less spectroscopy mode equipped with three identical grisms and new telescopes equipped with wide-field imaging or spectro- europenne, qui sera lance en 2020, utilisera sa sensibilit et sa
(grating prisms) covering the wavelength range 1.251.85 m. The scopic instruments (such as CFHT, ESO/VLT, Keck, Blanco, JST porte indites pour identifier la nature de lnergie noire. Selon sa
grisms are mounted in different orientations to separate overlapping and LSST). These combined data will be used to derive an estimate forme, lnergie noire modifie lgrement lhistorique de lexpansion Contact us about our 30 Day Free Evaluation.
spectra of neighbouring objects, and the NISP device is capable of of redshift for the two billion galaxies used for weak lensing, and to de lUnivers prdite par les modles cosmologiques ; dtecter de si
delivering redshifts for more than 900 galaxies per image field. The decouple coherent weak gravitational-lensing patterns from intrin- petites diffrences exigera des dispositifs capables de mesurer des
Well show you how to get results from your exact design.
NISP focal plane is equipped with 16 near infrared HgCdTe detec- sic alignments of galaxies. Organising the ground-based observa- galaxies individuelles avec une haute prcision et dtudier de vastes
tor arrays of 2 k 2 k pixels with 0.3 arcsec pixels, which represents tions over both hemispheres and making these data compatible rgions du ciel, afin de couvrir toutes les chelles cosmologiques.
the largest near-infrared focal plane ever built for a space mission. with the Euclid data turns out to be a very complex operation that
The exquisite accuracy and stability of Euclids instruments will involves a huge data volume, even bigger than the Euclid satellite Yannick Mellier, CNRS-UMPC/IAP and CEA/IRFU, on behalf of the Euclid
provide certainty that any observed galaxy-shape distortions are data volume. Consortium, and Giuseppe Racca and Rene Laureijs, ESA.

24 integratedsoft.com (+1) 204.632.5636

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Dark matter history Dark-matter history

How dark
matter became
a particle
It took decades for dark matter to enter the
lexicon of particle physics. Today, explaining
the nature and abundance of dark matter is
one of the most pressing problems in the field.

Astronomers have long contemplated the possibility that there may

be forms of matter in the universe that are imperceptible, either
because they are too far away, too dim or intrinsically invisible.
Lord Kelvin was perhaps the first, in 1904, to attempt a dynamical
estimate of the amount of dark matter in the universe. His argu-
ment was simple yet powerful: if stars in the Milky Way can be
described as a gas of particles acting under the influence of gravity,
one can establish a relationship between the size of the system and
the velocity dispersion of the stars. Henri Poincar was impressed
by Kelvins results, and in 1906 he argued that since the velocity
dispersion predicted in Kelvins estimate is of the same order of
magnitude as that observed, there is no dark matter, or at least not
so much as there is of shining matter.
The SwissUS astronomer Fritz Zwicky is arguably the most
famous and widely cited pioneer in the field of dark matter. In 1933,
he studied the redshifts of various galaxy clusters and noticed a large
scatter in the apparent velocities of eight galaxies within the Coma
Cluster. Zwicky applied the so-called virial theorem which estab-
lishes a relationship between the kinetic and potential energies of
a system of particles to estimate the clusters mass. In contrast to
what would be expected from a structure of this scale a velocity
dispersion of around 80 km/s the observed average velocity disper-
sion along the line of sight was approximately 1000 km/s. From this
comparison, Zwicky concluded: If this would be confirmed, we
would get the surprising result that dark matter is present in much
greater amount than luminous matter.
In the 1950s and 1960s, most astronomers did not ask whether
the universe had a significant abundance of invisible or missing

The large-scale structure of the universe is thought to be
dominated by vast filaments of dark matter, as simulated by the
EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their
Environments) project. (Image credit: EAGLE Project.)

26 27

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Dark-matter history
Image credits: (from left) Wikicommons; L Athanassoula ; Carnegie Institution for Science

(Left) Lord Kelvin was perhaps the first, in 1904, to attempt a dynamical estimate of the amount of dark matter in the universe. Albert
Bosma (middle), currently at the Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille, and Vera Rubin (right), who died at the age of 88 in
December 2016, played an important role in convincing the scientific community of the presence of dark matter around galaxies.

mass. Although observations from this era would later be seen as swayed by observations of galaxy clusters, arguments pertaining
evidence for dark matter, back then there was no consensus that to the stability of disc galaxies, or even cosmological considera-
the observations required much, or even any, such hidden mate- tions. Despite disagreements regarding the strengths and weak-
rial, and certainly there was not yet any sense of crisis in the field. nesses of these various observations and arguments, a consensus
It was in 1970 that the first explicit statements began to appear nonetheless began to emerge by the end of the 1970s in favour of
arguing that additional mass was needed in the outer parts of some dark-matters existence.
galaxies, based on comparisons between predicted and measured
rotation curves. The appendix of a seminal paper published by Ken Enter the particle physicists
Freeman in 1970, prompted by discussions with radio-astronomer From our contemporary perspective, it can be easy to imagine that
Mort Roberts, concluded that: If [the data] are correct, then there scientists in the 1970s had in mind halos of weakly interacting par-
must be in these galaxies additional matter which is undetected, ticles when they thought about dark matter. In reality, they did not.
either optically or at 21 cm. Its mass must be at least as large as the Instead, most astronomers had much less exotic ideas in the form
mass of the detected galaxy, and its distribution must be quite dif- of comparatively low-luminosity versions of otherwise ordinary
ferent from the exponential distribution which holds for the optical stars and gas. Over time, however, an increasing number of particle
galaxy. (Figure 1 overleaf.) physicists became aware of and interested in the problem of dark
Several other lines of evidence began to appear that supported matter. This transformation was not just driven by new scientific
the same conclusion. In 1974, two influential papers (by Jaan results, but also by sociological changes in science that had been
Einasto, Ants Kaasik and Enn Saar, and by Jerry Ostriker, Jim taking place for some time.
Peebles and Amos Yahil) argued that a common solution existed Half a century ago, cosmology was widely viewed as something
for the mass discrepancies observed in clusters and in galaxies, and of a fringe science, with little predictive power or testability. Par-
made the strong claim that the mass of galaxies had been until then ticle physicists and astrophysicists did not often study or pursue
underestimated by a factor of about 10. research in each others fields, and it was not obvious what their
By the end of the decade, opinion among many cosmologists respective communities might have to offer one another. More than
and astronomers had crystal- any other problem in science, it was dark matter that brought par-
lised: dark matter was indeed ticle physicists and astronomers together.
abundant in the universe. As astrophysical alternatives were gradually ruled out one by
An increasing Although the same conclusion one, the view that dark matter is likely to consist of one or more yet
number of particle was reached by many groups of undiscovered species of subatomic particle came to be held almost
physicists became scientists with different subcul- universally among both particle physicists and astrophysicists alike.
tures and disciples, many indi- Perhaps unsurprisingly, the first widely studied particle dark-
aware of and viduals found different lines of matter candidates were neutrinos. Unlike all other known particle
interested in evidence to be compelling dur- species, neutrinos are stable and do not experience electromag-
the problem of ing this period. Some astrono- netic or strong interactions which are essential characteristics for
mers were largely persuaded by almost any viable dark-matter candidate. The earliest discussion
dark matter. new and more reliable measure- of the role of neutrinos in cosmology appeared in a 1966 paper
ments of rotation curves, such by Soviet physicists Gershtein and Zeldovich, and several years
as those by Albert Bosma, Vera later the topic began to appear in the West, beginning in 1972 with
Rubin and others. Others were a paper by Ram Cowsik and J McClelland. Despite the very


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Dark-matter history
interesting and important results of these and other papers, it is
notable that most of them did not address or even acknowledge the 10 200
possibility that neutrinos could account for the missing mass that

had been observed by astronomers on galactic and cluster scales.

An exception included the 1977 paper by Lee and Weinberg, whose 0 0
0 R80 0 R80
Best Cyclotron Systems provide turnkey systems final sentence reads: Of course, if a stable heavy neutral lepton
that not only include a cyclotron specific to your were discovered with a mass of order 115 GeV, the gravitational 10 200
Assembly of a Best 35 MeV Cyclotron at field of these heavy neutrinos would provide a plausible mecha- NGC2403
isotope requirements, but also targets, automated nism for closing the universe.
Best Theratronics facility, Ottawa, Ontario, CA
radiochemistry, infrastructure, operations, and While this is still a long way from acknowledging the dynamical

HI surface density (1020 atoms/cm2)

0 0
maintenance support. evidence for dark matter, it was an indication that physicists were 0 R80 0 R80
beginning to realise that weakly interacting particles could be very
2 Simultaneous extractions abundant in our universe, and may have had an observable impact

rotation velocity (km/s)

10 200
IC 342
Multiple beam line configurations as per customer design on its evolution. In 1980, the possibility that neutrinos might make
Currents from 400uA up to 1000uA depending on model up the dark matter received a considerable boost when a group
Best 28u is fully upgradeable to 35 MeV in the field studying tritium beta decay reported that they had measured the 0
0 R80
0 R80
mass of the electron antineutrino to be approximately 30 eV
Best Cyclotron Capabilities Summary similar to the value needed for neutrinos to account for the majority 10 200
of dark matter. Although this discovery was eventually refuted, M101
Cyclotron Energy (MeV) Isotopes Produced it motivated many particle physicists to consider the cosmological
F18, Tc99m, C11, N13, O15, implications of their research. 0 0
Best 15 15
Cu64, Ga67, I124, Pd103
Installation of Best 70 MeV Cyclotron at Italian Although we know today that dark matter in the form of Stand- 0 R80 0 R80
Best 20u/25 2015, 2515 Best 15 + I123, In111, Ge68/Ga68
National Laboratories (INFN), Legnaro, IT ard Model neutrinos would be unable to account for the observed
10 200
Best 28u (Upgradeable) 2815 Best 15 + I123, In111, Ge68/Ga68 large-scale structure of the universe, neutrinos provided an impor- NGC6946
Best 35 3515
Greater production of Best 15, tant template for the class of hypothetical species that would later
20u/25 isotopes plus Tl201, Rb81/Kr81 be known as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Astro- 0 0
Best 70 7035 Sr82/Rb82, I123, Cu67, Kr81 + research physicists and particle physicists alike began to experiment with a 0 R80 0 R80
variety of other, more viable, dark-matter candidates. radius radius
Best Particle Therapy is developing a
Proton-to-Carbon therapy system to deliver Cold dark-matter paradigm Fig. 1. Flat rotation curves for galaxies, which indicate they are
energetic particle beams of protons and carbon The idea of neutrino dark matter was killed off in the mid-1980s spinning faster than expected if they were made purely from
ions to achieve a high level of precision to treat with the arrival of numerical simulations. These could predict baryonic matter, began to emerge from 21 cm observations in the
deep-seated as well as radiation-resistant tumors. how large numbers of dark-matter particles would evolve under early 1970s. Shown are the hydrogen surface density profile (left)
the force of gravity in an expanding universe, and therefore allow and rotation curves (right) of five galaxies as obtained by Rogstad
ion Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron astronomers to assess the impact of dark matter on the formation and Shostak in 1972, where the bars under the galaxy names
(iRCMS) is planned to have: Best/BNL of large-scale structure. In fact, by comparing the results of these indicate their average radial diameter and R80 corresponds to the
simulations with those of galaxy surveys, it was soon realised that radius containing 80% of the observed hydrogen.
Intrinsically small beams facilitating ion Rapid Cycling no relativistic particle could account for dark matter. Instead, the
beam delivery with precision Medical Synchrotron paradigm of cold dark matter i.e. made of particles that were non- Solutions beyond the Standard Model
Small beam sizes small magnets, (iRCMS) relativistic at the epoch of structure formation was well on its way Neutrinos might be the only known particles that are stable, elec-
light gantries smaller footprint to becoming firmly established. trically neutral and not strongly interacting, but the imagination
Best Medical is collaborating with Meanwhile, in 1982, Jim Peebles pointed out that the observed of particle physicists did not remain confined to the Standard
Highly efficient single turn extraction Brookhaven National Laboratory characteristics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) also Model for long. Instead, papers started to appear that openly con-
(BNL) under a DOE-CRADA program.
Efficient extraction less shielding seemed to require the existence of dark matter. If just baryons templated many speculative and yet undiscovered particles that
Flexibility protons and/or carbon, existed, then one could only explain the observed degree of large- might account for dark matter. In particular, particle physicists
scale structure if the universe started in a fairly anisotropic or began to find new candidates for dark matter within the frame-
future beam delivery modalities
clumpy state. But by this time, the available data already set an work of a newly proposed spacetime symmetry called super-
upper limit on CMB anisotropies at a level of 10 4 too meagre symmetry. The cosmological implications of supersymmetry
to account for the universes structure. Peebles argued that this were discussed as early as the late 1970s. In Piet Huts 1977 paper
problem would be relieved if the universe was instead dominated on the cosmological constraints on the masses of neutrinos, he
by massive weakly interacting particles whose density fluctua- wrote that the dark-matter argument was not limited to neutri-
Specifications within are subject to change. tions begin to grow prior to the decoupling of matter and radia- nos or even to weakly interacting particles. The abstract of his
tion during which the CMB was born. Among other papers, this paper mentions another possibility made within the context of the
www.bestcyclotron.com www.bestproton.com received enormous attention within the scientific community supersymmetric partner of the graviton, the spin-3/2 gravitino:
and helped establish cold dark matter as the leading paradigm to Similar, but much more severe, restrictions follow for particles

www.teambest.com describe the structure and evolution of the universe at all scales. that interact only gravitationally. This seems of importance


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Dark-matter history Dark-matter history

written around this time did not yet fully embrace the need to solve mass in this system). A comparison of the weak lensing and X-ray Perhaps it will not be too many more years before we come to
NASA / CXC / CfA / M Markevitch et al.; STScI / ESO WFI ; Magellan / D Clowe et al.

the dark-matter problem, occasional sentences could be found that maps of the bullet cluster clearly reveals that the mass in this sys- understand what that matter is.
reflected the gradual emergence of a new perspective. tem does not trace the distribution of baryons. Another source of
During the years that followed, an increasing number of par- gravitational potential, such as that provided by dark matter, must Further reading
ticle physicists would further motivate proposals for physics instead dominate the mass of this system. G Bertone and D Hooper 2016 arXiv:1605.04909.
beyond the Standard Model by showing that their theories could Following these observations of the bullet cluster and similar sys- J de Swart et al. 2017 Nature Astronomy 1 59.
account for the universes dark matter. In 1983, for instance, John tems, many researchers expected that this would effectively bring
Preskill, Mark Wise and Frank Wilczek showed that the axion, the MOND hypothesis to an end. This did not happen, although the Rsum
originally proposed to solve the strong CP problem in quantum bullet cluster and other increasingly precise cosmological measure- Comment la matire noire est devenue une particule
chromodynamics, could account for all of the dark matter in the ments on the scale of galaxy clusters, as well as the observed proper-
universe. In 1993, Scott Dodelson and Lawrence Widrow proposed ties of the CMB, have been difcult to reconcile with all proposed La matire noire, prdite dans les annes 1930, est essentielle
a scenario in which an additional, sterile neutrino species that did versions of MOND. It is currently unclear whether other theories dans notre connaissance de lUnivers. Pendant des dcennies,
not experience electroweak interactions could be produced in the of modied gravity, in some yet-unknown form, might be compat- on la croyait compose dobjets tels que des versions faible
early universe and realistically make up the dark matter. Both the ible with these observations. Until we have a conclusive detection of luminosit dtoiles et de gaz habituels. Au l du temps, toujours
axion and the sterile neutrino are still considered as well-motivated dark-matter particles, however, the possibility that dark matter is a plus de physiciens des particules ont nanmoins pris conscience
dark-matter candidates, and are actively searched for with a variety manifestation of a new theory of gravity remains open. du problme de la matire noire et sy sont intresss, en raison
of particle and astroparticle experiments. Today, the idea that most of the mass in the universe is made up de nouveaux rsultats scientiques mais aussi des changements
of cold and non-baryonic particles is not only the leading para- sociologiques qui avaient lieu dans le monde des sciences.
The Bullet Cluster is a system of two colliding galaxy clusters The triumph of particle dark matter digm, but is largely accepted among astrophysicists and particle Aujourdhui, lide selon laquelle la masse de lUnivers est
that is dominated by sources of gravitational potential beyond In the early 1980s there was still nothing resembling a consensus physicists alike. Although dark-matters particle nature continues compose principalement de particules froides et non baryoniques,
what normal baryonic matter can explain. about whether dark matter was made of particles at all, with other to elude us, a rich and active experimental programme is striving dont nous ne connaissons pas la nature, est largement accepte
possibilities including planets, brown dwarfs, red dwarfs, white to detect and characterise dark-matters non-gravitational interac- parmi les astrophysiciens et les physiciens des particules.
with respect to supersymmetric theories, wrote Hut. dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Kim Griest would later coin tions, ultimately allowing us to learn the identity of this mysterious
In their 1982 paper, Heinz Pagels and Joel Primack also consid- the term MACHOs short for massive astrophysical compact substance. It has been more than a century since the rst pioneering Gianfranco Bertone, University of Amsterdam, and Dan Hooper, Fermi
ered the cosmological implications of gravitinos. But unlike Huts halo objects to denote this class of dark-matter candidates, in attempts to measure the amount of dark matter in the universe. National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of Chicago.
paper, or the other preceding papers that had discussed neutrinos as response to the alternative of WIMPs. There is a consensus today,
a cosmological relic, Pagels and Primack were keenly aware of the based on searches using gravitational microlensing surveys and
dark-matter problem and explicitly proposed that gravitinos could determinations of the cosmic baryon density based on measure-

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ies and the role that dark matter could play in the formation of theory of gravity needs to be modified. This simple idea, which
large-scale structure. Around the same time, supersymmetry was was put forward in 1982 by Mordehai Milgrom, is known as modi-
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Future colliders

Physics at its limits

ments worldwide during the past 40 years pushing both the energy a discovery potential more than five times greater than the 27 km- perhaps the biggest guaranteed physics goal of the FCC pro-
A 100 km-circumference collider would address and the precision frontiers. The discovery of the Higgs boson at circumference LHC. An electronproton collider (FCC-eh), fur- gramme, is our understanding of the Higgs boson. While there
many of the outstanding questions in modern the LHC is a perfect example: precise measurements of Z-boson thermore, would allow the protons substructure to be measured is no doubt that the Higgs was the last undiscovered piece of the
decays at previous lepton machines such as CERNs Large Elec- with unmatchable precision. Further opportunities include the SM, it is not the closing chapter of the millennia-old reductionist
particle physics and secure our exploration of tronPositron (LEP) collider pointed indirectly but unequivocally collision of heavy ions in FCC-hh and FCC-eh, and fixed-target paradigm. The Higgs is the first of its kind an elementary scalar
to the existence of the Higgs. But it was the LHCs protonproton experiments using the injector complex. The earliest that such a particle and it therefore raises deep theoretical questions that
the microscopic world for generations. collisions that provided the high energy necessary to produce it machine could enter operation is likely to be the mid 2030s, when beckon a new era of exploration (figure 1, p39).
directly. With exploration of the Higgs fully under way at the LHC the LHC comes to the end of its operational lifetime, but the long Consider its mass. In the SM there is no symmetry that protects
and the machine set to operate for the next 20 years, the time is ripe lead times for collider projects demand that we start preparing now the Higgs mass from large quantum corrections that drag it up to the
Since Democritus, humans have wondered what happens as we slice to consider what tool should come next to continue our journey. (see timeline overleaf). A Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a mass scale of the particles it interacts with. You might conclude that
matter into smaller and smaller parts. After the discovery almost 50 Aiming at a high-energy collider with a clean collision environ- 100 km collider is expected to be completed by the end of 2018 and the relatively low mass of the Higgs implies that it simply does not
years ago that protons are made of quarks, further attempts to explore ment, CERN has for several years been developing an e+e linear hundreds of institutions have joined the international FCC study interact with other heavy particles. But there is good, if largely theo-
smaller distances have not revealed tinier substructures. Instead, we collider called CLIC. With an energy up to 3 TeV, CLIC would com- since its launch in 2014. An independent study for a similar facility retical, evidence to the contrary. We know that at energies 16 orders
have discovered new, heavier elementary particles, which although bine the precision of an e+e collider with the high-energy reach of a is also under way in China. of magnitude above the Higgs mass where general relativity fails
not necessarily present in everyday matter are crucial components of hadron collider such as the LHC. But with the lack so far of any new The CDR will document the accelerator, infrastructures and to provide a consistent quantum description of matter, there must
natures fundamental make-up. The arrangement of the elementary particles at the LHC beyond the Higgs, evidence is mounting that experiments, as well as a plethora of physics studies proving FCCs exist a full quantum theory that includes gravity. The fact that the
particles and the interactions between them is now well described by even higher energies may be required to fully explore the next layer ability to match the long-term needs of global high-energy-physics Higgs is so much lighter than this scale is known as the hierarchy
the Standard Model (SM), but furthering our understanding of the of phenomena beyond the SM. Prompted by the outcome of the 2013 programmes. The first FCC physics workshop took place at CERN problem, and many candidate theories (such as supersymmetry)
basic laws of nature requires digging even deeper. European Strategy for Particle Physics, CERN has therefore under- in January to review the status of these studies and discuss the exist that require new heavy particles interacting with the Higgs. By
Quantum physics gives us two alternatives to probe nature at taken a five-year study for a Future Circular Collider (FCC) facility complementarity between the three FCC modes. comparing precise measurements of the Higgs boson with precision
smaller scales: high-energy particle collisions, which induce short- built in a new 100 km-circumference tunnel (see image overleaf). SM predictions, we are indirectly searching for evidence of these
range interactions or produce heavy particles, and high-precision Such a tunnel could host an e+e collider (called FCC-ee) with an The post-LHC landscape theories. The SM provides an uncompromising script for the Higgs
measurements, which can be sensitive to the ephemeral influence energy and intensity much higher than LEP, improving by orders of To chart the physics landscape of future colliders, we must first interactions and any deviation from it would demand its extension.
of heavy particles enabled by the uncertainty principle. The SM magnitude the precision of Higgs and other SM measurements. It imagine what questions may or may not remain at the end of the Even setting to one side grandiose theoretical ideas such as quan-
was built from these two approaches, with a variety of experi- could also house a 100 TeV protonproton collider (FCC-hh) with LHC programme in the mid-2030s. At the centre of this, and tum gravity, there are other physical reasons why the Higgs may

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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Future colliders Choose from over

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provide a window to undiscovered sectors. As it carries no spin production, and at the topantitop quark threshold. Controlling the
and is electrically neutral, the Higgs may have so-called relevant beam energy at the 100 keV level would allow exquisite measure-
interactions with new neutral scalar particles. These interactions, ments of the Z- and W-boson masses, while the high luminosity of

even if they take place only at very high energies, remain relevant at FCC-ee will lead to samples of up to 1013 Z and 108 W bosons, not
low energies contrary to interactions between new neutral scalars to mention several million Higgs bosons and top-quark pairs. The
and the other SM particles. The possibility of new hidden sectors experimental precision would surpass any previous experiment Compounds
already has strong experimental support: although we understand and challenge cutting-edge theory calculations.
the SM very well, it does not account for roughly 80% of all the FCC-ee would quite literally provide a quantum leap in our under-
matter in the universe. We call the missing mass dark matter, and standing of the Higgs. Like the W and Z gauge bosons, the Higgs
candidate theories abound. Given the importance of the puzzle, receives quantum electroweak corrections typically measuring a www.goodfellow.com | info@goodfellow.com | 0800 731 4653 (UK) | +44 (0) 1480 424800 (outside UK)
searches for dark-matter particles will continue to play a central few per cent in magnitude due to fluctuations of massive particles
role at the LHC and certainly at future colliders. such as the top quark. This aspect of the gauge bosons was success-
Furthermore, the SM cannot explain the origin of the matter fully explored at LEP, but now it is the turn of the Higgs the key-
antimatter asymmetry that created enough matter for us to exist, stone in the electroweak sector of the SM. The millions of Higgs
otherwise known as baryogenesis. Since the asymmetry was cre- bosons produced by FCC-ee, with its clinically precise environment, Research Grade Ultra High Vacuum
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into this hitherto unexplored frontier. In the process, e+e HZ, the
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dark matter, there are numerous theories for neutrino masses, such cross-section. This will provide an absolute normalisation for all FOR EXAMPLE:
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36 www.KimballPhysics.com

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Future colliders
(Far left). The FCC accelerator complex in
the Geneva region, showing the LHC for
comparison. (Middle) Technical timeline of
the FCC project shown in comparison with
0.100 previous and existing CERN colliders.
(Left) Fig. 1. Together, FCC-ee, hh and eh
can provide detailed measurements on the
Higgs properties. The figure shows
The 8th 0.010
indicative precision in the determination of
couplings to gauge bosons, quarks and

leptons, as well as of the Higgs
0.001 self-coupling, of its total width and of the
ZZ WW gg Z HH tt bb cc BRinv tot invisible decay rate. Firmer estimates will

Particle HL-LHC FCC-ee FCC-hh

more, depending on the luminosity. The production rate of particles

FCC-eh appear in the CDR.

Higgs self-interactions they could remain so. The rate of Higgs pair-

Accelerator already within the LHC reach, such as top quarks or Higgs bosons,
will increase by even larger factors. During its planned 25 years of
production events, which in some part occur through Higgs self-
interactions, would grow precipitously at FCC-hh and enable this
data-taking, more than 1010 Higgs bosons will be created by FCC- unique property of the Higgs to be measured with an accuracy of
Conference hh, which is 10,000 times more than collected by the LHC so far and
100 times more than will be available by the end of LHC operations.
5% per cent. Among many other uses, such a measurement would
comprehensively explore classes of baryogenesis models that rely

is hosted by
These additional statistics will enable the FCC-hh experiments to on modifying the Higgs potential, and thus help us to understand the
improve the separation of Higgs signals from the huge backgrounds origin of matter.
that afflict most LHC studies, overcoming some of the dominant FCC-hh would also allow an exhaustive exploration of new TeV-
systematics that limit the precision attainable from the LHC. scale phenomena. Indirect evidence for new physics can emerge
While the ultimate precision on most Higgs properties can only be from the scattering of W bosons at high energy, from the produc-
achieved with FCC-ee, several demand complementary information tion of Higgs bosons at very large transverse momentum, or by test-
from FCC-hh. For example, the direct measurement of the coupling ing the far off-shell nature of the Z boson via the measurement
between the Higgs and the top quark necessitates that they be pro- of lepton pairs with invariant masses in the multi-TeV region. The
duced together, requiring an energy beyond the reach of the FCC-ee. plethora of new particles predicted by most models of symmetry-
At 100 TeV, almost 109 of the 1012 produced top quarks will radiate a breaking alternative to the SM can be searched for directly, thanks
Higgs boson, allowing the top-Higgs interaction to be measured with to the immense mass reach of 100 TeV collisions. The search for
a statistical precision at the 1% level a factor 10 improvement over dark matter, for example, will cover the possible space of param-
what is hoped for from the LHC. Similar precision can be reached for eters of many theories relying on weakly interacting massive par-
Higgs decays that are too rare to be studied in detail at FCC-ee, such ticles, guaranteeing a discovery or ruling them out. Theories that
FRIATEC AG as those to muon pairs or to a Z and a photon. All of these measure- address the hierarchy problem will also be conclusively tested.
ments will be complementary to those obtained with FCC-ee, and For supersymmetry, the mass reach of FCC-hh pushes beyond the
Aliaxis Technical Ceramics will use them as reference inputs to precisely correlate the strength regions motivated by this puzzle alone. For composite Higgs theo-
of the signals obtained through various production and decay modes. ries, the precision Higgs coupling measurements and searches for
One respect in which a 100 TeV protonproton collider would new heavy resonances will fully cover the motivated territory. A
FRIALIT-DEGUSSIT come to the fore is in revealing how the Higgs behaves in private. 100 TeV proton collider will even confront exotic scenarios such
The Higgs is the only particle in the SM that interacts with itself. as the twin Higgs, which are nightmarishly difficult to test. These
Expert for accelerator parts made As the Higgs scalar potential defines the potential energy contained theories predict very rare or exotic Higgs decays, possibly visible
in a fluctuation of the Higgs field, these self-interactions are neatly at FCC-hh thanks to its enormous Higgs production rates.
of high performance ceramics defined as the derivatives of the Beyond these examples, a systematic effort is ongoing to catego-
scalar electroweak potential. rise the models that can be conclusively tested, and to find the loop-
With the Higgs boson being an holes that might allow some models to escape detection. This work
Future colliders excitation about the minimum of will influence the way detectors for the new collider are designed.
like the FCC will be this potential, we know that its Work is already starting in earnest to define the features of these
needed to explore first derivative is zero. The sec- detectors, and efforts in the FCC CDR study will focus on com-
ond derivative of the potential is prehensive simulations of the most interesting physics signals. The
these fundamental simply the Higgs mass, which experimental environment of a protonproton collider is difficult
mysteries more is already known to sub-per- due to the large number of background sources and the additional
deeply. cent accuracy. But the third and noise caused by the occurrence of multiple interactions among the
fourth derivatives are unknown, hundreds of billions of protons crossing each other at the same
and unless we gain access to time. This pile-up of events will greatly exceed those observed

ipac17.org 39

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Future colliders

In principle, the LHC could have and still could provide answers F O R YO U R A C C E L E R ATO R ?
to many of these outstanding questions in particle physics. That no
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ep based on theoretical, and in some cases aesthetic, arguments were range at a significantly lower voltage and smaller
misguided. In times like this, when theoretical guidance is called

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107 into question, we must pursue experimental answers as vigorously as
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10 9 an extraordinary tool for investigating these questions (figure 2). portfolio of linear accelerator products, including
There are numerous instances in which the answer nature has thyratrons, magnetrons, electron emitters and
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Michelson and Morleys experiment designed to study the prop- For more information on our many advanced
erties of the ether ended up disproving the existence of the ether
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10 50 100 500 1000 and led to Einsteins theory of special relativity. The Kamiokande
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experiment in Japan, originally built to observe proton decays,
Fig. 2. The complementary role of the ee, pp and ep colliders in instead discovered neutrino masses. The LHC itself could have
probing a sterile neutrino of mass M and mixing angle with disproven the SM by discovering that the Higgs boson is not an
ordinary neutrinos. elementary but a composite particle and may still do so, with its
future more precise measurements.
at the LHC, and will pose a significant challenge to the detectors The possibility of unknown unknowns does not diminish the
performance and to the data-acquisition systems. The LHC experi- importance of an experiments scientific goals. On the contrary, Electron Devices L3T.com
ence is of immense value for projecting the scale of the difficulties it demonstrates that the physics goals for future colliders can play
that will have to be met by FCC-hh, but also for highlighting the the crucial role of getting a new facility off the ground, even if a
increasing role of proton colliders in precision physics beyond their completely unanticipated discovery results. This is true of all expe-

Muons, Inc.
conventional role of discovery machines. ditions into the unknown. We should not forget that Columbus set
sail to find a westerly passage to Asia. Without this goal, he would
Asymmetric collisions not have discovered the Americas.
Smashing protons into electrons opens up a whole different type http://www.muonsinc.com/
of physics, which until now has only been explored in detail by a Further reading Providing creative solutions for research,
single machine: the HERA collider at DESY in Germany. FCC-eh J L Abelleira Fernandez et al. 2012 J. Phys. G 39 075001. development, design, production, and
applications using advanced accelerator and
would collide a 60 GeV electron beam from a linear accelerator, N Arkani-Hamed et al. 2016 Physics Reports 652 1. particle beam technologies. Current areas
external and tangential to the main FCC tunnel, with a 50 TeV pro- M Bicer et al. 2014 JHEP 1401 164. include:
ton beam. It would collect factors of thousands more luminosity R Contino et al. 2016 arXiv:1606.09408. 1) Systems: GEM*STAR Accelerator-driven Molten-
than HERA while exhibiting the novel concept of synchronous, T Golling et al. 2016 arXiv:1606.00947. Salt Reactors, SNM Detection, Monoenergetic
symbiotic operation alongside the pp collider. The facility would M Mangano et al. 2016 arXiv:1607.01831. Gamma Beams, Rare Decay Experiments, 6D
serve as the most powerful, high-resolution microscope to examine Muon Beam Cooling, Extreme Muon Beam
Cooling, Microtrons for Active Interrogation, ERLs
the substructure of matter ever built, with high-energy electron Rsum to Produce Rare Radioisotopes
proton collisions providing precise information on the quark and La physique pousse dans ses limites 2) Simulation software: G4beamline for GEANT4,
gluon structure of the proton. MuSim for MCNP and other codes
This unprecedented facility would enhance Higgs studies, includ- Un collisionneur de 100 km de circonfrence, tel quimagin par 3) Beams: sources of p, e, and polarized ions
ing the study of the coupling to the charm quark, and broaden the ltude du CERN sur un futur collisionneur circulaire, pourrait and beam designs for p, n, , , ion beams
new-physics searches also performed at FCC-hh and FCC-ee. rpondre plusieurs questions de la physique des particules 4) RF cavities: SRF and fast-tunable, dielectric-
Unexpected discoveries such as quark substructure might also arise. moderne. Une machine lectron-positon permettrait damliorer loaded NC
Uniquely, in electronproton collisions new particles can be created considrablement la prcision des mesures du Higgs et dautres 5) RF components: couplers, HOM dampers, and
in leptonquark fusion processes or may be radiated in the exchange particules du Modle standard, un collisionneur proton-proton magnetron power for SRF
of a photon or other vector boson. FCC-eh could also provide access de 100 TeV aurait plus de cinq fois le potentiel de dcouverte du 6) Detectors: high intensity beam profile monitors
to Higgs self-interactions and extended Higgs sectors, includ- LHC, et un collisionneur lectron-proton permettrait de mesurer la 7) Magnets: HTS high-field, permanent and hybrid,
ing scenarios involving dark matter. If neutrino oscillations arise sous-structure du proton avec une prcision ingale. helical beam cooling magnets, SMES
from the existence of heavy sterile neutrinos, direct searches at the WELDED SOLUTIONS FOR COMPLEX AND
FCC-eh would have great discovery prospects in kinematic regions Michelangelo Mangano, CERN, Patrizia Azzi, INFN Sezione di Padova, Seeking new R&D and application areas and UNIQUE INSTALLATIONS
complementary to FCC-hh and FCC-ee, giving the FCC complex Monica DOnofrio, University of Liverpool, and Matthew Mccullough, partnerships for commercial ventures
a striking potential to shine light on the origin of neutrino masses. CERN. Please visit us at Booth 91 at IPAC17 www.cadinox.com

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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Interview: Erik Verlinde

Doubting darkness
Theorist Erik Verlinde argues that dark matter

J Ordan / CERN
is an illusion caused by our incomplete
understanding of gravity.

What is wrong with the theory of gravity we have?

The current description of gravity in terms of general relativity
has various shortcomings. Perhaps the most important is that we

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at IPAC'17
Isnt the evidence for dark matter overwhelming?
Your partner for passive rf components
It depends who you ask. There is a lot of evidence that general
relativity works very well at length scales that are long compared
TRANSMISSION LINES, COAXIAL & WAVEGUIDE to the Planck scale, but when we apply general relativity at galactic
and cosmological scales we see deviations. Most physicists regard Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands
this as evidence that there exists an additional form of invisible photographed at CERN in April following his seminar on
ARMCO Pure Iron PATCH PANELS & SPLITTERS matter that gravitates in the same way as normal matter, but this emergent gravity.
assumes that gravity itself is still described by general relativity.
High Purity Iron for CUSTOMISED RF COMPONENTS Furthermore, although the most direct evidence for the existence is that different parts of spacetime are glued together via quan-
of dark matter comes from the study of galaxies and clusters, not all tum entanglement. This is due to van Raamsdonk and has been
Magnetic Applications astronomers are convinced that what they observe is due to particle extended and popularised by Maldacena and Susskind with
dark matter for example, there appears to be a strong correlation the slogan EPR = ER, where EPR is a reference to Einstein
between the amount of ordinary baryonic matter and galactic rota- PodolskyRosen and ER refers to the EinsteinRosen bridge: a
tion velocities that is hard to explain with particle dark matter. On wormhole that connects the two parts of the black-hole geom-
the other hand, the physicists who are carrying out numerical work etry on opposite sides of the horizon. These ideas are being devel-
on particle dark matter are trying to explain these correlations by oped by many theorists, in particular in the context of the Anti-de
including complicated baryonic feedback mechanisms and tweak- Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. The
ing the parameters that go into their models. Finally, there is a goal is then to derive the Einstein equations from this micro-
large community of experimental physicists who simply take the scopic-quantum perspective. The first step in this programme
evidence for dark matter as a given. was already made before my work, but until now most results
were derived for AdS space, which describes a universe with a
Is your theory a modification of general relativity, or a rewrite? negative cosmological constant and therefore differs from our

#9 7

www.exirbroadcasting.com The aim of emergent gravity is to derive the equations that gov- own. In my recent paper [arXiv:1611.02269] I extended these

ot 20
IP Visit

Exir Broadcasting AB ern gravity from a microscopic quantum, while using ingredi- ideas to de Sitter space, which contains a positive dark energy and
Bo C

Industrigatan 17 - SE-242 31 Hrby - Sweden ents from quantum-information theory. One of the main ideas has a cosmological horizon. My insight has been that, due to the


+46 415 30 14 00 - info@exirbroadcasting.com


anzeige_cern-courier_FINAL.indd 1 26.03.2015 15:07:50

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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Interview: Erik Verlinde

Superconducting Wire and Cable presence of positive dark energy, the derivation of the Einstein
equations breaks down precisely in the circumstances where we
quite a large community working on gravity and quantum entan-
glement, and recently we received a grant together with theorists
Standard and Specialty designs are available to meet your most demanding observe the effects of dark matter. from the universities of Groningen, Leiden, Utrecht and Amster-
dam, to work on this topic.
superconductor requirements. How did the idea emerge?
The idea of emergent gravity from thermodynamics has been lin- Within a month of your paper, Brouwer et al. published results
SUPERCON, Inc. has been producing niobium-based superconducting wires and cables for half a century. gering around since the discovery by Hawking and Bekenstein of supporting your idea. How significant is this?
We are the original SUPERCON the worlds first commercial producer of niobium-alloy based wire and black-hole entropy and the laws of black-hole thermodynamics My theory predicts that the gravitational force due to a centralised
cable for superconducting applications. in the 1970s. Ted Jacobson made an important step in 1996 by mass exhibits a certain scaling relation. This relation was already
deriving the Einstein equations from assuming the Bekenstein known to hold for galaxy rotation curves, but these can only be meas-
Standard SC Wire Types Product Applications Hawking formula, which expresses the microscopic entropy in ured up to distances of about 100 kilo-parsec because there are no
NbTi Wires Magnetic Resonance Imaging terms of the area of the horizon measured in Planck units. In my visible stars beyond this distance. Brouwer and her collaborators
Nb3Sn Bronze Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 2010 paper [arXiv:1001.0785] I clarified the origin of the inertia used weak gravitational lensing to determine the gravitational force
Nb3Sn Internal Tin High Energy Physics force and its relation to the microscopic entropy in space, assuming due to a massive galaxy up to distances of one mega-parsec and con-
CuNi resistive matrix wires SC Magnetic Energy Storage that this is given by the area of an artificial horizon. After this work firmed that the same relation still holds. Particle dark-matter models
Fine diameter SC Wires Medical Therapeutic Devices I started thinking about cosmology, and learnt about the obser- can also explain these observations, but they do so by adjusting a free
Aluminum clad wire Superconducting Magnets and Coils vations that indicate a close connection between the acceleration parameter to fit the data. My prediction has no free parameters and
Wire-in-Channel Crystal Growth Magnets scale in galaxies and the acceleration at the cosmological horizon, hence I find this more convincing, but more observations are needed
which is determined by the Hubble parameter. I immediately real- before definite conclusions can be drawn.
Innovative composite wires Scientific Projects
ised that this implied a relation between the observed phenomena
associated with dark matter and the presence of dark energy. Is there a single result that would rule your theory in or out?
We deliver superconductivity! If a dark-matter particle would be discovered that possesses all
Your paper is 50 pages long. Can you summarise it here? the properties to explain all the observations, then my idea would
Contact us at sales@supercon-wire.com The idea is that gravity emerges by applying an analogue of the be proven to be false. Personally I am convinced this will not hap-
laws of thermodynamics to the entanglement entropy in the vac- pen, although I am still developing the theory further to be able to
www.SUPERCON-WIRE.com uum. Just like the normal laws of thermodynamics can be under- address important dynamical situations such as the Bullet Cluster
stood from the statistical treatment of microscopic molecules, (see pp2633) and the acoustic oscillations that explain the power
ad.indd 1 28/03/2012 09:43
gravity can be derived from the microscopic units that make up spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. One of the prob-
spacetime. These spacetime molecules are units of quantum lems is that particle dark-matter models are so flexible and can
information (qubits) that are entangled with each other, with the therefore easily be made consistent with the data. By improving
amount of entanglement measured by the entanglement entropy. and extending the observations of gravitational phenomena that
I realised that in a universe with a positive dark energy, there is a are currently attributed to dark matter, we can make better com-
stry contribution to the entanglement entropy that grows in proportion parisons with the theory. I am hopeful that within the next decade
Indu t
Bes to area. This leads to an additional force on top of the usual gravity the precision of the observations will have improved and the theory
law, because the dark energy pushes back like an elastic medium will be developed to a level that decisive tests can be performed.
DLC, Boron Doped Hybrid
Pulse / Delay Generator and results in the phenomena that we currently attribute to dark
Meet us
at matter. In short, the laws of gravity differ in the low-acceleration How would emergent gravity affect the rest of physics?
and Graphene Stripper Foils IPAC17
regime that occurs in galaxies and other cosmological structures. Our perspective on the building blocks of nature would change
drastically. We will no longer think in terms of elementary par-
* 250 Femtosecond Resolution How did the community react to the paper? ticles and fundamental forces, but units of quantum information.
Submitting work that goes against a widely supported theory Hence, the gauge forces responsible for the electroweak and strong
* 2 Picoseconds Jitter requires some courage, and the fact that I have already demon- interactions will also be understood as being emergent, and this is
strated serious work in string theory helped. Nevertheless, I do the way that the forces of nature will become unified. In this sense,
* Card, PXI, OEM, Rack or Benchtop experience some resistance mainly from researchers who have all of our current laws of nature will be seen as emergent.
been involved in particle dark-matter research. Some string theo-
rists find my work interesting and exciting, but most of them take Rsum
a wait and see attitude. I am dealing with a number of different Des doutes sur lobscurit
communities with different attitudes and scientific backgrounds.
A lot of it is driven by sociology and past investments. Selon le thoricien Erik Verlinde, si lespace, le temps et la gravit
nexistent pas aux chelles les plus petites, la matire et lnergie
How often do you work on the idea? noires pourraient tre une illusion due une comprhension
Emergent gravity from quantum entanglement is now an active incomplte de la gravit. En mars, aprs un sminaire au CERN
Micromatter Technologies Inc.
field worldwide, and I have worked on the idea for a number of sur la gravit mergente, Erik Verlinde a voqu avec le Courier les
years. I mostly work in the evening for around three hours and ractions suscites par son travail et lavenir de cette ide.
Test, Measurement and Nuclear Instrumentation since 1963 perhaps one hour in the morning. I also discuss these ideas with my
Live Chat @ www.berkeleynucleonics.com or 800-234-7858 PhD students, colleagues and visitors. In the Netherlands we have Matthew Chalmers, CERN.


CCMay17_INTERVIEW.indd 45 05/04/2017 16:34


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Faces & Places


Data provided by kind permission of www.webelements.com


Periodic Table of
of the
the Elements
Elements AwArds

Andr Lagarrigue Prize 2016

Bernard Degrange, emeritus director collaboration where he contributed to

P Sylvaine / LLR
of research at CNRS, has been awarded the first measurement of the ratio of the

the 2016 Andr Lagarrigue Prize in neutrino and antineutrino cross-sections

acknowledgement of his exemplary on nucleons and studied exclusive channels
Flerovium Livermorium
career in experimental particle physics. produced in neutral or charged-current
Fl Lv Co-financed by the CNRS, the University interactions. In the early 1980s he
Paris Sud, Linear Accelerator Laboratory moved into the study of cosmic rays and
[289] [294]

(LAL), E cole Polytechnique, CERN high-energy gamma-ray astronomy, helping

and CEA, with the support of the French to discover several blazars in the Crab
Physical Society, the prize was created Nebula with the CAT experiment. For
in 2005 in honour of Andr Lagarrigue. the simultaneous observation of gamma
Director of LAL from 1969 to 1975, and X-rays during the major bursts of
Lagarrigue played a leading role in the these extragalactic sources, Degrange
discovery of weak neutral currents in the was awarded the silver medal of the
13.78 13.50
1050 1750

Gargamelle bubble-chamber experiment CNRS in 1997. Anticipating the detection

at CERN, thus paving the way for power of stereoscopy associated with fast
electroweak theory. high-granularity imagery, he made major
After completing his thesis in 1969, Bernard Degrange worked on bubble contributions to the design and the results of
Degrange joined the Gargamelle chambers and gamma-ray astronomy. the HESS experiment.

CERN communications
make the grade Hidden Figures premiered
Solid State Power Amplifier for Particle Accelerators
The Czech Republics Academia Film On 2 March, in collaboration with CERN

C Nellist / CERN
HBH develops and fabricates custom designed power amplifiers for particle accelerators. A modular concept Olomouc has decided to give its 2017 Award and 20th Century Fox, the Path cinema
facilitates fast installation and easy maintenance. The amplifiers can be provided in a frequency range from for Contribution to Science Communication in Geneva hosted an advance screening
50MHz to 3GHz in a power range from 80kW cw to 500kW pulse operation. VSWR can be infinite, any phase. to CERN, for its long-lasting commitment of the film Hidden Figures, followed
not only to research in the edge of science by a debate on the position of women in
Smart monitoring of amplifier parameters of The following parameters are con- but also to communication of its results and science. The film tells the story of three
an 8kW amplifier tinuously monitored with 8kHz science in general to broader public. The African-American female scientists
sampling rate, limits/threshold can
Power Forward / Wa5
be set as necessary
committee described CERN as a pioneer who played key roles in the US space
in developing new ways to communicate conquest, contributing in particular to the
Output power / Output VSWR science via social media, film, traditional preparations for putting astronaut John
Temperature of each transistor and media and events such as CineGlobe. The Glenn into orbit. After the film, Maite
each load resistor dedicated to circulator award ceremony will take place on 29 April Barroso Lopez of CERNs IT department,
Power at each load resistor at Palack University Interactive Science Stphanie Beauceron and Anne-Marie
Centre in Olomouc. Magnan from CMS, and Andry
Output power of each amplifier pallet
Sum Power / Wa5 Rakotozafindrabe from ALICE shared
VSWR between each amplifier pallet their experiences of science careers with

M Brice / CERN
and circulator the audience in a debate. They answered
Drain current and drain voltage of questions about the alleged rivalry among
3 x 8kW
each transistor women, about whether there is a link The panel recalled awkward moments in
amplifiers combined Water flow rate between CERN and NASA as pictured in their careers that highlighted attitudes to
the film, and about their mentors. women in science.
Power into Loads / Wa5 CorrECtion
There was an error in the Compilers Note measurements up to 1979. It emerged only
Courtesy of FRIB on the Archive page of the March issue of after BNL measurements in 2006, being the
the Courier (p54) concerning the g-2 value consequence of much reduced theoretical
of the muon. The discrepancy between and experimental uncertainties rather than
CineGlobe is one of the many ways that Standard Model theory and experimental any significant change in the experimental
HBH Microwave GmbH Phone: +49 7244 608010
e.g. parameters of an 8kW amplifier when
CERN communicates its science. data was not evident in the CERN value.
Helmholtzstr. 1 Email: info@hbhmw.de
76297 Stutensee, Germany www.hbhmw.de operating into a short - amplifier switched ON/OFF


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Faces & Places


A wealth of new results at Moriond

The 2017 Rencontres de Moriond conference Results of searches for bottonium states at

I Cossin / CNRS
took place in La Thuile, Italy, from 18 March the Belle experiment and charmonium-like
to 1 April, with around 270 participants states at BESIII were also shown. In
attending the two-week-long event. The four particular, the analysis of the Y(4260)
main LHC experiments presented many fresh appears to be inconsistent with a single peak
results, ranging from precise measurements at more than seven standard deviations.
of the Standard Model (SM) to searches for The heavy-flavour field also saw several
new physics, including the first obtained with new results presented by LHCb. Besides
the full 13 TeV data set collected during 2016. an update of the measurement of the rarest
Numerous results from experiments outside decay of a particle containing a b quark ever
CERN were also presented, especially in the observed, and the recent observation of a
neutrino field, and participants heard some of new system of five particles all in a single
the latest developments in theory. Moriond is the traditional winter meeting analysis, LHCb presented the most precise
Analyses of the Higgs boson presented by for particle physicists. single measurement of the CP-violating
CMS included a precise new measurement phase s. The LHCb collaboration is also
of the Higgs mass. CMS also showed results top-quark mass. putting in place new analyses to shed light
from searches for associated Higgs-top Among the highlights of searches for on two flavour anomalies: R(D*) and
production in final states with multiple physics beyond the SM were new limits on R(K), which remain around three standard
leptons, which provides direct evidence for supersymmetric particles from ATLAS, deviations away from their SM values. A
the existence of a top-quark Higgs coupling which now exclude models with particle measurement of the angular coefficient
with a measured signal strength consistent masses above 2 TeV (see p11). ATLAS also P5 in the flavour-changing neutral current
with the SM. Both CMS and ATLAS showed showed searches for new heavy particles decay of B mesons was also presented by
new measurements of total and differential decaying to jets of hadron particles, ATLAS, CMS and Belle, and was found to be
cross-sections of the Higgs boson decaying excluding non-elementary quarks with compatible with previous LHCb results.
into four leptons or two photons, which masses as large as 6 TeV. Both ATLAS In the dedicated heavy-ion session, ALICE
agree with the SM. ATLAS also showed and CMS are also looking for new heavy showed recent results from large samples of
preliminary results from searches for the resonances decaying to a vector and a Higgs protonproton, leadlead, and protonlead
rare Higgs-boson decay to two muons, which boson: ATLAS sees a 3.3 standard deviation collisions collected in 2015 and 2016. One
POSITIONING are now approaching the sensitivity required
to observe a signal.
local excess for a W WH decay at masses
around 3 TeV, whereas CMS sees a similar
of the new results, concerning the azimuthal
asymmetry of the production of J/ mesons,
FOR BEAM Concerning other SM particles, ATLAS
presented its first measurement of the mass
local excess but at a lower mass. Exotic
searches from CMS using the full 2016 data
shows that heavy quarks directly feel the
shape and size of the asymmetric quarkgluon
of the W boson with similar precision sample place new limits on many scenarios plasma produced in the interaction region.
DIAGNOSTICS to the previous best result from a single including dark matter, new types of quarks, With LHC Run 2 about to get under way
experiment. The D0 and CDF collaborations vector bosons and gravitons. No significant with a similar integrated-luminosity target as
at the former Tevatron collider, meanwhile, deviations from SM predictions have been achieved in 2016, the search for new physics
Custom range of linear and XYZT presented precise measurements of the observed so far by CMS and ATLAS. is in full swing at CERN and elsewhere.
products to meet the precision,
Madagascar event

speed and reliability demands
of modern beamline diagnostic
positioning. marks 15 years
Trusted to provide exceptional
performance at some of the most The 8th High-Energy Physics (HEP)
advanced light sources globally. Madagascar International Conference
(HEPMAD 2016) was held in Antananarivo,
Madagascar, from 13 to 18 October. It was
Contact us with your application. the events 15th anniversary and some HEPMAD is an opportunity for foreign participants to discover the richness of
50 participants including 15 invited Madagascan science, nature and culture.
high-energy physicists from abroad were
present. It is the only conference series in precision tests of the Standard Model, Higgs bottomium states using QCD spectral sum
high-energy physics and indeed across all properties and searches for new physics, rule. The high-energy physics talks were
science held in sub-Saharan countries, and were presented by ATLAS and CMS. complemented by national contributions
aims to be both pedagogical and topical, Theory talks, meanwhile, covered topics about climate science and sustainable
reviewing the latest experimental and including the status of the muon anomalous technologies for energy.
www.uhvdesign.com theoretical results in high-energy physics. magnetic moment and determinations of the The next HEPMAD event will take place
Recent results from the LHC, including masses and couplings of charmonium and in Antananarivo on 2127 September 2017.


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17 CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Faces & Places Faces & Places

Physics at the intensity frontier

IAS, Nanyang Technological University

The Standard Model of particle physics The RICH detector

J Pinzino
has proved to be a consistent description of at CERNs NA62
natures fundamental constituents and their experiment, which
interactions, and its predictions have been searches for
confirmed by numerous experiments, most extremely rare kaon
recently with the discovery of the Higgs decays using highly
boson at the LHC. However, the model fails to
intense beams.
explain several phenomena in particle physics,
astrophysics and cosmology, and it is expected
PT2026 NMR Precision Teslameter
90 years of that yet unknown particles or interactions are
needed to explain these puzzles.

Reach new heights quantum Our inability to observe new particles

possibly lies in their extremely feeble
interactions. If true, this would imply that
in magnetic field mechanics experiments are needed not just at the
high-energy frontier but also at the intensity
(CERN Courier November 2016 p28).
A two-week-long theory institute took
intensity-frontier experiments SHiP, NA62,
DUNE, MATHUSLA and many others

measurement In the digital era, where we are surrounded

by ever more technological innovations,
frontier, by increasing the number of
collisions to search for rare events. In
2016, CERN created a Physics Beyond
place at CERN from 20 February to 3 March
to discuss the theory and phenomenology
of possible new physics at low energy
was discussed. These future experiments are
at different stages today, ranging from the
preparation of a comprehensive design report
it is interesting to reflect on the enormous Colliders study group with a mandate to scales. More than 100 participants from (SHiP) to a letter of intent (MATHUSLA).
The Metrolab PT2026 sets a new progress that modern physics has made explore opportunities offered by the CERN 21 countries discussed the theoretical The time is therefore ripe to ensure that any
standard for precision magnetometers. following the quantum-mechanics revolution accelerator complex to address outstanding landscape, predicting new light particles necessary changes to the experiment designs
Leveraging 30years of expertise building 90 years ago. The story began in 1900, questions in particle physics through projects and dark forces. The potential for the can still be made to the physics reach of
with Max Plancks suggestion that light is complementary to high-energy colliders new physics reach of existing and planned intensity-frontier experiments.
the worlds gold standard magnetometers, quantised, which Albert Einstein was the
first to fully comprehend and exploit. Then, a realistic option that is compatible with the
it takes magnetic field measurement to
CLIC looks to

S Doebert
in the mid 1920s, a revolution in physics took level of resources available at CERN.
www.agence-arca.com - Photo: Scott Maxwell, Masterfile

new heights: measuring higher fields with

place: quantum mechanics was formulated Another highlight was the summary of
better resolution. by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrdinger,
Paul Dirac and a handful of other young
the future the successful demonstration of key CLIC
concepts obtained by the recently completed
The PT2026 offers unprecedented flexibility geniuses under the supervision of Niels Bohr CTF3 test programme at CERN. Part of the
and with Einstein as a critical voice. At the The annual Compact Linear Collider CFT3 facility has now been approved for
in the choice of parameters, interfacing famous Fifth Solvay Conference in 1927, (CLIC) workshop took place at CERN on conversion into an electron accelerator facility
and probe placement, as well as greatly where 17 of the participants either already 610 March, attracting 220 collaborators called CLEAR (CERN Linear Electron
were or were to be Nobel laureates, much of from 26 countries to discuss the latest status Accelerator for Research), providing an open
improved tolerance of inhomogeneous
the basic elements of quantum mechanics of the CLIC accelerator and detector studies. user facility for accelerator R&D, irradiation
fields. And with Ethernet & USB interfaces were ready and discussed. Never in the CLIC is a future multi-TeV electronpositron and training. The future CLEAR programme
and LabVIEW software, it fits perfectly into history of physics has so much been achieved linear collider at CERN envisaged for the will include CLIC high-gradient and
by so few in such a short time. era beyond the High-Luminosity LHC instrumentation studies.
modern laboratory environments.
To commemorate the beginning of this (HL-LHC). First beams in CLIC could be Acceleration in the two-beam module at the The successful operation of high-gradient
revolution and its impact on the modern foreseen in 2035 and be the starting point of a CTF3 facility was thoroughly tested in accelerating structures and experience
world, a special conference titled 90 Years of 2025 year-long physics programme. 20152016, verifying power production and with advanced beam-dynamics techniques,
Quantum Mechanics was held at the Institute During the workshop particular focus was energy gain while operating at the nominal developed for the small dimensions of
of Advanced Study at Nanyang University placed on the recently published updated CLIC gradient of around 100 MV/m. these structures, have inspired a growing
in Singapore on 2326 January. The event staging scenario for the CLIC accelerator, number of applications outside of particle
gathered leading experts in the foundations where construction and operation are CLIC week 2017 hosted a variety of physics. Applications of high-gradient
of quantum mechanics, quantum cosmology, pursued in three stages with collision sessions with 150 speakers, covering and X-band technology include compact
quantum gravity, quantum field theory, energies of 0.38, 1.5 and 3 TeV, respectively the activities of both the accelerator and linacs and advanced diagnostics for photon
quantum condensed matter, quantum optics, (CERN Courier November 2016 p20). At its detector-and-physics studies. The workshop sources, as well as medical applications.
quantum information and technology, and initial energy, CLIC is optimised for Higgs also included meetings among the CLIC Many of the technologies under study for
quantum chemistry. Altogether there were and top measurements and enables a scan accelerator institutes and the detector-and- the CLIC detector are also of interest to the
30 talks, with six speakers being Nobel at the top-quark pair-production threshold, physics institutes. In both meetings the focus HL-LHC, where the high granularity and
laureates. Some 300 participants attended while the higher-energy stages provide the was on the steps necessary to submit a project- time-resolution needed for CLIC are equally
from all over the world, with a strong best sensitivity to new physics through direct implementation plan in time for the European crucial. Other communities also benefit: for
Pantone 286 Pantone 032

emphasis on South East Asia and China. and indirect searches. High-energy operation Strategy update in 20192020. Particular example, software reconstruction techniques
also provides access to rare processes such as priority is given to the studies where cost developed for particle flow at linear
Magnetic precision has a name www.metrolab.com Luminaries of the physics world gathered to double Higgs production, which is sensitive and power can be reduced, presenting the colliders have been applied to current and
mark 90 years of quantum progress. to the important Higgs self-coupling. initial CLIC project and further upgrades as next-generation neutrino experiments.

50 51

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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17 CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Faces & Places Faces & Places

Status reports from all accelerator international market, such as electronic trends in the countrys accelerator science
S Smirnova

facilities of JINR were presented, as were cooling systems, electron accelerators for and technology. The success of this project
activities at other major accelerator centres. industrial applications, components and will influence government support of other

demonstrates The National Research Centre Kurchatov

Institute carries out a broad range of
activities, among them the development of a
synchrotron systems, magnetic systems
and power systems, for example for the
European X-FEL. BINP is also actively
accelerator projects, such as the super C-tau
factory project at BINP.
Although Russia has a highly developed

international synchrotron radiation source and operation

of the U-70 facility, Russias largest
accelerator complex, with its new facility
involved in the construction of FAIR
and NICA, while continuing to develop
domestic projects including a free electron
scientific infrastructure and potential to
design complex accelerator facilities, the
corresponding market is underestimated.
RuPAC16 had a strong international theme.
outlook for carbon-beam medical applications
and plans to attain high-power neutron
fluxes. Important work also continues
laser, two electronpositron colliders
(VEPP 2000 and VEPP4M) and facilities
for radioisotope analysis.
Applied research projects such as medical
beams for Russias first proton-therapy
facility, along with the Russian
For many years the biennial Russian at the Institute for Nuclear Research of The conference concluded with a satellite mega-science projects, are thus a vital
conference on accelerator physics and the Russian Academy of Sciences and meeting devoted to NICA, for which most factor for accelerating Russian industry. As
technology, RuPAC, was viewed by the the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Russian accelerator centres are already is clear, such projects are reinforcing the
international accelerator community as (BINP). The latter facility has established involved in manufacturing elements. Backed international outlook of Russian accelerator
an internal event for representatives of itself as a manufacturer and supplier of by the Russian government since 2016, science and technology. The next RuPAC
the Soviet accelerator school. Although high-tech accelerator facilities to the NICA is a major factor driving current event will be held in autumn 2018.
New range of photodetector modules for photon counting applications representatives of the latter have actively
been working in accelerator centres Visits
Our compact range of photodetector modules is available in around the world since the beginning of
perestroika in the late 1980s, it is indeed

J Ordan / CERN

Image credits: S Bennett / CERN

rectangular as well as cylindrical formats incorporating a fast Marianne Thyssen,
amplifier-discriminator and a low power high-voltage supply. rare to see a foreign specialist invited to MEP and European
They are available with both 25mm and 30mm diameter
a prominent position in Russia. But that commissioner for
situation is changing, and RuPAC16 held at employment, social
low noise PMTs. The combination of high-speed
St Petersburg State University (SPbSU) in affairs, skills and
electronics and fast photomultiplier with low dark counts November last year saw the worlds largest labour mobility,
enables a wide dynamic range to be achieved. These accelerator projects represented and more toured CERN on
modules can be supplied with TTL output or with an than 60 reports by participants from outside 10 March, during
integrated counter-timer and a USB output which can be Russia. For the rst time, the event also which she visited
powered directly from the PC or laptop. provided simultaneous translation from CMS, ISOLDE and
Russian to English. the new MEDICIS
Today, RuPAC has become an excellent facility. She is
New compact 1.5 inch, 2 inch and 3 inch photomultiplier tubes platform for information exchange between pictured signing the
researchers working in accelerator science guestbook with CERN
and technology and related issues. More Director-General
Introducing our new compact range of end window than 40 reports from SPbSU students were Fabiola Gianotti.
photomultipliers with blue-green sensitive bialkali presented at RuPAC16, and the geographical
reach of the event extended to 260 participants
photocathode and 10 high gain, high stability, SbCs
from 67 institutions in 13 countries. In
dynodes of linear focused design for good linearity and addition to traditional participants Ukraine,
timing.The compact nature of these photomultiplier tubes Belarus and Armenia, the event was attended

S Bennett / CERN
make these designs ideal for compact detectors for use by experts from China, South Africa, UK,
in scintillation applications. Germany, Italy, Canada, US, Japan, Poland,
Sweden and Switzerland.
CERNs High-Luminosity LHC and
Please contact us for more information on these new products and for details on Future Circular Collider projects were
any of the other products we have available. presented, and several other reports were
devoted to mutual research between
Our wide range of products cover very low dark counts photomultipliers, for photon Russian and European scientists. A
counting applications, light-tight housings, HV supplies and associated custom particular focus was the FAIR-NICA
built electronics. collaboration concerning production and
testing of superconducting accelerator
ET Enterprises Limited, Riverside Way, magnets. Two new facilities have been UK minister of state for universities, science,
Uxbridge, UB8 2YF, UK commissioned at the Joint Institute for research and innovation Jo Johnson (top) came
Phone: +44 (0)1895 200880
Fax: +44 (0)1895 270873 Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna for the to CERN on 29 March, during which he
sales@et-enterprises.com international FAIR and NICA projects in Enrique Cabrero Mandoza, director-general of CONACYT in Mexico, visited CERN on 23 March, visited the underground area at CMS. Two
www.et-enterprises.com Germany and Russia, respectively. The rst immediately following the 9th CERNLatin American School held in San Juan del Rio. He visited the days later, chief scientific adviser to the UK
ADIT Electron Tubes, 300 Crane Street, is a high-tech assembly and testing hall ALICE experiment and the LHC tunnel before signing the guestbook with CERNs head of relations government Mark Walport (bottom) also visited
Sweetwater, Texas 79556, USA for superconducting magnets, while the with associate members and non-Member States, Emmanuel Tsesmelis, and director of international CERN, taking in the computing centre, ATLAS
Phone: (325) 235 1418 second is a heavy-ion linear accelerator that relations Charlotte Warakaulle. and the Antiproton Decelerator.
Fax: (325) 235 2872
accelerates ions up to Au31+ to an energy of
www.electrontubes.com making photons count 3.2 MeV per nucleon.

52 53

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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Faces & Places

NEW ARC4 - Optical Arc detector System 2.0

Our well established 16 channel arc detector system ARC4

went through a substantial design upgrade and is ready
Ludwig Faddeev 19342017
for launch in 2017. New features:
Ludwig Dmitrievich Faddeev was an which he supervised several currently

outstanding scientist who made exceptional world-renowned mathematicians and
User friendly configuration via panel keyboard and web contributions to modern theoretical and theoretical physicists. He visited the theory
interface (ethernet). mathematical physics. He was born in 1934 department at CERN for the first time in
light sensitivity < 1Lux in what is now St Petersburg, Russia, and 1973 and made several further visits.
attended Leningrad University. His name The importance of Faddeevs work has
response time < 2s is well known in theoretical physics in been recognised with awards for both physics
up to 4 independent system interlock signals connection with the quantum three-body and mathematics, including the 1975 Dannie
system, and he made decisive contributions Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics
The new modular ARC4 provides a high degree of custo- to the quantisation of the YangMills theory of the American Physical Society; the 1990
and gravitational fields. The FaddeevPopov Mathematical physicist Ludwig Faddeev. ICTP Dirac Medal; the 2002 Pomeranchuk
mization and allows an easy upgrade and replacement. covariant prescription for quantisation of Prize; the 1996 Max Planck Medal; the 1995
Our ARC4 portfolio is complemented by accessories such non-Abelian gauge theories (Faddeev His work stimulated the widespread and 2004 Russian Federation State Prizes;
as low-loss glass fibre optic cables, radiation-hard plastic Popov ghosts, discovered in 19661967) application of solitons in relativistic quantum the 2006 Henri Poincar Prize; and the 2008
laid some of the foundations for the Standard field theory. Shaw Prize. Faddeev was a member of the
cables and viewport connectors. Model of strong, weak and electromagnetic Work by Faddeev and his group on the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1976,
interactions. so-called quantum method of inverse as well as a number of foreign academies
Faddeev is one of the creators of modern scattering is now the basis of a flourishing including the US National Academy of
Please contact us and we will advise you. mathematical physics, and he believed that branch of mathematics and mathematical Sciences and the French Academy of
mathematical beauty is the most important physics involving quantum groups and Sciences. From 1976 to 2000 he was deputy
ARC4 will be available in Fall 2017. guiding principle in physics. As predecessors their representations. In 1980, Faddeev director of the Steklov Mathemetical
of this point of view, he cited Dirac, Weyl also clarified the group-theoretical origin Institute and was the founding director of the
AFT microwave GmbH | Donaustrae 18 - 71522 Backnang | Tel.: +4971919659-0 | www.aft-microwave.de | sales@aftgmbh.de and Fock the latter having been one of of anomalies in the context of cocycles, Euler International Mathemetical Institute,
his teachers at Leningrad. In the 1970s, after which he continued his work on which he led until his death.
Faddeev was one of the first to recognise the multidimensional solitons and YangMills Ludwig Faddeev was a man of great
importance of the newly discovered solutions theory in the 1990s until his retirement. honesty who was always ready to discuss

IPAC 2017
of nonlinear partial differential equations Faddeev created a very special atmosphere new ideas. We will miss him very much.
Modulators, Power Supplies, RF Transmitters solitons, and he believed that they would at the Leningrad Steklov Mathematics Irina Arefeva and Andrey Slavnov,
reduce the number of fields in Lagrangians. Institute in the 1970s and 1980s, during Steklov Mathematics Institute.
May 14-19 Copenhagen, Denmark
Visit us in Booth 83
Victor Kryshkin 19392017
Victor Kryshkin of the Institute for High active participant in the CMS experiment
Energy Physics (IHEP) in Protvino passed at CERNs Large Hadron Collider. He
away on 16 January after a long illness. He was a technical co-ordinator of the CMS
was a long-standing member of the CMS hadron-endcap calorimeter and made major
collaboration and made several important contributions to the design of the detector.
contributions to the CMS detector. Under his leadership, the Protvino group
PowerMod After graduation from Voronezh
University, Kryshkin started work as an
assembled all of the active elements of the
hadron-endcap calorimeters. More recently,
Solid-State Pulsed Power Systems experimental physicist in Tomsk Institute Kryshkin performed several original
for Nuclear Physics. There he carried out studies on gas-discharge detectors, which
his first experiment: measuring the lifetime he was planning to use in calorimetry. The
Compact, Rugged, Reliable of the neutral meson, which was included Victor Kryshkin was a member of the CMS novelty of his research has been confirmed
in the Review of Particle Physics. Since collaboration. by 21 registered patents.
Turnkey Voltages to 500 kV 1973 he worked at IHEP in Protvino, and Victor Kryshkin was not only a
was one of the key people who proposed this apparatus. The most important result of prominent scientist, he was also a very
Modulator Currents to 10 kA and then established the two-arm magnetic these studies was the observation of a kink interesting companion, possessing an
Systems Frequencies to Hundreds of kHz spectrometer, with the main aim to study in the dependence of the cross-section for encyclopedic knowledge in many fields. His
hadron production with high-momentum the production of meson pairs on the sum main hobby was studying astrophysics and
Hundreds of Installations Worldwide transfer in protonproton and proton of transverse momenta in protonproton space science and he was also interested in
nuclear interactions. Many important interactions at an energy of 70 GeV. history and art. He read a lot, particularly
scientific results revealing the structure of In 1991 Kryshkin became professor of Russian and English literature, and liked
35 Wiggins Avenue Bedford, MA 01730 USA www.divtecs.com elementary particles were obtained using physics at IHEP, and since 1992 he was an to tell jokes and anecdotes. Living in


CCMay17_Faces&Places.indd 55 05/04/2017 16:36


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Ultra High Performance

Silicon Drift Detector
Faces & Places The Heartbeat of High Power

FAST SDD Leningrad after the Second World War, behind his wife Galina, a son and three
Kryshkin learnt how to paint, and never granddaughters.
Count Rate = >1,000,000 CPS missed an opportunity to visit an art On behalf of the CMS collaboration, we
gallery or museum. He could not imagine offer our condolences to his family and
his life without music, especially jazz. colleagues.
The True State-of-the-Art He loved his family very much and leaves His friends and colleagues.

New in-house manufacturing

Lower noise
Lower leakage current
Heinrich Leutz 19282017
Better charge collection
Heinrich Leutz, who joined CERN in 1966
25 mm2 FAST SDD 55Fe Spectrum
1.0E+07 as leader of the BEBC physics aspects group,
passed away on 26 February, aged 89,
Det. Temp: 215K
Background: 26,000:1 Mn K Tpk: 4 s

following several years of serious health

Mn K

problems. During his long and active career


in experimental physics he took part in three


1.0E+06 1.0E+04

main research fields: nuclear spectroscopy; Award Winning Technology


high-energy physics with bubble chambers; Ampegons power supplies and pulse modulators provide unlimited benefits for any Accelerator System.
122 eV FWHM

and detector technologies for hadron

Our Type short pulse modulator received the Swiss Technology Award 2016. Out of all nominated products, the Type
colliders. In each of these areas, Leutz was was chosen for the highest levels of technological innovation, combined with both economical and social benefits.
responsible for original inventions that led to

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0
improved physics results.
During his first active research period in Leutz was an active member of CERNs
Energy (keV)

the 1950s and 1960s, based at the University LAA programme.

Resolution vs Peaking Time
of Heidelberg, Leutz led a research group ampegon.com
Transmission Antenna
MedTech Applications
25 mm2 studying colour centres in crystals, nuclear chamber (LEBC activity) that was used for Systems Technologies
Resolution (eV FWHM @ 5.9 keV)

beta decay, electron capture, polarisation charm physics and allowed one of the first

Standard SDD and photon spectroscopy. One of his definitive studies of charm production at a
Resolution (eV FWHM @ 5.9 keV)

remarkable contributions during this period proton facility.
150 FAST SDD concerned the idea to grow scintillation After the closure of bubble chambers
crystals doped with radioactive isotopes, around 1984, Leutz concentrated on
which allowed precise spectroscopy to be promoting detector technologies for

performed while avoiding source-thickness high-energy colliders within the CERN LAA
Innovative Detectors for High Energy Physics

and scattering-correction effects. Important (Lepton Asymmetry Analyser) programme.

publications from this period demonstrate In particular, he dedicated his efforts to the
0.00 1
1.00 2
2.00 3
3.00 4
4.00 5

excellent research results in nuclear physics development of plastic scintillating fibres

Peaking Time (s)
Peaking Time (s)

during the 1950s and 1960s. and new photodetectors called hybrid photon
Options: His move to high-energy physics started detectors for particle tracking in LHC-like Hamamatsu Photonics is proud of its long history of collaboration with many of the worlds leading research
25 mm active area collimated to 17 mm
2 2 in the 1970s when he joined the French environments and for non-high-energy laboratories supplying award winning, high quality detectors which have contributed to the achievement
GermanCERN programme to design and physics applications. In this last phase of of many scientific milestones.
70 mm2 collimated to 50 mm2 his professional career, he particularly
construct the Big European Bubble Chamber
Windows: Be (0.5 mil) 12.5 m, or (BEBC) at CERN as the SPS started up. enjoyed being surrounded by motivated and
C Series (Si3N4) Responsible for the physics aspect of the motivating young people: a new generation
TO-8 package fits all Amptek configurations BEBC project, Leutz soon became well that he endeavoured to shape and which had
known in the bubble-chamber community the great opportunity to be mentored by
around the world. His team developed a him. Books and publications testify to his
track-sensitive liquid-hydrogen-filled, outstanding contributions to experimental
optically transparent target box to observe physics, even beyond his retirement from Photomultiplier Tubes and Modules MPPCs, Arrays and Modules
primary particle interactions, surrounded CERN in 1993. Super Kamiokande LHC KM3NeT Xenon1T Experiment T2K Experiment Cherenkov Telescope ILC
by a heavy-liquid neon-hydrogen mixture Throughout his professional life, Leutz
to provide improved photon conversion. His developed his exceptional talents to promote
bold proposal was no less than to operate a original ideas, establish collaborations
bubble chamber inside a bubble chamber with physics teams worldwide, motivate
by finding a temperature and pressure high-level technical support in his own team
Please see our web site for complete regime such that the pressure cycle was and last but not least make friends to
transmitted from the heavy liquid to the whom he always offered great hospitality Large Area APDs and Arrays Silicon Strip Detectors
specifications and vacuum applications
hydrogen volume for primary interactions, at his home, together with his wife Ingrid. CMS GSI / PANDA ATLAS CLEO DELPHI LHC-B
allowing interactions and tracks in both Whenever they meet at CERN, friends and
media to be visualised on the same photo. former colleagues recall the great times they
AMPTEK Inc. A further step was the construction of spent with Heinrich Leutz.
a high-resolution fast-cycling bubble His friends and colleagues.
www.hamamatsu.com a t booth
Visit us

CCMay17_Faces&Places.indd 56 05/04/2017 16:37


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

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CERN will be recruiting over 150 people this year. So if youre

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check out the diverse opportunities CERN has to offer on
cern.ch/jobs. Take part!

Several PhD Positions at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) on
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We are looking for highly qualified and motivated We are offering PhD positions in Physics on various
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CERNCOURIER Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

IHEP Recruitment of Overseas High-level Talents

Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Research Areas:
(CAS) invites applications for permanent staff positions at all levels. IHEP is Experimental Particle and Nuclear Physics, Theoretical Physics, Astronomy and
a comprehensive research laboratory for particle and astroparticle physics, Astrophysics,Nuclear Technology, Multidisciplinary Research, Accelerators,
accelerator physics and technology, radiation technologies and applications, as Neutron physics, Condensed matter physics
well as for nuclear analytical techniques and interdisciplinary research. Contact:
For More Information: http://english.ihep.cas.cn/ Division for Human Resources, Institute of High Energy Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recruitment Objectives:
Based on the needs of the research areas and the disciplines development E-mail: hehl@ihep.ac.cn
of IHEP, we are now publicly recruiting overseas outstanding talents and Tel: (86)010-88235879, Fax: (86)010-88233102
scholars of relevant disciplines who possess research abilities and innovation Address: No. 19 (B), Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, (Postcode: 100049)
Applications should include a CV, an outline of academic accomplishments,
Programs: description of current research and plan for future research, 3 5 published
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established scientists. should arrange for 3 letters of reference from experts in your
2 National Thousand Young Talents Program for outstanding field to be sent by post or email (established scientists are not
junior scientists. requested).
3 Pioneer Hundred Talents Program of CAS, for outstanding junior scientists,
For detailed information please visit
excellent junior detector or accelerator experts.
http:// english.ihep.cas.cn/ju/201303/
4 Outstanding Talents Program of IHEP, for scientific research or technical

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The applications shall be accompanied by the documents required in the Rules and Procedures of Selection for these positions
The applications shall be sent to the Human Resources Department at human.resources@eli-np.ro.


CERNCOURIER Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

Compiled by Virgini a greCo, Cer n

Surpass design challenges Challenges and Goals for Accelerators in and more than 90% of the worlds total
with ease using the XXI Century man-made quantity of nuclear antimatter.
COMSOL Multiphysics. By Oliver Brning and Stephen Myers (eds) This section of the book concludes with a
Work with its powerful World Scientific description of the leptonproton collider
mathematical modeling Also available at the CERN bookshop HERA at DESY, the GSI heavy-ion
tools and solver technology This mighty 840 page book covers an facility, and the rare-isotope facility REX
to deliver accurate and impressive range of subjects divided into at ISOLDE. Space is also given to the
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COMSOL Server. 2/8635#t=toc. the 27 km length of the LEP tunnel

The evolution of computational tools for The book opens with two chapters was chosen having already in mind the
numerical simulation of physics-based Benefit from the power devoted to a captivating historical review installation of a protonproton collider,
systems has reached a major milestone. of multiphysics today of the Standard Model and a general and the first LHC workshop was organised
comsol.com/products introduction to accelerators, and closes as early as 1984. The following chapters
with two special sections. The first of are dedicated to ionion collisions at the
these is devoted to novel accelerator ideas: LHC and to the upgrades of the main ring
Copyright 2017 COMSOL. plasma accelerators, energy-recovery and the injector. The high-energy version
linacs, fixed-field alternating-gradient discussed. The ISRs breakthroughs of the LHC and the design of a future
accelerators, and muon colliders. The last were numerous, including the discovery 100 km-circumference collider (with both
section describes European synchrotrons of Schottky scans, the demonstration electronpositron and protonproton
used for tumour therapy with carbon ions of stochastic cooling and absolute collision modes) are also covered, as well

and covers, in particular, the Heidelberg luminosity measurements by van der as the proposed TeV electronproton
Ion Therapy Centre designed by GSI and Meer scans. Even more remarkable was collider LHeC. The overall picture is
the CERN Proton Ion Medical Machine the harvest of the SPS protonantiproton unique, complete and well balanced.
Study. The last chapter describes the collider, culminating with the Nobel Other chapters discuss frontier
transformation of the CERN LEIR prize awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon accelerators: super B-factories, the BNL

The 25th International Conference on synchrotron into an ion facility for

radiobiological studies.
Concerning the main body of the book,
van der Meer. The necessary Antiproton
Accumulator and Collector are discussed
in a separate chapter, which ends with an
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
and its electronion extension, linear
electronpositron colliders, electron
Magnet Technology 17 chapters look back over the past 100
years, beginning with a concise history
amusing recollection: December 1982
saw the collider arriving at an integrated
positron circular colliders for Higgs studies
and the European Spallation Source.
Amsterdam, the Netherlands of the three first lepton colliders: AdA in luminosity of 28 inverse nanobarns and Special accelerators for nuclear physics,
Frascati, VEP-1 in Novosibirsk and the Rubbia offering a champagne-only party such as the High Intensity and Energy
August 27-September 1, 2017 PrincetonStanford electronelectron with 28 champagne bottles! Antiproton ISOLDE at CERN and the FAIR project
collider. A leap in time then takes the production methods are covered in detail, at GSI, are also discussed. Unfortunately,
reader to CERNs Large ElectronPositron including a description of the manoeuvres the book does not deal with synchrotron

Magnets for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Fusion, High-Field Facilities, Medical, collider (LEP), which is followed by a needed to manipulate antiproton bunches light sources, free electron lasers and high-
Biological, and Analytical Applications. description of the Stanford Linear Collider. and of the production of cold antihydrogen power proton drivers. However, the latter
Unfortunately, this latter chapter is too atoms. This subject is continued in a later are discussed in connection with neutrino

Coils for Power, Energy, Transport, and Other Applications short to do full justice to such an innovative chapter dedicated to CERNs new ELENA beams by covering the CERN Neutrinos to

Materials, and Associated Technologies for Magnets approach to electronpositron collisions. antiproton facility. Gran Sasso project and neutrino factories.

Magnet Test, Analysis, and Design Tools The next section is devoted to The Fermilab protonantiproton collider The book is aimed at engineers and
beginnings, starting from the time of the started later than the SPS, but eventually physicists who are already familiar with
Brookhaven Cosmotron and Berkeley led to the discovery of the top quark by the particle accelerators and may appreciate
Bevatron. The origin of alternating- CDF and D0 collaborations. The Fermilab the technical choices and stories behind
gradient synchrotrons is well covered antiproton recycler and main ring are existing and future facilities. Many of
through a description of the Brookhaven described, followed by a chapter dedicated its chapters could also be formative for
AGS and the CERN Proton Synchrotron. to the Tevatron, which was the first young people thinking of joining one of
Conference Chair - Herman ten Kate
The first two hadron colliders at CERN superconducting collider. The first author the described projects. I am convinced
Co-chair - Andries den Ouden the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) remarks that, over the years, some 1016 that these readers will receive the book
Program Chair - Arjan Verweij and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) antiprotons were accumulated at Fermilab, very positively.
Exhibition Manager - Arend Nijhuis www.MT-25.org protonantiproton collider are then corresponding to about 17 nanograms Ugo Amaldi, TERA Foundation.


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Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17


Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security astrophysical objects at different stages
By Fei Hu (ed.) of their evolution as well as in plasma,
CRC Press condensed-matter and nuclear physics. It
Nowadays, enormous quantities of data in is also of great interest for the physics of
a variety of forms are generated rapidly high-energy concentrations that are either
in fields ranging from social networks already attained or can be reached in the near
to online shopping portals to physics future under controlled terrestrial conditions.
laboratories. The field of big data Ultra-extreme astrophysical and
involves all the tools and techniques that nuclear-physical applications are also
can store and analyse such data, whose analysed. Here, the thermodynamics of
volume, variety and speed of production matter is affected substantially by relativity,
are not manageable using traditional high-power gravitational and magnetic
methods. As such, this new field requires us fields, thermal radiation, the transformation
to face new challenges. These challenges of nuclear particles, nucleon neutronisation,
and their possible solutions are the subject and quark deconfinement.
of this book of 17 chapters, which is The book is intended for a wide range of
clearly divided into two sections: data specialists who study the EOS of matter and
management and security. high-energy-density physics, as well as for
Each chapter, written by different senior students and postgraduates.
authors, describes the state-of-the-art for a
specific issue that the reader may face when Theory of Quantum Transport at
implementing a big-data solution. Far from Nanoscale: An Introduction
being a manual to follow step-by-step, topics By Dmitry A Ryndyk
are treated theoretically and practical uses Springer
are described. Every subject is very well This book provides an
referenced, pointing to many publications for as those in house. Cloud environments may introduction to the theory
readers to explore in more depth. require data to be securely transmitted, stored of quantum transport at
Given the diversity of topics addressed, it is and analysed to avoid access by unauthorised the nanoscale a rapidly
difficult to give a detailed opinion on each of sources. Proposed approaches to apply developing field that studies
them, but some deserve particular mention. security include encryption, authorisation charge, spin and heat transport
One is the comparison between different and authentication methods. in nanostructures and nanostructured
communication protocols, presented in The book is a good introduction to many of materials. The theoretical models and
depth and accompanied by many graphs
that help the reader to understand the
the aspects that readers might face or want to
improve in their big-data environment.
methods recollected in the volume are
widely used in nano-, molecular- and
Cryogenic Components
behaviour of these protocols under different Daniel Lanza Garcia, CERN. bio-electronics, as well as in spin-dependent Cryogenic Control & Shut-off Valves
circumstances. However, the black-and-white electronics (spintronics).
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use of innovative solutions to aspects such Plasma transport; tunnelling (transfer) Hamiltonian
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CCMay17_Bookshelf.indd 64 05/04/2017 16:38


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERN Courier M a y 2 0 17

CERN Courier Archive: 1974

...the power in microwaves!
A look bAck to cERN couRiER vol. 14, M A y 1974, coMpilEd by pEggiE RiMMER

Our changing view of the nature of matter 19541974

The electromagnetic force Perhaps the most
In quantum electrodynamics (QED)
intermediary photons removed the enigma
of action at a distance between charged
particles. However, when trying to calculate
famous bubble
chamber picture in
history the
detection of the
physical quantities we finished up with
infinite values. A charged particle sets up its
photon cloud which changes the properties
omega minus
particle predicted
by the
of the charged particle which changes the classification
properties of the cloud and so on. In the scheme of unitary
late 1940s, R P Feynman, J Schwinger symmetry taken
and S Tomonaga noticed that behind the in the 80-inch
infinities lie apparent infinities of particle chamber at
mass and charge. When they renormalized Brookhaven. TMD in collaboration with Rosatom - NIITFA is now able to
the theory by feeding in physically observed
values of mass and charge, finite values building blocks [quarks]. electrons emerging from the beta decay of offer revolutionary, ultra-available RF solid state amplifiers
emerged for electromagnetic phenomena. The most spectacular prediction was of the cobalt 60. They were spinning clockwise for scientific and medical applications.
But why do we have to plug in the observed existence of the omega minus. Playing with and, to preserve the angular momentum
mass and charge for the calculations to work their three mathematical blocks, they grouped balance, emerging neutrinos (which could
with such perfection? It would obviously baryons of spin 3/2 in a group of ten and by not be detected) must always be spinning Innovative power combining and control system results in:
be philosophically more satisfying if they 1961 nine of these had been identified. During anticlockwise. By now we know that there
emerged naturally from the theory itself. the CERN conference of 1962, Gell-Mann are only left-hand spinning neutrinos;
Perhaps the electron is a black hole! One can wrote on the blackboard the mass (1680 MeV), right-hand spinning neutrinos do not exist. Ultra-compact systems, typically one Applications:
plausibly argue that its Schwarzchild radius of charge (1) and strangeness (3) of the missing This was a profound philosophical change 19 rack / 100 kW (pulse) Synchrotrons, LINACs for scientific,
about 10 55 cm would give it enough size to get tenth member. At the beginning of 1964, the in our view of Nature. We believed that Nature CW / Pulse Systems, long pulse experimentation/particle physics
rid of the QED infinities and give the correct omega minus, with precisely these properties, was symmetric and right and left were and Spallation systems
electron mass. So perhaps gravitation is was seen for the first time at Brookhaven. human conventions to help us find our way Modular Solid State architecture,
deeply involved with the electric properties of around traffic islands. Parity violation in the compact modules (<10 kg) Medical therapy equipment
matter but so far no firm framework has been weak interaction has overthrown this belief
The weak force ywell Aerospa Highly Maintainable with Hot Swap
Courtesy Hone Cyclotrons for radioisotope
found for these ideas. The first big change in our view of the weak and left the suspicion that Nature always cares capability production
force came in 1956. T D Lee and C N Yang, about the direction that things happen but that
The strong force attempting to explain some puzzling in strong and electromagnetic interactions this Wall Plug efficiency competitive with Option to upgrade existing systems
In 1954 the picture was of protons and observations on kaon decay into two and is hidden by more powerful effects. Now we tube technology (55% demonstrated)
neutrons [baryons] bound in the nucleus three mesons, made the revolutionary could contact intelligent beings in a remote Highly robust to VSWR mismatch Other Products:
through intermediary mesons, pions. But suggestion that in weak interactions Nature corner of the Universe and communicate
trouble was brewing. A heavier meson, the might be particular about the direction to them in which direction we turn around High MTBF and Low MTTR High Power, Very Low Phase Noise
kaon, had been spotted in nuclear emulsion in which things happen, violating parity. traffic islands. No loss of power from any single TWT Amplifiers
photographs of cosmic rays, and heavier Immediately after, C S Wu looked at Compiled from texts on pp156166. element failure Brazed UHV components
baryons (such as the lambda and sigma) had
been seen. High efficiency enhances reliability Electron Guns
The floodgates really opened when the Compilers Note Frequencies available from
large bubble chambers of L Alvarez came into Point-like black holes are still a matter of conjecture but big ones
20 MHz to 1.3 GHz
operation at the Berkeley 6 GeV Bevatron. A made headline news recently. In 2015, on 14 September and again on
whole host of new mesons and baryons were 26 December, jubilant teams at the LIGO observatory in the US watched MW power capability
identified and the list has grown to include the Earth being shaken by gravitational waves created when pairs of huge
over 200 distinct particles. Initially thought of black holes collided, 1.3 and 1.4 billion years ago, respectively. Closer
as rather exotic entities, something new was
needed to explain their behaviour.
to home, the composite Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), located at nine For more information on our leading edge
sites, is zooming in on a picture of Sagittarius A*, the black hole at the
The most important advance came in centre of the Milky Way, a mere 26,000 light-years away. technology email us at wecare@tmd.co.uk
1961 from Y Neeman and M Gell-Mann
using SU(3), a simple 19th century unitary
As for traffic islands, with the number of potentially Earth-like
exoplanets discovered by astronomers steadily increasing, so does
or visit www.tmd.co.uk
group of transformations in three complex
dimensions for studying sets of three objects. the chance of finding aliens out there smart enough to appreciate the
They classified the particles in groups, properties of terrestrial traffic islands, although it would be tricky to explain why the polarity flips
multiplets, mathematically treating them as from place to place across our planet!
if in reality they were built up of three basic


CCMay17_Archive.indd 66 05/04/2017 16:09 TMD CERN Courier May_FA.indd 1 3/04/2017 7:21 am


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

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Giugno.indd 1 04/04/17 04:44


Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

CERNCOURIER Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017

5 V i ew p o i n t F e at u r e s 43 Doubting darkness
19 Euclid to pinpoint nature of dark energy An interview with Erik Verlinde, who argues that dark matter is an
7 N ew s Due for launch in 2020, ESAs Euclid probe will track galaxies and illusion caused by an incomplete understanding of gravity.
LHC cold and preparing for beam Crab cavities promise large areas of sky to find the cause of the cosmic acceleration.
4 7 F a ce s & P l a ce s
brighter collisions Sterile neutrinos in retreat GBAR falls into
place ATLAS pushes SUSY beyond 2 TeV CMS inches to the top 26 How dark matter became a particle 59 R ec r u i t me n t
of the Higgs-coupling mountain LHCb brings cosmic collisions Over time, an increasing number of particle physicists became
down to Earth ALICE reveals dominance of collective flow
interested in the problem of dark matter, partly driven by new
scientific results but also by sociological changes.
6 3 B oo k s h elf
1 5 S c i e n cew at c h 34 Physics at its limits
6 6 A r c h i ve
A 100km-circumference collider would address many of the
1 7 A s t r ow at c h outstanding questions in modern particle physics.

Volume 57 Number 4 May 2017