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Enhanced Oil Recovery

screening Process

Ir Putu Suarsana MT. Ph.D


2
Ranking Cadangan

4
Screening FLUID
Pre-POD SAMPLING
EOR ?
Fluid Analysis
(Lab. Work)
Economic EOR STUDY PVT
Chemical Selection
Evaluation PROJECT Fluid-Fluid comp.
Fluid-Rock Comp.
MANAGEMENT Core Flooding
Process& Slim Tube
Facilities
Design ? PVT
(Region) Modeling
Reservoir
simulation G&G Production
? (Region) Modeling
Analysis 5
Fault Seal
Table 1
EOR Screening Technical Criterias2,3,9
Recommended Range
Properties
N2 CO2 In Situ Combustion Steam Injection
Gravity, API > 35 > 22 10 to 27 8 to 25
Viscosity, cp < 0.4 < 10 < 5,000 <100,000
Not Critical but some
High percentage of light High percentage of intermediate Some asphaltic components to aid
Composition light ends for steam
hydrocarbons hydrocarbons (especially C5 to C12) coke deposition
distillation will help
Oil Saturation, % PV > 40 > 20 > 50 > 40
Sandstone or carbonate with few Sand or sandstone with
Sandstone or carbonate with few Sand or sandstone with high
Type of formation fractures and high permeability high porosity and
fractures and high permeability streaks porosity
streaks permeability
Relatively thin unless formation is Relatively thin unless formation is
Net Thickness > 10 > 20
dipping dipping
Not critical if sufficient injection rate
Average Permeability, mD Not critical > 50 > 200
can be maintained
For miscible displacement, depth must
Depth, ft > 6000 < 11,500 < 5,000
be great enough
Temperature, F Not critical Not Critical > 100 Not Critical

Recommended Range
Properties
Polymer Micellar, ASP, and Alkaline Surfactant Microbial
Gravity, API > 15 > 20 > 20 > 15
< 150 (preferably <100 and
Viscosity, cp < 35 < 100 Not Critical
>10)
Light intermediate which contain
Composition Not Critical Not Critical Not Critical
organic acid to achieve lower IFT
Oil Saturation, % PV > 50 > 35 > 35 > 25
Sandstone preferred but can be
Type of formation Sandstone prefered Sandstone Not Critical
used in carbonate
Net Thickness, ft Not critical Not critical Not critical Not Critical
Average Permeability, mD > 10 > 10 > 40 > 50 md
Depth, ft < 9000 < 9000 < 6000 < 8000
Temperature, F <200 to minimize degradation < 200 < 200 < 160
Waterflooding
Waterflooding
Description
Most widely used post-primary recovery method
Water injected in patterns or along the periphery
Mechanisms That Improve Recovery Efficiency
Water drive
Limitations
High oil viscosities - higher mobility ratios
Heterogeneity such as stratification, permeability
contrast, and fracturing can reduce sweep
efficiency
Challenges
Poor compatibility between injected water and
reservoir may cause formation damage
Subsurface fluid control to divert injected water and
shut off undesirable produced fluids
Waterflooding

Screening Parameters
Gravity > 25 API
Viscosity < 30 cp
Composition not critical
Oil saturation > 10% mobile oil
Formation type sandstone / carbonate
Net thickness not critical
Average permeability not critical (usually >10md)
Transmissibility not critical
Depth not critical
Temperature not critical
Miscible Gas Flooding (CO2 Injection)
CO2 Injection Water Separation and Production Well
Injection Well Injection Storage Facilities
From Pump
Pipeline
or Recycle

4 3 2 1

1 Waterflood Sor 2 Oil 3 CO2 and Water 4 Drive


Bank/Miscible Zone Water
Front
Miscible Gas Flooding (CO2 Injection)

Description

Consists of injecting large quantities of CO2 (15%


or more hydrocarbon pore volumes) in reservoir to
form a miscible flood

Mechanisms That Improve Recovery Efficiency

CO2 extracts the light-to-intermediate components


from the oil, and, if pressure is high enough,
develops miscibility to displace oil from reservoir
(vaporizing gas drive)

Viscosity reduction / oil swelling


Miscible Gas Flooding (CO2 Injection)
Limitations
Very low viscosity of CO2 results in poor mobility
control
Availability of CO2
Challenges
Early breakthrough of CO2 causes problems
Corrosion in producing wells
Necessity of separating CO2 from saleable
hydrocarbons
Repressuring CO2 for recycling
Large requirement of CO2 per incremental barrel
produced
Miscible Gas Flooding (CO2 Injection)

Screening Parameters
Gravity > 27 API
Viscosity < 10 cp
Composition C5 - C20 (C5 - C12)
Oil saturation > 30% PV
Formation type sandstone / carbonate
Net thickness relatively thin
Average permeability not critical
Transmissibility not critical
Depth > 2,300 feet
Temperature < 250 F
Miscible Gas Flooding
(Hydrocarbon Injection)
HC Gas Injection Water Separation and Production Well
Injection Well Injection Storage Facilities
From Pump
Pipeline
or Recycle

4 3 2 1

2 Oil Bank / 3 HC and Water 4 Drive


1 Waterflood Sor Water
Miscible Front Zone
Miscible Gas Flooding
(Hydrocarbon Injection)

Description

Consists of injecting light hydrocarbons through


reservoir to form a miscible flood

Mechanisms That Improve Recovery Efficiency

Viscosity reduction / oil swelling / condensing or


vaporizing gas drive
Miscible Gas Flooding
(Hydrocarbon Injection)
Limitations
Minimum depth is set by pressure needed to maintain
generated miscibility
Ranges from about 1,200 psi for LPG process to 3,000-
5,000 psi for High Pressure Gas Drive, depending on the
oil
Steeply dipping formation is very desirable - permits
gravity stabilization of displacement that normally has
an unfavorable mobility ratio
Challenges
Viscous fingering results in poor vertical and horizontal
sweep efficiency
Large quantities of expensive products required
Solvent may be trapped and not recovered
Miscible Gas Flooding
(Hydrocarbon Injection)
Screening Parameters
Gravity > 27 API
Viscosity < 10 cp
Composition C2 - C7
Oil saturation > 30% PV
Formation type sandstone / carbonate
Net thickness relatively thin
Average permeability not critical
Transmissibility not critical
Depth > 2,000 feet (LPG)
> 5,000 feet (lean gas)
Temperature > 250F
Nitrogen / Flue Gas Flooding
N2 Gas Injection Water Separation and Production Well
Injection Well Injection Storage Facilities
From Pump
Pipeline
or Plant

4 3 2 1

1 Oil Bank/ N2 and


Waterflood Sor 2 3 4 Drive Water
Miscible Front Water Zone
Nitrogen / Flue Gas Flooding
Description
Consists of injecting large quantities of gas that
may be miscible or immiscible depending on
pressure and oil composition
Large volumes may be injected because of low
cost
Nitrogen or flue gas are also considered for use as
chase gases in hydrocarbon-miscible and CO2
floods
Mechanisms That Improve Recovery Efficiency
Vaporizes lighter components of crude oil and
generates miscibility if pressure is high enough
Provides gas drive where significant portion of
reservoir volume is filled with low-cost gases
Nitrogen / Flue Gas Flooding
Limitations
Miscibility can only be achieved with light oils at high
pressures; therefore, deep reservoirs are needed
Steeply dipping reservoir is desired to permit gravity
stabilization of displacement, which has a very
unfavorable mobility ratio
Challenges

Viscous fingering results in poor vertical and horizontal


sweep efficiency

Flue gas injection can cause corrosion

Non-hydrocarbon gases must be separated from


saleable gas
Nitrogen / Flue Gas Flooding

Screening Parameters
Gravity > 24 API (> 35 for nitrogen)
Viscosity < 10 cp
Composition C 1 - C7
Oil saturation > 30% PV
Formation type sandstone / carbonate
Net thickness relatively thin (not critical for
pressure maintenance)
Average permeability not critical
Transmissibility not critical
Depth > 4,500 feet
Temperature not critical
Oil Gravity Guides for Enhanced
Oil Recovery Methods

Oil Gravity oAPI


0 10 20 30 40 50 60

N2 & Flue Gas


Hydrocarbon
CO2 - Miscible
Immiscible Gas
Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer
Polymer Flooding
Gel Treatments
In situ Combustion
Steam Flooding
Mining
Summary of Screening Criteria for
IOR and EOR Methods

N.C. = Not Critical


*Transmissibility >20 md ft/cp
**Transmissibility > 100 md ft/cp