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M.Sc.

in Acupuncture

FUNDAMENTALS OF ACUPUNCTURE

UNIT I: Origin and History of Acupuncture - Acupuncture in


India-Acupuncture in the Far East-Acupuncture in the West-Traditional
Chinese Medicine (Tcm)-Taoism, Origin of Taoism and TMC - American
Association of Medical Acupuncture (AAMA).

UNIT II: Definition and benefits of Acupuncture - Acupuncture Laser


Acupuncture - Moxabustion - Cupping - Electro Acupuncture - American
Academy Of Medical Acupuncture - Benefits Of Acupuncture - Risks Of
Acupuncture Yin Yang theory, Principles of Yin Yang - Yin And Yang Theory.

UNIT III: Relationship and principles of five element theory, Discuss


Acupuncture Theory - Relations between The Elements - Control Of The
Elements - Interruption Of The Elements - Five Shu Points - Mother & Child
Five Element Points - Selection Of Acupuncture Points - Principles Of Point
Selection.

UNIT IV: Organ clock theory- Extraordinary Organs - Governing Vessel


Meridian Pathway & Point Locations - Conception Vessel Meridian Pathway
& Point Locations.

UNIT V: Basics of Computer Types of computer Networking - Internet

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Services - MS Office - Word Excel- Power point communication - Types
and Role communication Letter writing Agenda preparation - Soft skills
Development-Group Discussion.

FUNDAMENTALS OF ACUPUNCTURE

UNIT I

Origin and History of Acupuncture:

The oldest known book on Chinese medicine is the "Neiching", also


known as "The Yellow Emperor's classic of internal medicine". It is written
in the form of a dialogue between the Yellow Emperor "Huang Ti" and "Chi
Po" a Taoist teacher and physician. It is believed that the Yellow Emperor
lived around 2700 B.C. The book indicates that acupuncture was widely
practiced in China much before the time it was written.

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During archaeological excavations in China, various types of gold and
silver acupuncture needles were found in the tomb of Prince Liu Sheng who
died around 200 B.C. This confirms that these different types of needles
were in use over two thousand years ago.

The World Health Organization published a commentary on


controlled trials using acupuncture and concluded it was effective for the
treatment of twenty-eight conditions and there had been evidence to think
it may be effective for several dozen more. Some of the conditions that
have been proved to be helped are sinusitis, bronchitis, asthma, low back
stiffness, headaches, rheumatoid arthritis and many more.

Additionally, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative


Medicine of the National Institutes of Health, the American Medical

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Association, and various government reports have studied and commented
on the effects of acupuncture.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM): TCM is the general term for the
style of acupuncture which most acupuncturists are trained in, at least
initially, and the style which most people practice. As this is the most
foundational grouping there is a broad range of techniques used and
treatment protocols. Most recent clinical studies regarding acupuncture
usually use treatment techniques a/or protocols based on TCM Theory.

The Spread of Acupuncture

Acupuncture originated in the cold north-west parts of China where herbs


and other medical remedies were scarce. Acupuncture spread from there
to other parts of the world through travelling physicians, scholars and
pilgrims.

One of these was a famous Chinese physician called Pien Chueh who lived
around 400 B.C. While visiting the province of Quo with some of his
students, he arrived at a town there the people seemed very sad since their
beloved prince had suddenly become unconscious. The doctors had been
unable to revive him and it seemed that he was going to die.

Hearing that Pien Chueh was a great physician, the people asked him if
there was anything he could do to help their prince. Pien Chueh agreed to

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examine the prince. Arrangements were made and he was received by the
king, who willingly allowed him to examine the unconscious prince.

Pein Chueh made a thorough examination of the prince and arrived at a


diagnosis. He treated the prince with acupuncture who soon regained
consciousness. Pein Chueh continued to treat the prince with acupuncture,
heat treatment (moxibuxtion) and various herbs till the prince recovered
completely. It is said that the king rewarded him richly and directed the
physicians in his Court to learn acupuncture and thus the practice of
acupuncture spread.

Medical Education in China

The first state sponsored acupuncture school in China was founded in 443
A.D. unfortunately it was closed within ten years. Student physicians then
reverted to the traditional method of learning, which was by apprenticeship
to an experienced physician. In 581 A.D. an imperial Medical Academy for
teaching Acupuncture was again established, but it was only many years
later that the Academy flourished.

The imperial Medical Academy taught acupuncture from standard


textbooks. The time taken to train as a physician was longer than that
taken by a modern physician today. Before a student could specialize, he
had to undertake a general basic course in medicine. An important part of
this basic training was pulse examination, which is a fundamental part of

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traditional acupuncture. After this, they were allowed to specialize in a
subject of their choice. Internal medicine took another seven years of
study, while surgery and pediatrics (children's diseases) took five years
each. Less time was required to study limited subjects like diseases of the
eye, ear, nose and throat.

Over the years, many physicians who served the Emperors of China tried to
improve the teaching methods of acupuncture. In the year 1034 A.D. during
the rule of the Emperor Jen-Tsung, the Court physician Wang Wei-I made
two hollow life size male statues of bronze. These bronze statues were
used to test the knowledge of students appearing for examinations held at
the Imperial Medical Academy. The surfaces of each of these figures had
holes, which were accurately placed over the acupuncture points. Before
the examination the models were covered with wax so that the holes could
not be seen. The interior of the model was then filled with warm water. The
student taking the examination was questioned about a case and asked
how he would treat it with acupuncture. They asked to locate the points on
the model and insert a needle into each point, through the wax. If he
located the acupuncture points correctly, water would flow out from the
holes when the needles were removed.

In 1822 following a great plague in China in which millions of people died,


the practice of acupuncture was prohibited by the Ching dynasty Emperor
Tao-Quang. The subject was removed from the syllabus at the Imperial

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Medical Academy and the practice of acupuncture gradually declined. In
1912, the Imperial dynasty was overthrown and replaced by the radical
Kuomingtang party who ruled China till the end of the Second World War.
They too were not in favor of acupuncture and encouraged Western
medicine at the expense of acupuncture

When the Communist Party took over in 1949, they were aware that
acupuncture was still the preferred form of treatment among millions of
people so they removed the prohibition on its teaching and practice.
However Acupuncture really regained its popularity in China only after the
Cultural Revolution in 1966. Colleges were set up and research institutes
were founded, but in the intervening period of a hundred and fifty years, the
practice of acupuncture in China had largely fallen into disuse.

A lot of research has been undertaken in China for the last few years
leading to the development of two new specialties, acupuncture anesthesia
and scalp acupuncture.

Acupuncture in India:

Acupuncture has been practiced in India for thousands of years as a part of


Ayurveda. It is common to see Indian villagers with earrings placed at
specific points in the ear, to treat diseases elsewhere in the body. Many
villagers also have scars on the abdomen, as a result of cauterization
carried out to treat pain in the abdomen. This is similar to moxibuxtion or

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heat treatment, which is used in Chinese medicine.

There has been a rich exchange of ideas, philosophy and literature between
India and China over thousands of years. Travelers and scholars from India
went to China to teach and pilgrims from China came to visit Buddhist
shrines and universities in India. This gave rise to the belief prevalent in
many parts of India and Japan that acupuncture actually originated in India
from where it spread to China.

In India, Ayurveda was a highly developed and effective system of medicine


and acupuncture was only used for those diseases that did not respond to
Ayurveda treatment. As there were thousands of herbs that were effective
for different diseases, acupuncture was not as widely practiced in India as
it was in some parts of China. As explained earlier, in northwest China, very
few herbs were available, so here traditional practitioners developed
acupuncture into a highly advanced science.

With the onset of British rule and their promotion of the Western system of
medicine, the art of acupuncture was largely lost. It was practiced only by a
few village doctors with a very basic knowledge of certain "effective points"
which were passed down from father to son. It is only recently that there
has been a resurgence of interest in acupuncture in India, fueled by the
intense worldwide awareness of its efficacy in curing a multitude of
ailments.

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Acupuncture in the Far East:

Over the years, Acupuncture and Chinese medicine spread beyond the
borders of China, to Japan and Korea, where it soon became the accepted
form of medicine. Acupuncture was first introduced to these countries
around two hundred years before Christ. It only became popular there after
the arrival of Buddhism, which reached China about the middle of the first
century A.D. Buddhism developed and spread from China to Korea and
Japan between 400 A.D. and 800 A.D. Chinese medicine remained popular
in Japan till the 16th Century, after which it was gradually overshadowed by
influences from the West. Over the next 300 years, Western medicine
overshadowed acupuncture in Japan.

In 1884, an attempt was made to wipe out acupuncture from Japan by


issuing an edict prohibiting the teaching of acupuncture. This coincided
with the inauguration of the medical faculty at Tokyo University. Fortunately
this did not stop people from practicing acupuncture, which is still
practiced in Japan along with Western medicine.

Acupuncture in the West:

One of the first Western countries to show an interest in acupuncture was


France. The earliest European books on acupuncture were written in the
early years of the 18th century. The two most important were entitled" "The
Secrets of Chinese Medicine" and the "Perfect Knowledge of the Pulse".

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These were written by a respected Frenchman who had lived and studied in
China, but who withheld his name for fear of ridicule. Acupuncture has
been practiced sporadically in France over the last 200 years and is now
well established.

There were also missionaries from Austria and Germany who went to China
in the l7th and 18th centuries and learnt the art of acupuncture. They
returned to their own countries and started schools and institutes for
acupuncture, some of which flourish to this day.

However, acupuncture did not become popular in the West till the second
half of the 2Oth century. Acupuncture received the attention of the world
after President Nixon went to China in 1971 and the journalists
accompanying him publicized the practice and efficacy of acupuncture in
various American magazines.

Acupuncture is now rapidly gaining popularity and is being practiced all


over the world. The introduction of modern scientific instruments like
lasers and ultrasound and their use by acupuncturists have led to the
integration of modem technology with ancient Chinese methods to give us
a science that is effective and up to date.

Acupuncture, like allopathy, homeopathy or Ayurveda is a complete system


of medicine. Like other systems of medicine it has a treatment for almost
every disease and like each of these, it is extremely effective in treating

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some diseases, but not so effective in others. Subsequent chapters
describe some ailments that respond better to acupuncture than to any
other system of medicine.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (Tcm):

TCM is the general term for the style of acupuncture which most
acupuncturists are trained in, at least initially, and the style which most
people practice. As this is the most foundational grouping there is a broad
range of techniques used and treatment protocols. Most recent clinical
studies regarding acupuncture usually use treatment techniques a/or
protocols based on TCM Theory.

Taoism, Origin of Taoism and TM:

Taoism as a religion began in the year 142 C.E. with the revelation of the
Tao to Zhang Daoling or Chang Tao-ling by the personified god of the Tao,
Taishang laojun (Lao Tzu), the Highest Venerable Lord. ( Livia Kohn)

Taoism has no founder and no founding date. It grew out of various


religious and philosophical traditions in ancient China, including
shamanism and nature religion.

Zhang Daoling became the first Celestial Master and founder of the first
organized Taoist school of thought. This tradition continues to the present

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day, with the current Celestial Master living in Taiwan.

Taoism (also known as Daoism) is a Chinese philosophy attributed to Lao


Tzu (c. 500 BCE) which contributed to the folk religion of the people
primarily in the rural areas of China and became the official religion of the
country under the Tang Dynasty. Taoism is therefore both a philosophy and
a religion. It emphasizes doing what is natural and "going with the flow" in
accordance with the Tao (or Dao), a cosmic force which flows through all
things and binds and releases them.

The philosophy grew from an observance of the natural world, and the
religion developed out of a belief in cosmic balance maintained and
regulated by the Tao. The original belief may or may not have included
practices such as ancestor and spirit worship but both of these principles
are observed by many Taoists today and have been for centuries.

The historian Sima Qian (145-86 BCE) tells the story of Lao-Tzu, a curator
at the Royal Library in the state of Chu, who was a natural philosopher.
Lao-Tzu believed in the harmony of all things and that people could live
easily together if they only considered each other's feelings once in a while
and recognized that their self-interest was not always in the interest of
others. Lao-Tzu grew impatient with people and with the corruption he saw
in government, which caused the people so much pain and misery. He was
so frustrated by his inability to change people's behavior that he decided to

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go into exile.

As he was leaving China through the western pass, the gatekeeper Yin Hsi
stopped him because he recognized him as a philosopher. Yin Hsi asked
Lao-Tzu to write a book for him before he left civilization forever and
Lao-Tzu agreed. He sat down on a rock beside the gatekeeper and wrote
the Tao-Te-Ching (The Book of the Way). He stopped writing when he felt
he was finished, handed the book to Yin Hsi, and walked through the
western pass to vanish into the mist beyond. Sima Qian does not continue
the story after this but, presumably (if the story is true) Yin Hsi would have
then had the Tao-Te-Ching copied and distributed.

THE TAO-TE-CHING

The Tao-Te-Ching is not a 'scripture' in any way. It is a book of poetry


presenting the simple way of following the Tao and living life at peace with
one's self, others, and the world of changes. A typical verse advises, "Yield
and overcome/Empty and become full/Bend and become straight" to direct
a reader to a simpler way of living. Instead of fighting against life and
others, one can yield to circumstances and let the things which are not
really important go. Instead of insisting one is right all the time, one can
empty one's self of that kind of pride and be open to learning from other
people. Instead of clinging to old belief patterns and hanging onto the past,
one can bend to new ideas and new ways of living.

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The Tao-Te-Ching was most likely not written by Lao-Tzu at the western
pass and may not have been written by him at all. Lao-Tzu probably did not
exist and the Tao-Te-Ching is a compilation of sayings set down by an
unknown scribe. Whether the origin of the book and the belief system
originated with a man named Lao-Tzu or when it was written or how is
immaterial (the book itself would agree) and all that matters is what the
work says and what it has come to mean to readers. The Tao-Te-Ching is
an attempt to remind people that they are connected to others and to the
earth and that everyone could live together peacefully if people would only
be mindful of how their thoughts and actions affect themselves, others,
and the earth.

YIN-YANG THOUGHT

A good reason to believe that Lao-Tzu was not the author of the
Tao-Te-Ching is that the core philosophy of Taoism grew up from the
peasant class during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE) long before the
accepted dates for Lao-Tzu. During the Shang era, the practice of divination
became more popular through the reading of oracle bones which would tell
one's future. Reading oracle bones led to a written text called the I-Ching (c.
1250-1150 BCE), the Book of Changes, which is a book still available today

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providing a reader with interpretations for certain hexagrams which
supposedly tell the future.

The broken and the unbroken lines, the yin and yang, were both necessary
for that answer because the principles of yin and yang were necessary for
life.

Although Taoism and the Tao-Te-Ching were not originally associated with
the symbol known as the yin-yang, they have both come to be because the
philosophy of Taoism embodies the yin-yang principle and yin-yang
thought. Life is supposed to be lived in balance, as the symbol of the yin
and the yang expresses. The yin-yang is a symbol of opposites in balance -
dark/light, passive/aggressive, female/male - everything except good and
evil, life and death, because nature does not recognize anything as good or
evil and nature does not recognize a difference between life and non-life.
All is in harmony in nature, and Taoism tries to encourage people to accept
and live that kind of harmony as well.

After the communist takeover of China, Taoism was banned and its

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followers re-educated, with the result that the number of practicing Taoists
fell by 99% in 10 years. At the time Taoism began to flourish in the greater
freedom on offer in Taiwan.

After the end of the Cultural Revolution the Chinese government began to
allow a small measure of religious freedom. Taoism began to revive in
China, and Taoist temples and practitioners can now be found throughout
the country.

Philosophy thoughts of Taoism attaches with life science and medical


science so well and the double identities of the Taoists also as medical
scientists that the medicine and the Taoism tightly bounded with each
other. The view of unity of heaven and human being separates the
traditional medicine study from western medicine. Tao pursues long life
and respect all kinds of healthy-keeping methods. Tao theory of
healthy-remaining includes Tu Na, Dao Yin and massage, all absorbed by
Chinese health preserving theory. Many of the Tao theories become central
part of the Chinese medicine despite its philosophy section among which,
acupuncture assimilates its essence.

American Association of Medical Acupuncture (AAMA)

The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture (AAMA) is the

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professional society of physicians (MDs and DOs) in North America who
have incorporated acupuncture into their traditional medical practice. The
AAMA was founded in 1987 by a group of physicians who were graduates
of the "Medical Acupuncture for Physicians" training programs sponsored
by University Extension, UCLA School of Medicine.

Membership requirements for the Academy have been established in


accordance with the training guidelines established by the WHO recognized
World Federation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Socities (WFAS).

The Academy represents the highest standards of training and proficiency


among physicians practicing in North American. AAMA currently
represents more than 1,300 physician acupuncturists in North American
and many others from across the globe who participates as international
members.

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UNIT II

Acupuncture:

Acupuncture is a technique in which practitioners stimulate specific


points on the bodymost often by inserting thin needles through the skin.
It is one of the practices used in traditional Chinese medicine.
The word acupuncture is derived from two Latin words: acus,
meaning needle, and punctura, meaning puncture. Acupuncture has
come to denote a method of healing whereby needles of various lengths
are inserted into the body at specific points. The method originated in
China thousands of years ago and has recently aroused scientific curiosity
in the West. After a brief survey of the nature of acupuncture. The history of
medicine and to the yin-yang doctrine is a basic tenet of Chinese
philosophy.

Acupuncture is primarily used to relieve pain. This may seem ironic at

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first the insertion of needles into the body to eliminate pain. Acupuncture,
properly practiced, is a bloodless, apparently painless procedure, however,
and it has no unpleasant aftereffects. Hungarian-born Stephan Palos, a
Buddhist monk thoroughly familiar with acupuncture procedures, reports
that acupuncture produces no pain, except on the fingers. Other sensations
may be produced, however, such as a bitter or sour taste or a feeling of
warmth.

Acupuncture has been successfully employed in the treatment of a


variety of diseases and ailments, including such diverse disorders as hay
fever, ulcers, blindness, deafness, conjunctivitis, hemorrhoids, leukemia,
anemia, tonsillitis, dysentery, tuberculosis, nephritis, diabetes, eczema,
meningitis, high blood pressure, hepatitis, Parkinsonism, and insomnia.

Laser Acupuncture:

Laser acupuncture therapy greatly reduces the time needed for each
individual session. A normal acupuncture session may require the needles
to be left in for 20-30 minutes, yet a full laser therapy treatment usually only
takes around 5 minutes once the laser is applied. This along with the
gentleness of the therapy makes it extremely suitable for children and

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those with an aversion to needles.

Moxabustion:

Moxibustion is an analgesic technique in which moxa, a species of


Chrysanthemum, Artemisia Vulgaris, grown in China is lighted and applied
over the skin at acupuncture points. The technique is intended to warm
regions of the body, as well as stimulating blood circulation and energy
toward acupuncture points. It is often used, but not exclusively, as a
supplemental treatment to acupuncture. In China, doctors often prescribe
home self-treatment with moxa sticks for health maintenance and
continued self-treatment between office visits.

Cupping:

Cupping is an ancient Chinese practice that helps alleviate pain and


soreness. It has the function of warming and promoting the free flow of qi
and blood in the meridians of the body, dispelling cold dampness,
diminishing swelling and pain. A rounded glass cup is placed on the skin,
and pressure is created within the cup. This pressure draws the skin and
superficial muscle layers outward, easing acupuncture points deeper in the
body. In our clinic, the cupping method is mainly used to treat low back
pain, shoulder pain and lung disease such as cough and asthma. Cupping
works very effectively for acute sprains of ankles accompanied by blood
stasis.

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Electro Acupuncture:

Like regular acupuncture, electro-acupuncture uses needles inserted


by hand. The difference is that in electro-acupuncture, these needles are
connected to electrodes that provide electrical stimulation.
Electro-acupuncture is considered quicker than traditional acupuncture,
and has a stronger effect. It also allows the acupuncturist to more finely
control the amount of stimulus given to a patient. People with cardiac
problems should consult their physicians before using this treatment.

American Academy of Medical Acupuncture:

The American Academy of Medical Acupuncture was founded in


1987 by a group of physicians who were graduates of the "Medical
Acupuncture for Physicians" training programs sponsored by University
Extension, UCLA(University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine).
The AAMA is the sole physician-only professional acupuncture society in
North America, accepting members from a diversity of training
backgrounds. Physician members represent all of the disciplines of
medical acupuncture currently practiced in the United States and Canada.

The WHO (World Health Organization) has reported that acupuncture is an


effective treatment for therapeutic purposes. According to traditional
Chinese medicine (TCM), the main idea behind acupuncture is to restore
and maintain health by working on vital energy or (Qi) points of the body. It
is widely used by acupuncturists (practitioner), dentists, physicians, and

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other health practitioners for relieving pain and several other health related
problems.

Benefits of Acupuncture:

Acupuncture provides relief from both physical and mental problems.

Prime benefit of acupuncture is to cope with pain. Acupuncture is one of


the most natural forms of alternative medicine during which endorphins are
released into the blood stream in order to achieve maximum pain relief.
Endorphins are the human body's natural pain-control mechanism
employed by the central nervous system. Therefore acupuncture works at
reducing pain naturally which is much better in comparison to pain
medication.

Acupuncture can help mitigate symptoms of various types of pain,


including back, neck, joint and dental pain as well as migraines,
fibromyalgia and arthritis.

Acupuncture employs what is referred to as the gate theory in decreasing


aches and pain. During acupuncture, the nerves in the spinal cord are
stimulated, which in turn facilitate release of certain pain-reduction
neurotransmitters. Again, this is the human body's natural and drug-free
pain relief mechanism.

Acupuncture might be responsible for increase blood flow due to the


insertion of needles, thereby resulting in increased supply of essential
nutrients to the affected area. This could also help remove toxins and

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facilitate healing.

Acupuncture may reduce nausea after patients undergo surgery or receive


chemotherapy, as well as aid in smoking cessation and coping with the
bothersome symptoms of allergies and menopause.

Acupuncture is used for increasing fertility.

Acupuncture is a noninvasive treatment, with little to no side effects or


recovery time from injuries. It may therefore reduce dependence on
medications as well as the need for unpleasant medical procedures.

Acupuncture is suitable for almost all people, regardless of physical


condition, with the possible exception of those suffering from bleeding
disorders or taking blood thinners.

The practice takes a holistic approach in attempting to eliminate the root


cause of the malady, rather than simply mitigating the symptoms.

Acupuncture provides relief to the patient from physical as well as mental


ailments.

In an attempt to eliminate the root causes of a health problem, the


treatment examines the entire human body and its relation to the
environment.

Acupuncture is a natural substitute to medicine, because the treatment


aims to reduce pain naturally.

The treatment helps remove toxins and helps fast healing, because it

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increases blood flow, when the needles are inserted into the strategic
locations of the human body.

Since acupuncture works on the vital energy (Qi) points of the body, it
restores and maintains the overall health.

Studies conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reveal that


acupuncture has lower adverse effects on the human body, as compared to
the prescribed medications and other medical procedures followed for
treating similar conditions.

The treatment of acupuncture is suitable for all age groups, from children,
adults to even senior citizens.

It is equally beneficial for people with low immunity.

It increases stamina, restores energy, regulates hormones and boosts the


immune system of the body.

Acupuncture is a natural cure for a number of diseases including headache,


back pain, insomnia, stress and fatigue. Apart from this, the treatment is
effective in curing chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis, hearing loss,
dental pain, asthma, diabetes, infertility, migraine, tennis elbow, allergies
and hypertension.

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Risks of Acupuncture:

There is no treatment or cure for damaged body parts in acupuncture


especially broken bones.

While acupuncture can eliminate the cause of certain diseases and provide
relief from pain, it might not be able to detect certain other disease
conditions that are prevalent.

Acupuncture might not be advisable for patients suffering from certain


bleeding disorder and for patients on blood thinners.

Patients could experience a little amount of soreness post treatment.

If needles used are not sterile or are reused, it could result in patients
suffering from infectious disease.

The most common serious injury reported from the needles of acupuncture
has been accidental puncture of the lung, which results in a partial collapse

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of the lung called pneumothorax.

The most common infection reported from acupuncture treatments is viral


hepatitis, a potentially serious infection of the liver. Other side effects
include bacterial infections locally at the site of needle insertion in the skin
and elsewhere in the body. Generally, side effects seem to relate to poor
hygiene and training of the acupuncturist.

People with bleeding disorders or who are taking blood thinners should
check with their doctors before having acupuncture. The most common
acupuncture side effects are bleeding and bruising at the site, along with
minor pain and soreness. It is recommended that a disinfectant such as
alcohol be swabbed over the area prior to needle insertion to decrease the
very small possibility of infection. Obviously, needles should be clean and
never shared between clients. Rarely, a needle may break. The worst case
scenario is a punctured organ. However, serious complications are
extremely rare when acupuncture is performed by a qualified, certified
practitioner.

Acupuncture is safe only when it is performed by a trained and licensed


acupuncturist.

The needles for the treatment should be non-toxic and used only once.
They should be properly labeled and sealed. The patient may suffer from
various infectious diseases, if the needles are re-used or not sterile.

The effectiveness of acupuncture cannot be generalized. Its effect varies

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from person to person.

The patient can incur mild soreness in the acupunctured areas in his/her
body, after the completion of the treatment.

Few complications have been reported due to the use of needles. If the
needles are not inserted properly, it may lead to organ rupture or infection.

Improper placement of needle can lead to bleeding, swelling and painful


sensation in the acupunctured areas of the body.

Acupuncture is not recommended for damaged body parts, such as broken


bones.

Although the treatment eliminates the root cause of a number of diseases,


it is still not able to detect certain other diseases prevalent among people.

Yin and Yang Theory:

Principles of Yin Yang:


Yin and Yang (pronounced yong, as in 'gong') is one of the most
fundamental concepts in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as it is the
foundation of diagnosis and treatment. The earliest reference to Yin and
Yang is in the I Ching (Book of Changes) in approximately in 700 BC. All
phenomena are said to be reduced to Yin-Yang.

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Integral to Chinese Culture for Thousands of Years

Yin and Yang, like TCMs Five Element theory, are integral to the Chinese
culture and have been so for thousands of years. Unbelievably, references
to Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang are distinctively Chinese in terms of
perception of profound fundamental principles and as an expression of a
unique way of viewing the world and the greater universe. They are literally
and figuratively a world apart from Western thinking.

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Opposite yet Complementary Energies

Everything contains Yin and Yang. They are two opposite yet
complementary energies. Although they are totally differentoppositein
their individual qualities and nature, they are interdependent. Yin and Yang
cannot exist without the other; they are never separate. For example, night
and day form a Yin-Yang pair. (Night is Yin and day is Yang.) Night looks
and is very different than day, yet it is impossible to have one without the
other. Both create a totality, a complete whole.

This inseparable and interpenetrating relationship is reflected in the form of


the Yin-Yang symbol. The small dots within each of the two energies
(represented by black and white) symbolize that there is always some Yin
(black) within Yang (white) and vice versa. No matter where bisect the
diameter of the whole circle, each half will always contain some Yin and
some Yang.

Nothing is absolute with Yin and Yang. The designation of something as


Yin or Yang is always relative to some other thing. For example, day is
Yang, yet within every day is a Yang partthe early morning, and a Yin
partlate day, as it begins to turn to night, which is Yin.

Balance and Harmony

In the Chinese Yin-Yang model, Yin (the black) contains a seed of Yang (in
the form of a white dot). There is Yin, but interestingly, Yin is also Yang
because it contains some Yang. The truth is Yin can transform into Yang

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under certain conditions. It can do this because Yang is present in Yin. So
there is balance, but the relationship goes beyond balance to one of
harmony. When two things are balanced, they are equal but still separate.
In a relationship of harmony, the two energies blend into one seamless
whole, as perfectly embodied by the swirling Yin-Yang symbol.

This means there is a dynamic flow happening that automatically and


continuously balances and rebalances these energies. In the natural world
this phenomenon is seen in the changing of the seasons: the cold of winter
yields to the warmth of spring and summer heat, and then gradually turns
cool in fall to become winter once again can also see this perpetual
balancing at work in a shorter time frame when a thunderstorm clears the
air of an unusually hot and humid summer day.

In terms of personal health, life just flows and moves seamlesslyin


harmony. Body, mind, emotions, and spirit can adjust and readjust to the
circumstances in life. This is precisely the state TCM seeks to create; that
of balance.

A Theory Fundamental to TCM Practice

The theory of Yin and Yang is fundamental to the practice of TCM in terms
of understanding, diagnosing, and treating health issues. At the most basic
and deep level, TCM treatment seeks to balance Yin and Yang in each
person. One ancient TCM text expressed the power and importance of Yin
and Yang this way.

30
Yin and Yang Apply to Life

First, the theory of Yin-Yang tells us that at the macro levelthe largest
scale imaginableall things are always balancing and rebalancing into a
state of perfect harmony. There is ceaseless change, yet this movement
and flux, at its deepest level, is creating harmony, is perfect harmony. Yin
and Yang are the two energies that embody Universal law, which ensures
that all things remain in harmony.

Its often difficult to actually see this harmony on a smaller scale, in the
world around us, for instance. It is not always apparent in the world
humans have created and especially in our busy, frequently complicated
modern lives. But think about it really understand and believe in Yin and
Yang, harmony is the Universal architectural framework that underlies and
impacts this reality. So in essence, harmony is the only ground we walk on
and is the very air we breathe.

Apply this awareness to life is great part of TCMs healing approach is to


help step back from life and look at where life might actually be creating
health issues. For most people, this is a process that happens over time.
For some, it comes in a moment of great insight. From the TCM
perspective, what is the point of continually treating symptoms that are
caused by emotions, patterns of thought, belief systems, or a lifestyle that
is out of balance? Truly, is not better to understand and work to change the
root cause (or causes) of the problem. The entire Universal pattern is one

31
of establishing balance and harmony. This perspective can help more
peacefully view the world and role in it.

Most people have heard the saying, As above, so below. Universal law is
all about creating and maintaining harmony, wouldnt the limitless power of
that energy force support in some way own efforts to create harmony in
own body and being. As a deep and authentic healing system, TCM
understands and applies Yin and Yang to help harmonize body, mind,
emotions, and spirit, and then harmonize individual energy with nature.

Yin and Yang Qualities

In a typically poetic way, the Chinese characters for Yin and Yang reveal
something about their respective qualities. For example, the character for
Yin can represent the shady side of a hill, while the one for Yang can
indicate the sunny side of a hill.

Yin-Yang Pairs Exemplifying Two Universal Energies

Yang Yin

Heaven Earth

Sun Moon

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Light Darkness

Fire Water

Time Space

Energy Matter

Activity Rest

Generates Grows

Expansion Contraction

Round Flat

Rising Descending

Above Below

East West

South North

Left Right

Male Female

Yin-Yang Pairs in r Body


Yang Yin

Exterior Interior
Front
Back
Body

33
Head Below the Waist
Structure
Above the Waist

Function

34
UNIT III

Relationship and principles of five element theory:

Five Elements Theory:

Based on observations of the natural world, ancient Chinese people


recognized continuous patterns of transformation and change in the
universe. Initially, these observations were interpreted using yin yang logic,
but later these interpretations were expanded using a new theory called the
five elements.

The five elements theory evolved from the study of various processes,
functions, and phenomena of nature. The theory asserts substances can be
divided into one of five basic elements: wood, fire, water, metal and earth,
which contain their own specific characteristics and properties. Today, the
five elements theory is still used as a tool for grouping objects, and as a
method for analyzing changes of natural phenomena.

35
Principles of five element theory:

Five Elements Theory:

Based on observations of the natural world, ancient Chinese people


recognized continuous patterns of transformation and change in the
universe. Initially, these observations were interpreted using yin yang logic,
but later these interpretations were expanded using a new theory called the
five elements.

The five elements theory evolved from the study of various processes,
functions, and phenomena of nature. The theory asserts substances can be
divided into one of five basic elements: wood, fire, water, metal and earth,
which contain their own specific characteristics and properties. Today, the

36
five elements theory is still used as a tool for grouping objects, and as a
method for analyzing changes of natural phenomena.

EARTH

Emotion: sympathy, rumination, obsession

Color: yellow

Season: late summer

Sound: singing

Odor: fragrant

Distorted belief: 'I am not enough; therefore, I must put others or myself
first in all situations.'

Earth in Balance: Feeling complete right now, genuine selflessness, balance


between giving and receiving

METAL

Emotion: Grief, longing

Color: white

Season: fall

Sound: weeping

Odor: rotting

37
Distorted belief: 'Life has no value and is meaningless; therefore, I must
attach to the material world or renounce it altogether.'

Metal in Balance: Inspiration, value, poignancy, being present to life

WATER

Emotion: Fear, anxiety

Color: blue

Season: winter

Sound: groaning

Odor: putrid

Distorted belief: 'My purpose is not powerful enough to change the world. I
am subject to the whims of fate.'

Water in Balance: Purpose and potential fulfilled, feeling the fear and doing
it anyway, power

WOOD

Emotion: Anger, frustration

Color: green

Season: spring

Sound: shouting

38
Odor: rancid

Distorted belief: 'Life isn't fair. I am resigned to a life of injustice.'

Wood in Balance: Creativity, broad perspective, benevolent, visionary

FIRE

Emotion: Sadness or lack of joy

Color: red

Season: fire

Sound: laughing

Odor: scorched

Distorted belief: 'Life isn't safe. It's impossible to find real intimacy.'

Fire in Balance: Charisma, joy, connection, compassion

According to the five element model, every one of us is predominantly


affected by one of these elements and their associations.

The Origin of the Five Elements Theory

The yin yang theory has a close relationship with the five elements theory.
They are often used simultaneously to explain natural phenomena. Ancient
Chinese medical philosophers integrated the yin yang and five elements
theories into their medical practices as early as the Warring States Period

39
(475-221BC). As integration of these theories took place, a more
formalized system of medicine was established. Today we refer to this
medical system as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

The Five Elements and their Relationships with Nature and the Body

An ancient Chinese adage says: 'A tree grows from the roots.' Yin and yang
and the Five Elemental Energies form the main roots in the Taoist tree of
health, and the entire edifice of traditional Chinese medicine and physiology
is based upon the foundation of these energy principles.

The five elements correspond to different aspects of the natural world and
the body. Wood, for example, corresponds to spring and wind in the natural
world and to the liver, gall bladder, eyes and tendons in the body.

40
The Five Elements and their Relationships with Nature and the Body

The five elements correspond to different aspects of the natural world and
the body. Wood, for example, corresponds to spring and wind in the natural
world and to the liver, gall bladder, eyes and tendons in the body.

41
Wood Fire Earth Metal Water

Orientation East South Middle West North

Season Spring Summer Late Autumn Winter


Summer

Climate Wind Summer Dampness Dryness Cold


Heat

Cultivation Germinate Grow Transform Reap Store

Yin Organ Liver Heart Spleen Lung Kidney

Yang Gall Small Stomach Large Bladder


Organ Bladder Intestine Intestine

Orifice Eye Tongue Mouth Nose Ear

Tissues Tendons Vessels Muscles Skin & Hair Bones

Emotions Anger Joy Pensivene Grief Fear


ss

Colour Blue/ Red Yellow White Black


Green

Taste Sour Bitter Sweet Pungent Salty

Voice Shout Laugh Sing Cry Groan

42
As shown in the above table, there are organized relationships between the
elements, nature and the body. The different vertical characteristics belong
to the same element, and horizontally, each characteristic interacts with
another according to a specific order and element. Working within this
system of thought, everything has a correlation in nature.

The Five Element Relationships in Chinese Medicine

It was observed over the years that the Five Elements relate to each other
in different ways.

Sheng Cycle (Generating Sequence)

Ko Cycle (Controlling Sequence)

Destructive Cycle (Overacting Sequence)

Anti Ko Cycle (Insulting Sequence)

Sheng Cycle:

The Generating Sequence or Mother-Child Relationship. As in the cycle of


the seasons, each element generates another, i.e., one element is the
"mother" of the next.

Generating Relationship

Wood (Liver) creates Fire (Heart) Wood (Liver) is the Mother of Fire

43
(Heart)

Fire (Heart) creates Earth (Spleen) Fire (Heart) is the Mother of Earth
(Spleen)

Earth (Spleen) creates Metal (Lungs) Earth (Spleen) is the Mother of Metal
(Lungs)

Metal (Lungs) creates Water Metal (Lungs) is the Mother of


(Kidneys) Water (Kidneys)

Water (Kidneys) creates Wood Water (Kidneys) is the Mother of


(Liver) Wood (Liver)

Naturally, therefore, each element is generated by another: Fire is the child


of Wood, Earth is the child of Fire, etc. In nature, we see this in the seasonal
changes: Winter transforms into spring, spring changes into summer.

Ko Cycle

Controlling Sequence or Father-Child relationship each element is said to


control, check, or regulate another.

Wood controls Earth

Fire controls Metal

44
Earth controls Water

Metal controls Wood

Water controls Fire

Each element is of course then controlled by another.

Earth is controlled by Wood

Wood is controlled by Metal, etc.

This cycle ensures that a balance is maintained between elements.

The "father-child" symbol relates to traditional family roles, where the father
was the patriarchal head of the household. The mother, by comparison, is
seen as the creative and nurturing force.

Destructive Cycle

Overacting Sequence

This is the same as the Ko cycle, but in this sequence, one Element is said
to "over-control" or "destroy" another, causing the controlled element to
become Deficient. This happens when balance breaks down so that one
element becomes excessive in relationship to another.

i.e. - An excess of Wood energy will over-control Earth, causing Earth to


become Deficient.

45
Anti-Ko Cycle

Insulting Sequence

This cycle is the reverse of the Ko cycle or controlling sequence. In the


Insulting Sequence, the element that should be controlled becomes
imbalanced and excessive, and controls the element that normally controls
it.

i.e. - Instead of Metal controlling Wood, if Wood becomes excessive, it can


"insult" Metal, causing it to become imbalanced. This is akin to the child
rebelling and insulting or trying to discipline its father.

Selection of Acupuncture Points and Principles Of Point Selection:

Five Shu Points Chart

Yin well(Woo spring(Fir stream(Eart river(Meta Sea(Wate


Meridians d) Ying e) Shu h) Jing l) He r)
Jing

LU LU 11 LU 10 LU 9 LU 8 LU 5

PC PC 9 PC 8 PC 7 PC 5 PC 3

HT HT 9 HT 8 HT 7 HT 4 HT 3

SP SP 1 SP 2 SP 3 SP 5 SP 9

LV LV 1 LV 2 LV 3 LV 4 LV 8

46
KD KD 1 KD 2 KD 3 KD 7 KD 10

Yang well(Woo spring(Fir stream(Eart river(Meta Sea(Wate


Meridians d) Ying e) Shu h) Jing l) He r)
Jing

LI LI 1 LI 2 LI 3 LI 5 LI 11

TH TH 1 TH 2 TH 3 TH 6 TH 10

SI SI 1 SI 2 SI 3 SI 5 SI 8

ST ST 45 ST 44 ST 43 ST 41 ST 36

GB GB 44 GB 43 GB 41 GB 38 GB 34

UB UB 67 UB 66 UB 65 UB 60 UB 40

Mother & Child Five Element Points

Organs Mother Child

Lung (Metal) LU 9 LU 5

Large Intestine (Metal) LI 11 LI 2

Stomach (Earth) ST 41 ST 45

47
Spleen (Earth) SP 2 SP 5

Heart (Fire) HT 9 HT 7

Small Intestine (Fire) SI 3 SI 8

Urinary Bladder (Water) UB 67 UB 65

Kidney (Water) KD 7 KD 1

Pericardium (Fire) PC 9 PC 7

Triple Heater (Fire) TH 3 TH 10

Gall Bladder (Wood) GB 43 GB 38

Liver (Wood) LV 8 LV 2

Point Selection

Distal Points

Acupuncture points are not always chosen locally to treat a problem. Often
distal points are chosen. These points are generally located quite far from
the diseased area (often below the elbows and knees), but are chosen for
their ability to treat the problem.

Local Points

There are two kinds of local acupuncture points: classical acupuncture

48
points which are located close to the area of pain, and, points of sensitivity
(not actual points) which are referred to Ashi points which may also be
chosen due to their responsive nature.

Experience Points

These acupuncture points may consist of one or a combination of two or


more points which have been proven over time to be very effective in the
treatment of a particular disorder. The clinical basis for these treatment
protocols are based purely on experience.

Interior- Exterior

The twelve regular meridians are paired together into six groups. One of
each pair represents the interior aspect of the relationship while the other
represents the exterior of the relationship. For example the Spleen and
stomach is one pair. The stomach represents the exterior aspect of the
couple and the spleen the interior. If there is a problem with the stomach
points may be chosen on the spleen channel to affect its partner.

Front and Back

Often points are chosen from both the front of the body and the back of the
body in order to elicit balance in the acupuncture treatment. A good
example of this would be the combination of a Front (Mu) point and a Back
(Shu) point in the treatment of a disorder.

Upper and the Lower

49
Disease in the upper part of the body can be treated by selecting points in
the lower part of the body, and disease in the lower part of the body can be
treated by selecting points in the upper part of the body. The combination
of DU 1 with DU 20 in the upper to treat prolapse of anus is one example of
this type of point location.

Left and Right

Acupuncture points in the right side of the body may be selected for
diseases in the left side of the body and vice versa. This type of treatment
may be implemented for the purpose of balancing the energy in a meridian
on different sides of the body OR in the case of head acupuncture; one side
of the head may be treated to affect the opposite side of the body.

UNIT IV

Organ Clock Theory

Energy (Qi) flow in the 12 major meridians of our body is not the
same throughout the day. At a given time one meridian/organ is very active
than others and the meridian/organ exactly opposite in the organ clock is

50
least active. Each meridian is very active for two hours every day. Any
problem in the internal organs will be noticed as disturbances during the
two hour period of the corresponding meridian.

Organ clock or biological clock is the graphical interpretation of


period when energy flow is excessive in an organ or meridian during the
day.

MERIDIAN CLOCK- ORGAN CLOCK:

Acupuncturists use the acupuncture meridian organ clock to diagnose and

51
to determine the optimal time for treating specific imbalances. Waking up
automatically at the same time could mean r body needs to bring itself into
balance in that area. This chart illustrates the flow of chi (qi or life-force
energy) through the meridians during the 24 hours of the day.

3-5 am: Lung

5-7 am: Large Intestine

7-9 am: Stomach

9-11am: Spleen

11am-1pm: Heart

1-3 pm: Small Intestine

3-5 pm: Urinary Bladder

5-7 pm: Kidney

7-9 pm: Pericardium

9-11 pm: Triple Burner

11pm-1am: Gallbladder

1-3 am: Liver

The Chinese Acupuncture Meridian Clock is an example of a 24-hour cycle

52
which portrays the bodys complete functions as well as its relationship with
diet. There are 12 meridians, each taking the lead for two hours during the
24-hour period. Each of the 12 meridians has a dual flow, a coming and a
going, marking 24 cycles per day.

The clock delineates which meridian system is activated and dominant at a


specific time. Since these cycles happen automatically, we do not have to
be preoccupied with them. However, if we know of these cycles, then we
can make better decisions when it is generally best to eat, exercise and
sleep.

TIME MERIDIAN COMMENTARY

5-7 a.m. Large Intestine Drinking water triggers bowel evacuation


making room for the new days nutritional intake. Removes toxins from the
nights cleansing.

7-9 a.m. Stomach Stomach energies are the highest so eat the most
important meal of the day here to optimize digestion/assimilation.

9-11 a.m. Pancreas the stomach passes its contents on. Enzymes from
the pancreas continue the digestive process. Carbohydrate energy made
available.

11 a.m.-1 p.m. Heart Food materials enter the blood stream. The heart
pumps nutrients throughout the system and takes its lipid requirements.

1-3 p.m. Small Intestine Foods requiring longer digestion times

53
(proteins) complete their digestion/assimilation.

3-5 p.m. Bladder Metabolic wastes from mornings nutrition intake


clear, making room for the kidneys filtration to come.

5-7 p.m. Kidney Filters blood (decides what to keep, what to throw
away), maintains proper chemical balance of blood based on nutritional
intake of day. Blood to deliver useable nutrients to all tissues.

7-9 p.m. Circulation Nutrients are carried to groups of cells (capillaries)


and to each individual cell (lymphatics.)

9-11 p.m. Triple Heater The endocrine system adjusts the homeostasis
of the body based on electrolyte and enzyme replenishment.

11 p.m.- 1 a.m. Gall Bladder Initial cleansing of all tissues, processes


cholesterol, enhances brain function.

1-3 a.m. Liver Cleansing of blood. Processing of wastes.

3-5 a.m. Lung Respiration. Oxygenation. Expulsion of waste gasses.

There are about 365 acupuncture points (not counting bilateral points twice)
most of which are situated along the major 20 pathways (i.e. 12 primary & 8
extraordinary channels).

There are 12 standard meridians, also called principal meridians, each

Yin meridian (organ) is associated with a Yang meridian (viscus):

54
Lung (Yin) - Large Intestine (Yang)

Stomach (Yang) - Spleen (Yin)

Heart (Yin) - Small Intestine (Yang)

Bladder (Yang) - Kidney (Yin)

Pericardium (Yin) - Triple Burner (Yang)

Gall Bladder (Yang) - Liver (Yin)

Meridians of the Body

Meridians of the body are undetectable to the naked eye yet we couldnt
live without them. They influence every organ and physiological system in
the body. Meridians carry energy throughout the body; similar to the way
the arteries carry blood. This energy is often referred to as chi, qi or prana.

Meridians of the body are responsible for all the bodys major organ
systems: endocrine, nervous, circulatory, immune, respiratory, skeletal,
muscular, digestive and the lymphatic system. If the energy flowing
through a meridian is imbalanced in any way the system it fuels is
jeopardized and disease results.

Through the flow of energy, meridians bring balance to the body. They
remove energetic blocks, excesses and imbalances, regulate metabolism
and support cellular health. Their flow is as important as the flow of blood;
r life and health rely on both.

55
There are 12 major meridians in the body:

Lung meridian

Large Intestine

Spleen meridian

Stomach meridian

Heart meridian

Small intestine meridian

Bladder meridian

Kidney meridian

Pericardium (Circulation/Sex) meridian

Triple Warmer meridian

Liver meridian

Gallbladder meridian

Extraordinary Organs

6 Extraordinary Organs in Chinese Medicine

Marrow

Brain

56
Bone

Uterus

Vessels

Gallbladder

Marrow

Marrow is controlled and produced by the Kidneys, and equivalent to


the brain and spinal cord.

Marrow includes Brain marrow, Spinal marrow, and Bone marrow

Marrow nourishes the Brain and Spinal Cord through the Jing

Nei Jing "If the Sea of Marrow is abundant, vitality is good, the body feels
light and agile, and the span of life will be long. If it is deficient there will be
dizziness, tinnitus, blurred vision, fatigue, and a great desire to lie down"

If the Marrow is Xu: Brain and Spinal cord are not adequately nourished and
become deficient

Brain (Sea of Marrow)

Controlled by the Kidney

Controls intelligence, memory, and the five senses

Related to Heart

57
Heart Blood nourishes the Shen and mental activity

Related to Liver

Controls circulation of Qi

Helps smooth flow of emotions

Bone

Controlled by the Kidney, and any bone problem is treated through


Kidneys

Stores bone marrow ("Simple Questions," chapter 17, "The bones are
the residence of Marrow.")

The Chinese concept of "Marrow" should not be confused with bone


marrow as defined by Western Medicine. In TCM, the function of Marrow is
to nourish the Brain and spinal cord and to form Bone-Marrow. Bone
Marrow produces Bone; it was not recognized that bone marrow produces
blood as in Western thinking.

If Jing and Marrow are deficient, the Bones lose nourishment, cannot
sustain the body and there will be inability to walk or stand.

Uterus (Zi Cong, Baby Palace)

Controlled by the Kidney, especially the Jing

Controls reproduction and menstruation

58
Needs a rich supply of Qi, Blood, and essence for good function

Related to the Liver, especially Liver Blood

When Liver Blood is Xu

Menstrual problems

Sterility

Kidney Xu and Jing Xu

Sexual and reproductive disorders

Related to Conception Vessel

Pregnancy channel

Must be free of obstruction in order for pregnancy to occur

Related to Chong channel

The Sea of Blood must be abundant for fertility

Both the Chong Mai and Ren Mai originate in the Uterus

The Uterus is supported by the Heart and Spleen because of their


production and circulation of Blood

Vessels

Controlled by the Heart

59
Heart controls movement of Blood through the Vessels

Gallbladder

Extraordinary because the GB does not receive food and water like
other Fu organs and does not communicate with the exterior

Stores Bile

A pure refined substance

Governing Vessel Meridian Pathway & Point Locations

The Governing Vessel

'Sea of Yang Meridians'

The Conception vessel and the Governing vessel are like midnight and
midday, they are the polar axis of the body there is one source and two
branches, one goes to the front and the other to the back of the body try to
divide these, at yin and yang are inseparable it is an indivisible whole.

The Governing Vessel Meridian Flow

The Governing and Conception Vessels are two branches of the same
source, and inseparable Yin-and-Yang, front-and-back duality. These
vessels connect the uterus with the kidneys, heart, and brain. Regulating
the Governing and Conception Vessels is a priority in Medical Qigong
practice. Along these vessels, the Yang Fire and Yin Essence flow up and
down the body, fusing the Water and Fire energies together (Five Elements

60
Healing).

This fusion facilitates a Yin and Yang balance throughout the body.

The Governing Vessel Meridian is yang in nature and starts from the uterus,
runs down to the central region of the pelvis around the genitals and into
the external orifice of the urethra in women and around the penis in men. It
passes by the anus, moves upward from inside the coccyx and sacrum and
enters the brain. The external portion runs to the lower end of the nose
bridge and ends at the gum.

Governing Vessel Meridian Branches:

* The first branch runs side by side with the kidney meridian, enters the
spine from the coccyx and sacrum region and links with the kidney.

61
* The second branch runs side by side with the bladder meridian, ascends
from the corner of the eye, reaches the vertex (upper most part of the head)
and links with the brain. Then it runs downward the neck beside the spine.

* The third branch arises directly from the uterus and through the
umbilicus, then passes through the heart, enters the throat, comes to the
mandible, runs around the lips and ends below the eyes.

GV1 - Changqiang - Constipation, hemorrhoids, prolaps of rectum,


depressive or manic psychosis, epilepsy, rigid and arched back, pain in the
coccyx and sacrum area.

62
GV2 - Yaoshu

Stiffness and pain in the loins and spine, irregular menstruation,


hemorrhoids, epilepsy.

GV3 - Yaoyangguan - Pain in the loins and sacral region, irregular


menstruation, impotence.

GV4 - Mingmen - Stiffness and pain in the loins and spine, irregular
menstruation, morning diarrhea, impotence.

GV5 - Xuanshu - Local point for low back pain, diarrhea, indigestion, poor
assimilation (undigested food in stools), panic attacks, abdominal pain,
indigestion, hernias.

GV6 - Jizhong - Hemorrhoids, prolapse of the rectum, stiffnes and pain in


the loins and spine, epilepsy, diarrhea, jaundice.

GV7 - Zhongshu - Local point for back pain. Epigastric pain, abdominal pain
and/or bloating, poor appetite, amenorrhea.

GV8 - Jinsuo - Stiffness of spine, depression, epilepsy, stomachache,


jaundice.

GV9 - Zhiyang - Distending pain in the chest and hypochondria, jaundice,


caugh, stiffness of the spine and back.

GV10 - Lingtai - Cough, asthma, stiffness of spine and back.

63
GV11 - Shendao - Angina pectoris, palpitations, amnesia, insomnia, cough,
asthma, stiffness of spine and back.

GV12 - Shenzhu - Cough, asthma, epilepsy, pain and stiffness in the spine
and back.

GV13 - Taodao - Headache, stiff neck, stiffness of the spine, aversion to


cold, fever, cough, asthma, epilepsy and malaria.

GV14 - Dazhui - Headache, stiffness of neck, cough, asthma, night


sweating, epilepsy, febrile disease and malaria.

GV15 - Yamen - Sudden loss of voice, headache, stiff neck depressive


psychosis, epilepsy.

GV16 - Fengfu - Epilepsy, stiff neck, headache, dizziness, sore throat and
loss of voice.

GV17 - Naohu - Headache, dizziness, loss of voice, stiff neck, manic and
depressive psychosis.

GV18 - Qiangjian - Headache, vertigo, facial distortion, stiff neck, epilepsy


and insomnia.

GV19 - Houding - Headache, vertigo, stiffness and pain in neck, manic and
depressive psychosis, epilepsy and insomnia.

64
GV20 - Baihui - Headache, vertigo, wind stroke, insomnia, prolonged
diarrhea.

GV21 - Qianding - Headache, vertigo, sinusitis, redness, swelling and pain of


eyes, epilepsy.

GV22 - Xinhui - Headache, vertigo, sinusitis, nasal polyp, redness, swelling


and pain of eyes, epilepsy.

GV23 - Shangxing - Nasal obstruction, sinusitis, headache, vertigo, pain of


eyes, epilepsy and malaria.

GV24 - Shenting - Headache, vertigo, sinusitis, cataract, insomnia.

GV25 - Suliao - Sinusitis, nasal polyp, running nose, unconsciousness,


convulsion and suffocation.

GV26 - Shuigou - Unconsciousness, depressive and manic psychosis,


epilepsy, infantile convulsion, facial distortion, toothache, lockjaw, nasal
obstruction, stiff neck.

65
GV27 - Dui Duan - Problems of the mouth and sinuses - tongue ulcers, bad
breath (halitosis), pain and/or swelling of the gums, nosebleed, nasal
congestion, manic depression, epilepsy.

GV28 - Yinjiao - Swelling and pain of the gums, oral sore, psychosis.

Conception Vessel Meridian Pathway & Point Locations.

Conception Vessel Meridian - 'Sea of Yin'

The Conception vessel, or meridian, plays a major role in Qi circulation,


monitoring and directing all of the Yin channels. It forms a circular entity
with the Governing Vessel. In Qigong society, the Conception Vessel and
the Governing Vessel are considered the most important among the Qi
channels and vessels, and must be trained first. Whereas the Governing
meridian runs from the tailbone upwards along the mid-line of the back
through the vertebrae to the head, this Meridian runs up the anterior (front)
of the body, from the pubic area to the mouth.

66
CV1 - Huiyin - This Acu-point has particular and special qualities but
because of its location is not much used. Other points share some of its
qualities, such as CV2.

CV2 - Qugu - Irregular menstruation, unsmooth urination, seminal emission,


impotence.

CV3 - Zhongji - Irregular menstruation, unsmooth urination, seminal


emission, impotence, prolapse of the uterus.

CV4 - Guanyuan - Diarrhea, irregular menstruation, sterility, frequent


urination, anuria, seminal emission, impotence, hernia.

CV5 - Shimen - Abdominal pain, edema, unsmooth urination, diarrhea,


hernia.

CV6 - Qihai - Abdominal pain, edema, unsmooth urination, diarrhea,

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constipation, hernia. Powerful revitalising and reinvigorating point.

CV7 - Yinjiao - Lower back pain, knee pain, constipation, irregular


menstruation, menstrual cramps, infertility.

CV8 - Shenque - Abdominal pain, diarrhea, prolapse of rectum, edema and


prostration.

CV9 - Shuifen - Abdominal pain, regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, anuria and


edema.

CV10 - Xiawan - Abdominal pain and distension, dyspepsia, vomiting,


diarrhea and abdominal mass.

CV11 - Jianli - Stomachache, abdominal distension, vomiting, poor appetite


and edema.

CV12 - Zhongwan - Stomachache, abdominal distension, vomiting, hiccup,


acid regurgitation, jaundice, diarrhea, edema, anorexia, dyspepsia,
depressive and manic psychosis, postpartum syndrome, insomnia and
asthma.

CV13 - Shangwan - Stomachache, abdominal distension, vomiting and


epilepy.

CV14 - Juque - Angina pectoris, palpitation, amnesia, vomiting, acid


regurgitation, hiccup, jaundice, depressive and manic psychosis and
epilepsy.

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CV15 - Juiwei - Angina pectoris, palpitation, vomiting, cough, asthma, chest
pain, abdominal distension, diarrhea, hiccup, jaundice, depressive and
manic psychosis and epilepsy.

CV16 - Zhong Ting - Chest and intercostal distention and pain, hiccups,
nausea, anorexia and difficulty ingesting.

CV17 - Tanzhong - Cough, asthma, chest pain, angina pectoris, palpitations,


insomnia, insufficiency of lactation, vomiting.

CV18 - Yutang - Cough, asthma, chest pain and vomiting.

CV19 - Zi Gong - chest issues - pain, cough, asthma, vomiting and difficulty
ingesting.

CV20 - Hui Gai - chest issues - pain, asthma, wheezing, cough and difficulty
ingesting

CV21 - Xuanji - Cough, asthma, chest pain and sore throat.

CV22 - Tiantu - Cough, asthma, chest pain, sore throat, sudden loss of

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voice, goiter, obstructive sensation in throat.

CV23 - Lianquan - Sublingual swelling and pain, sluggish movement of


tongue, drooling, sudden loss of voice and difficulty swallowing.

CV24 - Chengjiang - Facial distortion, swelling and pain of gums, drooling


and epilepsy.

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UNIT V

Basics of Computer

Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input


from the user and processes these data under the control of set of
instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output
for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical
(arithmetic and logical) calculations.

Computer is an electronic data processing device which

( Accepts and stores data input,

( Processes the data input, and

( Generates the output in a required format.

Input (Data):

Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices.
It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc.

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Process:

Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal


process of the computer system.

Output:

Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing.


Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage
devices for the future use.

Computer System

All of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the


simple equations.

COMPUTER SYSTEM = HARDWARE + SOFTWARE+ USER

Hardware = Internal Devices + Peripheral Devices

All physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are
known as Hardware.

Software = Programs

Software gives "intelligence" to the computer.

USER = Person, who operates computer.

Functionalities of a computer

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Any digital computer carries out five functions in gross terms:

Takes data as input.

Stores the data/instructions in its memory and use them when


required.

Processes the data and converts it into useful information.

Generates the output

Controls all the above four steps.

Advantages

Following list demonstrates the advantages of computers in today's arena.

High Speed

Computer is a very fast device.

It is capable of performing calculation of very large amount of data.

The computer has units of speed in microsecond, nanosecond, and


even the picosecond.

It can perform millions of calculations in a few seconds as compared


to man who will spend many months for doing the same task.

Accuracy

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In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate.

The calculations are 100% error free.

Computers perform all jobs with 100% accuracy provided that correct
input has been given.

Storage Capability

Memory is a very important characteristic of computers.

A computer has much more storage capacity than human beings.

It can store large amount of data.

It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio and
many others.

Diligence

Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness


and lack of concentration.

It can work continuously without any error and boredom.

It can do repeated work with same speed and accuracy.

Versatility

A computer is a very versatile machine.

A computer is very flexible in performing the jobs to be done.

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This machine can be used to solve the problems related to various
fields.

At one instance, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and


the very next moment it may be playing a card game.

Reliability

A computer is a reliable machine.

Modern electronic components have long lives.

Computers are designed to make maintenance easy.

Automation

Computer is an automatic machine.

Automation means ability to perform the given task automatically.

Once a program is given to computer i.e. stored in computer memory,


the program and instruction can control the program execution
without human interaction.

Reduction in Paper Work

The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to

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reduction in paper work and results in speeding up a process.

As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the


problem of maintenance of large number of paper files gets reduced.

Reduction in Cost

Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it


substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.

Disadvantages

Following list demonstrates the disadvantages of computers in today's


arena.

A computer is a machine that has no intelligence to perform any task.

Each instruction has to be given to computer.

A computer cannot take any decision on its own

Dependency

It functions as per a users instruction, so it is fully dependent on


human being.

Environment

The operating environment of computer should be dust free and

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suitable.

No Feeling

Computers have no feelings or emotions.

It cannot make judgment based on feeling, taste, experience, and


knowledge unlike a human being.

Input Devices

1. Mouse

2. Keyboard

3. Scanner

4. Digital Camera

5. Web Camera

6. Joysticks

7. Track Ball

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8. Touch Pad/ Screen

9. Light Pen

10. Bar Code Reader

11. Microphone

12. Graphics Tablets etc

Processor

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for
all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices,
performs arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU (Central Processing
Unit) is the device that interprets and executes instructions.

Output Devices

1. Monitor

2. Printer (Dot Matrix) InkJet

3. Projector

4. Plotter Laser

5. Speaker etc

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Software

Software, simply are the computer programs. The instructions given to the
computer in the form of a program is called Software. Software is the set of
programs, which are used for different purposes. All the programs used in
computer to perform specific task is called Software.

Types of software

1. System software:

a) Operating System Software

DOS, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Unix/Linux, MAC/OS X etc.

b) Utility Software

Windows Explorer (File/Folder Management), Windows Media Player,


AntiVirus Utilities, Disk Defragmentation, Disk Clean, BackUp, WinZip,
WinRAR etc.

Network

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to


share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow
electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked

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through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light
beams.

Types of computer Networking

Depending upon the geographical area covered by a network, it is classified


as:

Local Area Network (LAN)

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Personal Area Network (PAN)

Internet Services

LAN

A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among computer


devices, usually within an office building or home.

LANs enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices


that may be needed by multiple users

Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters, and no more


than a mile

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Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps

Requires little wiring, typically a single cable connecting to each device

Has lower cost compared to MANs or WANs

WAN

A WAN (Wide Area Network) as the name implies allows to connect to


other computers over a wider area (i.e. the whole world).

WAN covers a large geographic area such as country, continent or even


whole of the world.

A WAN is two or more LANs connected together. The LANs can be many
miles apart.

To cover great distances, WANs may transmit data over leased high-speed
phone lines or wireless links such as satellites.

MAN

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that


usually spans a city or a large campus.

A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging


from several blocks of buildings to entire cities.

A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it


usually will be used by many individuals and organizations.

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PAN

A PAN is a network that is used for communicating among computers and


computer devices (including telephones) in close proximity of around a few
meters within a room

It can be used for communicating between the devices themselves, or for


connecting to a larger network such as the internet.

PANs can be wired or wireless

Application Software

Word processing applications

Microsoft Word

Lotus Word Pro

WordPerfect

Spreadsheets

Microsoft Excel

Lotus 123

Database

Microsoft Access

Lotus Approach

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MS Office

Microsoft Office is a popular software package that includes individual


programs, such as Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, OneNote and
Publisher. Each has innovative tools and features that make documents
more informative and organized.

Word

Microsoft Word is a word processing application which has grown more


powerful with each subsequent release. Its pure word processing
capabilities alone are very good, and the integration with other Microsoft
products makes it easy to drop portions of other documents right into a
report. Word is typically used to write reports and proposals in business,
and research papers in educational institutions. Any work environment that
needs to produce words on a page for any reason should be able to take
advantage of Word.

Word processors vary considerably, but all word processors support the
following basic features:

Insert text: Allows inserting text anywhere in the document.

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Delete text: Allows to erase characters, words, lines, or pages as easily as
can cross them out on paper.

Cut and paste: Allows removing (cut) a section of text from one place in a
document and inserting (paste) it somewhere else.

Copy: Allows duplicating a section of text.

Page size and margins: Allows to define various page sizes and margins
and the word processor will automatically readjust the text so that it fits.

Search and replace: Allows directing the word processor to search for a
particular word or phrase. can also direct the word processor to replace
one group of characters with another everywhere that the first group
appears.

Word wrap: The word processor automatically moves to the next line when
have filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if change the margins.

Print: Allows sending a document to a printer to get hardcopy.

Features of Standard Word Processors

Word processors that support only these features (and maybe a few others)
are called text editors. Most word processors, however, support additional
features that enable to manipulate and format documents in more
sophisticated ways. These more advanced word processors are sometimes
called full-featured word processors. Full-featured word processors usually

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support the following features:

File management: Many word processors contain file management


capabilities that allow to create, delete, move, and search for files.

Font specifications: Allows changing fonts within a document. For example,


can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let
change the font size and even the typeface.

Footnotes and cross-references: Automates the numbering and placement


of footnotes and enables to easily cross-reference other sections of the
document.

Graphics: Allows embedding illustrations and graphs into a document.


Some word processors let create the illustrations within the word
processor; others let insert an illustration produced by a different program.

Headers, footers, and page numbering: Allow to specify customized headers


and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every
page. The word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so
that the correct number appears on each page.

Lat: Allow to specify different margins within a single document and to


specify various methods for indenting paragraphs.

Macros: A macro is a character or word that represents a series of


keystrokes. The keystrokes can represent text or commands. The ability to
define macros allow to save a lot of time by replacing common

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combinations of keystrokes.

Merges: Allow to merge text from one file into another file. This is
particularly useful for generating many files that have the same format but
different data. Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using
merges.

Spell checker: A utility that allow to check the spelling of words. It wills
highlight any words that it does not recognize.

Tables of contents and indexes: Allow to automatically create a table of


contents and index based on special codes that insert in the document.

Thesaurus: A built-in thesaurus that allow searching for synonyms without


leaving the word processor.

Windows: Allow to edit two or more documents at the same time. Each
document appears in a separate window. This is particularly valuable when
working on a large project that consists of several different files.

Excel

Excel is an application that is very popular with anyone who has to crunch
numbers quickly. Although VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet application to
achieve popularity, Excel is now the spreadsheet of choice among computer
users. The application allows the user to enter formulas to do automatic
calculations, and has many standard functions such as average built in.
Excel also does an excellent job of converting the data into one of several

86
different chart types that can then be copied to presentation software.

Creating a spreadsheet with Microsoft Excel

To use Microsoft Excel to open a document follows the steps below.

Open Excel in Windows

Open Microsoft Excel, not sure how to open or find Excel skip to the next
section.

Once Excel is open, any new information can be entered.

Once complete or while working on the spreadsheet can Save or Save


through the File tab.

How to find Microsoft Excel in Windows

In Windows Click Start

In the search type "excel" and if Excel is installed should show in the results.

Power point

Microsoft PowerPoint is a very useful presentation application. With a


number of built-in backgrounds and themes, a speaker can build a classy
presentation rather quickly. The application allows importing of pictures,
sounds, and other multi-media files to make a very attention-getting
presentation. Sales personnel often use PowerPoint to make pitches to
prospective clients. With its simple and easy-to-use interface, PowerPoint

87
can be employed to create just about any kind of presentation for any kind
of audience.

Creating a PowerPoint Slide

Step 1:

Open Microsoft PowerPoint.

Step 2:

Go to File at the top of the screen and click New. A box that says New

Presentation should appear on the right side of r screen.

Step 3:

In the New Presentation dialog box, click on From Design Template.


Then scan through design templates and choose one.

Step 4: Slide Design

Select a design template by clicking on the template like. Choose a


different color for r template by clicking on Color Schemes in the New
Presentation dialog box.

Step 5: Slide Lat

Change the Slide Lat. may change the slide lat (how information is
presented in the slide) by going to the top of the screen and clicking on
Format Slide Lat. A box will appear on the right side of r screen (where

88
New Presentation appeared) labeled Slide Lat. Select a design by
clicking on it.

Step 6: Adding Text

Enter r text by clicking and then typing in the box titled Click to Add

Text or Click to Add Title.

Step 7: Adding Pictures

Add pictures by clicking on the box that says Click to add content. Inside
that box, there will be a smaller box with six icons. Click on the icon that
looks like a photograph of a mountain. A new window will open; allow
browsing for a picture on computer or a CD. click Insert.

Step 8: Resizing Pictures

Change the size of r picture by clicking on the picture. The picture will then
have black lines around it with small bubbles or boxes in the corners. Place
the mouse over the bubbles or boxes and click. Holding the mouse pointer
down, drag the picture to the size.

Communication

Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place


to another.

The different categories of communication include:

89
Spoken or Verbal Communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or
television and other media.

Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we dress or act -


even our scent.

Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or


via other media.

Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can
communicate messages.

Types and Role communication

Types of communication include verbal, written, and nonverbal.

Verbal communication provides immediate feedback and so it is best for


conveying emotions and maintaining interpersonal relationships; it can
involve storytelling and crucial conversations.

Written communication requires appropriate use of grammar, word choice,


structure, and punctuation to be effective.

Non-verbal communication is the process of sending and receiving

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wordless (mostly visual) cues.

Letter writing

Letter writing is the exchange of written or printed messages.

Distinctions are commonly drawn between personal letters (sent between


family members, friends, or acquaintances) and business letters (formal
exchanges with businesses or government organizations).

Letter writing occurs in many forms and formats, including notes, letters,
and postcards. Sometimes referred to as hard copy or snail mail, letter
writing is often distinguished from forms of computer-mediated
communication (CMC), such as email and texting.

Agenda preparation

An organized meeting needs a well-written agenda. To write an agenda for a


meeting, can create r own from scratch, work from a template, or make the
most out of one already have. Regardless of the method chosen, a
well-written agenda should outline basic identifying information about the
meeting and summarize both the objective and schedule of the meeting. By
sticking to a detailed yet flexible agenda, can keep r meeting streamlined
and focused, ensuring that meet all of r goals for r meeting in the shortest
amount of time.

Soft skills Development

91
Soft skills are a synonym for "people skills." The term describes those
personal attributes that indicate a high level of emotional intelligence.

Unlike hard skills, which describe a person's technical skill set and ability to
perform specific tasks, soft skills are broadly applicable across job titles
and industries.

Group Discussion

Group Discussion is a methodology or in a simple language may call it


an interview process or a group activity. It is used as one of the best
tools to select the prospective candidates in a comparative perspective.
GD may be used by an interviewer at an organization, colleges or even at
different types of management competitions.

A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the


candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it desires in its
members. In this methodology, the group of candidates is given a topic
or a situation, given a few minutes to think about the same, and then
asked to discuss the topic among themselves for 15-20 minutes.
Freshersworld.com brings an elaborate section for GD as ever seen
anywhere else. It is a very useful tool to screen the candidates potential
as well as their skills.

GD evaluation is done by the subject experts based on the discussions.


A report will be prepared on analyzing the facts at the end of the

92
discussion.

Some of the personality traits the GD is trying to gauge may include:

* Communication skills

* Interpersonal Skills

* Leadership Skills

* Motivational Skills

* Team Building Skills

* Analytical /Logical Skills

* Reasoning ability

* Different Thinking

* Initiative

* Assertiveness

* Flexibility

* Creativity

* Ability to think on ones feet

Why GDs are implemented commonly:

The reason institutes put through a Group discussion and an interview,

93
after testing technical and conceptual skills in an exam, is to get to know
as a person and gauge how well will fit in their institute. GD evaluates
how can function as a part of a team. As a manager or as a member of
an organization will always be working in teams. Therefore how interact
in a team becomes an important criterion for r selection. Managers have
to work in a team and get best results out of teamwork. That is the
reason why management institutes include GD as a component of the
selection procedure.

Company's Perspective:

Companies conduct group discussion after the written test to know


more about

* Interactive Skills (how goods are at communication with other people)

* Behavior (how open-minded in accepting views contrary to r own)

* Participation (how good an active speaker & r attention to the


discussion)

* Contribution (how much importance to give to the group objective as


well as r own)

Aspects which make up a Group Discussion are:

* Verbal Communication

* Non-verbal behavior

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* Confirmation to norms

* Decision making ability

* Cooperation

References:

1. Anto Jayasuriya,(2001),Clinical Acupuncture,B.Jain Publishers(P)


Ltd, India

2. Peter Deadman (2001), A Manual of Acupuncture, Kevin Baker


Published Journal of Chinese Medicine

3. Five Element Constitutional Acupuncture by Angela Hicks, John


Hicks Published October 27th 2004 by Churchill Livingstone

4. Andrew Ellis, (1994),Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture


,Published by Paradigm Publications (MA)

5. Angela Hicks, (June 23rd 2005) The Acupuncture Handbook: How

95
Acupuncture Works and How It Can Help , Published by Piatkus.

6. Richard Tan, Twelve and Twelve in


Acupuncture,(1996),Paperback, Australia.

7. Felix Mann, (January 12th 1973), Acupuncture: The Ancient


Chinese Art of Healing and How it Works Scientifically, Vintage.

8. Peter Firebrace,( 1994) , A Guide to Acupuncture ,Trans-Atlantic


Publications,USA.

9. Michael Reed Gach, (1990), Acupressure's Potent Points: A Guide


to Self-Care for Common Ailments ,Bantam,US.

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