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son the {he bar is Ls) the | (s.9)* Which are br values the bond Shear, bond and torsion l ction of eanereting SO ZNT ase 90" forailvlies oth he 250mm > 600 mm ‘Good bond condition in unatched zone ‘ood tnd conditions for al bais_| S204 Bond conditions in watched x ‘Good bond conditions are considered to be when (a) bars are inclined at an angle of between 45° and 90° (0 the horizontal or (b) zero to 45° provided that second case additional requirements are met. ‘These additional conditions are that bars are 1. either placed in members whose depth in the direction of concreting does not exceed 250mm or 2. embedded in members witha depth greater than 250mm and are either in the lower 250mm of the member or at least 30KImm trom the top surface when the depth exceeds 600 mm. ‘These conditions ae illustrated in figure 5.8. When bond conditions are poor then the specified ultimate bond stresses should be reduced by a factor of 0.7. The design value ofthe ultimate bond stress is also dependent on the bar size. For all (9) greater than 32mm the bond stress should additionally be multiplied by a ctor (132 ~ 6), 100 Table 5.1 gives the design values of ultimate bond stresses for “good” conditions. ‘These depend on the class of concrete and are obtained from the equation fu = I.SOfae where fag is the characteristic tensile strength of the concrete. bar Design anchorage length ‘The basic anchorage length discussed above must be further modified to give the ‘minimum design anchorage length taking into account factors not direetly covered by table 5.1. Table 5.1 Design values of bond stresses fy (N/mm?) Figure 58 Definition of good and peer bond conditions fa Neon? 1216 20 253035 44S 5055 Bars < 32mm diameter and {good bond conditions 16 20 23 27 30 34 37 40 43 45 47 Bars < 32mm diameter and poor bond conditions NaseNe Nin ookanmtRAriIE 28° 30 31 38 11a f pascenatics design Table 5.2 Coelficients « Value «allows for the effect of: Type of anchorage Reinforcement in ae Tension Comoression| fay The shape of the bars Straight 10 10 Other than straight §— 0.7 if > 3.08 10 01.0 ifnot ag Concrete cover to Straight 1-015(G-9)/s_ 1.0 the reinforcement bbut > 0.7 and < 1.0 Other than straight 1 -0.15(q~30)/4 1.0 but >0.7 and < 1.0 3 Canfinemant of transverse All types of 1m 10 reinforcement not welded to reinforcement but > 0.7 and < 1.0 ‘the main reinforcement ‘a4 Confinement of transverse All types, position and 0.7 07 reinforcement welded to the sizes of reinforcement ‘main reinforcement fas Confinement by transverse All types of 1 =0.04p = pressure reinforcement but > 0.7 and < 1.0 ete the product az» a3» ag Should be arate than or eal 0 0.7 ‘The required minimum anchorage length (ly) is given by ag = 015 3, 35 4, hy /Ad pw (5.20) here Avy, An po = area of reinforcement required and provided at that section @-(1 10 5)= set of coefficients as given in Table 5.2 In Table 5.2: = conerete cover coefficient as shown in figure 5.9 K = values as shown in figure 5.10 A= (Lau = EAsin) (As SoA = the cross-sectional area ofthe transverse reinforcement along the design anchorage length SAunia = the cross-sectional area of the minimum transverse reinforcement 0.254, for beams and zero for slabs) = the area of a single anchored bar with maximum bar diameter ‘This minimam design length must not be less than: for tension bars: 0.3f, 91 for compression bars: 0.614, 42 In both cases the minimum value must also exceed both 10 bar diameters and 100mm. Anchorages may also be provided by hooks or bends in the reinforcement. Hooks and bends are considered adequate forms of anchorage to the main reinforcement if they err ey + YT op Shear, bond and torsion. | us | Figure 5.9 Vales fy or bas an & . ae ‘slabs (see table 5.2) 4 ‘ ; jee ee ie fies a SiaBhibae navidad at coagorin comm(ae,) emma cp oe ra HORS ote ‘mares , , f Vos ot fox beams and (eeaogenis Petey Se ‘bs Ge ble 32), figure 5.1 Equivalent anchorage lengths for bends and hooks ee Staight ar Ase =) LAS, —| ees ate Hook "Minium internal radius fa hook, bend or loop = 29 oF 3.59 for 9>18 mm satisfy the minimum dimensions shown in figure S.11. Bends and hooks are not recommended for use as compression anchorages. In the ease ofthe hooks and bends shown in figure $.11 the anchorage length (shown as xg) Which is equivalent to that required by the straight har can be simply calculated from the expression yay = Aylyegs Where a is taken as 0.7 oF 1.0 depending on the cover conditions (see table 5.2, ‘The internal diameter of any bent bar refered to as the mandrel size) is limited to avoid damage to the bar when bending. For bars less than or equal to 16mm diameter the intemal diameter of any bend should be a minimum of 4 times the bar diameter. For larger bar sizes the limit is 7 times the bar diameter. ‘To give a general idea of the full anchorage lengths requited for f= 30Ninm? and fu = SOON/mm2, with bar diameters, ¢ <32mm, lr can vary between 25 bar diameters (250) and 52 bar diameters (522), depending on good and poor bond conditions, and the value of the coefiients «from table 5.2.