Column design

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Column design

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Hawassa University

Columns are the members that take axial compressive load and bending moments. The bending

effect may be due to the lateral loads, end moments, and/or due to eccentricity of the axial loads.

Reinforced concrete columns are classified in EBCS 2, as un-braced (sway) or braced (non-

sway), based on how the horizontal loads are transmitted by the super structure to the foundation.

Un-braced Columns (in sway frames): An un-braced structure is one in which frame action is

used to resist horizontal loads (lateral loads due to wind or earthquake). In such structure, beam

and column members may be designed to act together as a rigid frame in transmitting the lateral

forces down to the foundations through bending action in the beams and columns. In such an

instance the columns are said to be un-braced and must be designed to carry both the vertical

(compressive) and lateral (bending) loads. Moments in the columns can substantially reduce the

vertical load carrying capacity. The frame as a whole may exhibit significant lateral

displacement. The bending moment can increase due to second order effect.

Braced columns (in non-sway frames): If the lateral loads in a frame are transmitted to the

foundation through a system of bracing or shear walls, the column member in such a frame is

said to be braced column and consequently carry only vertical loads. In such a case, second

order effect will be negligible.

a). Braced columns in a non sway b). Unbraced columns in Sway type

Second order effect or P- effect: Consider a slender column subjected only to equal and

opposite end moment, M, as shown in figure. The column is bent into a single curvature with a

maximum deflection at the mid height as shown. If the axial compression is applied at the ends

of the column now, additional bending moment is caused due to the axial load acting on the

deformed shape. This additional bending moment causes additional deflection and so on, until

the final maximum deflection is reached at the stage of equilibrium under combined axial force

and bending moments. This is referred to as P- effects. It should be observed that due to P-

effects the maximum moment in the column is larger than the externally applied end moment M.

___________________________________________________________________________ 1

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

If the column is short, P- effect is negligible. If the column is slender, P- effect is to be

considered.

P

M

M

Max. Moment = M

Max. Moment = M + P

M

M

P

columns when they are isolated compression members (such as individual isolated columns and

columns with articulations in a non-sway structure), or compression members which are integral

parts of a structure but which are considered to be isolated for design purposes (such as slender

bracing elements considered as isolated columns, and columns with restrained ends in a non-

sway structure).

On the basis of the slenderness ratio columns may be classified as short or long (slender).

- For isolated columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by

L

e

i

Where Le is the effective buckling length

i is the minimum radius of gyration of the concrete section only.

I

i

A

(Section 4.4.6 of EBCS 2) Limits of slenderness ratio:

Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140.

Second-order effects in compressive members need not be taken into account in the following

cases:

(a). For sway frames, the greater of the two

25

15

d

(b). For non sway frames

M

50 25 1

M 2

Where M1and M2 are the first-order (calculated) moments at the ends, M2 being always positive

and greater in magnitude than M1, and M1 being positive if member is bent in single curvature

and negative if bent in double curvature.

___________________________________________________________________________ 2

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

cd c

The effective height (length) of a column is the distance between the two consecutive points of

contra flexure or zero bending moments. The figure shown below may serve this purpose.

L

0.5L 0.7L 1.2L 0.8L

In accordance with EBCS-2, 1995, the effective length Le for an RC Column is given as,

Le m 0.4

a. Non-sway mode 0 .7

L m 0. 8

7.5 41 2 1.61 2

Le

b. Sway mode 1.15

L 7.5 1 2

Le

Or Conservatively 1 0.8 m 1.15.

L

For the theoretical model shown below:

K1 K c

1

K 11 K 12 Lc2 Ic2

K2 Kc

2 Ib22 Ib21

K 21 K 22 Ic

Lc

1 2 Ib12 Ib11

m

2 Lc1 Ic1

where K1 and K2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L) for the lower and the upper column

respectively. Kc is the stiffness coefficient (EI/L) of the column being designed.

Kij is the effective beam stiffness coefficient (EI/L)

= 1.0 (EI/L) for opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained.

= 0.5 (EI/L) for opposite end free to rotate.

= 0.0 (EI/L) for a cantilever beam.

N sd

For a non sway frame 0 .1

N cr

Where: Nsd the design value of the total vertical load.

Ncr critical vertical load for failure in a sway mode given as

___________________________________________________________________________ 3

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

2 EIe

N cr

L2e

M bal

EIe= 0.2EcIc + EsIs (or conservatively EIe = 0.4 E c I c )

1 rbal

Ec 1100 f cd Curvature 1

rbal

d 10

5 3

I c= Moment of inertia of the concrete sections of the substitute column w.r.to centre

Is = Moment of inertia of reinforcement sections of the conc. section

A frame may be classified as braced if its sway resistance is supplied by a bracing system which

is sufficiently stiff to assume that all horizontal loads are resisted by the bracing system. (Not

more than 10% of the horizontal loads are attracted by the frame)

Functions of Lateral Reinforcement

- Diameter of ties, t t 6mm or 4

12 ml (min imum diameter of longitudinal bars)

- C/C spacing b least lateral dim ension

300 mm

- Pitch of spiral 100mm

- Ties shall be arranged such that every bar or group of bars placed in a corner and

alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie

with an included angle of not more than 135o and no bar shall be farther than

150mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally supported bar.

Equal or less

than 150mm

At center

At0 center

135

l t No intermediate tie is required

15t 300mm

l = longitudinal bars

t = main ties

15t 300mm

- Area of longitudinal reinforcement, As.

___________________________________________________________________________ 4

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

As

0.008Ac As 0.08Ac or 0.008 0.08

Ac

4 in rec tan gular arrangement

- Min. # of bars

6 in Circular arrangement.

- The diameter of longitudinal bars, l 12mm.

- The minimum lateral dimension of a column shall be at least 150mm

- The Min. cover to reinforcement should never be less than

(a) or n ( 40 mm ), or

(b) 5mm Or n 5mm if d g 32 mm.

n =

n 55 mm , n = no. of bars having the same diameter

dg the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.

Minimum reinforcements are provided:

The frame shown in figure below is composed of members with rectangular cross sections. All

members are constructed of the same strength concrete (E is the same for both beams and

columns). Considering bending in the plane of the frame only, classify column EF as long or

short if the frame is braced. All girders are 300 x 600 mm.

600 525 KN

F I

C F M1 = 30 KNm

350 300

3.80 m 300

300 x 350

600

B H

E

400

3.80 m

300 x 400 E M2 = 45 KNm

A D G

9m 7.5 m

Solution:

Moments of inertia

3

300 x600

Girders: I g 54 x10 8 mm 4

12

300 x 400 3

Columns: I DE 16 x10 8 mm 4

12

300 x350 3

I EF 10 .71875 x10 8 mm 4 .

12

___________________________________________________________________________ 5

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Stiffness Coefficients:

E 54 x108 6 x105 E.

EI g BE

K K cF

9000

Girders : K g

Lg

E 54 x108 7.2 x105 E.

EH

K K

FI

7500

E 16 x108 4.21 x105 E

DE

K

EI 3.8 x103

Columns: K c c

Lc

K EF

E 10.71875 108 2.82 x105 E

3.8 x103

Rotational stiffnesses at joints E and F.

EIcol / L I col / L

f EIg / Leff f I g / Leff

K EF K DE 4.21x105 2.82x105

Joint E: E 0.53

K BE K EH 6 x105 7.2 x105

K EF 2.82x105

Joint F: F 0.21

KCF K FI 6 x105 7.2 x105

E F0.53 0.21

m 0.37

2 2

For a braced column (Non sway structure ) for design

Le m 0.4 0.37 0.4

0.66 0.7

L m 0.8 0.37 0.8

Le= (0.7) (3.8) = 2.66m = 2660mm

L Le 2660

The slenderness ratio: e

I I A

10.71875 x 108 300 x 350

26.327.

30

50 25 66.66 ok!

45

The colum is short .

___________________________________________________________________________ 6

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Ast

Where, = or Ast = Ag

Ag

Pdu = Ag [ fcd (1 ) + fyd]

Le

12;

b

For long (Slender) columns a load reduction factor Cr is introduced in such a way that the

concrete concentric design axial load capacity can be given by

Pduc = Cr Pdu

Where Cr = 1.25 Le/48b

Le = Effective height; b = least lateral dimension

Example: A column resting on an independent footing supports a flat slab. The super imposed

factored load transferred from the slab is 1000 kN. Design the column assuming a gross steel

ratio of (a) 0.01 (b) 0.02. Use concrete C30, steel S300 and class I works. Assume column

height h = 4 m.

Pd

Ag

[ f cd (1 ) f yd ]

2 1000 * 10 3

S = S = 249 mm

13 .6(1 0.01) 0.01(260 .87 )

Dia of main bar/4 = 16/4 = 4 mm Least lateral dimension = 250 mm

300 mm

Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 190 mm center to center

___________________________________________________________________________ 7

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Pd

Ag

[ f cd (1 ) f yd ]

1000 * 10 3

S2 = S = 232 mm

13 .6(1 0.02 ) 0.02 (260 .87 )

Dia of main bar/4 = 20/4 = 5 mm Least lateral dimension = 240 mm

300 mm

Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 240 mm center to center

When a member is subjected to combined axial load and bending moment it is more convenient

to replace the axial load and moment with an equivalent load applied at an eccentricity e.

Pd Pd

Md

Interaction diagram: It is a plot of axial load capacity of a column against the bending moment

it sustains. To illustrate conceptually the interaction between axial load and moment in a

column, an idealized, homogeneous and linearly elastic column with compressive strength fcu

equal to its tensile strength ftu is considered. This type of column fails in compression when

max = fcu.

P My P My

f cu ; or 1 -------------------------(1)

A I f cu A f cu I

f cu I

But Pmax = fcu A & Mmax =

y

P M

Equation (1) becomes, 1; This equation is called interaction equation.

Pm ax M m ax

___________________________________________________________________________ 8

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

It shows the interaction of (or) relationship between P and M at failure.

Reinforced concrete is not elastic, and it has ft << fc. Tensile strength, of course, is developed by

rebars, on the tensile zone of the member. Therefore, calculation of interaction in concrete

member is complicated. However the general shape of the diagram resembles the figure given

below.

Pure compression

A

Pb C

Tensile failure

F Mb

Moment

Any combination of loading outside the curve represents a failure combination

All combinations of Pu and Mu between points A and C will cause the concrete to fail in

compression before the tension rebars yield.

All combinations of Pu and Mu between points C and F will result in tensile yielding

before the concrete fails in compression.

Section 4.4.10: Design of isolated columns

Total eccentricity

{

___________________________________________________________________________ 9

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

ea = additional eccentricity in account of geometric imperfections.

L

ea= e 20mm

300

ee = eo, for eo equal at both ends of a column

For first order moments varying linearly along the length, the equivalent eccentricity is the higher

of the following two values.

eo1 and eo2 are first order eccentricities at the ends with eo2 being positive and greater in

magnitude than eo1 and eo1 is the smaller and positive for single curvature and negative for

double curvature.

K L2 1 r

For non sway frames, e2 = 1 e

10

K1 0.75 for 15 35

20

K1 1.0 for 35.

r

5

K 2 10 3

d

Where d = the Column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the

longitudinal reinforcement.

K2 = M sd

sd

M bal bal

Msd = design moment at the critical section including second-order effects.

Mbal = balanced moment capacity of the column.

A column is said to be bending uniaxially if it is loaded with a bending moment only in one

direction, in addition to axial force. For the design of such a column interaction charts are

N M sd

prepared using non-dimensional parameters, and , in which, sd and

f cdbh f cdbh2

A chart showing the interaction diagrams are prepared (and compiled in EBCS 2 - part 2) for

different values of d' and h as given in the sample chart. As can be calculated by the formula,

A f

As c cd

f yd

In using these charts for design, the following procedure may be adopted.

Given: axial load and bending moment, (BM = axial load total eccentricity)

* Assume the cross section dimensions b and h.

___________________________________________________________________________ 10

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

* Assume d' and evaluate d'/h to choose appropriate chart number

* Calculate and ,

* The coordinate (, ) gives the value of from the appropriate chart chosen

Ac f cd

* Determine As

f yd

___________________________________________________________________________ 11

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Example 1

Design a slender braced (non-sway) column subjected to uniaxail bending.

Given: - factored load=1650KN

-factored 1st order equivalent constant

Moment=130KNm

-Geometric length: L=7m and Le=0.7L

-Material data; C-30, S-460 class I work

-Assume Column size

b = 400mm; h = 400mm;

Required: - quantity of reinforcement.

Solution

Assume cover = 20mm; long = 20mm and lat. = 10mm

d ' 40

= 0.1 and d = 400-40 = 360mm

h 400

Le 0.7 * 7000

ea >= = = 16.33 or 20mm

300 300

Therefore; ea=20mm

Check for second order effect

Le 4900

- = = = 42.4

I 4002

A 12

- max = 50-25( MM 1

) ; here first order moment is constant throughout the column.

2

As > max, second order effect has to be considered

Msd = etot*Nsd=(ee+ea) Nsd =ee* Nsd+ ea* Nsd =first order moment + moment due to ea

= 130+ (1650*0.02) =163kNm

0.85 f ck 0.85 * 24

For C-30 concrete; fck= 24; fcd= = = 13.6MPa

s 1.5

f yk 460

fyd = = = 400MPa

s 1.15

N sd 1650 * 10 3

sd = = = 0.76

Ac f cd 400 2 * 13 .6

M sd 163 *10 6

sd = =0.187

Ac f cd h 400 2 *13 .6 * 400

Using chart no- 2; for sd = 0.76 and sd = 0.187; = 0.32; bal = 0.25

___________________________________________________________________________ 12

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

sd 0.187 1 5 5

K2 = = = 0.75, = K2 ( ) 10-3 = 0.75( * 10 3 = 10.42*10-6

bal 0.25 r d 360

K1 Le 2 1

e2 = ( ) here K1 = 1 for > 35

10 r

1(4900 ) 2

= (10 .42 * 10 6 ) = 25mm

10

130 *10 3

e tot = ee + ea+e2 = 20 25 123 .8mm

1650

123.8 204 .3 *10 3

Msd = 1650* = 204.3kNm , = 0.236 implies =0.45

1000 400 3 *13 .6

Recalculating k2, bal=0.3

0.235 1 5

k2= = 0.78 , = 0.78( ) *10 3 = 10.8*10-6

0.3 r 360

e2= 26mm

etot = 124.8

124.8 M sd 205 .1 *10 6

Msd = 1650* = 205.09 kNm , sd = = 0.236

1000 Ac f cd h 400 2 *13 .6 * 400

= 0.45

Interaction can be stopped.

0.45 * 400 2 * 13 .6

Ast = 2448mm2

400

Use 8 number of 20mm diameter rods.

As provided = 2512, compare the result with minimum and maximum code requirements

>0.008*4002=1280

<0.08*4002=12800 Hence ok

Example 2

A uniaxial column is to be constructed from a materials C-30, S-400 class I works. If the

diagram for 1st order end moment and axial force are as shown, determine the area of

reinforcement assuming non-sway frame system.(use b/h =300/400 and Le=0.75L, with

L=7.5m)

___________________________________________________________________________ 13

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

d' 40

Soln: Assume d= 40mm; = = 0.1 use uniaxail chart no-2

h 400

ee 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 or 0.4eo2

155

eo2= *1000 =121.1mm

1280

82

eo1= *1000 =-64.1mm

1280

le 0.75 * 7500

ea = =18.75mm or 20mm; use ea =20mm

300 300

0.75 * 7500 82

Check for e2; = =48.7 ; max=50-25( )=63.2

4002 155

12

< max; therefore; neglect second order eccentricity

etot=eo2 +ea =121.1+20=141.1mm

141.1

Msd= Nsd*etot=1280* =180.6kNm; fcd= 13.6 ; fyd=347.8

1000

N 1280 *103 M sd 180.61*106

= sd =0.78 and = =0.28

f cdbh 13.6 * 300 * 400 f cd bh2 13.6 * 300 * 4002

implis =0.6

As= = = 2815.4mm; use 822mm bar

f yd 347.8

22 2 *

Aspov= 8* =3041mm2

4

< Asmax= 0.08*Ag=9600mm2

>Asmin=0.008Ag=960mm2

Lateral reinforcement

6 or 22/4 S 12* 22 =264 or 300

Use 6mm ties at 260mm spacing.

___________________________________________________________________________ 14

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Design of columns for biaxial bending

A column may receive moments from beams and grade framing to it, in addition to the axial

loads. This situation of a biaxial loaded rectangular section is shown below with the

corresponding interaction curves.

e dx Mdy

Biaxial loading about a diagonal axis x-x where: r=arc tan =arc tan

e dy M dx

Any combination of Pdn, Mdx,and Mdy lying inside the surface can be applied safety.

Any point lying outside the surface would represent failure.

Due to the mathematical complication arising from the construction of interaction surface,

in practice a simpler approximation methods are used of which the one developed by

Bresler is satisfactory.

___________________________________________________________________________ 15

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

It is given as reciprocal load equation.

1 1 1 1

, which simplifies to

Pdn Pdnx Pdny Pdo

Pdn

Pdo ( Pdnx Pdny ) Pdnx Pdny

Where: Pdn is the desing axial load capacity when applid at edx and edy

simultaneously.(biaxial bending ).

Pdnx and Pdny- design axial load capacity when edx and edy are only acting ( case of

uniaxal loading).

Pdo Design axial force capacity for concentric load case.

However, in EBCS 1995, interaction charts are prepared for this purpose and they can be easly

used for actual design where the following procedures need be followed.

Given : Pd; Mb and Mh

b, h'

Assume a cross section and evaluate

b h

Calculate b , h, and

Nd Mb Mh

, b and h

f cd Ac f cd Ac b f cd Ac b

b, h'

Select suitable chart, which nearly satisfy the calculated and

b h

Enter the chart for suitable value of ( 0.0,0.2,0.41.4)

Note: - > 1.4 shows very small concrete cross section

For intermediate value of ,use interpolation

Select corresponding to , b , h

bhfcd

Compute As, tot

f yd

Check minimum and maximum requirements.

Example 1

Design a column to sustain a factored design axial load of 900KN and biaxial moments of

Mdx=270KNM and Mdy=180KNm including all other effects. Use C-30, S-300 class I works.

b' h'

Assume b*h = 400*600mm and = =0.1, Nsd= 900kN

b h

Mh=Mdx=270kNm

Mb=Mdy=180kNm

900 *10 3

= =0.28(between0.2 and0.4)

13 .6 * 400 * 600

___________________________________________________________________________ 16

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

Mb 180 *10 6 Mh 270 *10 6

b = =0.14 and h = =0.14

f cd Ac b 13 .6 * 600 * 400 2 f cd Ac h 13 .6 * 400 * 600 2

Using biaxial chart no- 9 thus:

for =0.2; h =0.14 , b =0.14; =0.4

for =0.4; h =0.14, b =0.14; =0.4

By interpolation for =0.28; =0.4

As= = =5005mm2

f yd 260.87

< Asmax= 0.08*Ag=19200mm2

>Asmin=0.008Ag=1920mm2

use 830mm bar

Lateral reinforcement

6 or 30/4 {

___________________________________________________________________________ 17

RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1

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