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# School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec.

Hawassa University

## Chapter 1 DESIGN OF COLUMNS

Columns are the members that take axial compressive load and bending moments. The bending
effect may be due to the lateral loads, end moments, and/or due to eccentricity of the axial loads.
Reinforced concrete columns are classified in EBCS 2, as un-braced (sway) or braced (non-
sway), based on how the horizontal loads are transmitted by the super structure to the foundation.

Un-braced Columns (in sway frames): An un-braced structure is one in which frame action is
used to resist horizontal loads (lateral loads due to wind or earthquake). In such structure, beam
and column members may be designed to act together as a rigid frame in transmitting the lateral
forces down to the foundations through bending action in the beams and columns. In such an
instance the columns are said to be un-braced and must be designed to carry both the vertical
(compressive) and lateral (bending) loads. Moments in the columns can substantially reduce the
vertical load carrying capacity. The frame as a whole may exhibit significant lateral
displacement. The bending moment can increase due to second order effect.

Braced columns (in non-sway frames): If the lateral loads in a frame are transmitted to the
foundation through a system of bracing or shear walls, the column member in such a frame is
said to be braced column and consequently carry only vertical loads. In such a case, second
order effect will be negligible.

a). Braced columns in a non sway b). Unbraced columns in Sway type

Second order effect or P- effect: Consider a slender column subjected only to equal and
opposite end moment, M, as shown in figure. The column is bent into a single curvature with a
maximum deflection at the mid height as shown. If the axial compression is applied at the ends
of the column now, additional bending moment is caused due to the axial load acting on the
deformed shape. This additional bending moment causes additional deflection and so on, until
the final maximum deflection is reached at the stage of equilibrium under combined axial force
and bending moments. This is referred to as P- effects. It should be observed that due to P-
effects the maximum moment in the column is larger than the externally applied end moment M.

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
If the column is short, P- effect is negligible. If the column is slender, P- effect is to be
considered.
P
M
M

Max. Moment = M
Max. Moment = M + P

M
M
P

## (Section 4.4.4.4 of EBCS 2) Isolated columns: Columns may be considered as isolated

columns when they are isolated compression members (such as individual isolated columns and
columns with articulations in a non-sway structure), or compression members which are integral
parts of a structure but which are considered to be isolated for design purposes (such as slender
bracing elements considered as isolated columns, and columns with restrained ends in a non-
sway structure).

## (Section 4.4.5 of EBCS 2) Slenderness ratio:

On the basis of the slenderness ratio columns may be classified as short or long (slender).
- For isolated columns, the slenderness ratio is defined by
L
e
i
Where Le is the effective buckling length
i is the minimum radius of gyration of the concrete section only.
I
i
A
(Section 4.4.6 of EBCS 2) Limits of slenderness ratio:
Generally, the slenderness ratio of concrete columns shall not exceed 140.
Second-order effects in compressive members need not be taken into account in the following
cases:
(a). For sway frames, the greater of the two
25
15

d
(b). For non sway frames
M
50 25 1
M 2
Where M1and M2 are the first-order (calculated) moments at the ends, M2 being always positive
and greater in magnitude than M1, and M1 being positive if member is bent in single curvature
and negative if bent in double curvature.

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cd c

## Effective length of compression members

The effective height (length) of a column is the distance between the two consecutive points of
contra flexure or zero bending moments. The figure shown below may serve this purpose.

L
0.5L 0.7L 1.2L 0.8L

## e L e 0.65 L e 0.8L e 1.2 L e 0.8L e 1.5L

In accordance with EBCS-2, 1995, the effective length Le for an RC Column is given as,

Le m 0.4
a. Non-sway mode 0 .7
L m 0. 8
7.5 41 2 1.61 2
Le
b. Sway mode 1.15
L 7.5 1 2
Le
Or Conservatively 1 0.8 m 1.15.
L
For the theoretical model shown below:

K1 K c
1
K 11 K 12 Lc2 Ic2
K2 Kc
2 Ib22 Ib21
K 21 K 22 Ic
Lc
1 2 Ib12 Ib11
m
2 Lc1 Ic1

where K1 and K2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/L) for the lower and the upper column
respectively. Kc is the stiffness coefficient (EI/L) of the column being designed.
Kij is the effective beam stiffness coefficient (EI/L)
= 1.0 (EI/L) for opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained.
= 0.5 (EI/L) for opposite end free to rotate.
= 0.0 (EI/L) for a cantilever beam.

N sd
For a non sway frame 0 .1
N cr
Where: Nsd the design value of the total vertical load.
Ncr critical vertical load for failure in a sway mode given as

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
2 EIe
N cr
L2e
M bal
EIe= 0.2EcIc + EsIs (or conservatively EIe = 0.4 E c I c )
1 rbal
Ec 1100 f cd Curvature 1
rbal
d 10
5 3

I c= Moment of inertia of the concrete sections of the substitute column w.r.to centre
Is = Moment of inertia of reinforcement sections of the conc. section

A frame may be classified as braced if its sway resistance is supplied by a bracing system which
is sufficiently stiff to assume that all horizontal loads are resisted by the bracing system. (Not
more than 10% of the horizontal loads are attracted by the frame)

## Reinforcement arrangement & Minimum Code Requirements

Functions of Lateral Reinforcement

## Rules for the arrangement:

- Diameter of ties, t t 6mm or 4
12 ml (min imum diameter of longitudinal bars)

- C/C spacing b least lateral dim ension
300 mm

- Pitch of spiral 100mm
- Ties shall be arranged such that every bar or group of bars placed in a corner and
alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support provided by the corner of a tie
with an included angle of not more than 135o and no bar shall be farther than
150mm clear on each side along the tie from such a laterally supported bar.
Equal or less
than 150mm
At center
At0 center
135

## May be greater than 150mm

l t No intermediate tie is required
15t 300mm

l = longitudinal bars
t = main ties

15t 300mm

## Main or Longitudinal reinforcement

- Area of longitudinal reinforcement, As.

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School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
As
0.008Ac As 0.08Ac or 0.008 0.08
Ac
4 in rec tan gular arrangement
- Min. # of bars
6 in Circular arrangement.
- The diameter of longitudinal bars, l 12mm.
- The minimum lateral dimension of a column shall be at least 150mm
- The Min. cover to reinforcement should never be less than
(a) or n ( 40 mm ), or
(b) 5mm Or n 5mm if d g 32 mm.
n =
n 55 mm , n = no. of bars having the same diameter
dg the largest nominal maximum aggregate size.
Minimum reinforcements are provided:

## Example 4.1. (Classification of columns)

The frame shown in figure below is composed of members with rectangular cross sections. All
members are constructed of the same strength concrete (E is the same for both beams and
columns). Considering bending in the plane of the frame only, classify column EF as long or
short if the frame is braced. All girders are 300 x 600 mm.

600 525 KN
F I
C F M1 = 30 KNm
350 300
3.80 m 300
300 x 350
600
B H
E
400
3.80 m
300 x 400 E M2 = 45 KNm
A D G
9m 7.5 m

Solution:

Moments of inertia

3
300 x600
Girders: I g 54 x10 8 mm 4
12
300 x 400 3
Columns: I DE 16 x10 8 mm 4
12
300 x350 3
I EF 10 .71875 x10 8 mm 4 .
12
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
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Stiffness Coefficients:

E 54 x108 6 x105 E.
EI g BE
K K cF
9000
Girders : K g
Lg

E 54 x108 7.2 x105 E.
EH
K K

FI
7500

E 16 x108 4.21 x105 E
DE
K
EI 3.8 x103
Columns: K c c
Lc
K EF

E 10.71875 108 2.82 x105 E
3.8 x103

## The column being considered is column EF.

Rotational stiffnesses at joints E and F.

EIcol / L I col / L

f EIg / Leff f I g / Leff

K EF K DE 4.21x105 2.82x105
Joint E: E 0.53
K BE K EH 6 x105 7.2 x105
K EF 2.82x105
Joint F: F 0.21
KCF K FI 6 x105 7.2 x105

E F0.53 0.21
m 0.37
2 2
For a braced column (Non sway structure ) for design
Le m 0.4 0.37 0.4
0.66 0.7
L m 0.8 0.37 0.8
Le= (0.7) (3.8) = 2.66m = 2660mm
L Le 2660
The slenderness ratio: e
I I A
10.71875 x 108 300 x 350
26.327.
30
50 25 66.66 ok!
45
The colum is short .

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## Pdu = fcd(Ag - As) + fyd Ast , = fcdAg (1 ) + Ag fyd

Ast
Where, = or Ast = Ag
Ag
Pdu = Ag [ fcd (1 ) + fyd]

## A column may be classified as long when the slenderness factor is defined as

Le
12;
b
For long (Slender) columns a load reduction factor Cr is introduced in such a way that the
concrete concentric design axial load capacity can be given by
Pduc = Cr Pdu
Where Cr = 1.25 Le/48b
Le = Effective height; b = least lateral dimension

Example: A column resting on an independent footing supports a flat slab. The super imposed
factored load transferred from the slab is 1000 kN. Design the column assuming a gross steel
ratio of (a) 0.01 (b) 0.02. Use concrete C30, steel S300 and class I works. Assume column
height h = 4 m.

## (a) For = 0.01 and Pd = 1000 kN,

Pd
Ag
[ f cd (1 ) f yd ]
2 1000 * 10 3
S = S = 249 mm
13 .6(1 0.01) 0.01(260 .87 )

## Ties: d 6 mm (or) S 12* dia of main bar = 192 mm

Dia of main bar/4 = 16/4 = 4 mm Least lateral dimension = 250 mm
300 mm
Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 190 mm center to center

## (b) For = 0.02 and Pd = 1000 kN,

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
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Pd
Ag
[ f cd (1 ) f yd ]
1000 * 10 3
S2 = S = 232 mm
13 .6(1 0.02 ) 0.02 (260 .87 )

## Ties: d 6 mm (or) S 12* dia of main bar = 240 mm

Dia of main bar/4 = 20/4 = 5 mm Least lateral dimension = 240 mm
300 mm
Therefore, use 6 mm dia rods at 240 mm center to center

## Design of Columns with moments (eccentrically Loaded Columns)

When a member is subjected to combined axial load and bending moment it is more convenient
to replace the axial load and moment with an equivalent load applied at an eccentricity e.
Pd Pd
Md

Interaction diagram: It is a plot of axial load capacity of a column against the bending moment
it sustains. To illustrate conceptually the interaction between axial load and moment in a
column, an idealized, homogeneous and linearly elastic column with compressive strength fcu
equal to its tensile strength ftu is considered. This type of column fails in compression when
max = fcu.

P My P My
f cu ; or 1 -------------------------(1)
A I f cu A f cu I

f cu I
But Pmax = fcu A & Mmax =
y

P M
Equation (1) becomes, 1; This equation is called interaction equation.
Pm ax M m ax

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
It shows the interaction of (or) relationship between P and M at failure.

Reinforced concrete is not elastic, and it has ft << fc. Tensile strength, of course, is developed by
rebars, on the tensile zone of the member. Therefore, calculation of interaction in concrete
member is complicated. However the general shape of the diagram resembles the figure given
below.

Pure compression
A

## Compression failure Balanced failure point

Pb C

Tensile failure
F Mb

Moment

All combinations of Pu and Mu between points A and C will cause the concrete to fail in
compression before the tension rebars yield.
All combinations of Pu and Mu between points C and F will result in tensile yielding
before the concrete fails in compression.

## Design specifications from EBCS 2, 1995

Section 4.4.10: Design of isolated columns
Total eccentricity
{

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School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University

## Where ee =equivalent constant first-order eccentricity of the design axial load.

ea = additional eccentricity in account of geometric imperfections.
L
ea= e 20mm
300
ee = eo, for eo equal at both ends of a column
For first order moments varying linearly along the length, the equivalent eccentricity is the higher
of the following two values.

eo1 and eo2 are first order eccentricities at the ends with eo2 being positive and greater in
magnitude than eo1 and eo1 is the smaller and positive for single curvature and negative for
double curvature.

## e2 = Second-order eccentricity and is ignored if column is short.

K L2 1 r
For non sway frames, e2 = 1 e
10

K1 0.75 for 15 35
20
K1 1.0 for 35.

## 1 Curvature at the critical sec tion

r
5
K 2 10 3
d

Where d = the Column dimension in the buckling plane less the cover to the center of the
longitudinal reinforcement.

K2 = M sd
sd
M bal bal
Msd = design moment at the critical section including second-order effects.
Mbal = balanced moment capacity of the column.

## Design of columns for uni-axial bending

A column is said to be bending uniaxially if it is loaded with a bending moment only in one
direction, in addition to axial force. For the design of such a column interaction charts are
N M sd
prepared using non-dimensional parameters, and , in which, sd and
f cdbh f cdbh2

A chart showing the interaction diagrams are prepared (and compiled in EBCS 2 - part 2) for
different values of d' and h as given in the sample chart. As can be calculated by the formula,
A f
As c cd
f yd
In using these charts for design, the following procedure may be adopted.
Given: axial load and bending moment, (BM = axial load total eccentricity)
* Assume the cross section dimensions b and h.
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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
* Assume d' and evaluate d'/h to choose appropriate chart number
* Calculate and ,

* The coordinate (, ) gives the value of from the appropriate chart chosen
Ac f cd
* Determine As
f yd

## Sample design chart

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
Example 1
Design a slender braced (non-sway) column subjected to uniaxail bending.
-factored 1st order equivalent constant
Moment=130KNm
-Geometric length: L=7m and Le=0.7L
-Material data; C-30, S-460 class I work
-Assume Column size
b = 400mm; h = 400mm;
Required: - quantity of reinforcement.
Solution
Assume cover = 20mm; long = 20mm and lat. = 10mm
d ' 40
= 0.1 and d = 400-40 = 360mm
h 400
Le 0.7 * 7000
ea >= = = 16.33 or 20mm
300 300
Therefore; ea=20mm
Check for second order effect
Le 4900
- = = = 42.4
I 4002
A 12

- max = 50-25( MM 1
) ; here first order moment is constant throughout the column.
2

## Therefore; max= 50-25=25

As > max, second order effect has to be considered
Msd = etot*Nsd=(ee+ea) Nsd =ee* Nsd+ ea* Nsd =first order moment + moment due to ea
= 130+ (1650*0.02) =163kNm
0.85 f ck 0.85 * 24
For C-30 concrete; fck= 24; fcd= = = 13.6MPa
s 1.5

f yk 460
fyd = = = 400MPa
s 1.15

N sd 1650 * 10 3
sd = = = 0.76
Ac f cd 400 2 * 13 .6

M sd 163 *10 6
sd = =0.187
Ac f cd h 400 2 *13 .6 * 400

Using chart no- 2; for sd = 0.76 and sd = 0.187; = 0.32; bal = 0.25

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
sd 0.187 1 5 5
K2 = = = 0.75, = K2 ( ) 10-3 = 0.75( * 10 3 = 10.42*10-6
bal 0.25 r d 360

K1 Le 2 1
e2 = ( ) here K1 = 1 for > 35
10 r
1(4900 ) 2
= (10 .42 * 10 6 ) = 25mm
10
130 *10 3
e tot = ee + ea+e2 = 20 25 123 .8mm
1650
123.8 204 .3 *10 3
Msd = 1650* = 204.3kNm , = 0.236 implies =0.45
1000 400 3 *13 .6
Recalculating k2, bal=0.3
0.235 1 5
k2= = 0.78 , = 0.78( ) *10 3 = 10.8*10-6
0.3 r 360
e2= 26mm
etot = 124.8
124.8 M sd 205 .1 *10 6
Msd = 1650* = 205.09 kNm , sd = = 0.236
1000 Ac f cd h 400 2 *13 .6 * 400
= 0.45
Interaction can be stopped.
0.45 * 400 2 * 13 .6
Ast = 2448mm2
400
Use 8 number of 20mm diameter rods.
As provided = 2512, compare the result with minimum and maximum code requirements
>0.008*4002=1280
<0.08*4002=12800 Hence ok

## Use 10mm diameter bar @240mm c/c.

Example 2
A uniaxial column is to be constructed from a materials C-30, S-400 class I works. If the
diagram for 1st order end moment and axial force are as shown, determine the area of
reinforcement assuming non-sway frame system.(use b/h =300/400 and Le=0.75L, with
L=7.5m)

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d' 40
Soln: Assume d= 40mm; = = 0.1 use uniaxail chart no-2
h 400
ee 0.6eo2+0.4eo1 or 0.4eo2
155
eo2= *1000 =121.1mm
1280
82
eo1= *1000 =-64.1mm
1280

le 0.75 * 7500
ea = =18.75mm or 20mm; use ea =20mm
300 300
0.75 * 7500 82
Check for e2; = =48.7 ; max=50-25( )=63.2
4002 155
12
< max; therefore; neglect second order eccentricity
etot=eo2 +ea =121.1+20=141.1mm
141.1
Msd= Nsd*etot=1280* =180.6kNm; fcd= 13.6 ; fyd=347.8
1000
N 1280 *103 M sd 180.61*106
= sd =0.78 and = =0.28
f cdbh 13.6 * 300 * 400 f cd bh2 13.6 * 300 * 4002

implis =0.6

## * Ac * f cd 0.6 * 400 * 300 *13.6

As= = = 2815.4mm; use 822mm bar
f yd 347.8
22 2 *
Aspov= 8* =3041mm2
4
< Asmax= 0.08*Ag=9600mm2
>Asmin=0.008Ag=960mm2
Lateral reinforcement
6 or 22/4 S 12* 22 =264 or 300
Use 6mm ties at 260mm spacing.

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
Design of columns for biaxial bending
A column may receive moments from beams and grade framing to it, in addition to the axial
loads. This situation of a biaxial loaded rectangular section is shown below with the
corresponding interaction curves.

e dx Mdy
e dy M dx

## Three-dimensional interaction diagram Interaction surface

Any combination of Pdn, Mdx,and Mdy lying inside the surface can be applied safety.
Any point lying outside the surface would represent failure.
Due to the mathematical complication arising from the construction of interaction surface,
in practice a simpler approximation methods are used of which the one developed by
Bresler is satisfactory.

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
It is given as reciprocal load equation.
1 1 1 1
, which simplifies to
Pdn Pdnx Pdny Pdo

## Pdo Pdnx Pdny

Pdn
Pdo ( Pdnx Pdny ) Pdnx Pdny

Where: Pdn is the desing axial load capacity when applid at edx and edy
simultaneously.(biaxial bending ).
Pdnx and Pdny- design axial load capacity when edx and edy are only acting ( case of
Pdo Design axial force capacity for concentric load case.
However, in EBCS 1995, interaction charts are prepared for this purpose and they can be easly
used for actual design where the following procedures need be followed.
Given : Pd; Mb and Mh
b, h'
Assume a cross section and evaluate
b h
Calculate b , h, and
Nd Mb Mh
, b and h
f cd Ac f cd Ac b f cd Ac b
b, h'
Select suitable chart, which nearly satisfy the calculated and
b h
Enter the chart for suitable value of ( 0.0,0.2,0.41.4)
Note: - > 1.4 shows very small concrete cross section
For intermediate value of ,use interpolation
Select corresponding to , b , h
bhfcd
Compute As, tot
f yd
Check minimum and maximum requirements.

Example 1
Design a column to sustain a factored design axial load of 900KN and biaxial moments of
Mdx=270KNM and Mdy=180KNm including all other effects. Use C-30, S-300 class I works.

## Soln: fck= 24MPa ;fcd=13.6MPa; fyd=260.87MPa

b' h'
Assume b*h = 400*600mm and = =0.1, Nsd= 900kN
b h
Mh=Mdx=270kNm
Mb=Mdy=180kNm
900 *10 3
= =0.28(between0.2 and0.4)
13 .6 * 400 * 600

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RC II (CEng 3111) Chapter 1
School of Civil & Urban Eng., IOTec. Hawassa University
Mb 180 *10 6 Mh 270 *10 6
b = =0.14 and h = =0.14
f cd Ac b 13 .6 * 600 * 400 2 f cd Ac h 13 .6 * 400 * 600 2
Using biaxial chart no- 9 thus:
for =0.2; h =0.14 , b =0.14; =0.4
for =0.4; h =0.14, b =0.14; =0.4
By interpolation for =0.28; =0.4

## * Ac * f cd0.4 * 400 * 600 *13.6

As= = =5005mm2
f yd 260.87
< Asmax= 0.08*Ag=19200mm2
>Asmin=0.008Ag=1920mm2
use 830mm bar
Lateral reinforcement

6 or 30/4 {

## Use 8mm ties at 300mm spacing.

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