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SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203





Regulation 2013

Academic Year 2016 17

Prepared by

Mr. K. Ravindran, Assistant Professor (Sr.G)/IT

Mr. M. Kavinkumar, Assistant Professor (O.G)/IT

SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203.


SUBJECT : Artificial Intelligence
SEM / YEAR: VI Sem/ III Year


Introduction to AI-Problem formulation, Problem Definition -Production systems, Control strategies,
Search strategies. Problem characteristics, Production system characteristics -Specialized production
system- Problem solving methods - Problem graphs, Matching, Indexing and Heuristic functions -Hill
Climbing-Depth first and Breath first, Constraints satisfaction - Related algorithms, Measure of
performance and analysis of search algorithms
Q.No. Questions Competence
1 What is ridge? BTL1 Remembering
2 Describe the four categories under which AI is classified with examples. BTL1 Remembering

3 Define Artificial Intelligence. BTL1 Remembering

4 List the fields that form the basis for AI. BTL1 Remembering

5 What is a Knowledge Based System? BTL1 Remembering

6 List few of the task domains of AI. BTL1 Remembering

7 Give the components of a KBS. BTL2 Understanding

8 Describe meta-knowledge? BTL2 Understanding
9 Give the expansion of LISP and PROLOG BTL2 Understanding
10 Interpret the meaning of a Production System BTL2 Understanding
11 Illustrate the definition of state-space search technique BTL3 Applying
12 Show the steps involved in performing a state-space search BTL3 Applying
13 Demonstrate the meaning of heuristic search BTL3 Applying
14 Compare Informed & Uninformed search with examples BTL4 Analyzing
15 Analyse the logic behind Hill climbing, Best-First Search, BFS and DFS BTL4 Analyzing
16 Analyse the meaning of means-end analysis BTL4 Analyzing
17 Deduce the various problem characteristics BTL5 Evaluating
18 Assess when hill climbing fails to find a solution? BTL5 Evaluating
19 Formulate the ways to overcome hill climbing problems. BTL6 Creating
20 Prepare the requirements of a good control strategy. BTL6 Creating

1 Describe briefly the various problem characteristics? BTL1 Remembering

Identify the problems encountered during hill climbing and list the ways BTL1 Remembering
2 available to deal with these problems?

3 Describe the process of simulated annealing with example? BTL1 Remembering

4 Describe A* algorithm and the various observations about algorithm briefly? BTL1 Remembering

5 Discuss AO* algorithm in detail? BTL2 Understanding

Discuss the merits and demerits of depth-first and breadth-first search with BTL2 Understanding
the algorithm?
i. Discuss Heuristic functions with examples (8) BTL2 Understanding
7 ii.Discuss about the algorithm for generate and Test and simple Hill
8 Illustrate in detail about the constraint satisfaction procedure with example? BTL3 Applying
Illustrate the following uninformed search strategies BTL3 Applying
i. Depth first search(6)
9 ii. Iterative deepening depth first search(6)
iii. Bidirectional search(4)
10 Show how the steepest accent hill climbing works? BTL3 Applying

11 Explain in detail about the mean end analysis procedure with example? BTL4 Analyzing

i. Explain any two informed search strategies(8) BTL4 Analyzing

12 ii. Discuss about constraint satisfaction problem(8)
13 Evaluate a problem as a state space search with an example? BTL5 Evaluating
Solve the given problem. Describe the operators involved in it. BTL6 Creating
Consider a Water jug Problem: You are given two jugs, a 4-gallon one and a
3-gallon one. Neither has any measuring markers on it. There is a pump that
can be used to fill the jugs with water. How can you get exactly 2 gallons of
14 water into the 4-gallon jug? Explicit Assumptions: A jug can be filled from
the pump, water can be poured out of a jug onto the ground, water can be
poured from one jug to another and that there are no other measuring devices


Game playing - Knowledge representation, Knowledge representation using Predicate logic, Introduction to
predicate calculus, Resolution, Use of predicate calculus, Knowledge representation using other logic-Structured
representation of knowledge
Q.No. Question BT Level Competence
1 How predicate logic is helpful in knowledge representation BTL1 Remembering
2 Define semantic networks BTL1 Remembering
3 Identify the need of facts and its representation? BTL1 Remembering
4 Describe property inheritance? BTL1 Remembering
5 Tell briefly about ISA and Instance classes. BTL1 Remembering
6 Identify some use of conceptual dependency BTL1 Remembering
7 Discuss FOL with an example BTL2 Understanding
8 Give the definition of Horn clause. BTL2 Understanding
9 Discuss uniqueness quantifier BTL2 Understanding
10 Give the definition of Canonical horn clause BTL2 Understanding
11 Show the difference between propositional and FOL logic. BTL3 Applying
12 Illustrate the meaning of Game Playing BTL3 Applying
13 Show the components of Game software BTL3 Applying
14 Analyze the definition of logic. BTL4 Analyzing

15 Infer the definition of unification. BTL4 Analyzing

16 Analyze clausal form and its usefulness BTL4 Analyzing

17 Deduce alpha-beta pruning BTL5 Evaluating
18 Explain some of the knowledge representation techniques BTL5 Evaluating
For the given sentence All Pompeians were Romans write a well formed
19 BTL6 Creating
formula in predicate logic
20 Compose the meaning of resolution/refutation? BTL6 Creating


a. Describe the Issues in knowledge representation (8)

1 BTL1 Remembering
b. Describe alpha beta pruning procedure(8)

How would the minimax procedure have to be modified to be used by a

2 BTL1 Remembering
program playing a three or four-person game rather than two person one?

Describe how will you represent facts in propositional and predicate logic
3 BTL1 Remembering
with an example
4 Describe Resolution in brief with an example BTL1 Remembering
5 Give algorithm for propositional resolution and Unification algorithm BTL2 Understanding
Discuss the steps needed for Knowledge engineering Process in predicate
6 BTL2 Understanding
7 Discuss in detail about structured representation of knowledge BTL2 Understanding

Discover the operation of the unification algorithm on each of the following

pairs of literals:
8 A. f(Marcus)and f(Caesar) BTL3 Applying
B. f(x) and f(g(y))
C. f(Marcus,g(x,y))and f(x,g(Caesar,Marcus))
9 Illustrate about conversion to clause form algorithm in detail BTL3 Applying
Explain in detail about Knowledge Representation using predicate logic and
10 BTL4 Analyzing
other logic.
i. Explain the resolution procedure for prepositional logic(8)
11 BTL4 Analyzing
ii. Explain the Iterative Deepening Algorithm(8)
i. Explain the use of first order logic to represent knowledge(10)
12 BTL4 Analyzing
ii. Write short note on Unification(6)
Convert the following well formed formula into clause from with sequence of
13 BTL5 Evaluating
x: [ Roman(x) Know(x,Marcus) ] [ hate(x, Caesar) V (y: z:
hate(y,z) think crazy(x,y)) ]
Invent what is wrong with the following arguments
a. Men are widely distributed over the earth
b. Socrates is a man
14 BTL6 Creating
c. Therefore, Socrates is widely distributed over the earth
Design how should the facts represented by these sentences be represented in
logic so that this problem does not arise?


Knowledge representation -Production based system, Frame based system. Inference - Backward chaining, Forward
chaining, Rule value approach, Fuzzy reasoning - Certainty factors, Bayesian Theory-Bayesian Network-Dempster
- Shafer theory
Q.No. Question BT Level Competence
1 Define Bayes theorem. BTL1 Remembering
2 What do you mean by Rule based system? BTL1 Remembering
3 What is inference? BTL1 Remembering
4 List some of the rules of inference BTL1 Remembering
5 What are knowledge based agents BTL1 Remembering
6 What is credit assignment problem? BTL1 Remembering
7 Give the definition of Frame problems. BTL2 Understanding
8 Write the properties of fuzzy sets BTL2 Understanding
9 Interpret plausible-move generator and give its role BTL2 Understanding
10 Express Certainty factor in your words BTL2 Understanding
11 Illustrate frames? How do they differ from semantic nets? BTL3 Applying
12 Demonstrate the frame manipulation primitives. BTL3 Applying
13 Illustrate MYCIN style rule BTL3 Applying
14 Analyze scripts and its use. BTL4 Analyzing
15 Differentiate the forward and backward chaining. BTL4 Analyzing
Infer the CF, MB, and MD of h1 given three observations where CF(h1,O1)
16 = 0.5 , CF(h1,O2) = 0.3, CF(h1,O3) = -0.2 Using MYCIN rules for inexact BTL4 Analyzing
17 Deduce Bayesian networks with an example BTL5 Evaluating
18 Assess entailment? BTL5 Evaluating
19 Design goal directed mode. BTL6 Creating
20 Formulate dumpster Shafer theory BTL6 Creating


1 How does an inference engine work in frame based system? BTL1 Remembering

2 What is certainty factor? How will you find it in various situations BTL1 Remembering

What is Backward chaining and how does it work? Explain the Backward BTL1 Remembering
chaining algorithm with an example
What is forward chaining and how does it work? Explain the forward BTL1 Remembering
chaining algorithm with an example
Discuss the method of handling approximate inference in Bayesian networks
5 BTL2 Understanding
and Dempster Shafer Theory
6 Discuss in detail about dempster shafter theory BTL2 Understanding
7 Distinguish between production based system and frame based system. BTL2 Understanding
Dempster-Shafer computations were given for four terrorist organizations
A,B,C and D. Suppose now that new evidence (m3) indicates that
organization C was indeed responsible to a degree of 0.8. This requires that
8 BTL3 Applying
values for m3.m4 be computed, where m4=m1+m2. Compute a new
intersection tableau for the new evidence, that is compute m3(C) and m3(U)
versus m4(A),m4(C,A), m4(A,B,D), and m4(U).
i. Illustrate briefly about how reasoning is done using fuzzy logic(8)
9 BTL3 Applying
ii. Illustrate the Dempster shafer theory(8)
a. Explain in detail about frames representation(8)
10 b. Write short note on fuzzy reasoning, Bayesian probability, certainty BTL4 Analyzing
11 Explain About The Exact Inference In Bayesian Networks BTL4 Analyzing
12 Differentiate forward chaining and backward chaining with suitable example BTL4 Analyzing
13 Compute certainty factor based on hypothesis BTL5 Evaluating

Consider the following: A pea is placed under one of the three shells, and the
shells are then manipulated in such a fashion that all three appear to be
equally likely to contain the pea. Never the less, you win a prize if you guess
the correct shell, so you make a guess. The person running the game does
know the correct shell, however, and uncovers one of the shells that you did
not choose and that is empty. Thus, what remains are two shells: one you
14 BTL6 Creating
choose and one you did not choose. Furthermore, since the uncovered shell
did not contain the pea, one of the two remaining shells does contain it. You
are offered the opportunity to change your selection to the other shell.
Should you?
Work through the conditional probabilities mentioned in this problem using
Bayes theorem. What do the results tell about what you should do
Basic plan generation systems - Strips -Advanced plan generation systems K strips -Strategic explanations -Why,
Why not and how explanations. Learning- Machine learning, adaptive Learning
Q.No. Question BT Level Competence
1 Define planning? BTL1 Remembering
2 Examine nonlinear plan BTL1 Remembering
3 List the components of planning system? BTL1 Remembering
4 What is learning? What are its types? BTL1 Remembering
5 What is Explanation Based Learning? How is it useful? BTL1 Remembering
6 Define Inductive Bias BTL1 Remembering
7 Where the Samuels program is used BTL2 Understanding
8 Explain rote learning BTL2 Understanding
9 Define generalization BTL2 Understanding
10 Explain credit assignment problem BTL2 Understanding
11 Define STRIPS BTL3 Applying
12 State Winstons Learning Program BTL3 Applying
13 State Candidate elimination algorithm BTL3 Applying
14 Give the general framework of EBL programs BTL4 Analyzing
15 List the steps involved in EBG algorithm BTL4 Analyzing
16 List the various Learning Strategies BTL4 Analyzing
17 State derivation analogy BTL5 Evaluating
18 Define clustering BTL5 Evaluating
19 How AM discovered prime numbers using heuristic BTL6 Creating
20 State Window BTL6 Creating


1 What are the components of planning system and explain in detail. BTL1 Remembering

2 List the Machine learning algorithms and explain in detail BTL1 Remembering

3 List the steps in designing a learning system and explain them in detail BTL1 Remembering
i. Describe the components of a planning system(8) BTL1 Remembering
ii. What is ID3? Write the drawback of ID3(8)
5 Discuss adaptive learning methods in detail with example BTL2 Understanding
Discuss in detail about adaptive learning methods and Machine Learning
6 BTL2 Understanding
algorithm with example
7 Discuss about various planning systems with appropriate examples BTL2 Understanding
Illustrate the concept of planning with state space search using suitable
8 BTL3 Applying
Solve the blocks word problem using strips. How does it act as a planning
9 BTL3 Applying
10 Explain in detail about Active and Passive Reinforcement learning BTL4 Analyzing
Explain the use of planning graph in providing better heuristic estimation
11 BTL4 Analyzing
with suitable example
12 Explain briefly about advanced plan generation systems BTL4 Analyzing

The following table consists of training data from an employee database. The
data have been generalized. Let status be the class label attribute. Construct
Decision tree from the given data
Department Age Salary Count Status
Sales 3135 46k..50k 30 Senior
Sales 2630 26k..30k 40 Junior
Sales 3135 31k..35k 40 Junior
13 Systems 2125 46k..50k 20 Junior BTL5 Evaluating
Systems 3135 66k..70k 5 Senior
Systems 2630 46k..50k 3 Junior
Systems 4135 66k..70k 3 Senior
Marketing 3640 46k..50k 10 Senior
Marketing 3135 41k..45k 4 Junior
Secretary 4650 36k..40k 4 Senior
Secretary 2630 26k..30k 6 Junior

Consider the problem of swapping the contents of two registers, A and B.

Suppose that there is available the single operator ASSIGN(x, v, lv, ov)
which assigns the value v, which is stored in location lv, to location x, which
previously contained the value ov:
14 BTL6 Creating
Assume that there is at least one additional register C, available
a) What would STRIPS do with this problem?
b) What would TWEAK do with this problem?
c) How might you design a program to solve this problem?


Basic plan generation systems - Strips -Advanced plan generation systems K strips -Strategic explanations -Why,
Why not and how explanations. Learning- Machine learning, adaptive Learning
Q.No. Question BT Level Competence
1 What are Expert Systems? BTL1 Remembering
2 List the characteristic features of a expert system BTL1 Remembering
3 What is the need for expert system tool while building expert system? BTL1 Remembering
4 Mention some of the key applications of ES BTL1 Remembering
5 Briefly explain the knowledge acquisition process. BTL1 Remembering
6 Explain MOLE BTL1 Remembering
7 Explain Propose and revise strategy BTL2 Understanding
8 What are the applications of EMYCIN? BTL2 Understanding
9 Write any four earliest expert systems. BTL2 Understanding
10 What are the typical components of an expert system support environment? BTL2 Understanding
11 What is the use of expert system tools? BTL3 Applying
12 Name the programming languages used for expert system applications? BTL3 Applying
13 What are the types of tools available for expert system building? BTL3 Applying
14 Name the programming methods supported by expert system tools? BTL4 Analyzing
15 What are the knowledge representations supported by expert system tools? BTL4 Analyzing
16 What are the pitfalls in dealing with the domain expert? BTL4 Analyzing
What is meta knowledge? How meta knowledge is represented in rule based
17 BTL5 Evaluating
expert system?
18 Explain XCON? BTL5 Evaluating
Name any three universities and mention the expert system tools developed
19 BTL6 Creating
Name any three research organization and mention the expert system tools
20 BTL6 Creating
developed there?
1 What is an expert system shell BTL1 Remembering
2 What are common pitfalls in planning an expert system BTL1 Remembering
3 What is knowledge acquisition? Explain in detail BTL1 Remembering
4 Describe in detail briefly about Expert system architecture and shells. BTL1 Remembering
5 Discuss briefly about the EMYCIN in detail BTL2 Understanding
6 Discuss briefly about meta knowledge BTL2 Understanding
Discuss briefly about the Typical Expert System MYCIN, DART, XCON in
7 BTL2 Understanding
i. Illustrate Heuristics with an example(8)
8 BTL3 Applying
ii. Classify the XOON and DART in detail and write its applications(8)
i. Explain the role of knowledge engineer, domain expert and an end user in
9 an expert system (8) BTL3 Applying
ii. Explain the difficulties involved in developing an expert system(8)
i. Explain the various stages of expert system development? (8)
10 BTL4 Analyzing
ii. Explain the tasks involved in building expert system? (8)
i. Explain about the knowledge acquisition(8)
11 BTL4 Analyzing
ii. Write the characteristic features of expert systems(8)
i. Explain the basic components of an expert system(8)
12 BTL4 Analyzing
ii. Write any six applications of expert systems(8)
Draw the schematic diagram of an expert system. Explain all the relevant
13 BTL5 Evaluating
Solve expert system problem in terms of knowledge representation,
14 knowledge acquisition and explanation. Give one domain in which the expert BTL6 Creating
system approach would be more promising
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