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The Government of Indonesia

& Asian Development Bank


ADB TA 8287-INO: Scaling Up Renewable
Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia
Final Report
31 December 2015
ADB TA 2 I
calin p ene able
ner Access in
astern Indonesia

Final Report
31 December 2015

repared for The Government of astlerock ons ltin


Indonesia and Asian Graha Iskandars ah th floor
Development Bank l Iskandars ah a a o
akarta 121 0
repared b T astlerock Indonesia
ons ltin Tel 2 21 2 0 2 0
a 2 21 2 0 2 05
castlerockasia com

ersion 1 0

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


FOREWORD

This report has been prepared b astlerock ons ltin for the Government of Indonesia
and the Asian Development Bank ADB nder ADB Technical Assistance TA o 2
I calin p ene able ner Access in astern Indonesia

The report directl s pports the mba Iconic Island Initiative b presentin pre feasibilit
st dies for selected ind biomass and off rid micro h dro opport nities These st dies
dra on earlier reso rce st dies and least cost plannin anal sis The report also
compiles
presentation materials from the first inter ministerial electricit access orkshop
cond cted in April 2015 as ell as from the mba Investor or m cond cted in
December 2015 and
doc mentation of ork prepared for the enter of cellence that is bein
established b the inistr of ner and ineral eso rces re ardin a
preliminar biomass reso rce assessment for Bali and ap a and eospatial data
preparation on ener reso rces and electricit access

ther principal deliverables prod ced nder this ADB TA assi nment incl de

Inception eport ovember 2013


Deliverable B ner eso rces for Grid ppl & lectricit Demand Anal sis
for mba eptember 201
id Term eport east ost lectrification lan for the Iconic Island December
201
Deliverable A Achievin niversal lectricit Access in Indonesia l 2015 to
be p blished as an ADB no led e rod ct and
Inp ts to the mba Iconic Island oad ap December 2015

Back ro nd and doc mentation on the mba Iconic Island Initiative incl din the above
reports can be do nloaded from s mbaiconicisland or

The astlerock team ratef ll ackno led es the leadership and s pport provided s
arit e tapea Director of ario s ner and staff from thro ho t the Directorate
General of e and ene able ner and ner onservation personnel from
ila ah sa Ten ara Tim r especiall r liaman and Area mba ho provided
idance on s stem plannin co nterparts in the inin & ner ervices and the
e ional Development lannin A encies ithin the fo r kab paten of mba and Dr
radeep Tharakan enior ner pecialist limate han e of the ADB ho ided
preparation of the report

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


TAB E OF ONTENTS

Foreword i

Introd ction -
1 1 Back ro nd of the mba Iconic Island Initiative 1 1
1 2 vervie of ADB pport 1 3
1 3 r ani ation of this eport 1 5

2 Bio ass ower re-Feasibility St dy 2-

ind Far re-Feasibility St dy -

icro- ydro Screening St dy -

In estor For -

ic -o or Electri ication or ing ro p -

7 Bio ass Assess ent or Bali and ap a 7-

8 Inp ts to t e eospatial Decision S pport Syste o t e


enter o E cellence 8-

ii

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


1. INTRODUCTION

BA ROUND OF T E SU BA I ONI IS AND INITIATI E

rogra Rationale

astern Indonesia is characteri ed b lo electrification ratios At the start of 2015 the


electrification ratio for the province of sa Ten ara Tim r as onl 5 compared to
a national avera e of 3 1

This poor access to electricit has profo nd conse ences on the socio economic
development of the re ion lectricit is essential for prod ctive activities and the hi her
standards of livin the brin ntil electricit s ppl becomes more idespread eastern
Indonesia s economic and social development ill la the rest of the nation

The traditional method of providin electricit s ppl to these comm nities diesel
eneration is costl Tho h diesel costs have fallen sharpl over the past ear s
avera e prod ction cost biaya pokok produksi B in TT for 2015 as p 3 2 1 k h
compared to an avera e tariff ield of p 1 02 k h based on na dited estimates
has previo sl embarked on a pro ram of small coal plant development and is c rrentl
considerin a small scale G for eastern Indonesia o ever it remains to be seen
hether the lo istical challen es of operatin small scale G and coal plants over a
dispersed eo raphical re ion can be addressed

ort natel tho h eastern Indonesia is blessed ith relativel hi h levels of insolation
as ell as ind eothermal biomass and h dro reso rces oreover technolo ical
advances and price red ctions for solar photovoltaic panels h brid s stem
controllers stora e and end se technolo ies etc have provided ne options for
electrification of remote comm nities

A ainst this backdrop the D tch non overnmental or ani ation G ivos
approached national and local overnment a encies ith a vision for the island of mba
in the province of sa Ten ara Tim r ivos proposed mba as an iconic island to
serve as an e ample of ho ener access can be scaled p thro h reliance on
rene able ener so rces The principal ob ectives of the Iconic Island pro ram ere to
achieve the follo in b 2025
5 electrification ratio and
100 of ener s ppl provided b ne and rene able reso rces

These tar ets have since been pdated b Decree of the inister of ner and ineral
eso rces o 3051 30 2015 on Desi nation of mba as an Iconic Island for
ene able hich tar ets 5 of mba s ener s ppl to be from rene able so rces
b 2020

In addition to providin the people of mba ith clean and s stainable niversal access
the II initiative is intended to provide a model for rene able ener based access that
can be replicated else here in Indonesia

1Directorate General of lectricit Book of lectricit tatistics o 2 2015 Buku Statistik


Ketenagalistrikan

11

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 1 of 396
1. Introduction. . ..

2 istory and Instit tional Str ct re o t e Initiati e

Thro h the efforts of ivos the Iconic Island initiative as formall la nched at the end
of 2010 at the Indonesia etherlands oint ner orkin Gro p The inistr of ner
and ineral eso rces and ivos then or ani ed a series of stakeholder
meetin s ith local and re ional overnments private sector and civil societ to en a e
these stakeholders in the initiative and to link all e istin rene able ener pro ects
nder a b these stakeholders e ho sehold solar panel pro rams b emda mba
and

In ebr ar 2011 a memorand m of nderstandin as si ned b the Governor of


TT the B patis of the fo r mba kabupaten and ivos to ork to ether on the
reali ation of the Iconic Island ob ective n the basis of this these local
overnments and other stakeholders no ointl plan and coordinate their pro rams and
pro ects took the lead in developin a comprehensive pro ram road map and
desi ned a taskforce str ct re ivos has cond cted several st dies on the feasibilit of
movin to 100 rene able ener s ppl to mba incl din st dies on off rid and rid
electricit s ppl and biof el prod ction

At a national seminar or ani ed b and ivos in ebr ar 2013 ass med


f ll responsibilit for mba Iconic Island ob ectives and the implementation of the oad
ap The initiative has evolved into a m lti stakeholder ndertakin led b the Directorate
General of e and ene able ner and ner onservation ithin the inistr of
ner and ineral eso rces in partnership ith ivos the provincial overnment of
sa Ten ara Tim r the fo r districts of mba2 collectivel referred to henceforth as
emda mba from Pemerintah Daerah Sumba) the tate lectricit ompan
the Indonesian national tilit other overnment ministries and non overnment
or ani ations the private sector and development partners incl din the Asian
Development Bank the Government of or a A ence ran aise de D veloppement
A D and Danida The illenni m hallen e Acco nt Indonesia is also f ndin activities
that s pport the Iconic Island vision

The pro ram and involvement of stakeholders is formali ed thro h a decree iss ed
ann all b the Directorate General of e and ene able ner and ner
onservation and more recentl b the inister of ner and ineral eso rces This
decree desi nates the composition and roles of the members of the II task force The
most recent decree has been iss ed as Decree of the inister of ner and ineral
eso rces o 55 3 D 2015 dated 2 A st 2015

takeholders participate thro h three orkin ro ps i olic ii ppl and


tili ation of ner and iii ndin and oordination The stakeholders meet t ice
ever ear to plan and coordinate activities and revie pro ress d rin the previo s
period Activities cond cted nder the initiative incl de capacit b ildin technical
assistance investment plannin pro ect implementation and monitorin and eval ation

rther information on the initiative incl din access to past reports and doc mentation
on past and on oin pro ects ma be fo nd at s mbaiconicisland or

2 The fo r kabupaten are ast mba Sumba Timur entral mba Sumba Tengah est
mba Sumba Barat and o th est mba Sumba Barat Daya The total land area of mba
is sli htl over 11 000 km2 and the pop lation is appro imatel 00 000 The lar est to n is
ain ap ith a pop lation of appro imatel 50 000

12

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 2 of 396
1. Introduction. . ..

2 O ER IE OF ADB SU ORT

The Asian Development Bank e pressed its illin ness to s pport the II initiative and
prepared a technical assistance TA pro ram to f rther develop the road map and
bankable pro ects In a 2013 ADB or ani ed an Inception orkshop to kick off this TA
At this orkshop the ADB also anno nced additional f ndin from the Government of
or a to be channelled thro h the ADB TA pro ram for the Iconic Island The ADB TA
ended on 31 December 2015

Activities cond cted d rin the 2 5 ears of the TA follo ed the tasks o tlined at the
Inception orkshop hibit 1 1 identifies the reports iss ed over the co rse of the TA
that cover the activit flo presented at the Inception orkshop These reports can be
do nloaded from s mbaiconicisland or In addition a ebGI as created
sho in c rrent ener reso rces and infrastr ct re on mba as ell as options for
f t re development This ebGI can be accessed at
http castlerockasia com s mba sii html

E ibit : Report o erage o ro ect Acti ities

START

InceptionReport Task1.3
Definecritical
Task1.1 Task1.2 successfactors Checkpoint:
Reviewpaststudies Confirmobjectives Kickoff
&legislation &governance Task1.4 workshop
Defineservice
standards

Task2.1 Task2.5
SetupGIS&other ConfirmPLN MidTermReport
data networkplan
Task2.7 Task2.8
Determineleast Assessnetwork
Task2.2 Task2.6 costgridmix feasibility Task2.10 Checkpoint:
Assessdemand& Assessgridvs.off Assessmodels& Access
WTP gridsupply determineapproach Scaleup
Task2.9 forSumba
Determineleast Workshop
costoffgridsupply
Task2.3
Assessresources

Task2.4 FinalReport Checkpoint:


Procuremonitors& Task3.1 Task3.2 Investment
analyzedata(if Conductpre PrepareInvestment
feasbilitystufies Prospectus Prospectus
necessary) Workshop
DeliverableB
RoadMapReviewReport Task3.2
Supporttenderingor
development

Phase1:Consensus
Phase2:Analysis&Design Final
DeliverableA Workshop:
Phase3:Implementation Lessons
Learned

rther details on the content of each deliverable prod ced over the life of the TA and the
ali nment ith the TA tp ts defined in the Terms of eferences is sho n in hibit
12

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Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 3 of 396
1. Introduction. . ..

E ibit 2: Align ent o Deli erables wit t e Ter s o Re erence


TA O tp ts Deli erable ontents
eso rce s rve s of vario s rene ables applicable for mba
incl din ener demand anal sis and illin ness to pa
Deliverable B reparation of T for
i constr ction of a temporar river a in station & compilation
of a flo d ration c rve
ii a preliminar assessment of stora e h dro potential
iii installation and operation of a met mast for ind data ac isition
An electricit master plan and associated modellin for mba
1 reparation of incl din
a detailed i east cost electrification anal sis identification of rid vs off rid
electricit access areas
plan for mba ii Grid load forecast based on above
iii east cost eneration e pansion plan takin into acco nt the
id Term rid load forecast above as ell as the Deliverable B reso rce
eport assessment
iv Transmission load flo anal sis
v Determination of II capital investment re irements
reparation of a eb based Geo raphical Information stem eb
GI to s pport plannin and the presentation of res lts for
stakeholders
id Term Desi n of a mini rid pilot pro ram
eport
reparation and doc mentation of a spreadsheet model Recana
Umum Perencanaan Energi Sumba to determine II
2 Identification II oad ap
investment needs b ear b technolo pro ect and b so rce of
and preliminar evie
f nds nder vario s scenarios and implications for pdatin the II
preparation of oad ap
investment Identification and screenin of candidate off rid micro h dro sites
pro ects to be leadin to preliminar field s rve of p to 20 s ch sites
developed b
&I s ind reso rce assessment & preliminar pro ect financial eval ation
inal eport dra in on one ear of data provided b the ADB f nded met mast
re feasibilit st d for rid connected biomass po er pro ects
reparation and deliver of an Investor or m describin II
investment needs and potential pro ects
eport on the polic and financin environment for e pandin
Deliverable A ener access in Indonesia and a incl din a revie of lobal best
incorporatin practices and implications for Indonesia
Deliverable D evie and eval ation of the overnment s on oin ener access
of the ori inal pro rams and ill strative b siness models for scalin p ener
T access thro h p blic p blic private and private sector led initiatives
3 e o tp t based aid schemes concessions I schemes etc
Implementation
II onitorin & val ation & frame ork incl din the follo in
of on oin and
doc mentation
planned ener
i eport on development of an & rame ork
access pro rams II oad ap
ii & o frame in n lish & Indonesian
financed b the evie
iii T for & activities in 201 ith reportin forms
overnment
iv T for & activities in 2015 ith timeline
stren thened
v inal & presentation
Assistance to the Government of Indonesia to formall establish an
electrification orkin ro p to plan and implement the
inal eport recommendations of Deliverable A
Doc mentation of pport to enter of cellence GI preparation
and biomass assessment of Bali and ap a

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 4 of 396
1. Introduction. . ..

OR ANI ATION OF T IS RE ORT

This report presents the o tp ts listed in hibit 1 2 for the inal eport pecificall

hapters 2 3 and present the res lts of a rid connected biomass po er plant
pre feasibilit st d a pre feasibilit st d for a rid connected ind farm at
ambaprain and a screenin st d for off rid microh dro electric plants
respectivel

These pro ects ere presented at an Investor or m cond cted on 15 December


2015 at the ermita e otel akarta The event as attended b more than 120
private investors state o ned enterprises and overnment co nterparts from both
central and re ional overnments hapter 5 contains the presentations from the
event

hapter contains the presentations made at the first inter ministerial meetin
held on 1 arch 2015 at the Do ble Tree otel akarta for national
electrification scale p based on the findin s of the mba st d

hapters and present the findin s of recent ork carried o t to s pport


s enter of cellence partic larl the creation of a decision s pport
s stem based on a eo raphical information s stem GI hapter presents a
report on biomass reso rces in Bali and ap a and hapter presents the res lts
of s pport for national electrification plannin

15

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 5 of 396
2. BIOMASS POWER PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY

21

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 6 of 396
PREFEASIBILITYSTUDY

BIOMASSPOWERPLANTINSUMBA




Prepared for:
Castlerock Consulting

Prepared by:
Rohmadi Ridlo
Oct 30, 2015

Page 7 of 396
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVESUMMARY..................................................................................................................................4
1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................8
1.1. Objective.......................................................................................................................................9
1.2. Background....................................................................................................................................9
2. BIOMASSPOWERPROJECT................................................................................................................10
2.1. ProjectCharacteristics................................................................................................................10
2.2. Consistencywiththegovernmentplan,RUPTL,andElectricitySupplyandDemand.............11
2.3. ExpectedprojectImpactandfuelsustainability........................................................................12
3. PROJECTFUNDAMENTALS..................................................................................................................14
3.1. Typeofbiomassavailableinareaconsidered(SumbaTengah,SumbaTimurandSumba
Barat)14
3.2. BiomassproductioninSumbaIsland.........................................................................................15
3.3. SumbaTengah,SumbaTimurandSumbaBarat........................................................................19
4. SITESELECTION...................................................................................................................................22
4.1 SiteSelectionforEnergyPlantation...........................................................................................22
4.2 ProjectSiteOfBiomassPowerPlant..........................................................................................28
5. BIOMASSSUPPLY................................................................................................................................29
5.1. EstimationofLamtoroGungforpowergeneration..................................................................29
5.2. Potentialwoodproductionfromproposedcandidatesofbiomassenergyplantation...........30
5.3. Biomasssupplychain..................................................................................................................31
5.4. Projectedbiomasspurchasingandcost.....................................................................................34
5.5. Optionsforbiomassfuelsupplyagreement..............................................................................36
5.6. Biomasspretreatments/processingoptions............................................................................37
5.7. Supplementarybiomass.............................................................................................................38
5.8. Biomassrisksmitigation.............................................................................................................38
6. TECHNOLOGYOPTIONS......................................................................................................................41
6.1. Biomasscharacteristics(LamtoroGung)....................................................................................41
6.2. CombustionTechnology.............................................................................................................42
6.3. GasificationTechnology..............................................................................................................46
6.4. Cogeneration...............................................................................................................................50
6.5. Pyrolysis.......................................................................................................................................51
6.6. SelectionofPowerGenerationTechnologyandoptionsoftechnologyprovider...................52
6.7. GasificationPlantConfiguration.................................................................................................55

Page 8 of 396
6.8. Identifiedapotentiallocalcompanyorcommunitywhichcanoperateandmaintainthe
plantinthelongterm............................................................................................................................57
7. FINANCIALANALYSIS..........................................................................................................................58
7.1 RequiredFunds...........................................................................................................................58
7.2 FinancialEvaluation....................................................................................................................61
8. CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................................64
8.1Studyfindingsandconclusion...........................................................................................................64
8.2.PreFeasibilityStudyDiscussion.......................................................................................................65
APPENDIXESI.................................................................................................Error!Bookmarknotdefined.
EmissionReductionfromBiomassPowerProjectinSumbaTimurRegency(site1).............................66
EmissionReductionfromBiomassPowerProjectinSumbaTengahRegency.......................................81
APPENDIXII.................................................................................................................................................93
FinancialInternalRateofReturn(FIRR)Calculation...............................................................................93
APPENDIXIIIProductivityofLeucaenaLeucocephala................................................................................95

Page 9 of 396
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ThepreFSwasdoneonSeptember2014March2015.TheobjectivesofthepreFSistomakeafirst
evaluationwithrespecttoeconomicallyviable,sustainableandrecommendabletobuildabiomass
powerplantinSumbaIslandwithbiomasssuppliedfromaplantationforest.
ThepreFSstudyincludedanassessmentof:
Marketconsiderationsfortheproductandthebiomassfeedstock
Theavailablesupplyofbiomassfeedstock
Organizationalstructurefordevelopmentandoperationofabiomassplant
Plantsize,location,andtechnologytobeused
Environmentalandeconomicconsiderations
Projectedfinancialoutcomes

Being designed as an Iconic Island for utilizing renewable energy for electricity generation, Sumba
Island posesses several renewable energy resources potential such as hydro, biomass, wind and
solar.
Thefindingfromsitesurveyshowedthattheislandhasatotalpotentialelectricitygenerationfrom
rice husk biomass of about 4 GWh/y. However, its availability has made it unattractive for power
plantfeedstockduetotheseasonalvariationandclimateoftheIslandaswellasconstraintforrice
huskcollection.Moreover,riceHuskpotentialthroughoutSumbaIslandisonlyabout0.5MWand
thiswillnotsupplyelectricitytoPLN.Otherresiduesfromcassava,coconut,candlenutandcorncob
are constrained by its availability and collection method, thereby they are not considered as
potentialfuelforelectricitygeneration.
Theproductionofbiomassinfastgrowing,shortrotationtreeplantations,isconsideredanoptionto
meetthetargetsoftheSumbaiconicisland.Toreleasethepressureondependenceonfossilfuel,
theonlywaytoincreasebiomassproductiononthelongtermisthroughtheestablishmentoffast
growingtreeplantations.
ThestudyhasrevealedthattheIslandhasapotentialtogenerateelectricityfrombiomasssupplied
from forest energy plantation of Leucaena Leucocephala (Lamtoro Gung) for totalling up to 889
GWh/yutilizingitswoodchipsfromSumbaTimurregency,SumbaTengahregencyandSumbaBarat
regency.TheutilizationofsuchbiomassresourcewouldcontributetotheprogramofSumbaasthe
IconicIsland,wherepowergenerationshallbedevelopedfromrenewableenergy.
Developing energy plantation in Sumba Tengah alone would supply enough electricity (10 MW) in
Sumba Island through PLN grid (considering current demand in Sumba Island 10 MW peak load).

Page 10 of 396
Meanwhile, from estimation in this study Sumba Timur regency and Sumba Tengah regency could
supply90MWand7MWelectricitytoPLNgridrespectively.
ItisrecommendedtofurtherconsidergasificationtechnologyforpowergenerationfromLamtoro
Gungbiomassutilizinggasengineforgeneratingelectricityfromsyngas.
The study presents information on estimation of biomass fuel availability and costs, power
generationcapacitybasedongasificationtechnology.

Table1:CapitalCostSummaryBiomassGasificationforGridElectricityGeneration

BasicPriceinUSD
No PlantItem/Description Quantity
Site2 Site3 Site4
Site1

DetailDesign&Engineering Lump
1 52,195 52,195 52,195 52,195
Charges Sum
BiomassSizing&Conveying Lump
2 125,000 125,000 125,000 125,000
System,BiomassDrying Sum
3 SkipCharger 2Nos. 43,510 43,510 43,510 43,510
BiomassGasifieralongwithbasic
accessoriesandauxiliarieswith
4 DryGasFiltrationSystem 2Sets. 1,042,460 1,042,460 1,042,460 1,042,460
DryGasFiltrationSystem
Flaresystem
Lump
5 GasifierCoolingTower 26,320 26,320 26,320 26,320
Sum
CondensateNeutralization Lump
6 48,430 48,430 48,430 48,430
System Sum
Lump
7 52TRChiller 95,940 95,940 95,940 95,940
Sum
732,475 732,475 732,475 732,475
ProducerGasEngine&Other
8 5Nos. (5x (5x (5x (5x
RelatedAccessories
146,495) 146,495) 146,495) 146,495)
Lump
9 RadiatorforEngineCooling 65,800 65,800 65,800 65,800
Sum
SubTotal 2,232,130 2,232,130 2,232,130 2,232,130
10 Packing&TransportationCharges
PackingCharges
111,607
@5%ofordervalue
FOBBasis(Containersforstuffing
needstobeprovidedbyclientat 15,000
theircost)
Transportationcost(ocean 215,407 215,407 215,407 215,407
freight,truckingtoexportharbour
ofSurabayaexportdocuments,
88,800
ISPM#15certificate,certificateof
origin,billofloading,document
courierfee.Addtoeachshipment

Page 11 of 396
afumigationfeeof$60and
insuranceof2.5%ofshipping
value,transportationSurabayato
location,Sumba)
12 StartupPowerForTheSystem 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000
InstallationandCivil&foundation
13 166,667 166,667 166,667 166,667
work
14 GridInterconnection 1,500,000 450,000 360,000 150,000
15 Building 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000
Total 4,254,204 3,204,204 3,114,204 2,904,204
Contingency(4%) 170,168 128,168 124,568 116,168
TotalPlantCost 4,424,372 3,332,372 3,238,772 3,020,372

Table2.Resultsofprefeasibilitystudyofthebiomassprojectproject.
Site1 Site2 Site3 Site4
PeakCapacity(kW)gross 1200 1200 1200 1200
PeakCapacity(kW)net 1056 1056 1056 1056
Continuousdutygross(kW) 1020 1020 1020 1020
Continuousdutynet(kW) 898 898 898 898
GasifierType DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft
Electricitytothegrid(kWh) 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520
Electricityproduce(gross)kWh 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000
Biomassconsumption(t/y)
20%MC 11,310 11,310 11,310 11,310
Biomassconsumption(t/y)Dry
Base 9,048 9,048 9,048 9,048
Biomassconsumption(t/y)
40%MC 15,080 15,080 15,080 15,080
Parasiticload(kW) 144 144 144 144
Environment Baseline DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP
GHGreduction 2,480 2,755 2,761 2,767
(tCO2e/y)
Energy 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248
substitution
effect(liter
dieseloil/yr)
Cost Initial
performance investment 4,424,372 3,332,372 3,238,772 3,020,372
(US$)
IRR(%) 9.33 14.73 15.35 16.94
Investment 14 11 11 10
paybackperiod
(Year)

The financial summary shows that the project is financially feasible for a Biomass Gasification
generating1MWelectricityforgridtobebuiltononeofthefouridentifiedpotentialprojectsites
exceptSite1,wherethemostimportantandsensitivefactoristheelectricitysellingtariffthatwas

Page 12 of 396
assumedasUS$14.2cents/kWh(1840rupiah/kWh)intheevaluation.Site4isthemostfavourable
one in the financial sense as it has the shortest connection with the grid.The development will
provideeconomicbenefittothelocalcommunitiesaswellaspeopleoftheSumbaIsland.
The interest in converting biomass to electricity comes not only from its potential as a lowcost,
indigenous supply of power, but for its potential environmental and developmental benefits. For
example,biomassmaybeagloballyimportantmitigationoptiontoreducetherateofCO2buildup
bysequesteringcarbonandbydisplacingfossilfuels.Renewablygrownbiomasscontributesonlya
verysmallamountofcarbontotheatmosphere.Locally,plantationscanlessensoilerosion,provide
a means to restore degraded lands, offset emissions and local impacts from fossilfired power
generation(e.g.,SO2andNOx).Inadditiontothedirectpowerandenvironmentalbenefits,biomass
energysystemsoffernumerousotherbenefits.Someofthesebenefitsincludetheemploymentof
underutilizedlabourandtheproductionofcoandbyproducts(e.g.,fuelwood).

Issues
Plantation establishment is a critical phase of a biomass energy project, since the timing of wood
supplymustbecoordinatedwiththeconstructionofacomplexandexpensivepowerplant.Mistakes
or miscalculations at any one of many stages can result in expensive delays in power generation.
Issues that must be addressed include: site preparation, seedling or cutting supply and quality,
availability of required soil microorganisms, nursery operation, spacing of plantings, fertilization,
watering, weed control, road construction, protection of nursery stock and plantings from insect
pests,disease,animals,humans,fire,andotherthreats.

Page 13 of 396
1. INTRODUCTION

Ofdifferentfuturealternativeenergysources,biomassisasourcethatshouldbereckoned.Biomass
is an organic matter sourced originally from plants, produced through photosynthesis, and is not
convertedintofossil(likecoal).Biomasscontainsstoredchemicalenergytobeconvertedintoheat,
electricity,andtransportationfuel,orevenasfeedstockforbiomassbasedproducts.
One of many biomass benefits is that this energy source is renewable in characteristic. Biomass
sources include woods, agricultural residues, dedicated crops, plantation wastes, and solid waste
(suchasmunicipalsolidwaste.Amongadvantagesoftheutilizationofbiomassasenergybesidesits
renewablefuelsourcearehelpingtoreducefossilfueldependencyandreducingGreenhouseGases
emissions.

Theneedtotoreplacefossilfuelswithrenewablebiomassfuel(particularlyfueloil)inIndonesiais
becomingimportantlatelyconsideringlimitedfossilfuelresources,increasingfossilfuelprice,and
especially on the countrys energy security concern and global warming issue. The government of
Indonesia has commited to replace fossil fuel oil with renewable one, biofuel produced from
biomass.Thiswasmainlyencouragedtoreducefossilfueldependency,especiallyimportedfuel.The
developmentandutilizationofbiomassasenergysourceisinlinewiththeimplementationactivity
ofthedevelopmentprogramofSumbaIslandasrenewableenergyIco

BasedonidentificationcarriedoutonthisIsland,biomassenergy(fromenergyplantation)isoneof
proposed potential renewable energy sources to contribute to the program. By 2025, biomass
energyistargetedtocontributetoacapacityof10MWinelectricitygeneration.Inordertoachieve
thistarget,asecureandsustainablebiomasssupplyofrequiredfeedstockmustbedevelopedand
established.

BearinginmindtothelowbiomasspotentialfromagriculturalandplantationwastesintheIsland,
only biomass from energy plantation could provide enough biomass for energy generation to
contribute to the fulfillment of energy demand in Sumba Island. The development of a plantation
devoted to an energy generation would offer enough biomass and at the same time securing
sufficient feedstock for supplying to biomass power generation in Sumba. One of steps of the
utilizationofbiomassenergyforelectricitygenerationisperformingaPreFeasibilityStudy.

Page 14 of 396
ThisPrefeasibilitystudyispreparedfortheGovernmentofIndonesiaandtheAsianDevelopment
Bank(ADB)underADBTechnicalAssistance(TA)No.8287INO:ScalingUpRenewableEnergyAccess
in Eastern Indonesia in evaluating possibility and prospectus site for developing a biomass power
plantinSumbaIsland.Thedevelopmentoftheplantwillsupporttheincreaseinelectrificationratio
andrenewableelectricitygenerationontheIslandofSumba.

1.1. Objective
The key objective of this Prefeasibility study is to make a first evaluation with respect to
economically viable, sustainable and recommendable to build a biomass power plant in Sumba
Islandwithbiomasssuppliedfromaplantationforest.
Attheendofthispreparationofthisstudy,optionsfordevelopingofsuchbiomasspowerplantshall
bepresentedasinputstostakeholdersindeterminingenergygenerationfromrenewableenergyin
thisIsland.

1.2. Background
Sumba Islandhasbeenselectedasan Iconic Island whererenewablesources aretobedeveloped
andusedforfulfillingenergydemandintheIsland,therebysubstitutesfossilfueldependency.Until
2014theelectrificationratioisonly30%intheIslandwhereabout10.168MWwasmostlyprovided
by diesel generators. Through the development, the share of renewable energy for electricity
generationcouldgraduallyincreaseandfinallysubstitutetheuseoffossilfuel.
Among renewable sources existed in the Island, biomass from energy plantation is potentially
developedforfuelasthesourceofbiomassplantiseaslyfoundandgrowintheIsland,considering
the climate of the area and its soil type. The option for energy plantation is considered desirable
sincethebiomassusedforpowergenerationdoesnotjeopardiselocalfoodsecurityand provides
benefitsforlocalpopulation,particularlytoeconomicdevelopment.
A continue supply of biomass for power plant is required for maintaining a continue electricity
generation. This means that biomass supply security must be considered prior to developing a
biomasspowerplant.

Page 15 of 396
2. BIOMASSPOWERPROJECT

2.1. ProjectCharacteristics
EarlystudyofSumbaIslandhasshowedthatthisIslandhasrelativelysignificantbiomasspotential
fromfoodcropsresidues.However,itsavailabilityisscatteredinmanyareasmakingitimpractical
and inefficient (financially not feasible) for using as fuel. Other potential biomass sources for fuel
fromthisareaisbiomassfromforestplantationthatisespeciallygrownforbeingusedforenergy
generationorcommonlyusedtermasenergyplantation.
Easy grown plant type with high productivity is required for an energy plantation development.
Leucana Leucochephala (Lamtoro Gung) has been identified from the study (initial site survey) to
growinmanyareasinthisIslandwhichis covered majoritywitharidland.Therefore,this plantis
selectedandarecommendedbiomasstypeforanenergyplantation.Theplanthasaproductivityof
30tons/ha/yearandatypicalcalorificvalueofitswoodof4,597kcal/kg.
CompetitionuseofbiomassfromLamtoroGungisforcookingfuelbylocalpeople.However,since
the biomass for the power generation will be sourced from an energy plantation that is to be
managedbyathirdparty,suchcompetitioncouldbeminimized.Moreover,itwouldreducebiomass
pricefluctuationasthebiomasswillbeobtainedfromapredeterminedagreementwiththethird
partyasthebiomassproducer.
Other issue to be considered is the location of biomass source from biomass power plant project
site. A reasonable distance of biomass source is required for an acceptable transport price and a
feasibleproject.
Biomassforenergy generationhasbeenwidelydevelopedaroundtheworldwithcapacityproject
rangevariesfromlowerthan100kWtoover100MW.Agridconnectedbiomasspowerprojectsare
generally above 5 MW, while off grid projects are typically 300 400 kW.1Hundreds of biomass
gasification power plants have been installed in India in recent years, for both minigrid rural
electrificationandforsupplytothemaingrid.Mostaresmall,rangingfrom100kWto1MW,and
useawidevarietyoffeedstocks,includingagriculturalwaste,humanandanimalwaste,andJuliflora,
acommonlegumewoodyweed.
Woody biomass has been developed for power generation for more than 100 MW using either
combustion or gasification technologies. Capacity factors assumed to be in the range of 74.7% to
84.1%withanaverageadoptedvalueof80%.
The selection for a grid or nongrid connection depends basically on local electricity supply and
demand. A biomass offgrid project is financially feasible if its electricity generation cost is lower

1
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRENENERGYTK/Resources/REToolkit_Technologies.pdf

Page 16 of 396
than existed fossil generation cost. Meanwhile, a gridconnected biomass power plant will be
financiallyfeasibleifitcouldgetbenefitfromgridstariff.

2.2. Consistencywiththegovernmentplan,RUPTL,andElectricitySupplyandDemand
AprogramforSumbaIslandasanIconicIslandwithrenewableenergywasinitiatedsince2010by
the Ministerial of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) together with Bappenas (Badan
Perencanaan Nasional/National Development Planning Agency) and HIVOS (Humanistisch Instituut
voor Ontwikkelingssamenwerking)2. The selection of the Island as the iconic one was based on an
early assessment conducted by HIVOS which indicated that the Island had abundant new and
renewableenergypotential.
Thegoaloftheprogramistoachieve100%renewableenergydevelopmentand95%electrification
ratioinSumbaIslandby2025.

Local government regulation of Sumba Timur Regency No 12 of 20103on the Spatial Planning of
Sumba Timur Regecy year 20082028 contains spatial planning structure of Sumba Timur regency
which includes the development of energy sources and transmissions systems. Moreover, the
development plan of energy network system according to this regulation has included the
development of new and renewable energy by the regency government which comprises such as
PLTMH, PLTU, PLTA, PLTM, PLTB, PLTS or even hybrid systems in accordance with local available
renewable energy resources. This regulation has also set about spatial planning strategy on
increasing capacity and electricity service through development of renewable energy (PLTA and
PLTM), performing assessment and development of interconnection systems of interregional
(regencies)inSumbaIsland.[page18]

Through the Local Government Regulation of Sumba Tengah No. 1 of 2011 regarding the Spatial
Planning of Sumba Tengah Regency year 200920294, the government has set the policy and
developmentstrategyofSpatialPlanningofSumbaTengahRegency.Thedevelopmentstrategyon
infrastructure network system includes among other optimizing energy/electricity infrastructure
service level and extension of electricity transmission up to remote villages by conducting
assessment and developing electricity hybrid system. Other strategy is by increasing electricity
capacity and service through an interconnection system with other regencies in Sumba Island.

2
InternationalHumanistInstituteforCooperationwithDevelopingCountries
3
www.jdih.setjen.kemendagri.go.id/.../KAB_SUMBA%20TIMUR_12_2010
4
http://kupang.bpk.go.id/wpcontent/uploads/2010/09/OKE.PERDANO1TAHUN2011.pdf

Page 17 of 396
Under this strategy, development of renewable energy, particularly PLTMH, has been put into
considerationtoutilizelocalwaterenergypotential.

Althoughthedevelopmentofbiomassasoneofrenewableenergysourcehasnotbeenspecifically
mentionedinbothlocalgovernmentregulations,thedevelopmentofbiomasspowerplantincluded
in the Iconic Island program would certainly in consistence with the development of renewable
energyofSumbaTimurandSumbaTengahgovernments.

Meanwhile, PT PLN (persero) has intended to realize Sumba Island in Nusa Tenggara Timur as the
onlyregioninIndonesiawhichisdieseloilfreeforgeneratingelectricityin2015.Thecompanyshall
usepotentialnaturalresourcessuchaswater,solar,windandbiomassa.

According to MEMR, the government has been continuing to develop distributed electricity
generationin2014likedistributedsolarpowerplants,windpowerplant,hydropowerplants,1MW
biomasspowerplantinSumbaBaratDayaanddistributedBiogas.5

Current electricity demand in Sumba is majority supplied from renewable energy (55%). The peak
loadfromtheIslandisapproximately10.3MW.Renewablepowerplantssupplyingtheelectricityin
theIslandarePLTMHLokomboro2,3MW,PLTMHLaputi32kW,PLTSBilachenge480kWp,PLTMH
Kamanggih40kWandPLTMHLapopu1,6MWtotallingto4,452MW.6

Biomasspowerplantdevelopmentof1MWcapacityinSumbahasbeenputinRUPTL20132022,
withexpectedcommercialoperationdatein2018.Theoperationofthisplantwillcontributetothe
achievementprogramofSumbaasIconicIsland.

2.3. ExpectedprojectImpactandfuelsustainability
Inanefforttohelpstakeholdersinthedecisionmakingprocess,thissection(subsection)explores
theadvantagesanddisadvantagesofproducingandutilizingwoodybiomassasfeedstockforpower
generation.

The followings are expected positive impacts and possibly negative impacts on local community,
economyandenvironment:

5
http://maxfmwaingapu.com/2014/03/sumbaikonenergiterbarukanpembangunanpembangkitenergiterbarukan
terusdigenjot/
6
http://www.geoenergi.co/read/solar/1306/55listrikpulausumbadarienergibarudanterbarukan/#.VCq1T8WJSSo

Page 18 of 396
Providing electricity generation from renewable energy would improve local economy and
communitywealth.Localcommunitywouldbenefitfromincreasingthereliabilityoravailability
ofelectricity.
Biomassutilizationwouldcreateandretentlocaljobsinruraleconomies
ItisestimatedthatdirectemploymentforabiomasspowerplantisfivetosixpersonperMW
installed capacity. 7 , 8 Meanwhile, fuel processing (biomass pretreatment) would provide
employmentofroughlyabout18people(cutting/felling,skidding,andchipping,vehicledriver).9
Biomass power development would attract investments towards rural areas, generating new
business opportunities for smalland mediumsized enterprises in biomass production,
preparation,transportation,therebygeneratingincome
Mitigation of carbon in electricity generation due to avoidance use of fossil fuel. Moreover,
biomasscontainsminimalsulphur,therebyavoidingSO2emissionswhichcouldcauseacidrain.
Introducing biomass for energy plantation would help avoiding of land degradation such as
erosionandbecomingdesert(desertification)

Negativeimpactstoanticipate:
Increaseofvehicletrafficwhichcouldcausenoise,dustandairpollutionforlocalcommunity
Localairpollutionduetobiomasspowerplant(exhaustgas/stack)
Localwateruseandinfluencetowaterresourcewhichcouldcompetewithlocalcommunityuse
Ash(wasteremoval)

7
http://www.reenergyholdings.com/reenergytoresumeoperationsatbiomasstoenergyfacilityinashlandme/
8
http://www.pacificbiomass.org/documents/Oregon3EasternCountiesBiomassAssessment.pdf
9
Toestimatefuelprocurementemployment,weassumedthatasixpersoncrewcouldproduceapproximatelysixfullchip
vansperday.Thisincludesfelling,skidding,chippingandthreedailyroundtripsperdriver.Assumingachipvanwillhold
23 GT of biomass, a 5MW power plant that consumes 123,415 GT/year of fuel would need three crews operating to
provideitsfuel.Therefore,a5MWplantwouldemploy18peopleinthefuelprocurementsector

Page 19 of 396
3. PROJECTFUNDAMENTALS

3.1. Typeofbiomassavailableinareaconsidered(SumbaTengah,SumbaTimurandSumbaBarat)

Once a site is chosen, the next key to the success of the energy plantation is the selection of
genetically superior tree species, varieties or clones suitable for the climate, soils, and desired
productsoftheenergyplantationplantation.Mostspeciesachievetheirbestgrowthunderafairly
narrowrangeofclimateandsoilconditions,andfailuretomatchspeciestositehasbeenthecause
of the failure of many plantation projects. Even within a species that is suited to a particular site,
therecanbegreatvariationinthegrowthandwoodcharacteristicsfromdifferentseedsourcesor
regionswithinthespeciesrange.Thelargest,cheapest,andfastestgainsinmosttreeimprovement
programscanbemadebyassuringtheuseoftheproperspeciesandseedsourceswithinspecies.
Key to producing lowcost biomass is the land base and the quality of sites, which determine to a
significant extent the degree of site preparation necessary; the choice of species, spacings and
cutting cycles; required cultural management and soil amendments (fertilization, weed control,
animalcontrol,andpestmanagement);andfueltransportandlogistics.
The analysis in the preceding report prepared by Castlerock Consulting for the Government of
Indonesia and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) under ADB Technical Assistance (TA) No. 8287
INO: ScalingUp Renewable Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia study indicates that power
generation from forest energy plantation with Lamtoro Gung wood appears promising for Sumba
Island above agricultural wastes (rice husk, maize, cobs, coconut shells, candle nut shells and
bagasse). Its woody character has several advantages over agricultural wastes particularly in
harvesting and storage. Such wastes would generally require short time frame for harvesting and
pretreatmentbeforestoragecouldbedoneforprovidingyearroundbiomasssupply.

LamtoroGung(leucaenaleucocephala/Horsetamarindorleedtree)isatypeofshrubplantfromthe
fabaceae.Itisatropicalspecieswhichgrowswellinareaswithannualrainfallrangingof6503000
mmandbestinwarmtemperaturesareas(2530Cdaytemperatures)andataltitudeofbelow500
m. This species tolerates to dry climates (300 mm) and to long drought periods of up to 67
months.10

10
http://www.feedipedia.org/node/282

Page 20 of 396
The average productivity of the plant can reach as high as 36 tons/ha/year, although 15 to 30
tons/ha/year is more typical. 11 Appendix III summarizes several sources on Lamtoro Gung
productivity.Thefirstharvestoftheplantoccursafter12to18monthsoftransplanting.Thewoodis
obtainedfromanenergyplantation,sothepercentageofthewoodavailabilityisthereforeassumed
to be approximately 70% of the theoretical potential. This wood is relatively dense for a quick
growingplant(varioussourcescitedensityof500640kg/m3)andthewatercontentofwetwoodis
between30to50%,dependingonitsage.LamtoroGungwoodisestimatedtohaveacalorificvalue
of19,250kJ/kg(equivalentto4,597kcal/kg).

In the combustion process, energy content, moisture content and chemical composition are the
mostimportantbiomasscharacteristicsaffectingcombustionprocesses.

This plant is preferred for wood fuel, and would be the primary candidate for any biomass fuel
plantation in Sumba. The species does best on calcareous soils12, such as those found on Sumba
Island.

3.2. BiomassproductioninSumbaIsland
A gridconnected Lamtoro Gung wood fuelled power plant design would need to consider wood
sources,woodavailability,locationofpowerplant,andtechnicalcharacteristicsoftheplantutilizing
adoptedbiomassasfuel.
LamtoroGungisalreadygrownasaplantationforestspeciesinIndonesia,asitwasinSikka,Nusa
Tenggara Timur province. Thus the knowledge base for establishing plantations in Indonesia is
readilyavailableinadditiontothepromisingresultsofpreviousstudiesontheisland.13

11
Lamtoro Gung typically yields 20 to 60 m3/ha/yr (~12 to 36 t/ha/yr assuming 0.6 t/m3); see for example
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Leucaena_leucocephala.htm,
http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Leucaena_leucocephala.pdf,
http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pubs/gtr_so088_1992.pdf,
http://www.tropicalgrasslands.asn.au/Tropical%20Grasslands%20Journal%20archive/PDFs/Vol_23
_1989/Vol_23_01_89_pp28_34.pdf,
http://www.worldagroforestry.org/units/library/books/PDFs/07_Agroforestry_a_decade_of_develop
ment.pdf#page=298, http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/gbase/data/pf000158.htm. Other sources indicate
productivityofabout30t/ha/yr,e.g.
http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/HC270799/RWEDP/acrobat/fd45.pdf.
http://www.chemlin.de/publications/documents/leucaena.pdf : (Leucaena is a fodder legume. Yields up to 3040
m3/ha/year.Itshowsyield4050m3ofwood/hectare.Needsrainfall1,1001,200mm.Itneedsminimum600700mm
rainfall.Itgrowsbestinrainfall1,0003,000mm.Leucaenagrowswellinalkalinesoil.ItgrowswellinsoilhavingpH6.07.7.
12
http://www.timoragri.fhost.com.au/ta100/ta117.pdf:calcareous, with a soil pH between 8 and 9, with some soils being
sodic
13
http://www.timoragri.fhost.com.au/ta100/ta117.pdf

Page 21 of 396
Sumba Island has a climate semiarid climate. This information has been obtained from a report
providedbytheIndonesianCentralBureau.

SumbaTimurregency
SumbaTimurregencyhastypicallyasemiaridclimate.Theaveragetemperatureinthisregencyin
2012 reached 27.2C, with the lowest 24.9C in August and the highest 29.5C in November. The
highestaverageprecipitationwasinMarch,whilefromJunethroughOctobertherewasnorainfall
at all.14Nothern part had the lowest range of precipitation (8001,000 mm p.a), while the eastern
partandwesternpartofthemiddleareaofSumbaTimurregencyhadanaverageprecipitationof
1,0001,500mmp.aand1,5002,000mmp.a.inthewesternpartoftheregency.15

Theregencyhasatotalareaof700,050haofwhich44%(307,700ha)hasaslopeof08%.

SumbaTengahregency
This regency is also known to have a semi arid climate. Dry season occurs from the month June
throughSeptember,whilerainyseasonoccursnormallyfromDecemberthroughMarch.Transition
periodsoccurinmonthsAprilMayandOctoberNovember.Thus,8monthsinayearisrelativelydry
inthisregency.16

Ananalysisbasedona30yearsclimatedataseries(19832012)ontemperatureandrainfallshowed
that the mean monthly temperature in Nusa Tenggara Timur and the monthly rainfall tend to
increaseintherangeof0.2C0.4Cand2510mmrespectively.17Inaddition,rainyseasontendsto
shiftlater(13months)thanthenormalcaseandoccursinashorterperiod.

UmbuRatuNggaySubdistrictislocatedatanaltitudeofabout500masl.18

SumbaBarat
LikeotherregenciesinSumbaIsland,SumbaBaratRegencyhasalsotwoseasons,rainyseason(from
December to March) and dry season (June to September, with the transition period on AprilMay
andOctoberNovember).Therestof8monthsisdry.

14
http://sumbatimurkab.bps.go.id/index.php?hal=tabel&id=10
15
http://www.sumbatimurkab.go.id/iklim.html
16

http://ntt.litbang.pertanian.go.id/phocadownload/Kab_Dalam%20Angka%202009/Kabupaten%20Sumba%20Tengah%20D
alam%20Angka%202009.pdf
17
http://bkpmnttprov.web.id/datawilayah/profilprovinsinusatenggaratimur/
18
http://geospasial.bnpb.go.id/wpcontent/uploads/2010/09/indeks_peta/250K/IDQ14250K.pdf

Page 22 of 396
19

AltitudeofSumbaBaratRegencybyDistrict201220
District Altitude(m)
Lamboya 0700
Wanokaka 0450
LaboyaBarat 0700
Loli 200600
KotaWaikabubak 200600
TanaRighu 0550

Fromtheclimatecharacteristicinallregenciesdescribedabove,itwasconcludedthatLamtoroGung
couldbasicallygrowthroughouttheIsland.Theplantwasfoundtogrowinthesearea,asobserved
fromthesitesurvey.
LamtoroGunggrowinginSumbaiscurrentlyusedforfuelorfodderbylocalcommunity.Inorderto
secureasupplyofthewood,LamtoroGungplantationshouldbeconsideredratherthancollectingit
fromlocalareasthatgrowwildlyorareownedbyfarmers.
BasedonthesitesurveyanddiscussionswiththelocalgovernmentofSumba(Pemda)andForestry
Service, Sumba Tengah, Sumba timur, and Sumba Barat were found to be potential areas for
Lamtoro Gung energy plantation. It was confirmed that there are available land areas in Sumba
Timur, Sumba Tengah and Sumba Barat regencies for energy plantation. Two locations were
identifiedinSumbaTimur36,000haand19,200ha,onelocationinSumbaTengah(6,350ha),and
onelocationinSumbaBarat(5,000ha).

Thelocationsareshowninthemapbelow,withdescriptionofthelocations.

19
http://www.setyanovanto.info/sumbabarat?page=polling&lang=id: Jika dilihat dari ketinggian, wilayah Kabupaten
Sumba Barat diklasifikasikan kedalam 4 daerah ketinggian dengan rincian : ketinggian dari 025 m meliputi 4,24% luas
wilayah,dari25100mmeliputi21,46%luaswilayah,dari100500mmeliputi61,31%luaswilayah,danketinggiandiatas
500mmeliputi12,99%luaswilayah.Dariaspekklimatologi,KabupatenSumbaBaratdipengaruhiolehiklimmusondengan
ratarata musim hujan dari 1.0002500 mm, dengan jumlah hari hujan dari 100 hingga 150 hari. Curah hujan ini sudah
dipengaruhiolehkondisihidrologidiKabupatenSumbaBarat.
20
http://sumbabaratkab.bps.go.id/index.php/keadaangeografi/21tinggirataratawilayahkabupatensumbabarat
menurutkecamatantahun2012

Page 23 of 396
INDONESIA

Sumba Island

3
2
4


Location Desa Kecamatan Kabupaten Forest Savannah Farmland/
Plantation
SumbaTimur MeuRumba KahaunguEti SumbaTimur 37% 60% 3%
(Candidate1)
SumbaTimur Rakawatu Lewa SumbaTimur 9% 90% 1%
(Candidate2)
SumbaTengah Soru UmbuRatu Sumba 8% 90% 2%
(Candidate3) Nggay Tengah
SumbaBarat BodoHula Lamboya SumbaBarat 35% 60% 5%
(Candidate4) LamboyaDete
Figure3.1.LocationanddescriptionofcandidatesforforestenergyplantationsinSumba

Page 24 of 396
3.3. SumbaTengah,SumbaTimurandSumbaBarat

3.3.1. Electricitysupplyanddemand

PLNs Rencana Usaha PenyediaanTenaga Listrik (RUPTL) or Power Supply Business Plan for the
period2015to2024statesthatin2012,combinedpeakloadonPLNsisolatedsystemsonSumba
amounted to 0.9 MW, while peak load on the Waikabubak system was 5.1 MW and on the
Waingapu system 5.2 MW. The Waikabubak system is supplied by generation mix consisting of
diesel,hydro,andsolarpowerplantswithatotalinstalledcapacityof9.6MW.21

PLNhasplannedtoincreaseaneffectivecapacityfrom16.0to21.7MWovertheperiodof2014
2020, as stated in RUPTL 20152024. According to this RUPTL, there would remain some 6.7 MW
dieselcapacityinoperation,3.0MWofbiomasscapacity,0.5MWofhybrid,andtheremaining11.5
MWassmallhydro.Until2014(October),therehasbeennobiomasspowerplantdevelopedinthe
IslandasearlierplannedinRUPTL20122021.

Current(2013/2014)peakdemandinSumbaIslandisreportedtobe10.3MW.
Ready to develop renewable energy in Sumba Island includes hydro potential 12.4 MW, biomass
power plant and wind potential. The development of 1 MW biomass power plant in Waingapu
seemstobechangedtoalatertimeinRUPTL20122023,whichstatesthattheplantisallocatedto
be commercial by 2016. However, this development is likely toexperience barrier so that it could
notberealizedasexpected.

ExistingtransmissionlineinSumbaIslandissystemWaingapu,systemWaikabubakWaitabula,and
systemisolatedsuppliedbya20kVfeederfrom19.1MWofgenerationmixpowerplant.

21
RUPTL20152024

Page 25 of 396
PLNs existing 20 kV network

PLNs planned 20 kV network

Figure3.2.PLNsexistingandplanned20kVnetworkforSumba

PLN has started a program for the interconnection of the East and West systems via connection
throughthenorthernandcentralroutes.

Fordevelopmentofabiomasspowerplant,itmustbemadeclearonsubstationtowhichelectricity
generatedfrombiomasspowerplantissupplied/exported.

Page 26 of 396
3.3.2. Marketoptions

Biomass power plant to be developed could provide electricity to local community or be sent to
PLNsgridwhenlocaldemandisalreadyfulfilled.

Marketoptionsforbyproducts
ExcessHeat:Anyexcessheatfromthepowerplantcouldbeutilizedforbiomassdryingduringpre
processing.Hotairgeneratedingascoolerduringcoolingofgascanbeusedfordryingofbiomass.

FlyAsh
Ash generated from biomass power plant could be used for fertilizer. However, this would need
furtherconsiderationtodetermineitspotentialmarket.Theashandwasteproductsfromburningor
gasificationwill,inmostcases,besufficientlybenigntoreturntothesoil.

Page 27 of 396
4. SITESELECTION

4.1 SiteSelectionforEnergyPlantation
Siteselectionmustconsiderandbalanceawiderangeofbiological,economic,andsocietalfactors.
ThebiomassdecisiontreeshowninFig.4.1summarizestheinformationrequiredanddecisionsthat
need to be made to determine whether a biomass plantation may be feasible. Site selection and
planningatthenational,regional,andlocallevelrequiresgeographicallylocatedinformationonsoil
andgeology,naturalvegetation,currentlanduses,topography,watershedboundaries,stream/river
systems, roads, local political jurisdictions, land ownership and tenure information, location of
culturalandhistoricalresources,locationofnaturepreservesandrarehabitatsandspecies.Itisalso
very valuable to have sitespecific research data on the yields that can be expected from the
preferredspecies.

Based on the discussion with local governments (Pemda) during the site survey in 20132014 in
Sumba Island as reported in ADB Technical Assistance (TA) No. 8287INO: ScalingUp Renewable
Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia Deliverable B: Energy Resources for Grid Supply & Electricity
Demand Analysis for Sumba 3 regions were identified to have potential for the development of
energy plantation; Sumba Timur Regency, Sumba Tengah regency and Sumba Barat regency. The
sitesforenergyplantationintheseregionsareownedbylocalgovernments.
ThesitesweresuggestedbyforestryserviceofSumbaTimurandSumbaTengahandconsideredas
potentialandappropriatesitesforLamtoroGungplantationasthissitesaremainlysavannahareas
(>60%ofproposedsitesarea).Theplantationprogramcouldhelpimprovesoilproperties.

Table4.1.ProposedsitesforLamtoroGungenergyplantationinSumbaIsland
Regency/ Village Subdistrict Forest Savannah Farmland/ Potentialarea
Candidatesite Plantation (ha)
SumbaTimur 37%(Protection
MeuRimba KahaunguEti
forest) 60% 3% 36,695
(Candidate1)
Sumba Timur 9%(Production
Rakawatu Lewa
forest) 90% 1% 19,748
(Candidate2)
Sumba Tengah 8%(Production
Soru UmbuRatuNggay
forest) 90% 2% 6,350
(Candidate3)
Sumba barat Bodohula 35% 60% 5%
(Candidate4) Lamboya Lamboya 4,720
Dete

Page 28 of 396

Figure4.1.Biomassprojectdecisiontree


Figure4.2.MapindicatingcandidatelocationsforLamtoroGungenergyplantation

Candidatesite1:SumbaTimurregency
Anareaof36,000hasuggestedfortheenergyplantationislocatedinMeuRimbaVillage,Kahaungu
EtiSubdistrict.Onlysmallpartoftheareaisafarmarea(3%),about37%protectionforest.Lamtoro

Page 29 of 396
Gungisexpectedtogrowwellconsideringtheclimateofthisareawherereasonableprecipitationis
availableforgrowingthiskindofplantandislocatedbetween200500masl.22

Table 4.2. Number of rainfall and number of rainy days by Months in Kahaungu Eti Subdistrict
(2010)
Month 2010 2012
Rainy Days Rainfall(mm) Rainy Days Rainfall(mm)
(days) (days)
January 13 220 Nodata Nodata
February 7 130 Nodata Nodata
March 13 220 Nodata Nodata
April Nodata Nodata
May Nodata Nodata
June Nodata Nodata
July Nodata Nodata
August Nodata Nodata
September Nodata Nodata
October Nodata Nodata
November Nodata Nodata
December Nodata Nodata
Total 33 570 Nodata Nodata
Source:KahaunguEtiinFigures2013BPSSumbaTimur

Candidatesite2:SumbaTimurregency
The proposed site is located in Rakawatu Village, Lewa Subdistrict totalling an area of 19,000 ha.
Mostofthisissavannaharea(90%)thoughabout1%isafarmareaandtheremainingisproduction
forest. The climate of this area would still be suitable for Lamtoro Gung energy plantation as it is
locatedinnorthernpartofSumbaTimurhavinggenerallyarangeannualprecipitationof8001000
mmandanaltitudeoflessthan500masl.23

22
http://geospasial.bnpb.go.id/wpcontent/uploads/2010/09/indeks_peta/250K/IDQ14250K.pdf
23
http://geospasial.bnpb.go.id/wpcontent/uploads/2010/09/indeks_peta/250K/IDQ14250K.pdf(altitude
500masl)

Page 30 of 396
Table 4.3. Number of rainfall and number of rainy days by Months in Lewa Subdistrict (2011 and
2012)
Month 2011 2012
Rainy Days Rainfall(mm) Rainy Days Rainfall(mm)
(days) (days)
January 18 2727
February 11 1825
March 15 3456
April 6 990
May
June
July
August
September
October 2 221
November
December 15 Nodata
Total 43 5502 24 3717
Source:LewainFigures2013BPSSumbaTimur,DinasPertanianTanamanPangandanHortikultura,
KabupatenSumbaTimur

Candidatesite3:SumbaTengahregency
The3rdsiteproposedfortheenergyplantationisinSoruvillage,UmbuRatuNggaySubdistrict.Asin
other proposed sites, Lamtoro Gung is expected to grow well in this area where dry season could
reachupto8months.Outof6,350ha,majorityoftheproposedareaatthissiteissavannah(90%)
whilefarmlandconstitutesofonly2%.Theproposedsitealsocoversprotectionforestwhichcould
beusedforenergyplantation.Thesitesislocatedataltitudeofapproximately500masl.
No data of number of rainfall and number of rainy days in Umbu ratu Nggay Subdistrict (also in
SumbaTengahregency),becauseinstrumentisnotyetavailable. SumbaTengahRegency hasonly
twoseasons,dryseasonandrainyseason.OnJunetoSeptemberthewindflowwhichcontainslittle
moisture,causedthedryseason.Onthecontrary,onDecembertoMarchthewindflowcontainsa
greatdealofmoisture,causedtherainyseason.Thisconditionchangesandturnforahalfofyear,
after passing, the transitional period on AprilMay and OctoberNovember. Nevertheless, since
SumbaTengahasnotsofarfromAustralia,thegreatdealofmoistureofwindflowcomesfromAsia
andPasificOcean,hasreduceafterreachingSumbaTengaharea.AnditmakesSumbaTengahhas
thedryareawhichisrelativelywetin4months(JanuaryuntilAprilandDecember)andtherestof8
monthsisdry.

Page 31 of 396
Candidatesite4:SumbaBaratregency
The site covers an area of 4,720 ha and is in Lamboya Subdistrict. This area is under the
managementofaprivatecompany,PTUsahaTaniLestari.PlantationofLamtoroGunginthisareais
expectedtoresultgoodquantityofwoodfordevelopingabiomasspowerplantinthisIsland.

Asnotedinthetableabove,potentialareasfortheplantationsarelocatedinprotectedforestand
productionforest.However,theIndonesianforestrylawsandregulationsallowtheuseofProtected
Forests (Hutan Lindung) and Production Forests (Hutan Produksi) for uses like forest energy
plantations. Nature Reserves (Cagar Alam) and Core Zones of National Parks (Zona inti Taman
Nasional)aretheonesthatareprohibitedforanyutilization.24,25

TheprocessofusingProtectedandProductionforestsforthesepurposesisthroughapplicationto
theMinistryofForestry.Anareaof500haofCandidate1wasconvertedtocommunityforestbased
onDecisionoftheMinistryofForestry(SuratKuasa)110/MenhutII/2009.Anadditionalconversion
of 2,754 ha from the protected forest at this Candidate location to community forest is being
proposedbytheForestryOfficeofSumbaTimurtotheMinistryofForestry.

Candidate4ismanagedbyPTUsahaTaniLestariwhichhasobtainedbusinessLicenseonIndustrial
Forest Plantation (hutan tanaman industri /HTI) from The Ministry of Forestry based on
SK.216/Menhut11/2013,25March2013foranareaof41,515haconsistingof4,720hainSumba
Island(SumbaBaratRegency)andof36,795HainFloresIsland(KupangRegency).Thepurposeof
the HTI is to plant/grow woody plant for wood work, energy and to provide incentive from GHGs
emissions reduction based on REDD program (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation).Anareaof4,720isplannedforplantingofplanttypessuchaseucalyptus,turi,gamal,
lamtoro(shorttermplant),andalsojati(longtermplant).

24
Law 41/1999 on Forestry contains the following provisions. Minister of Forestry Regulation P.38/MenhutII/2012
providesfurtherdetails:
Article24:Forestareautilizationcanbemadetoallforestareasexceptnaturalconservationforestaswellascorezone
andforestzoneinnationalpark.
Article26:(1)Utilizationofprotectedforestinformofareautilization,environmental
serviceutilizationandcollectionofnontimberforestproduce.
Article38:(1)Useofforestareauseintheinterestofdevelopmentbeyondforestry
activitiescanonlybemadeinproductionforestareaandprotectedforestarea
25
ProtectedForestsandProductionForestscanbeusedforindustrialorcommercialtimberplantations,communityforest
plantations or ecosystem services and nonforestry activities such as renewable energy, rightofway for electricity grid
lines,etc.

Page 32 of 396
Table4.4.NumberofrainfallandnumberofrainydaysbyMonthsinLamboyaSubdistrict(2012and
2013)
Month 2012 2013
Rainy Days Rainfall(mm) Rainy Days Rainfall(mm)
(days) (days)
January 23 494 20 422
February 14 367 19 301
March 18 833 16 165
April 11 193 7 246
May 8 91 10 116
June 6 108
July 5 19 3 30
August
September 2 1 3 89
October 7 62 4 152
November 10 63 15 151
December 24 278 12 656
Total 122 2401 124 2436
Source:LamboyainFigures2013andSumbaBaratinFigures2014BPSSumbaBarat

PT Usaha Tani Lestari as the IUPHHK (Permit for Timber Forest Product Utilization) holder must
arrangeTimberForestProductUtilizationPlan(RKUPHHK/RencanaKaryaUsahaPemanfaatanHasil
HutanKayu).RKUPHHKispreparedasaworkingplanforallworkingareaofIUPHHKforaperiodof
10 years, which must consider long term management plan KPH and should include among other
forest sustainability aspect, business sustainability, environmental balance and social economy
developmentoflocalcommunity.26Currentstatusoftheprograminaccordancewithlicensestages
is development of RKUUPHHK (Rencana Karya Sepuluh Tahunan Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan
kayu) which expired on July 2014, and next is to prepare Annual Plan Timber Forest Product
Utilization(RKTUPHHK/RencanaKaryaTahunan)andplantingistargetedinJanuary2015.

Inareaof4,720hainSubdistrictLamboyawaslaterincludedasoneofcandidatesitesforenergy
plantationinthisreport.

26
Based on Minute of Meeting with PT Usaha Tani Lestari: PT Usaha Tani Lestari as the IUPHHK holder must arrange
TimberForestProductUtilizationPlan(RKUPHHK/RencanaKaryaUsahaPemanfaatanHasilHutanKayu)oneyearatthe
latestafterreceivingTimberForestProductUtilizationLicense(IUPHHK/IzinUsahaPemanfaatanHasilHutanKayu).

Page 33 of 396
4.2 ProjectSiteOfBiomassPowerPlant
The purpose of the proposed project is to generate electricity using biomass as fuel. Project site
selectionisvitalinordertomakecapitalinvestmentaseffectiveaspossibleandtoobtainmaximum
results.
Followingaremajorcriteriaforregionsuitabilityforelectrificationusingthebiomasspowersystem:
a. StrongGovernmentprioritiesforregionalandcommunitydevelopment
b. StrongsupportoflocalGovernment,PTPLNfortheproject
c. Localtransmissionlineinfrastructure(locationrelativetotheexistinggrid)
d. Adequatelandandsuitablesitesforpowersystem

Thecandidatesitesforenergyplantationforsupportingbiomasspowerplantaregiveninsection4.
An onsite survey was conducted based on the above criteria in conjunction with officials from
relevantlocalgovernment,asaresultofwhichfourcandidatesiteswerechosen.

Table4.5.Candidatesiteofbiomasspowerplant
Candidate site of biomass Power plant size Geographicalcoordinates Distance to PLN
powerplant (MW)gross grid(km)
Kapohakpenang(Candidate1) 1.2 SumbaTimur:S09056.039E 50
120024.383
Rakawatu(Candidate2) 1.2 SumbaTimur:S09035.348E 15
119055.839
Pahedutilli(Candidate3) 1.2 SumbaTengah:S09032.563E 12
119050.393
Lamboya(Candidate4) 1.2 SumbaBarat:S0956.260 5
E12023.473

Page 34 of 396
5. BIOMASSSUPPLY

5.1. EstimationofLamtoroGungforpowergeneration

The amount of Lamtoro Gung wood generated annually was calculated based on the estimated
annualaverageareaharvestedandassumedyieldvaluesoftheplantationasnotedpreviouslyand
asdescribedinAppendixA(30tons/ha/year).Technicalavailability(accessibilitytobiomassresource
touseitasfeedstockforenergygeneration)wasassumedtobe70%.
Table5.1Presentsestimationon quantityofLamtoroGungwoodandlandrequiredforelectricity
generationfrom1MWupto10MW.

Table5.1.EstimatedLandRequiredforElectricityGenerationCapacityof1MW
No Remarks Amountrequired
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree
1 28.8tons/day(24hours)
(MC:20%)
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree
2 38.4tons/day(24hours)
(MC:40%)
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree
3 1,152tons/month
(MC:40%)
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree
4 12,672tons/year
(MC:40%and330d/y)
PlantingareaforLamtoroGungtree(70%
5 603.5ha
availability)
6 Annualharvestingproduct(MC:40%) 30tons/year/ha
Anareaof1000ha(70%availability)could
7 21,000tons/year
producewoodlogwithdiameterof5cm

A1MWbiomasspowerplantshallrequirelamtorogungwoodchipsofaround28,8ton/day(20%
wet basis). With an annual productivity of 30 tons/ha/year, technical availability (accessibility to
biomass resource to use it as feedstock for energy generation) was assumed to be 70%, an
approximately 603.5 ha plantation area is required. Larger power plant capacity will require more
plantationarea.

Unlikededicatedenergycrops,theadvantageofwoodybiomassforpowergenerationfuelisthatit
doesnothavecriticalharvesttime.

Page 35 of 396
5.2. Potentialwoodproductionfromproposedcandidatesofbiomassenergyplantation

The candidate sites for the energy plantation with estimated annual technical potential of wood
production are listed in the following table following the communication with local stakeholders
(DinasKehutananSumbaTimur,DinasKehutananSumbaBaratandDinasKehutananSumbaTengah
andPTUsahaTaniLestari).

Table5.2.EstimationoftechnicalpotentialofLamtoroGungwoodproductionatcandidatesitesfor
energyplantation
Regency/ Village Subdistrict Potentialarea Wood Technical
Location (ha) productivity potential
(tons/year) (tons/year)
SumbaTimur Meu KahaunguEti
27
Rimba 36,965 1,108,950 776,265
(Candidate1)
Sumba Timur Rakawatu Lewa
19,748 592,440 414,708
(Candidate2)
Sumba Tengah Soru Umbu Ratu
Nggay 6,350 190,500 133,350
(Candidate3)
Sumba Barat Bodohula Lamboya
(Candidate4) Lamboya 4,720 141,600 99,120
Dete
TOTAL 2,033,490 1,423,443
* Assumptions: Biomass potential from Lamtoro Gung ,wood yield 30 tons/ha/year and technical
availabilityofbiomass70%,withaveragecalorificvalue19.25kJ/kg
**TheForestServiceofSumbaTimurRegency
***TheForestryandPlantationAgencyofSumbaTengah

Conclusionfromthecandidatesites:
Forestenergyplantation:
Under forest plantation plan (Lamtoro Gung ) in Sumba Timur, Sumba Tengah and Sumba
Barat,estimatedpowergenerationis889GWh/y
Sumba Timur could produce 1,190,973 tons wood chips (could generate at least 90 MW
power,1.2tbiomass(MC:20%)/MWh)
Sumba Tengah could produce 133,350 tons wood chips (could generate at least 10 MW
power,1.2tbiomass(MC:20%)/MWh)
SumbaBaratcouldproduce99,120tonswoodchips(couldgenerateatleast7MWpower,
1.2tbiomass(MC:20%)/MWh)

27
KawasanhutanKapohakPenang,merupakanblokblokhutanyangadadiwilayahdesa,(Meurumba,Kambatabundung,Mauramba).
DesadesatersebutsaatiniberadadalamwilayahkecamatanKahaunguEtisebagaiKecamatanbaruyangmekardariKecamatan
Paberiwai.KawasantersebutmerupakanbagiandariDasKambanirudanDasMelolo.HutanKapohakPenangg,termasukdalamRegister
TanahKehutanan(RTK)Thn1978no183.PenetapankawasanhutanKapohakpenangdenganfungsiLindungseluas3500HadanFungsi
produksitetap625ha,SKMenteriKehutananNo.631/Kpts/Um/10/1974.HutanProduksitetapseluas625haini,berlokasidiantara
DesaKambatabundung,DesaMeurumba,danDesaMauramba,KecamatanKahanguEti.

Page 36 of 396
Developing energy plantation in Sumba Tengah alone as planned would supply enough
electricity(10MW)inSumbaIslandthroughPLNgrid(currentdemandinSumbaIsland10
MWpeakload)

5.3. Biomasssupplychain
Thissectionwillprovidefeedstocksupplyprocesstobiomasspowerplantwhichwillincludethe
following:
1. Feedstocksupply
2. Managementpracticestoproduceforestbiomass
3. Harvestingsystem
4. Processing/transportation/separationssystems
5. Processing/storage

Biomasssupplychainconsideredinthisreportincludesharvesting,transportation,storage,handling
andfuelpreparationforpowerplant.
As noted earlier in section 5.1, 28.8 ton/day lamtoro gung wood chips must be provided for the
proposed 1 MW biomass power plant. The provision of this fuel must be well planed and timely
executedforacontinuedoperationofthepowerplant.

BiomassfuelistobesourcedfromLamtoroGungplantationswhichareassumedtobemanagedby
an authorized party appointed by government. The party shall facilitate and participate and
coordinate in biomass supply chain. It is also assumed that the party will also be responsible in
biomass preparation (wood harvesting and pretreatment). PT Usaha Tani Lestari has indicated
willingnesstoestablishandcoordinatethewoodybiomasssupplychain.

Lamtoro Gung is ready for harvesting after 1218 months (consider as dedicated short rotation
woodycrops(SRWCs).Assumingthatanadequatespacingofthetreesof2mforhealthyandgood
qualityofwood/lumberfromanarea of600halamtorogung plantation38.4tonofwoodwill be
harvested.Theresidues/wastesfromtreescuttingareleftonthefield.About8ton/dayresiduesis
estimatedtobegeneratedfromdailyharvest.Lamtoroareprunedduringharvestingseasonandthe
prunings(branch)areusedasamulchandNsource.

Page 37 of 396
Woodharvesting

The harvested log woods are processed into wood chips with size range of 1575 mm to suit to
feedstocksizeforgasificationaftertransportedtobiomasspowerplantsite.28
ThesizeoftheplantperMWhasadirectimpactonthenumberofworkersrequiredinwoodsupply
chain,thoughworkersforpowerplantdonotvarylinearlywithMWgeneration.Itisestimated10
workersareneededfor1MWplant,with300workersforfuelsupply.

Fellingcouldbedonewithchainsaws.Thetreesarecuttolengthorleftwholeandareforwarded
withgrappleloadersformovingtoalandingareafromwhichareloadedontotrucksfortransporting
toapretreatmentfacility.Incasethatexcessoflaborinthesurroundingplantationareaexistswith
low wage rates and costly fuel, felling and forwarding could be performed manually. To be
conservative,itisassumed,basedonseveralharvestratesfromreference,thataharvestrateof0.4
drytonnes/dayLamtoroGungwoodcouldbeachieved.But,thisvaluecouldbedifferentfromthe
realplantationlateronatthecandidatesitesduetolocalsiteconditionssuchasplantationdensity,
treesize,forwardingdistances,climate,season,topography.29

Pretreatment

For a combustion technology the quality of wood chips requires less than for a gasification
technology.Moisturecontentandsizeupto40%and50%aretoleratedinboiler.Inthegasification
technology, wood fuel requires specific moisture content and size (and sometimes also preferred
feedstocke.g.withlowash)dependingonthetypeofgasifier.Therefore,additionaldrying,milling,
chippingandscreeningareusedaspretreatments.

As later on in the next chapter discussed, the specification of wood fuel for the gasification
technology(usingdowndrafttypegasifier)arewoodchipswithmoisturecontentabout20%andsize
1575 mm. The pretreatments of Lamtoro Gung wood to achieve the specification are drying,
chippingandscreening.Thepretreatmentwouldoccurpriortouseatthepowerplantfacility.

28
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Tra3YowpHuIJ:https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/docu
ment/30968/tm2008008
0_supply_system_costs_of_slash,_forest_thinnings,_and_commercial_energy_wood_crops_pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl
=id
Wood chips are prone to self-heating and dry matter loss when moisture content is greater than about 20% (wet basis)
(Springer 1979). To mitigate this potential problem, a just-in-time delivery system is used so that chips are seldom stored
longer than 15 days and the pile height is held under 30 ft (Springer 1979; McDonald and Twaddle 2000)
29
https://bioenergy.ornl.gov/reports/fuelwood/chap3.html

Page 38 of 396

Normally, fresh harvested wood contains about 4050% moisture (wet basis). Moisture content
higher than 50% could cause significant decrease of boiler efficiency in combustion technology.30
WithregardtotheclimateofSumbaIslanditwouldbepossibletoreducemoisturecontentthrough
naturalairdryabout15%,butthiswouldrequireatimeperiodof3060days.31

For a conversion system requires small sizes of wood as feedstock, the harvested wood can be
chipped soon after harvesting. In case that a conversion system requires dry feedstock, moisture
contentbelow50%,thengreenchipswouldhavetobestored.Instead,felledtreescanbestoredin
whole form for storage and drying, thereby reduces decomposition losses. Generally, it is known
thatdrierwoodismoredifficulttochipandtoensureuniformsize.

Atharvesttime,themoisturecontentofLamtorogungwoodisestimatedintherange3050%,and
thus would require drying to suit to fuel characteristic either for boiler or gasification. Moreover,
high moisture content would reduce transportation efficiency and storage time (durability). The
moisture should be reduce to 20%. When airdry to 30% moisture content is possible, it would
reduceoreveneliminatetheheatrequiredfordryingandthussaveenergy.

Transportation
Transportation costs are the costs for transporting biomass from the forest landing to the power
generationplant.Transportationcostsarecalculatedbasedondistancetraveledanddieselfuelcost
ofRp6000/litre.

Thetotalnumberoftripsrequiredtotransportwoodybiomassisestimatedfromthetotalamount
of woody biomass available in candidate sites, biomass density, and the freight of truck
arrangement.Itemsconsideredinthecalculationoftransportationcostofbiomasstopowerplant
include: unit cost of transportation (Rp/km), number of trucks and capacity of trucks, fuel
consumption (litre/100km), total distance to transport wood fuel to power generation plant, fuel
consumption/cost.

30
https://bioenergy.ornl.gov/reports/fuelwood/chap3.html
31
http://www.advancedbiomass.com/2011/11/biomass-storage-pile-basics/

Page 39 of 396
FuelhandlingandStorage
Consideration of biomass outdoor storage for up to 15 days32would be important as a biomass
power plant is to be run continuously all year around. This could anticipate seasonal variation in
SumbaIslandwheredryseasonoccurnormallyfor8months(fromApriltoNovember).

Wood chips biomass could be stored outdoor (in open area) in piles. After field drying, outdoor
storedwoodwouldbeexpectedtoonlyslightlyincreaseinmoisturecontentfromprecipitation.33

Thefollowingsaretobeconsideredindesigningfuelstoragefacilities,whichinclude:
storageareawhichisclosetotheselectedconversionsystem(boilerorgasifier),characteristicsof
wood fuel to be stored, additional feedstock preparation requirements, backup storage capacity,
seasonalweathervariation,andoperationalrequirementsoftheselectedconversiontechnology.

Afuelstoragesystemcouldbeanopenoracoveredsystem,butanopensystemwouldbecheaper.
A fuel feeding system would transfer wood from storage facility to a selected conversion system.
Fuelcanbestoredinsilos,hoppers,containers.

5.4. Projectedbiomasspurchasingandcost

WoodybiomassfromLamtoroGungplantationsisassumedtobepurchasedfromathirdpartythat
isappointedbylocalgovernmentwhichisalsoresponsibleforthemanagementoftheplantations
andharvesting.Stumpage,forestoperationalcostsandbiomasstransportationcostsare the costs
thatdetermineddeliveredcost.Itisestimatedthattheindustrialplantationforestdevelopmentcost
perthawouldbeRp15,356,350/Ha.

32

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Tra3YowpHuIJ:https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/docume
nt/30968/tm20080080_supply_system_costs_of_slash,_forest_thin
nings,_and_commercial_energy_wood_crops_pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=id
Wood chips are prone to self-heating and dry matter loss when moisture content is greater than about 20% (wet basis)
(Springer 1979). To mitigate this potential problem, a just-in-time delivery system is used so that chips are seldom stored
longer than 15 days and the pile height is held under 30 ft (Springer 1979; McDonald and Twaddle 2000)

33
www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2014_keefe_r001.pd

Page 40 of 396
Table 5.3. Cost estimation of industrial plantation forest development per ha of PT Usaha Tani
Lestari(forfirstyear)
No Activity Unit Cost/Unit
I.NonloanCostcomponent/KomponenBiayaBukan
A. Planning
1 PreparationofFSandEIA Ha 32,500
2 PreparationRKUPHHK Ha 25,000
3 PreparationRKTUPHHK Ha 12,500
4 IMB(buildingpermit)cost Ha 14,000
5 Boundaries(TataBatas) Ha 40,000
6 Layoutarea Ha 196,000
TotalA 320,000

B. Developmentoffacilitiesandinfrastructure
1 MakingBuilding,ProcurementandConstructionEquipmentRoad Ha 2,450,000
2 MaintenanceofInfrastructure Ha 32,750
TotalB 2,482,750

C. Administrationandgeneral
1 EducationandTraining Ha 49,000
2 Researchanddevelopment Ha 98,000
3 Generalcosts Ha 980,000
4 Appraisal Ha 71,000
TotalC 1,198,000
TotalI 4,000,750

II.Costcomponentofrevolvingloanfundasworkingcapital
A. Planting
1 NurseryandSeedling Ha 2,420,000
2 Landpreparation Ha 3,214,000
3 Cultivation Ha 684,000
TotalA 6,318,000

B. Maintenance
1 MaintenanceYearI Ha 1,082,000
2 MaintenanceYearII Ha 852,000
3 MaintenanceYearIII Ha 748,000
4 FurtherMaintenanceI Ha 425,000
5 FurtherMaintenanceII Ha 213,000
TotalB 3,320,000

C. ProtectionandForestsafeguard
1 PestandDiseasecontrol Ha 260,000
2 Firecontrol Ha 110,000
3 SecurityForests Ha 122,000
TotalC 492,000

Page 41 of 396

D. Foodcropcost(inaagroforestrypattern) Ha 1,000,000
TotalD 1,000,000

E. Obligationtothecountry(fee,landvaluetax)
1 contributionIUPHHK Ha 2,600
2 Propertytaxes Ha 3,000
TotalE 5,600
TotalII 11,135,600

III.Costcomponentwhichcanbeborrowedornotasrevolvingfund
E LiabilityTotheEnvironment
1 PhysicalChemistryBiology Ha 98,000
2 SocialEnvironment Ha 122,000
TotalE 220,000
TotalIII 220,000

Total(I+II+III) 15,356,350
Source:PTUsahaTaniLestari

5.5. Optionsforbiomassfuelsupplyagreement

Twooptionsareconsideredforwoodsupplyfromasupplier:
Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodlog
Inthis case,thepower plantinvestmentshouldincludefuelpretreatmentsfacility (drying,
chipping,andscreening).Logsdeliveredshouldbeofuniformsizeandshape.

Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodchip
Thewoodchipwouldbedeliveredfromaselectedsuppliertodeliverwoodchipeitherby
the tons, volume or energy content, depending on what is stated in an agreement of fuel
supply

The supplier must provide wood chips according to the specification required for the selected
technology.Consistencyinsizeandmoisturecontentaswellasacontinueamountofsupplyis
priority. Therefore, fuel quality control is highly necessary for smooth operation of the power
plant.Aqualityassurancefromthesuppliershouldbeputintheagreementtoreducetroubles
inoperatingthepowerplant.

Page 42 of 396
5.6. Biomasspretreatments/processingoptions

Biomass process would improve the characteristics of biomass as a fuel. The processes mainly
involve the reduction of moisture content and improving characteristics of biomass. The energy
content of biomass is utilized through one of following three processes: physical, biological and
thermochemical, of which biological and thermochemical are outside the scope of this pre
feasibility.

Physicalprocesses
It is aimed at modification of the biomass feedstock to improve its fuel characteristics. Some
methodsaregivenbelow:

i. Particlesizereduction:
Biomasssizemodificationthroughchippingandfabricationintopelletsfacilitateseasystorage
andtransportation.Thisalsohelpsinachievingfuelcharacteristicsrequiredforcombustionor
gasificationtechnology.

ii. Separation(Screening):
Separationprocesswouldberequired toscreenparticlesizeofbeyondthestandardforthe
technologyadopted.

iii. Drying:
Drying process would include vaporisation of all or part of the water in the feedstock. Solar
drying is one of the cheapest methods. Reduction of water content shall reduce energy
consumption.

iv. Compaction/pelletizing:
Biomass compaction in the form of pellets would results in uniform combustion. Binding
agentssuchasthermoplasticresinscanbeusedformanufacturingpellets.

FeedHandlingandPreparation:Thebiomassfeedstockisdriedfromitsasreceivedmoisturelevelto
lessthan50%tominimizewatercontenttoacceptablelevelforfeedstockoftheselectedconversion
technology,namelygasificationtechnologyaslaterondiscussedinthefollowingchapter6.Itisthen

Page 43 of 396
groundto1575mmparticlesizetoyieldsufficientlysmallparticles,ensuringrapidreactioninthe
gasificationreactor.

5.7. Supplementarybiomass
There is no supplementary biomass is considered for the proposed biomass power plant. The
biomassusedasfuelisonlyfromLamtoroGungwood.

5.8. Biomassrisksmitigation

Table5.4.Biomassrisksmitigationtobeconsidered
Risks Mitigation
Seasonal variation Feedstocksecurityofsupply Itisanticipatedthroughproviding
climate Weather and seasonal variations alargebiomassbufferstocks.
couldleadtovariationoffeedstock Considerationofbiomassoutdoor
supply quantity, different quality storagefor up to15days34would
andprice. beimportantasabiomasspower
plantistoberuncontinuouslyall
yeararound.Thiscouldanticipate
seasonalvariationinSumbaIsland
where dry season occur normally
for 8 months. Wood can be
harvested and stockpiled
outdoors to warrant a continue
fuel supply during monsoon or
when harvesting activity is
impossible.
Disease Woody biomass production is Energy plantation that is largely
prone to plant disease which may depending on the production of
loweritsproduction. woody material must be well
managed and maintained.
Periodicalcheckingoftreeshealth
wouldbeunavoidable.
Fuelsupplycontract Risk of contract violation by biomass Allmainsuppliesarecontracted
suppliers withinsurance

34

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Tra3YowpHuIJ:https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/docume
nt/30968/tm20080080_supply_system_costs_of_slash,_forest_thin
nings,_and_commercial_energy_wood_crops_pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=id
Wood chips are prone to self-heating and dry matter loss when moisture content is greater than about 20% (wet basis)
(Springer 1979). To mitigate this potential problem, a just-in-time delivery system is used so that chips are seldom stored
longer than 15 days and the pile height is held under 30 ft (Springer 1979; McDonald and Twaddle 2000)

http://www.advancedbiomass.com/2011/11/biomassstoragepilebasics/: biomassfired power plants will stockpile a


minimumof2030daysworthoffuel,butmanywillstore60daysworthormore

Page 44 of 396
Whenpossible,abackupsource
for biomass supply is
recommended
Preparing a reasonably large
storage for biomass as
feedstock
Landavailability Lack of transparency of land Seek advice from local
acquisition or permit on land governments regarding a list of
utilization property available for the energy
plantation and the site for
biomasspowerplant
Competitiveusers Illegal logging of Lamtoro Gung Socialization of the energy
wood could influence biomass plantation project to local
feedstockquantityfortheproposed communities surrounding the
powerplantproject. plantationsisnecessary.Thisisto
Woody biomass from Lamtoro providethemwiththeconceptof
Gung tree designed as the the energy plantation for
feedstock for the proposed project electricity generation that could
is generally used by local benefit people of Sumba Island
community in Sumba island as and in local economy
cookingfuel. development.
Transportation Long distance from plantation to Estimation of economical
distance power plant location, where road feasibility should include
transportation is necessary, is sensitivity on among other fuel
vulnerabletofuelpricevariation. priceescalationandinflation.This
istoforeseetheprojectfeasibility
duringtheprojectlifetime.
Firerisk Woody biomass is also susceptible Lamtoro Gung energy plantation
to fire risk, particularly during dry must be well protected from any
season. intruder or unauthenticated to
minimizeirresponsibleactions.
Also,biomassfacilitiesrequirefire
protection measure. In the
development planning, facility for
fighting forestry fire hazard
shouldbeconsideredaswell.
Publicacceptance The public needs to be informed Stakeholders and local people
and confident that bioenergy is need to be informed and
environmentally and socially convinced that the project would
beneficial and does not result in bringenvironmentallyandsocially
significant negative environmental benefit and would not result in
and social tradeoffs. However, the negativeimpacts.
industry is confident such
challenges can be met as similar

Page 45 of 396
challenges have been addressed in
other sectors and appropriate
technologies and practices are
beingdevelopedanddeployed.

Page 46 of 396
6. TECHNOLOGYOPTIONS

Variousbiomassconversiontechnologiescouldtransformbiomassintoheat,electricityandbiofuels.
Generally the conversion technologies are developed through the following conversion routes:
thermochemical,physical,biochemicalandchemical.
Combustion, pyrolysis and gasification are the three main thermo chemical processes which alter
biomass physically and chemically through heating. These processes depend on temperature,
existenceofoxygenandresidencetime.
In case that biomass is desired as fuel for electricity generation other than heat, two possible
candidatesassummarisedas:
Directcombustioninconventionalboiler/steamturbine/condensertechnology
Gasificationwithselectionofgasturbineorinternalcombustionengine

Other two biomass conversion process technology considered are pyrolsis and cogeneration
(allowingsimultaneousgenerationofheatandpower(CHP)whichincreasesglobalefficiency).CFP
usesacondensingextraction(orbackpressure)turbine.

6.1. Biomasscharacteristics(LamtoroGung)

Aselectedwoodyplantspeciesforbioenergyplantationmusthavehighwoodcalorificvalue,ability
toproducewoodofhighdensityandcapabilityforgrowingrapidlyonabroadrangeofsites.These
arerequiredparticularlyrelatedtothecombustionandgasification(thermochemical)processes.

LamtoroGungisafastgrowingtreespecieswhichitswooddensityvariesfrom500640kg/m3(as
citedfrommanyreferences).Biomassfuelssuchasthisspecieshavelowerdensitythanfossilfuels
suchascoal,oilandgasoline.Asaresult,atanequivalentenergybiomassfuelwouldrequirelarger
volumetotransportthanthefossilfuels.Therefore,itisgenerallyrecommendedtohaveanenergy
plantation close to the power plant utilizing biomass as fuel from the plantation as this would
minimizethetransportationcost.

It is estimated that wood production and delivery cost in Sumba are Rp 239,523/ton and Rp
25,000/tonrespectively.TheproductsaresoldatatpriceofRp450,000/ton.
Forthepurposeofthiereportisisassumedthatthepriceofbiomassis40USDpertononairdry
base(notwet,notdryweight).Thepriceexcludeschippingcostafterharvestingwood.

Page 47 of 396

Moisture content of wet lamtoro gung wood varies according to its age, ranging between 30 to
50%.35Itscontentwillaffecttothequalityofbiomassfuelforcombustionandgasificationprocesses.
Lamtoro Gung wood is estimated to have a calorific value of 19,250 kJ/kg (equivalent to 4,597
kcal/kg).

WoodusuallycontainsverysmallinorganicmatterssuchasalkaliandothercompoundssuchasS,P,
Cl,N,Al,heavymetals.Afteratotalcombustionofwood,theremaininginorganicmattersarecalled
ash. Lamtoro Gung wood contains 69.873.9% holecellulose, 8.9 20.1%, pentosans; 21.826.0%
lignin; 13.016.4% caustic soda soluble, and 0.70.9% ash.36,37,2138The chemical components of
LamtoroGungisintherangeofthatofsoftwood(volatiles0.5wt%,ash0.5wt%,lignin2535wt%,
cellulose4045wt%,hemicelluloses2528wt%).

6.2. CombustionTechnology

Among thermo chemical conversion technologies of biomass, direct combustion of biomass in a
boileristhemostcommontechnologyappliedsofarforgeneratingelectricityandheatgeneration.
With this technology, combustion of biomass produces a hot flue gas which could be used for
heating or producing steam for processing purpose or electricity generation. Combustion systems
arecommerciallyavailabletechnologyranginginsizesfrom2kWto500MW.

The most influencing biomass characteristics in the combustion process are moisture content,
chemicalcompositionandenergycontent.Biomassfuelforcombustionfuelisrecommendedto
havemoisturecontentoflowerthan50%andhigherthanthiswouldrequirepredrying.39More
energywouldberequiredtoevaporatewaterforbiomasswithhighermoisturecontent,whichin
turnlowerscombustionefficiency.

35
http://proseanet.org/prosea/eprosea_detail.php?frt=&id=3025
http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD583E/ad583e00.pdf: The natural water content in green wood is always high; even
hardwood species contain as much as 5060% water. When trees are cut, the water content in wood starts decreasing
rapidlyandreducesto3040%withinashorttimeevenindampclimates.And36monthsaftertheharvestitmaygodown
toonly1020%,onanairdriedbasis.
36
idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/7620/1/IDL-7620.pd
37
http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/paper/TR109/tr109_intr.htm
Thechemicalstructureandcompositionofwooddeterminesitscombustionefficiency,ascombustionisaseriesofchemicalreactions.
Generally softwoods have 4045% cellulose, 2437% hemicellulose and 2530% lignin. The hardwoods contain approximately 4050%
celluloseand2240%hemicellulose.
38
http://www.pacificbiomass.org/documents/Oregon3EasternCountiesBiomassAssessment.pdf
39
http://data.obitet.net/makale/makale/internalcombustionengines/097.pdf

Page 48 of 396
Typeofcombustiontechnologies

Combustion technologies are distinguished in fixedbed combustion, fluidized bed combustion
(bubbling and circulating) and dust combustion. These combustion technologies will produce
boilerefficienciesrangingfrom65to75%withnetplantefficienciesfrom20to25%.40Fixedbed
combustionsystemsincludegratefurnacesandunderfeedstokers.
Themostcommonlyusedtypesofboilersforbiomasscombustionarestokerboilersandfluidized
bedboilers.Bothcanbefueledentirelybybiomassfuelorcofiredwithamixofbiomassandcoal.

FixedbedcombustionBoiler(Stoker)
Gratefurnaces
This type furnace is suitable for high moisture content biomass fuels, varying particle sizes
(limitedtotheamountoffineparticlesinthefuelmixture),andhighashcontent.41Thecapacity
appliedisuptoaround20MWth.Thegrateareavailable:stationaryortravellinggrate.

Moving grate boilers (stepped grate or inclined grate boilers), are designed to burn wood chip
withmoisturecontentbetween30%50%,butalsodrywoodchip.42

The followings are specific technologies which include stoker boilers, fluidized bed boilers, and
cofiring43

StokerBoiler
Stoker boilers, the simplest boiler type having relatively small grate, employ direct fire
combustion ofsolidfuelswithexcess air.Hotflue gasesproduced generatessteamintheheat
exchangesectionoftheboiler.Thesteamcouldbeuseddirectlyforheatingpurposesorpassed
throughasteamturbinegeneratorforproducingelectricity.Stokerboilerissuitableforburning
woodpelletorchipswithupto30%moisturecontent.

Therearetwogeneraltypesofstokerboilersystem;underfeedandoverfeed.Underfeedstokers
supplybothfuelandairfromunderthegrate,whileoverfeedstokerssupplyfuelfromabovethe

40
https://bioenergy.ornl.gov/reports/fuelwood/chap3.html
41
http://energoeffekt.gov.by/bioenergy/htdocs/en/practa.pdf
42

http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/BEC_TECHNICAL/BEST%20PRACTICE/37821_F
OR_BIOMASS_2_LR.PDF
43
http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/biomass_chp_catalog_part5.pdf

Page 49 of 396
grateandairfrombelow.Underfedstokerboilerscouldburnwoodpelletsandwoodchipsupto
30%MC.Itisacheapsafetechnologyforsmallandmediumscalesystemsuptoabout6MWth
and suitable for biomass fuels with low ash content such as wood chips, sawdust, pellets and
small particle sizes (up to 50 mm), with a maximum allowable moisture content 40%. With
underfeedcombustor,aboilerefficienciesof8085%couldbeachieved.Underfeedsystemwith
singlescrewcombustorsisavailableforcapacitiesupto2MWth,whilemultiplescrewcombustors
upto6MWth.

Two types of overfeed stokers existsmass feed and spreader. In the mass feed stoker, fuel is
continuously fed onto one end of the grate surface. Spreader stokers are the most commonly
usedstokersbecauseoftheirversatility.Itiscommonlyemployedforwoodfiredboilerswitha
steamgenerationratelargerthan100,000lb/h.Thoughspreaderstokersarethemostcommon
stokers among larger woodfired boilers, overfeed and underfeed type stokers boiler are also
appliedforsmallerunits44

Dustcombustion
Inthissystemcombustiontakesplacewhilethefuelisinsuspensionandgasburnoutisachieved
aftersecondaryairaddition.Smallsizefueloflessthan2mmandlowmoisture(<15%)isblown
into the boiler and combusted by supporting it in air rather than on fixed grates. Variations of
these technologies are available. Examples are combustion systems with spreader stokers and
cycloneburners.

FluidizedBedBoilers
Biomass is burnt in a mixed suspension of gas and solid bed material (usually silica sand and
dolomite)influidizedbed.Airforcombustionentersfrombelow.Theseplantsusuallyoperateat
full load. The plants are of special interest for large scale applications (normally larger than 30
MWth). Fluidized bed boilers are categorized as either atmospheric or pressurized units.
Atmosphericfluidizedbedboilersarefurtherdividedintobubblingbedandcirculatingbedunits;
thefundamentaldifferencebetweenbubblingbedandcirculatingbedboilersisthefluidization
velocity(higherforcirculating).
Fluidized bed boilers are categorized as either atmospheric or pressurized units. Atmospheric
fluidized bed boilers are distinguished further into bubbling fluidised beds (BFB) and circulating
fluidisedbeds(CFB)havetobedistinguished.Aproperbiomasspretreatmentsystemforparticle

44
http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch01/final/c01s06.pdf

Page 50 of 396
sizereduction(usuallybelow40mmforCFBunits and80 mmforBFBunits)andseparationof
metals is required. The disadvantage of FB combustion plants is the high dust loads entrained
withthefluegas,requiringdustprecipitatorsandboilercleaningsystems.BFBisnormallyapplied
for plants with boiler capacity of larger than 20 MWth, while CFB combustion is of interest for
plantslargerthan30MWth.

ACFBsystemisachievedwithfluidizingvelocityto5to10m/sandusingsmallersandparticles
diameter(0.20.4mm).Thecirculatingbedismostsuitableforfuelsofhigherheatingvalues.The
disadvantages of CFB furnaces are their larger size (thus higher price) and higher loss of bed.
Small biomass particle size required (between 0.1 and 40 mm in diameter), results in higher
investmentsinfuelpretreatment.

Theownconsumptionof electricityis about1%pointhigherfromCFBboilersthanfromgrate
firedboilers(23%forgratefiredboilersand34%forBFB/CFBboilersaccordingtoEvaldand
Witt(2006))

Burning solid fuels in a pressurized fluidized bed boiler produces a highpressure stream of
combustiongases.Afterthecombustiongasespassthroughahotgascleanupsystem,theyare
fed into a gas turbine to make electricity, and the heat in the hot exhaust gas stream can be
recoveredtoboilwaterforasteamturbine.Therefore,apressurizedfluidizedbedboilerismore
efficient, but also more complicated and expensive. Capital costs of pressurized fluidized bed
combustiontechnologyarehigherthanatmosphericfluidizedbeds

Forsmallerplants,fixedbedsystemsareusuallymorecosteffective.
Ashisabyproductofwoodcombustion,thequantityproducedvaryingfrom0.5%to2%ormore
ofthedryweightofwoodchiporwoodpelletburned.

Cofiring:
Inacofiringcombustionsystem,aportionofbiomass(upto20%)substitutescoalinanexisting
boiler. Since no major modifications are required in existing plant, it is an economic option for
introducing new biomass power generation. Bomass can substitute for up to 20 percent of the
coal used in the boiler. Cofiring is typically applied when either the supply of biomass is
intermittentorbiomasshashighmoisturecontent.Cofiringofcoalwithbiomassoccuratlarge

Page 51 of 396
plants,butatsmallplantsmorebiomassisusedforcofiringwithnaturalgas.Homogenizationof
fuelwithdifferentmoisturecontentsatthefuelyardisanecessity.
Potassium ash content which is relatively high in fresh wood, green particles, and fastgrowing
biomass, could cause the ash to melt at low temperatures leading to fouling and slagging.
Moreover,biomassfuelscouldcontainchlorineandalkaliswhichmayinducecorrosion.

Netbioenergyconversionefficienciesforbiomasscombustionpowerplantsrangefrom20%to
40%. The efficiency of combustion technology can be increased by applying the socalled
cogenerationtechnologyinwhichsimultaneousgenerationofheatandpower(CHP)occurs.

6.3. GasificationTechnology

Gasification is a process of converting biomass to combustible producer gas (syngas), which is
then converted to power in an internal combustion engine. Syngas produced has low heating
valueofaround46MJ/Nm3ifairisusedasoxydizingagent.Syngasaftercleaningprocess(and
filtered)canbeburntdirectlyorusedasafuelforgasenginesandturbinesforpowergeneration.
Gascleaninggenerallyconsistsofaseriesoffilters.

SyngasusedfordrivingICenginecouldberunin100%gasificationandindualmode(with20%
dieseloiladditionintothecombustionchamber).

Insmallersystems,thesyngascanbefiredin
reciprocatingengines,microturbines,Stirlingengines,orfuelcells.
Importantbiomasspropertiesaffectinggasificationprocessare:
Moisturecontent
Gasificationprocessrequiresrelativedrybiomassfeedstocksforproducingahigherquality
gas (higher heating value, higher efficiency and lower tar levels). The process requires the
water content of biomass to be low (<20 %) for proper operation. Woody biomass like
LamtoroGung(withwatercontent30%50%)wouldcertainlyrequirepredrying.Theoption
is to perform drying using waste heat from the gas engine and is integrated with the
gasificationplantformaintainingarelativelyconstantmoisturecontentofthebiomass.


Page 52 of 396
Ashcontentandashcomposition
Ash formed after completion of a combustion process contains inorganic and mineral of
biomass.Thechemicalcompositionof ashinbiomassaffectsthemelting behaviourofthe
ash.Ashmeltingcancauseslaggingandchannelformationingasificationreactors.Woody
biomasscouldproduceashofupto0.1%.45

Volatilemattercontent
Volatile matter content influences tar production levels in various types of gasifier design
(updraftgasifier,fluidbedgasifier,ordowndraftgasifier).Biomasscontainsvolatilematters
intherangeof50%to80%.46

Elementcomposition
Biomasselementalcompositionwillinfluencetheheatingvalueofthegasandtoemission
levels. The biomass bulk density and morphology together with the heating value will
determinetheenergydensityofthegasifierfeedstock,i.e.thepotentialenergyavailableper
unitvolumeofthefeedstock.

Densityandmorphology
Low density of biomass in fixed bed gasifier reactors could cause a high voidage which in
turn resulting in channeling, bridging, incomplete conversion and decreasing gasifier
capacity. Fluid bed gasifiers have more flexibility to biomass density but feeding remain
problematic.


Gasificationhasgreaterefficiencyinpowerproductionthanthatusingdirectcombustion.Other
advantageofgasificationisthatitsabilitytoreceivelowashmeltingpointfeedstock,unlikedirect
combustiontechnology(meltedashfoulsboiler).

The main drawback in gasification is related to the presence of tars in the syngas, which is
corrosiveandmakesthefuelgasinappropriateforuseininternalcombustionengines.However,
nowadays,cleaningsystemshavebeeninconstantdevelopment.

45
McKendry,P.;Energyproductionfrombiomass(part2):conversiontechnologies;BioresourceTechnology,83(2002)47
54(http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:547536/FULLTEXT01.pdf)
46
http://www.iafbc.ca/funding_available/programs/livestock/documents/LWTI1_FR_App3.pdf

Page 53 of 396
Syngas from wood biomass to be utilized for power generation is difficult to clean up. In many
cases, syngas cooling prior to combustion is required to remove tars and other contaminants,
thereby losing the sensible heat. When necessary, predrying of wood is performed prior to
gasificationforsustainingcombustion.

Three gasification technologies exist; fixed bed gasification, fluidized bed gasification, and
entrainedflowgasification.

FixedBedGasifiers
Fixed bed gasifiers are generally equipped with a fixed grate inside a refractorylined shaft.
Biomassfeedstockistypicallyplacedontopofthepileoffuel,char,andashinsidethegasifier.
Thedistinctionoffixedbedgasifiertypesisbasedonthedirectionofair(oroxygen)flowinthe
gasifier.Adowndraftgasifierinvolvesairflowsdownthroughthebedandleavesasbiogasunder
thegrate.Airflowsupthroughthegrateandbiogasiscollectedabovethebedinupdraftgasifier.
Meanwhile, air flows across the bed, exiting as biogas in a crossflow gasifier. This gasifiers are
commonly applied for small to mediumscale application (< 5 MW). Updraft gasifier produces
syngas with higher tar than downdraft gasifier, but high gas outlet temperature of downdraft
gasifierformsadrawback.

Fixed bed gasifiers are considered suitable for smallscale distributed power generation
equipment.However,itseconomicviabilitydependsonvariableeconomicsofbiomasscollection
and feeding and particularly sitespecific. Fixed bed gasifiers are fed with large fuel particles so
thatnocomplexfuelpreparationisnecessary.However,itislimitedtoitsabilitytohandlefine
particles.

Updrat gasifier produces syngas with high tar content, which requires comprehensive gas
cleaning,particularlyforusingininternalcombustionengineswhichrequiresgascooling.Syngas
produced from updraft gasifier could alternatively be used for direct heating application where
gascoolingisnotnecessary.47



47
https://www.princeton.edu/pei/energy/publications/texts/Small_scale_gasification.pdf

Page 54 of 396
FluidizedBedGasifiers
In this type gasifier, the gasification medium (steam, air or oxygen) are mixed with biomass
material in a hot bed material (such as sand). There are two designs of fluidized bed gasifier;
circulating and bubling fluidized beds. The benefits of fluidized bed gasifiers are their high
productivity (per area of bed) and flexibility. They also able to accomodate a wider range of
biomass feedstocks with moisture contents average of up to 30%. However, a defined fuel
particlesizerangearerequiredforthistypeofgasifier.
Thetechnologyisrecommendedforalargescaleplantduetoitscomplexprocess.

Entrainedflowgasification
This type of gasifier requires fuel in the form of a fine owder (typically 0.5 mm). The fuel is
entrained cocurrently by a carrier gas (oxidant), and is gasified. Entrained flow gasifier is
operatedathightemperature(12001600C).Duetoitshighoperatingtemperature,itresults
inCOandH2richgasandrelativelycleangascomparedtofixedbedandfluidizedbedgasifiers.

Thefollowingtechnologiesareavailablewithspecificrespecttotheirabilitytorunonbiomassor
biogas.

Gas (combustion) turbines: Gas turbine technology is available for large system. Modifications
arerequiredtoexistingnaturalgasturbineforapplyinggasturbineforalowBtugasproduced
fromgasification.

Gas Engines Syngas produced from biomass gasifiers has been commercially used as fuel for
sparkignitiongasengine.Sparkignitionenginescouldbeoperatedon100%syngas.However,the
dustcontentinthegasshouldbeaslowaspossible.
Syngas can also be used in compression ignition (diesel) engines. Diesel engine has higher
efficiency, greater durability and reliability, simpler maintenance than spark ignition engine.
Utilizationofsyngasindieselenginecouldsubstitutedieseloilused.Commercialdieselengines
requireonlyminormodificationstosuitforsyngasapplication.

Page 55 of 396

48
Figure6.1.Gasifiersizebytype

6.4. Cogeneration

Cogenerationisatechnologythatappliessimultaneousgenerationofheatandpower(Combined
HeatandPower/CHP).Theoverallefficiencyofacogenerationsystemishigherthanaseparate
productionofheatandelectricity.Theplantefficiencyimprovesfrom2535%whenonlyelectric
powerisproducedtoanoverallefficiencyof7090%.49

Through a CHP system biomass fuels could be used most efficiently and beneficially. A CHP
system offers a wasteheat recovery for heating, cooling, or process applications. The system
consistofanumberofindividualcomponents:heatengine(suchascombustionorgasturbines,
steamturbines,reciprocatingengines,microturbines,andfuelcells),electricitygenerator,heat
recovery,andelectricalinterconnection.

CHP system based on biomass combustion has been developed with a capacity of higher than
2,000 kWel with steam turbine proved to be economic and feasible, while in capacity range of
between2002,000kWelOrganicRankineCyclehasbeenprovedtobematureintechnology,
thoughsteamengineandsteamturbinearealsosuitabletechnologies.ForaCHPplantupto100
kWel,stirlingengineprocessisanappropriatechoicesofar.50

48
https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/RE_Technologies_Cost_Analysis
BIOMASS.pdf)
49
http://lnu.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:445550/FULLTEXT01
50
http://www.elmiraohio.com/Organic%20Rankine%20Cycle%20Docs/Obernberger2008INFUBkeynotebmcombustion
gasification.pdf

Page 56 of 396
The main biomass CHP system generally consists of biomass receiving and preparation unit,
conversion technology unit (biomass combustion or biomass gasification), and power and heat
productionunit(conversionofsyngasorbiogasorsteamintoelectricityandprocesssteamand
hotwater).
CHP system based on biomass downdraft gasifier would require limited size variation (20100
mm)anddrybiomass(moisturecontent<20%).51
CHP systems are applied in agriculturebased industries such as sugar mill and palm oil mill,
whereheatproducedfromtheCHPsystemsarecaptiveusedinthemills.

There is no industries in the area considered in this report, as such a CHP system is not
recommendedtobedeveloped.

6.5. Pyrolysis
Pyrolysisinvolvesthermaldecompositionofcarbonaceousmaterialintheabsenceofoxygento
produce solid (char or carbon), gases (CO2, H20, CO, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C6H6,etc.), and a liquid
productofoxygenatedhydrocarbons(biooil).Generally,thisoccursataround300650C.52The
pyrolysis oil can then be used as a fuel to generate electricity. Pyrolysis also occurs both in
combustionandgasificationatearlierstages.

In a Slow Pyrolysis, the primary product through carbonization is Char, while in a Rapid/Fast
Pyrolysis the primary product is Biooil and Gas. Pyrolysis in a Medium uses usually water
(producingbiooilwithreducedoxygencontent)orHydrogen(forincreasinglighthydrocarbons).
Charyielddecreaseswhenhighertemperatureandsmallerparticlesareappliedintheprocess.
Biomass composition will have influence on the pyrolisis products. Pyrolisis of wood produces
morevolatilesandlesschar.53Rapidheatingtoamoderatetemperature(400600C)willproduce
highervolatilesandincreasedoilproduction.54

Biooilisunstableproductwhichlimitslongtermstorage.Itisnotmisciblewithanyconventional
hydrocarbonbased fuel. Biooil can be stabilized for longterm storage and converted to a
conventionalhydrocarbonfuelthroughoxygenremovalviahydrotreating.

51
http://www.elmiraohio.com/Organic%20Rankine%20Cycle%20Docs/Obernberger2008INFUBkeynotebmcombustion
gasification.pdf
52
http://poisson.me.dal.ca/site2/courses/mech4840/Pyrolysis%20&%20Torrefaction%20of%20Biomass.pdf
53
http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:8949/FULLTEXT01.pdf
54
http://poisson.me.dal.ca/site2/courses/mech4840/Pyrolysis%20&%20Torrefaction%20of%20Biomass.pdf

Page 57 of 396
Biooil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass (substitute fuel oil) can be used to generate
electricity and heat in power generation systems. Diesel engines and turbines are considered
potentially important markets for biooil rather small generation capacities, cofiring in power
stationsislimitedtolargeplants.

6.6. SelectionofPowerGenerationTechnologyandoptionsoftechnologyprovider
The selection of power generation technology depends on the following items as given in the
followingtable,basedonannualavailabilityofselectedbiomassfuelofLamtoroGungwood.
The selection of power generation technology depends on the following items as given in the
followingtable,basedonannualavailabilityofselectedbiomassfuelofLamtoroGungwood.

Table6.1.Selectionofpowergenerationtechnology
Items Gasification Combustion Remarks
Plant Minimum10kW Economical Directcombustiontechnologyis
capacity combustion simpler,lowercost,moreflexiblein
steampower fuelmoistureandsize,andmore
generation mature(proven)thangasification.
process>3 However,directcombustionhas
MWe55 higheremissionsandalessefficient
conversionprocessthangasification;
andrequireswaterforsteamturbine
powergeneration.
Electrical Potentialformore 1535% Combustionisusuallycarriedoutina
Efficiency efficientconversion boilertogeneratesteamfor
processwhengenerating electricitygenerationbysteam
power. turbine.
biofueltoelectricity theelectricalefficiencyis
efficiencyreaches3040 greaterthanbysteamturbine.
%andoverall
performanceefficiency
intherangeof90%56
Utilitywater Eliminationofwateruse, Biomasspowerplanttobe
ifpowergeneration developedislocatedinSumbaIsland
withoutsteamturbine withdryclimatearea
Engine Gasengine lowcost,andreliability;italsoworks
wellevenatlowloads
Status mature mature
technology

55
http://cgpl.iisc.ernet.in/site/FAQ/MostFrequentlyDiscussedIssues/CombustionvsGasification/tabid/163/Default.aspx:It
is conventionally understood that combustion steam power generation process is economical for large power
levels, typically in excess of 3 MWe. The cost per MWe installed is about 1 million USD. The actual performance
shows a fuel-to-electricity efficiency of ~ 30 %. Even 200 MWe steam power generation systems deliver fuel-
electricity efficiency of 35 % (using coal with higher calorific value).
56
http://lnu.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:445550/FULLTEXT01

Page 58 of 396
Thenetelectricalefficiencyofgasificationplantwithgasenginesystemisthehighest(1028%)than
theplantwithgasturbine,steamturbine,orexternallyfiredgasturbinesystems.Moreover,agas
enginesystemisrelativelyinexpensiveandreliableaswellasdurable.Despiteofthese,thesystem
requiresshortmaintenanceintervalresultinginlowavailability.

EfficiencyofaCHPsystemissitespecific.ThefollowingsarecommonlyinstalledCHPprimemovers
with standard ranges of achievable efficiency; Steam Turbine: 80 percent, Diesel Engine: 7080
percent,NaturalGasEngine:7080percentandGasTurbine:7075percent.57

Basedonthereferencesandasgiveninthetableaboveitisdeterminedthatgasificationtechnology
isbettersuitedforthisprojectforthefollowingreasons:
Status of the technology: Gasification technology for woody biomass power plant is to a
largeextenthasbeencommercializedinthepastdecade.Althoughthetechnologyresultsin
tars,thisissueisconsideredsolvablewithgascleaningtechnologydevelopedsofar.
Plantcapacity
Minimalwateruse

Sizeofbiomasspowerplant

ThesizeoftheplantisdimensionedwithregardtopotentialavailableLamtoroGungwoodchipsin
respectivecandidatesitesandreasonableplantsize.

As early mentioned in section 4, technical potential available of lamtoro gung wood from all
candidatesitesare776,265tons/year(Kapohakpenang,Candidate1),414,708tons/year(Rakawatu,
Candidate2),133,350tons/year(Pahedutillu,Candidate3),99,120tons/year(Lamboya,Candidate
4)respectively.
Based on the selected technology for the biomass power plant to be developed, estimation on
powerplantsizeforallcandidatesisgiveninthetablebelow.

57
http://www.epa.gov/chp/basic/efficiency.html

Page 59 of 396
Table6.2.Potentialsizeofbiomasspowerplant
Candidatesite Powerplant Remarks
size*(MW)
Kapohakpenang(Candidate1) 61.26 Technicalavailabilitywasassumedtobe70%.
Rakawatu(Candidate2) 32.73 Technicalavailabilitywasassumedtobe70%.
Pahedutilli(Candidate3) 10.52 Technicalavailabilitywasassumedtobe70%.
Lamboya(Candidate4) 7.82 Technicalavailabilitywasassumedtobe70%.
*Basedontechnicalpotentialoflamtorogungwoodandtheselectedtechnologyisgasification

Notwithstanding the potential of the wood available in all candidate sites capable for producing
morethan2MW,itissuggestedtodevelopbiomasspowerplantsof1MW.Thereasonforthisis
thatover10yearstheprojecteddemandintheIslandisonlyaround10MW.Moreover,existenceof
abundantbiomassresourcefromtheenergyplantationswouldpotentiallysecurebiomassfeedstock
fortheplantevenduringlongdryseason.

Otherconsiderationtothesuggestion of1MWdevelopmentisthe capability ofPLNtransmission


linetowhichtheelectricityoftheplantisconnected.

Powerplantlocation
Consideringthelandareaforenergyplantation,thereasonabledistancefromtheplantationtothe
powerplant ismaximum 20km.Thisismainlyrelated tothe transportation costofthe harvested
woodfromtheplantationsitestotheplant.

Gridconnection
TheelectricitygeneratedfromtheplantistobeconnectedtoPLNsgridaslocaldemandislower
thanthegeneration.Theconnectionfromallsitesisassumedasprovidedinthefollowingtable.

Table6.3.Candidatesiteofbiomasspowerproject
Candidatesite PossibleconnectiontoPLNsgrid Remarks
Candidatesite1 Connectedat20kV Distance:50km
Candidatesite2 Connectedat20kV Distane:15km
Candidatesite3 Connectedat20kV Distance:12km
Candidatesite4 Connectedat20kV Distance:5km

Powerplantoperation
Theplant(biomassgasificationplant)willbeoperatedasbaseloadtakingadvantagefromlowerfuel
cost than fossil fuel based power plant. A load factor of 80% for a gasification power plant is

Page 60 of 396
commonlyapplicable.But,tobeconservativealoadfactorofonlyabout77%forthebiomasspower
plant in all candidate sites is assumed due to being the first (no experience for operating such a
plant)intheIsland.

6.7. GasificationPlantConfiguration
FeedstockPreparation
Feedstockpreparationisoneofthemostvitalstagesinensuringproductionofdesiredquantityand
qualityofgas.RelativelydryandproperlysizedbiomassisnecessaryforGasificationtobeefficient.
Themoisturecontentsinallthesefeedsshouldbelimitedto20%orlesser.
Theidealdiameteroffeedstockisaround15075mm.Ifthediameterisaround90mmthenthey
will need to be sliced at 2530 mm. Minimum dimensions of 15 mm, maximum dimensions of 75
mm.
Finesbelow3mmshouldbesievedandremoved.Thereshouldbenoforeignmatterlikedust,dirt,
fines,fibers,stones,debris,soil,oil,metal,plastic,glassetc.inthebiomass.

Gasification
Thegasifierisessentiallyachemicalreactorwherevariouscomplexphysicalandchemicalprocesses
take place. Four distinct processes take place in a gasifier, namely drying of fuel, pyrolysis,
combustionandreduction.
Biomass is fed into gasifier at specified intervals. The equipment is designed in such a way that it
takesinairincontrolledquantities,resultinginpartialoxidationofbiomassintoProducergas.
Onekgofbiomassgetsconvertedinto2.5to3.0Nm3ofgaswithacalorificvalueof10001300Kcal
perNm3,whichwouldhavethefollowingcomposition:
CO213%H2164%
CO2113%CH412.5%
O20.2to0.9%N2Rest

GasCoolingandCleaningSystem
Thegascomingoutofthegasifierisatatemperatureof450degreescentigradeorgreater.Thehot
gas,generallycontainsalmostnotarandsomeamountoffineparticlesofashandsoot.Depending
on the application, the temperature of the gas may need to be brought down to around ambient
temperature.Atthesametime,theashandthetar(ifthisisgeneratedatall)needtobehandled.
Thesystemusedforcoolingandcleaningthegascomingoutfromgasifiersisexplainedbelow:

Page 61 of 396
TarCrackingintheGasifier
Gasifiershavebeenspeciallydesignedwithproperthroatsizeandthroatnozzlegeometrytoensure
almostcompletetarcrackinginthegasifieritself.Thus,thehotgasleavingthegasifierisgenerally
tarfreeovertheoperatingrangeofthegasifier.

DryGascleaningsystem
Thedrygascleaningsystemessentiallycoolsthegasusingaheatexchanger.Thenthegasispassed
throughafabricfilter.Thefabricfilterremovestheparticulatesandthetarsfromthegas.Thegasis
thenfurthercooled.Afterthisthegaspassesthroughasawdustfilterandapleatedcartridgefilter.
ThegasisthenverycleanandreadyforuseinanEngineGenset.

Advantagesofdrygascleaningsystem:
o Nodirectcontactofwaterwithgasforcooling
o Hotairgeneratedingascoolerduringcoolingofgascanbeusedfordryingofbiomass
o Both particulates and tar are removed in fabric filter are in dry form and hence their
handlingbecomeseasier
o Reductioninsizeoffinefilters
o Lessspacerequiredforinstallation
o Lowcaptivepowerrequiredcomparedtowetfiltration

FineFilteringSystem
Thesearesawdustfiltersthatremovetheparticulatesandthetars.Twoormoreofthesefiltersare
usedinseries.Thegasafterthesefiltersisalmostascleanasambientair.Thesawdustusedinthese
filtersisofacertainqualityandistobechangedperiodically.Theusedsawdustcanbereusedin
thegasifier.

CheckFilter
Apleatedcartridgefilterisusedtoensurethatcoagulatedparticulatesarearrestedatthispoint.The
gascomingoutofthecheckfilterwouldgenerallyhavetotaltarandparticulateleveloflessthan5
mg per Nm3 of gas. This level of cleanliness also allows gasifiers to be easily connected to turbo
chargedand/oraftercooledengines.

Page 62 of 396
KindofConstruction
The gasifier shed will be of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) construction with structural steel
trussandGalvanizedCorrugated(GC)roofsheeting.
Theengineroomwillneedtobeenclosedwithacousticsasrequiredasperlocalregulations.


Figure6.1.SystemSchematicandTechnicalSpecificationsfortheGasifier

6.8. Identifiedapotentiallocalcompanyorcommunitywhichcanoperateandmaintainthe
plantinthelongterm

For the energy plantation in Sumba, PT Usaha Tani Lestari already prepares for the plantation
implementation.BasedonthecommunicationduringthesitesurveytoPT UsahaTaniLestari,the
company has been requested by Forestry Ministry to support 1 MW Biomass power planned by
EBTKEESDM.However, therehasbeenno discussionwithEBTKEregardingtothisbiomasspower
programinSumba.
It is assumed that PT Usaha Tani Lestari shall manage Lamtoro Gung plantation and supply wood
chiptotheproposedpowerplantandtogetheroperateandmaintaintheplantinthelongterm.

Page 63 of 396
7. FINANCIALANALYSIS
7.1 RequiredFunds

7.1.1.BasicConditionCalculation

7.1.1.1.Currency

Thecostforyear2015,oneoftheconditionsforfinancialanalysis,wasestimatedbasedonthecost
datain2014.ThebasiccurencyusedinthecalculationisUSdollar.IndonesiaRpisUS$1=Rp13,000.

7.1.1.2SalesPlan

Totalsalesamountsofpowerperannum

TotalSalesamountsperannum(kWh)

=(NetoutputAuxiliaryconsumption)X24hoursX365daysXAvailability

=(1200144)kWx24X365X0.9=8,363,520kWh/year

Candidatesite GrossProduction SalesPlan(kWh)


Candidatesite1 9,504,000 8,363,520
Candidatesite2 9,504,000 8,363,520
Candidatesite3 9,504,000 8,363,520
Candidatesite4 9,504,000 8,363,520

7.1.1.3Requirednumberofemployees
Typesofjobsandpersonnelrequiredtooperateandmanagethegasificationplantareshown
below.
Since the plant is to be operated 24 hours a day. The personnel deployment in three shifts is
adoptedinplan,withacrewofoneshift,outofthree,setasideforreserve.

Table7.1.Manpowerrequirement
TypeofMan Qualificationsrequired Total Workresponsibility
power number

PlantIncharge Anexperienced 1 Tooverallmonitortheworkingofthe


Technicalor plantandwhocandrivetheperformance
Commercialperson oftheplant.
Accounts/ ShouldpossessStrong 1 Formonitoringofincomingbiomass,
Administration Accountingand recordkeeping,accounting,billingof
personnel Adminstration powerevacuatedetc.
backgroundand
experience

Page 64 of 396
Plant MechanicalEngineer 1pershift Tomonitortheplantperformanceand
Supervisors getthingsdoneasneeded.Biomass
(Diploma preprocessing,conveying,gasifierandits
level) accessories,charcoal/chardisposal
systematicallyetc
ElectricalEngineer 1pershift Tomonitortheperformanceofthe
engines,evacuationsystemsetc.

Labours Skilledlabours 24per 1forbiomasspreprocessingand


shift conveyingandthe2ndpersonforGasifier
andEnginemaintenance.
Unskilledlabours 24per Helpingtheaboveskilledlaboursand
shift Supervisorforbiomasspreprocessing,
conveying/feeding,charremovaland
disposalandthenasneededforGasifier
&Enginemaintenance.

TotalofUS$117,333willbeappropriatedeveryyearforlabourcostasfollows:
1 PlantIncharge,1person@Rp7.5millionx16month 10,000
2 PlantSupervisors,1pershiftmechanical&1pershiftelectrical 32,000
Administrationpersonnel,1person,@Rp7millionx16
3 month/year 9,333
4 Labours(skilled)3personpershift 36,000
5 Labours(unskilled)3personpershift 30,000
Total 117,333

7.1.2.TotalRequiredFunds

Expensesforeachprojectcandidatearecalculatedbasedonofferdata.Thedetailedcostsfor
project implementation will consider engineering capability, shipment and current fabrication of
Indonesianindustries.Inordertoreducetheinvestmentcostaninclusionoflocalcontenthasbeen
consideredinthecalculation.Thecostestimationofpowerplantfacilitiesforallfourconditionsas
setaboveisshowninTable7.2.
Thetotalrequiredfundsareasfollows:

Page 65 of 396
Table7.2ProjectCostStructure1MWeBiomassPowerPlant

BasicPriceinUSD
Quantit
No PlantItem/Description
y Site2 Site3 Site4
Site1

Lump
1 DetailDesign&EngineeringCharges 52,195 52,195 52,195 52,195
Sum
BiomassSizing&ConveyingSystem, Lump
2 125,000 125,000 125,000 125,000
BiomassDrying Sum
3 SkipCharger 2Nos. 43,510 43,510 43,510 43,510
BiomassGasifieralongwithbasic
accessoriesandauxiliarieswithDry
1,042,4 1,042,4 1,042,46
4 GasFiltrationSystem 2Sets. 1,042,460
60 60 0
DryGasFiltrationSystem
Flaresystem
Lump
5 GasifierCoolingTower 26,320 26,320 26,320 26,320
Sum
Lump
6 CondensateNeutralizationSystem 48,430 48,430 48,430 48,430
Sum
Lump
7 52TRChiller 95,940 95,940 95,940 95,940
Sum
732,475 732,475 732,475 732,475
ProducerGasEngine&OtherRelated (5x (5x
8 5Nos. (5x (5x
Accessories 146,495 146,495
146,495) 146,495)
) )
Lump
9 RadiatorforEngineCooling 65,800 65,800 65,800 65,800
Sum
2,232,1 2,232,1 2,232,13
SubTotal 2,232,130
30 30 0
10 Packing&TransportationCharges
PackingCharges
111,607
@5%ofordervalue
FOBBasis(Containersforstuffing
needstobeprovidedbyclientattheir 15,000
cost)
Transportationcost(oceanfreight, 215,407 215,407 215,407
truckingtoexportharbourof 215,407
Surabayaexportdocuments,ISPM#15
certificate,certificateoforigin,billof
loading,documentcourierfee.Addto 88,800
eachshipmentafumigationfeeof$60
andinsuranceof2.5%ofshipping
value,transportationSurabayato
location,Sumba)
12 StartupPowerForTheSystem 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000
InstallationandCivil&foundation
13 166,667 166,667 166,667 166,667
work
14 GridInterconnection 1,500,000 450,000 360,000 150,000

Page 66 of 396
15 Building 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000
3,204,2 3,114,2 2,904,20
Total 4,254,204
04 04 4
Contingency(4%) 170,168 128,168 124,568 116,168
3,332,3 3,238,7 3,020,37
4,424,372
TotalPlantCost 72 72 2

7.2 FinancialEvaluation

7.2.1.AssumptionsforFinancialEvaluation

Theprojectisexpectedtotake11monthsforconstruction.Thedurationforoperationisassumedto
be20years.Thefinancialanalysisisconductedinrealtermwithoutthegeneralpriceinflation
included.TheelectricityfeedintariffisRp1840/kWhthatwasspecifiedintheMinisterialregulation
No.27/2014onsmallandmediumscalepowergenerationfrombiomassandbiogas.Indonesian
currentelectricitytariffformediumvoltageisIDR1150/kWhxF(=IDR1840/kWh)or
US$0.142/kWh.Biomasspriceforthefinancialanalysisis40US$/ton(moisturecontentmax20%).
ThemajortechnicalandfinancialassumptionsarelistedinTable7.3.

Table7.3AssumptionsforFinancialEvaluation

Expected Rate of Return on Investment (discount factor) 16.00%


Inflation (long term) 5%
Loan Tenor (years, excluding grace period)) 8
Years of depreciation and amortization 20
Investment Life Time (years) 20
Portion of long-term debt/bank loans 70%
Equity 30%
Capacity 1200 kW 1,200
Auxiliary power 144
Annual gross Output (See technical explanation) 9,504,000
Annual net Output (See technical explanation) 8,363,520
Operation (24 h/d) 24
Operation day (330 d/y) 330
Operational hour/year 7,920
Unit Price of Sales (US$/kWh, refer to indication) 0.142
Insurance 0.50%
Water requirement /year (m3/y) 18,532.800
Water price (Rp/m3) 2,500.000
Borrowing Interest Rate p.a. 8.00%
Income tax rate 25.00%
Exchange Rate USD/Rp 13,000

Page 67 of 396
7.2.2ResultsofFinancialEvaluation

Adiscountedcashflowanalysiswascarriedouttothebasecasesofthefouridentifiedsitesto
calculateaninternalrateofreturnonequityinvestments.TheresultedIRRisthencomparedwith
theexpectedrateofreturnonequityinvestmenttodeterminetheprojectsfinancialviability.The
assumednominalexpectedrateofreturnis16%.Afterdeductingtheinflationfactorthereal
expectedrateofreturnforequitycapitalis10.5%.TheanalyticalresultsareshownonTable7.4.Itis
obviousthatexceptSite1theotherthreesitesarefinanciallyacceptableintheirbasecases.

Table7.4FinancialAnalysisResults

Option Site1 Site2 Site3 Site4 Threshhold

IRR(%) 9.33 14.73 15.35 16.94 10.50

PaybackPeriod(year) 14 11 11 10 n.a.

Theabovediscountedcashflowanalysisusespredeterminedassumptionswithouttakinginto
accountuncertaintiesthatmaydeviatetheprojectawayfromtheexpectedresult.Totestthe
robustnessoftheresultsofthefinancialmodelinpresenceofuncertainty,sensitivityanalysisis
executedtoSite4,whichhasgotthehighestIRR,inordertoenvisagehowthevariabilityinthe
outputscanbeapportionedtodifferentsourcesofuncertaintyinitskeyinputs,includingpower
tariff,capitalcost,variableoperatingexpense,costofcapital,loaninterestrateandcapacity
utilization.Onlyadversechangesareconsidered.Twosensitivitytestindicatorsareapplied,namely,
thesensitivityindicator(SI)theratioofthe%changeintheNPVtothe%changeinavariable,and
theswitchingvalue%changerequiredinavariablefortheNPVtobecomezero.

Table7.5ranksthekeyvariablesinsequenceoftheirsensitivitiestotheNPV.Theresultindicates
thatthemostsensitivefactorsorthemostinfluentialelementstotheprojectsfinancialviabilityare
theelectricitytariffandthenetpoweroutput.Theoperatingcostandthecostofequitycapitalrank
thesecondandthird.Interestinglythecapitalcostranksthesecondfromthebottom,indicatingthe
capitalcostdoesnotplayacritcialrole.

Forthesakeofcomparison,theSIforthecapitalcostbeingstandardizedtobe1istakenasa
benchmark.TheSIforthetariffandnetoutputarestandardizedtobe7.23andtheSIforthe
operatingcostandcostofequityarestandardizedas4.22and1.69.Itmeansthatthesensitivitiesof
thetariffandthenetoutputare7.23timesthatofthecapitalcost.Eventhesensivityofthe

Page 68 of 396
operatingcostis4.22timesthatofthecapitalcost.Thecostofdebtistheleastsensitivefactorto
theprojectsustainability.TheSVresultsillustratethatthelimitforthetariffandnetoutputtobe
loweredis9.3%.Anyreductionbelowthatlimitwillcausetheprojectinfeasible.Theprojectwill
becomeunsoundwhentheopearatingcostincreasesby16%andthecapitalcostincreasesby67%
fromthebasecaselevel.

Table7.5SensitivityTestonNPVofSite4

Variables Change FNPV SI* SV**(%) Normalized SI


Base case 531,643.00
Decline in electricity tariff -10% (42,354.00) 10.80 9.26 7.23
Decrease in net output -10% (42,354.00) 10.80 9.26 7.23
Increase in operating cost 10% 196,805.00 (6.30) (15.88) 4.22
Increase in cost of equity 10% 397,227.00 (2.53) (39.55) 1.69
Increase in capital cost 10% 452,258.00 (1.49) (66.97) 1.00
Increase in lending rate 10% 508,090.00 (0.44) (225.72) 0.30
* SI -- Sensitivity indicator. The ratio of the % change in the FNPV to the % change in a variable.
** SV -- Switching value. It shows % change required in a variable for the FNPV to become zero.

7.2.3ConclusiononFinancialAnalysis
Four potential project sites have been identified where the only difference is in the connection
distances between the sites and the power grid. The capital costs among the four are, therefore,
differentiated.ThefinancialanalysisconcludedthatSite4isthemostfeasibleoptionwhichhasthe
highest IRR. Site 1 has to be dropped down as its rate of return is below the threshhold. Equity
investors can earn a return on investment higher than the general market return. The sensitivity
analysisindicatesthattheelectricitytariffandthenetpoweroutputarethemostcriticalfactorsto
determine the projects financial viability. While the production output is subject to the market
demand and the power plant operation management, the tariff will be controlled by the
government. To let the biomass power project play a demonstration part for renewable energy
developmentinthecountry,thegovernmentshallberesponsibleforkeepingthetariffinfavourof
theproject.

Page 69 of 396
8. CONCLUSION

8.1Studyfindingsandconclusion

ThemainfindingsconcerningthebiomassprojectprojectinSumbaaresummarizedbelow.
Table8.11Resultsofprefeasibilitystudyofthebiomassprojectproject.
Site1 Site2 Site3 Site4
PeakCapacity(kW)gross 1200 1200 1200 1200
PeakCapacity(kW)net 1056 1056 1056 1056
Continuousdutygross(kW) 1020 1020 1020 1020
Continuousdutynet(kW) 898 898 898 898
GasifierType DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft
Electricitytothegrid(kWh) 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520
Electricityproduce(gross)kWh 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000
Biomassconsumption(t/y)
20%MC 11,310 11,310 11,310 11,310
Biomassconsumption(t/y)Dry
Base 9,048 9,048 9,048 9,048
Biomassconsumption(t/y)
40%MC 15,080 15,080 15,080 15,080
Parasiticload(kW) 144 144 144 144
Environment Baseline DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP
GHGreduction 2,480 2,755 2,761 2,767
(tCO2e/y)
Energy 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248
substitution
effect(liter
dieseloil/yr)
Cost Initial
performance investment 4,424,372 3,332,372 3,238,772 3,020,372
(US$)
IRR(%) 9.33 14.73 15.35 16.94
Investment 14 11 11 10
paybackperiod
(Year)

The equity capitals internal rate of return (IRR) of the biomass power project for each of the
potentiallocations,exceptSite1,wasfoundtobeabovethethreshholddiscountrateover20years.
TheprojectisthoughtattractivetoprivateinvestorsgiventhattheassumedpowertariffofUS$14.2
cents/kWh(1840rupiah/kWh)shallbekeptupandbechangingalongwiththeinflation.Concrete
investigationoftheprojectinthefuturewillrequirethecooperationofthegovernmentofSumba
(Sumba Barat, Sumba Tengah, and Sumba Timur), which is responsible for the administration of
forestenergyplantation,andthePLN(Indonesiasstateownedelectricitycompany),whichaimsto
providestablesuppliesofelectricity.

Page 70 of 396
8.2.PreFeasibilityStudyDiscussion

Afullfeasibilitystudywasnotundertakenforthissiteasthepreliminaryassessmentoftheutility
market and potential resources demonstrated that a biomass power facility had reasonable
financialviability.Iftheprojectmeritedfurtherstudy,additionalworkwouldneedtobeperformed
toverifyprojectparametersusedinthetechnicalandeconomicanalyses. Thekeyeconomicdrivers
forthistypeofprojectarethefeedstockavailabilityandcost,andthepriceforthesaleofelectric.
Assessing the biomass resource in the Sumba area can be done on a preliminary basis utilizing
calculation tools. In order to verify these assumptions, further scrutiny is required that typically
consists of a combination of site visits and demo plant to potential suppliers of the biomass.
CollaborationwithgovernmententitiesliketheIndonesianMinistryofForestrywouldbedonealso.
The market for wood has not yet formed in Sumba and setting up the chain of supply is very
important.Thechainofsupplyincludesthelongtermsupplier,processing,anddeliveryandstorage
issues.
Ifthebiomasspowerprojectwaslikelyorhadmorefavorableconditions,the prefeasibilitystudy
couldbeusedtoengageindiscussionswithutilities.Longtermagreementswouldbediscussedand
evaluatedwithutilitiestoascertaintheirlevelofinterestandwillingnesstoengageinaPPA.Ifpart
ofthebiomasspowerplantrevenueisfromenergysales(forexample:biomassbriquette),along
term contract should be negotiated on a preliminary basis with the energy customer as well. The
longterm stability of the customer will also be a factor for lenders when conducting financial
modelingfortheproject.
Additional work for a full study would also include a heat and mass balance to verify the actual
energy production, internal energy usage, and biomass feedstock required. Once this is
accomplished, the equipment sizing can be deduced and an equipment cost estimate can be
generated. This cost would be combined with the costs for construction, utilities and facility
operationandmaintenanceforinclusionintoaneconomicproformathatevaluatestheviabilityof
theproject.
Other issues are also investigated, including permitting requirements, potential financing options,
andlocalissuessuchasjobcreationandcommunityinvolvementduringtheprojectprogression.

Page 71 of 396
ATTACHMENT I

EmissionReductionfromBiomassPowerProjectinSumba
TimurRegency(site1)

1MWBiomassGasification

1. Applicationofabaselinemethodology
Titleandreferenceoftheapprovedbaselineandmonitoringmethodologyappliedtotheproject:

Methodology
AM0042:Gridconnectedelectricitygenerationusingbiomassfromnewlydevelopeddedicated
plantations(version02.1,sectorscope:01and14,EB55)

Themethodologyalsoreferesto:
1.Toolfordemonstrationandevaluationofadditionality.Version07.0.0,EB70.
2.Tooltocalculatetheemissionfactorofanelectricsystem.Version04.0,EB75.

Reference
UNFCCCWebsite:http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/approved.html
MethodologicaltoolToolforthedemonstrationandassessmentofadditionality,Version07.0.0,
EB70.
MethodologicaltoolTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystemVersion04.0,
EB75

Applicabilityofthemethodologytobeconfirmed:
Thelandareawherethededicatedplantationwillbeestablishedis,priortoprojectimplementation,
severely degraded and in absence of the project activity would have not been used for any other
agriculturalorforestryactivity.Thelanddegradationcanbedemonstratedusingoneormoreofthe
following indicators: (a) Vegetation degradation, e.g., crown cover of preexisting trees has
decreased in the recent past for reasons other than sustainable harvesting activities; (b) Soil
degradation, e.g., soil erosion has increased in the recent past; soil organic matter content has
decreasedintherecentpast.(c)Anthropogenicinfluences,e.g.,thereisarecenthistoryoflossof
soilandvegetationduetoanthropogenicactions;anddemonstrationthatthereexistanthropogenic
actions/activitiesthatpreventpossibleoccurrenceofnaturalregeneration.

Important Priortotheimplementationoftheproject,nopowerwasgeneratedatthe
conditions projectsite(i.e.theprojectplantdoesnotsubstituteoraffecttheoperation
underwhich ofanyexistingpowergenerationattheprojectsite);
Thededicatedplantationmustbenewlyestablishedaspartoftheproject
the
forthepurposeofsupplyingbiomassexclusivelytotheproject;
methodology Thebiomassfromtheplantationisnotchemicallyprocessed(e.g.no

Page 72 of 396
isapplicable productionofalcoholsfrombiomass,etc.)priortocombustioninthe
projectplantbutitmaybeprocessedmechanicallyorbedried;
Grazingorirrigationfortheplantationisnotallowed;
Thelandareawherethededicatedplantationwillbeestablishedhasnot
beenusedforanyagriculturalorforestryactivitypriortotheproject
implementation.
Baseline ElectricityproducedbymoreGHGintensivepowerplantsconnectedtothe
Scenario grid.

Carbon dioxide

Fossil fuel Grid

Electricity Electricity

Project Electricityproducedbyagridconnectedbiomasspowerplant.
Scenario

Carbon dioxide

Fossil fuel Grid

Electricity Electricity

Plantation Biomass Renewable

2. ProjectBoundary

AccordingtoACM0042methodology,thegeographicextensionoftheprojectmustincludethe
entireextensionoftheprojectactivity,includingthepowergenerationplantandthegeographic
extensionofthededicatedplantation.Besides,theprojectlimitisextendedtoincludetheemissions
fromthetransportationofbiomassuptothegenerationplant.Theprojectlimitalsoincludesthe
generationplantconnectedtotheelectricsystemtowhichtheprojectactivityisconnected.
Table2summarizesthegasesandsourcesincludedintheborderoftheprojectandpresentsan
explanationandjustificationwherethegasesandsourcesarenotincluded.

Page 73 of 396
Table2Summaryofgases.
Source Gases Included? Justification/Explanation

CO2emissionsfromthe CO2 Included Mainsourceofemission.


operationofthegrid;
CH4 Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This
isconservative
Baseline

N2O Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This


isconservative

Source Gases Included? Justification/Explanation

Consumptionofauxiliaryfuel CO2 Excluded Notapplicable


andelectricitygeneration
process; CH4 Excluded Notapplicable

N2O Excluded Notapplicable

Combustionofbiomassfor CO2 Excluded CO2emissionsfrombiomass


electricity; burningareassumednotlead
tochangesincarbonpools

CH4 Included Mainsourceofemission.

N2O Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This


isconservative

Offsitefossilfuelcombustion CO2 Included Mainsourceofemission.


ProjectActivity

fortransportationofbiomass
totheProjectplant; CH4 Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This
isconservative

N2O Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This


isconservative

Electricityconsumptionatthe CO2 Excluded Notapplicable


projectsite
CH4 Excluded Notapplicable

N2O Excluded Notapplicable

Fuelconsumptioninagriculture CO2 Included Mainsourceofemission.


operations;
CH4 Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This
isconservative

N2O Excluded Excludedforsimplification.This


isconservative

Page 74 of 396
Fertilizerproduction; CO2 Included Mainsourceofemission.

CH4 Included Mainsourceofemission.

N2O Included Mainsourceofemission.

Fertilizerapplication; N2O Included Mainsourceofemission.

Fieldburningofbiomass; CO2 Excluded Notapplicable

CH4 Excluded Notapplicable

N2O Excluded Notapplicable

3. DataandParameters

Installedcapacity 1200kW
Efficiencyofgasificationsystem 85%(net)
Netelectricaloutput 1056kWe
Annualoperationtime 7920hours/year
Loadfactor 77%

Startup
Parasiticload 12%
Electricitytogrid 8,364MWh/year

Biomassfeedstock:LamtoroGungwood
Annualquantity 15,080tonnes
Averagedistancetosite 20km
Loadpertruck 5tonneswood


4. Baselineemissions
Baseline emissions are CO2 emissions from the displacement of electricity generation in grid
connectedfossilfuelfiredpowerplants.Baselineemissionsarecalculatedasfollows:

BEy EGPJ , y EFgrid , y (1)

Where:
BEy = Baselineemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
EGPJ,y = Netquantityofelectricitygeneratedintheprojectplantintheyeary(MWh/yr)
EFgrid,y = Gridemissionfactorinyeary,monitoredandcalculatedaccordingtothelatestapproved
versionoftheTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystem(tCO2/MWh)

Page 75 of 396
5. ProjectEmission

PEy=PEFC,onsite,y+PEEC,y+PETP,y+PEBF,y+PEFC,PL,y+PEFP,y+PEFA,y+PEBB,y

Where:
PEy = Projectemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEFC,onsite,y = Project emissions in year y from cofiring fossil fuels in the project plant and/or from
other fossil fuel combustion that occurs at the site of the project plant and that is
attributabletotheprojectactivity(tCO2/yr)
PEEC,y = Project emissions from electricity consumption at the site of the project plant that is
attributabletotheprojectactivity(e.g.formechanicalprocessingofthebiomass)inyear
y(tCO2/yr)
PETP,y = Project emissions related to transportation of the biomass from the dedicated project
plantationand/orbiomassresiduestothepowerplantinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEBF,y = Projectemissionsfromcombustionoftherenewablebiomassfromthededicatedproject
plantationandbiomassresiduesintheprojectplantinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
PEFC,PL,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtofossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationduringagricultural
operationsinyeary(tCO2/yr)

PEFP,y = Project emissions related to the production of synthetic fertilizer that is used at the
dedicatedplantationinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
PEFA,y = Project emissions related to the application of fertilizers at the plantation in year y
(tCO2e/yr)
PEBB,y = Projectemissionsarisingfromfieldburningofbiomassattheplantationsite(tCO2e/yr)


a)CO2emissionsfromfuelcombustion(PEFC,onsite,y)
ThisemissionsourceshouldincludeCO2emissionsfromallfuelconsumptionthatoccursatthe
siteoftheprojectplantandthatisattributabletotheprojectactivity.Thisincludes:
Fossil fuels consumed with the renewable biomass from the dedicated plantation in the
generationplant;
Otherbiomassesconsumedwiththerenewablebiomassfromthededicatedplantationin
thegenerationplant;
Fuelsconsumedinthemechanicalpreparationofthebiomassorbiomassdryingprocess.

TheCO2emissionsduetotheburningofbiomass,mustnotbeincluded.
Theemissionsiscalculatedasfollows:

PEFC , on site , y FCon site , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i (1)
i

Where:
PEFC,onsite,y = Projectemissionsinyearyfromcofiringfossilfuelsintheprojectplantand/orfrom
otherfossilfuelcombustionthatoccursatthesiteoftheprojectplantandthatis
attributabletotheprojectactivity(tCO2/yr)

Page 76 of 396
FConsite,i,y = Amountfueltypeithatis(a)cofiredintheprojectplantand/oris(b)combustedatthe
siteoftheprojectplantandattributabletotheprojectactivity,duringtheyeary(massor
volumeunit)58
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactoroffueltypei(tCO2/GJ)
i = Fossilfuelsorbiomassfueltypesotherthanthebiomassfromthededicatedplantationor
biomassresidues


b)CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)
CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)arecalculatedbymultiplyingthe
electricityconsumptionbyanappropriategridemissionfactor,asfollows:

PEEC , y ECPJ , y EFgrid , y (2)

Where:

PEEC,y = Projectemissionsfromelectricityconsumptionatthesiteoftheprojectplantthatis
attributabletotheprojectactivity(e.g.formechanicalprocessingofthebiomass)inyear
y(tCO2/yr)

ECPJ,y = Onsiteelectricityconsumptionattributabletotheprojectactivityduringtheyeary
(MWh)


EFgrid,y = Gridemissionfactorinyeary,monitoredandcalculatedaccordingtothelatestapproved
versionofTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystem(tCO2/MWh)

c)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelcombustionduetotransportationofbiomassfromtheplantation
site(s)tothesiteoftheprojectplant(PETP,y)

ThisemissionsourceincludesCO2emissionsfromthetransportationofbiomassfromthededicated
plantation site(s) and biomass residues from their source of generation to the project plant.
Emissions may be calculated either based on information on the number of trips, the return trip
distance and CO2 emission factors of the vehicles (Option 1) or based on data on the actual fuel
consumptionofvehicles(Option2).

Wherethebiomassisobtainedfromdifferentsourceswithdifferentdistancesand/ortransportedin
different types of vehicles, emissions are calculated separately for the different distances and
vehiclestypes.

58
Preferablyuseamassunitforsolidfuelsandavolumeunitforliquidandgaseousfuels.

Page 77 of 396
Option1:
Emissionsarecalculatedonthebasisofdistanceandthenumberoftrips(ortheaveragetruckload):
PETP, y N y AVDy EFkm,CO 2 (3)
or
BFPJ , j , y
j
PETP , y AVDy EFkm , CO 2, y (4)
TLy
Where:
PETP,y = Project emissions related to transportation of the biomass from the dedicated project
plantationand/orbiomassresiduesfromtheirsourceofgenerationtothepowerplantin
yeary(tCO2/yr)
Ny = Numberoftrucktripsduringtheyeary
AVDy = Averagereturntripdistance(fromandto)betweenthesourceofthebiomassandthesite
oftheprojectplantduringtheyeary(km),
EFkm,CO2,y = AverageCO2emissionfactorforthetrucksmeasuredduringtheyeary(tCO2/km)
BFPJ,j,y = Quantity of biomass type j fired in the project plant in the year y (tons of dry matter or
liter)59
TLy = Averagetruckloadofthetrucksused(tonsorliter)
j = Alltypesofrenewablebiomassfromthededicatedprojectplantationandtypesofbiomass
residuesthatarefiredintheprojectplant

Option2:

Emissionsarecalculatedbasedontheactualquantityoffossilfuelsconsumedfortransportation.

PETP , y FCTR , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i (5)


i

Where:
PECO2,TR,y = CO2emissionsfromoffsitetransportationofbiomassresiduestotheprojectsite(tCO2/yr)
FCTR,i,y = Fuelconsumptionoffueltypeiusedintrucksfortransportationofbiomassduringtheyear
y(massorvolumeunit)58
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactorforfossilfueltypei(tCO2/GJ)

d)CH4emissionsfromcombustionofbiomass(PEBF,y)
CH4emissionsareassociatedwiththecombustionofbiomassfiredintheprojectplant.Thisis
calculatedasfollows:

PEBF , y GWPCH 4 BFPJ , j , y NCV j EFCH 4, BF , j (6)


j

59
Usetonsofdrymatterforsolidbiomassresiduesandliterforliquidbiomassresidues.

Page 78 of 396
Where:
PEBF,y = Projectemissionsfromcombustionoftherenewablebiomassfromthededicatedproject
plantationandbiomassresiduesintheprojectplantinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
GWPCH4 = GlobalWarmingPotentialofmethanevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tCH4)
BFPJ,j,y = Quantity of biomass type j fired in the project plant in the year y (tons of dry matter or
liter)59
NCVj = Netcalorificvalueofbiomassfueltypej(GJ/tonofdrymatterorGJ/liter)
EFCH4,BF,j = CH4emissionfactorforthecombustionofbiomasstypejintheprojectplant(tCH4/GJ)
j = Alltypesofrenewablebiomassfromthededicatedprojectplantationandtypesofbiomass
residuesthatarefiredintheprojectplant

To determine the CH4 emission factor, IPCC default values are used, as provided in Table 2 of the
methodologyadopted,thedefaultCH4emissionfactorof30kg/TJfromTable2isused,forwhich
theuncertaintyisestimatedtobe300%,andtheconservativenessfactorfortheuncertaintyis1.37
(fromTable3ofthemethodologyadopted).Thus,inthiscaseaCH4emissionfactorof(30*1.37=)
41.1kg/TJisused.

e)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelconsumptionduringagriculturaloperations(PEFC,PL,y)

CO2emissionsassociatedwithfossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationarecalculatedasfollows:

PE FC,PL ,y FCPL ,i ,y NCVi EFCO2 ,FF,i (7)


i

Where:
PEFC,PL,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtofossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationduringagricultural
operationsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
FCPL,i,y = Amount of fuel type i that is combusted at the dedicated plantation during the year y
(massorvolumeunit)58
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactoroffueltypei(tCO2/GJ)
i = Fueltypesusedforcombustionatthededicatedplantation

f)Emissionsfromtheproductionofsyntheticfertilizerthatisusedattheplantation(PEFP,y)

The GHG emissions from the production of synthetic fertilizer are estimated for each synthetic
fertilizertypefbymultiplyinganemissionfactorwiththemonitoredquantityoffertilizerappliedat
theplantationduringtheyeary,asfollows:

PE FP , y EFCO 2 e , FP , f FSF , f , y (8)


f

Page 79 of 396
Where:
PEFP,y = Project emissions related to the production of synthetic fertilizer that is used at the
dedicatedplantationinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
EFCO2e,FP,f = Emission factor for GHG emissions associated with the production of fertilizer type f
(tCO2e/kgfertilizer)
FSF,f,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizeroftypefappliedinyeary(kgfertilizer/yr)
f = Typesofsyntheticfertilizersappliedatthededicatedplantation

g)N2Oemissionsfromapplicationoffertilizersattheplantation(PEFA,y)

N2Oemissionsareassociatedwiththeapplicationofbothorganicandsyntheticfertilizers,andare
emitted through direct soil emissions and indirect emissions from atmospheric deposition and
leachingandrunoff.Emissionsarecalculatedasfollows.

44
PEFA, y GWPN 2O PEN 2O N , dir , y PEN 2O N , ind , y (9)
28

Where:
PEFA,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtotheapplicationoffertilizersatthededicatedplantationin
yeary(tCO2e/yr)
GWPN2O = Global Warming Potential of nitrous oxide valid for the commitment period
(tCO2e/tN2O)
PEN2ON,dir,y = DirectN2ONemissionsasaresultofnitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantation
duringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,y = Indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at the dedicated
plantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

DirectsoilN2Oemissions

PEN 2O N , dir , y EFN 2O N , dir FON , y FSN , y (10)

Where:
PEN2ON,dir,y = DirectN2ONemissionsasaresultofnitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantation
duringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
EFN2ON,dir = EmissionfactorfordirectnitrousoxideemissionsfromNinputs(kgN2ON/kgN)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)

IndirectN2Oemissions
Note:Thissourceofemissionisnottobeaccountedforinthecaseofawoodyplantation.

Page 80 of 396
IndirectN2OemissionscompriseN2OemissionsduetoatmosphericdecompositionofNvolatilized
fromtheplantationandN2Oemissionsfromleaching/runoff:

PEN 2O N , ind , y PEN 2O N , ind , ATD, y PEN 2O N , ind , L , y (11)

Where:
PEN2ON,ind,y = Indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at the dedicated
plantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,ATD,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoatmosphericdepositionofvolatilizedN,asaresultof
nitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,L,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoleaching/runoff,asaresultofnitrogenapplicationat
thededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

IndirectN2Oemissionsduetoatmosphericdecompositionarecalculatedasfollows:

PEN 2O N , ind , ATD, y FSN , y FracGASF FON , y FracGASM EFN 2O N , ATD (12)

Where:
PEN2ON,ind,ATD,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoatmosphericdepositionofvolatilizedN,asaresultof
nitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)
FracGASF = FractionofsyntheticfertilizerNthatvolatilizesasNH3andNOX(kgNvolatilized/kgN
applied)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FracGASM = FractionoforganicNfertilizerthatvolatilizesasNH3andNOX(kgNvolatilized/kgN
applied)
EFN2ON,ATD = EmissionfactorforatmosphericdepositionofNonsoilsandwatersurfaces(tN2ON/
tNvolatilized)

IndirectN2Oemissionsduetoleachingandrunoffarecalculatedasfollows:

PEN 2O N , ind , L , y FSN , y FON , y FracLEACH EFN 2O N,L (13)

Where:
PEN2ON,ind,L,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoleaching/runoff,asaresultofnitrogenapplicationat
thededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FracLEACH = FractionofsyntheticandorganicfertilizerNthatislostthroughleachingandrunoff
(kgNleachedandrunoff/kgNapplied)

Page 81 of 396
EFN2ON,L = EmissionfactorforN2OemissionsfromNleachingandrunoff(tN2ON/tNleached
andrunoff)

h)CH4andN2Oemissionsfromthefieldburningofbiomass

Biomassmaybeburntatthestartoftheprojectactivity(forlandclearance)orregularlyduringthe
creditingperiod(e.g.afterharvest).Inthesecases,CH4andN2Oemissionsarecalculatedforeach
timethatfieldburningisoccurring,asfollows:

PE BB,y A B M B Cf EFN2O,BB GWPN2O EFCH4,BB GWPCH4 (14)

Where:
PEBB,y = Projectemissionsarisingfromfieldburningofbiomassattheplantationsite(tCO2e/yr)
AB = Areaburned(ha)
MB = Averagemassofbiomassavailableforburningonthearea(tdrymatter/ha)
Cf = Combustion factor, accounting for the proportion of fuel that is actually burnt
(dimensionless)
EFN2O,BB = N2Oemissionfactorforfieldburningofbiomass(tN2O/tonneofdrymatter)
GWPN2O = GlobalWarmingPotentialofnitrousoxidevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tN2O)
EFCH4,BB = CH4emissionfactorforfieldburningofbiomass(tCH4/tonneofdrymatter)
GWPCH4 = GlobalWarmingPotentialofmethanevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tCH4)


6. Leakage
AccordingtoAM0042methodology,potentialsourceofleakageemissionforthisprojectactivityis
the emissions related to the consumption of fossil fuel or other sources due to the devertion of
biomass residues from other uses to the project plant, as a result of the project activity. As the
projectactivitydoesnotuseanyresidualbiomass,thereisnoleakageemission.

7. Emissionreduction

Theemissionreductions(ERy)arecalculatedas:

ERy BEy PEy LEy (15)

Where:
ERy = Emissionreductionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
BEy = Baselineemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEy = Projectemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
LEy = Leakageemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)

Page 82 of 396
8. Exantecalculationofemissionreductions

NetElectricityGeneration
Grosselectricitygenerationcapacity MW 1.2

Netelectricitygenerationcapacity MW 1.056

Loadfactor % 77

Workinghours/day hours/day 24

Parasiticload MW 0.144

Netannualelectricitygeneration 8,364MWh/yr (EGPJ,y)

BaselineEmissions
Parameters Unit Value

BEy (tCO2/yr) 6,691

EGPJ,y MWh/yr 8,364

EFgrid,y (tCO2/MWh) 0.8

Projectemissions
Thetotalofemissionsoftheproject:
PEy=PEFC,onsite,y+PEEC,y+PETP,y+PEBF,y+PEFC,PL,y+PEFP,y+PEFA,y+PEBB,y

a)CO2emissionsfromfuelcombustion(PEFC,onsite,y)


DieselFuelconsumptionformechanical
preparationordryingofthebiomass

Densityofdiesel 0.845kg/liter

Calorificvalueofdiesel NCV 0.043TJ/ton

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i 74.8tCO2/TJ

Quantityofdieseloilconsumption FConsite,i,y 0


0
PEFC , on site , y FCon site , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i
i

Page 83 of 396
b)CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)

PEEC , y ECPJ , y EFgrid , y

Thereisnoconsumptionofelectricityfromthedistributiongrid.
PEEC,y=0

c)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelcombustionduetotransportationofbiomassfromtheplantation
site(s)tothesiteoftheprojectplant(PETP,y)

Option2:

PETP , y FCTR , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i


i


Dieseloilconsumptionfortransportation FCTR,i,y 15.29t/y

Densityofdieseloil 0.845kg/liter

Netcalorificvalueofdieseloil NCV 0.043TJ/ton

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i 74.8tCO2/TJ

PECO2,TR,y 49.5tCO2/yr


d)CH4emissionsfromcombustionofbiomass(PEBF,y)

PEBF , y GWPCH 4 BFPJ , j , y NCV j EFCH 4, BF , j


j


Globalwarmingpotential GWPCH4 21

QuantityofLamtoroGungwoodgasified BFPJ,j,y 15,080t/y

NetcalorificvalueofLamtoroGungwood NCVj 0,01923TJ/ton

CH4 emission factor for the combustion of Lamtoro EFCH4,BF, 0.0411 tCH4/TJ
Gungwood
Project emission from combustion of lamtoro Gung PEBF,y 250.3tCO2e/yr
wood

Page 84 of 396
e)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelconsumptionduringagriculturaloperations(PEFC,PL,y)

PE FC,PL ,y FCPL ,i ,y NCVi EFCO2 ,FF,i


i

Project emissions related to diesel consumption used at PEFC,PL,y 13.0tCO2/yr


thededicatedplantation
Annualdieselconsumptioninthededicatedplantatation FCPL,i,y 4ton/yr

Netcalorificvalueofdiesel NCVi 0.0433TJ/ton

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i 74.8tCO2/TJ


f)Emissionsfromtheproductionofsyntheticfertilizerthatisusedattheplantation(PEFP,y)

PE FP , y EFCO 2 e , FP , f FSF , f , y
f

Emission factor for GHG emissions associated EFCO2e,FP,f 6.2tCO2/yr


withtheproductionoffertilizer
Annualquantityoffertilizerused FSF,f,y 3,015tfertilizer/yr

Project emission related to the production of PEFP,y 6.2tCO2/yr


syntheticfertilizer

g)N2Oemissionsfromapplicationoffertilizersattheplantation(PEFA,y)

44
PEFA, y GWPN 2O PEN 2O N , dir , y PEN 2O N , ind , y
28

Global Warming Potential of nitrous oxide valid for the GWPN2O 310tCO2e/tN2O
commitmentperiod
Annual direct N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen PEN2ON,dir,y 6tN2ON/yr
applicationatthededicatedplantation
Annual indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen PEN2ON,ind,y 2tN2ON/yr
applicationatthededicatedplantation


DirectsoilN2Oemissions

PEN 2O N , dir , y EFN 2O N , dir FON , y FSN , y


Direct N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at PEN2ON,dir,y 6tN2ON/yr
thededicatedplantation

Page 85 of 396
Emission factor for direct nitrous oxide emissions from N EFN2ON,dir 0.01kgN2ON/kgN
inputs
Amount of organic fertilizer nitrogen from animal manure, FON,y 0tN/yr
sewage, compost or other organic amendments applied at
thededicatedplantationduring
Amount of synthetic fertilizer nitrogen applied at the FSN,y 603tN/yr
dedicatedplantation


h)CH4andN2Oemissionsfromthefieldburningofbiomass

PE BB,y A B M B Cf EFN2O,BB GWPN2O EFCH4,BB GWPCH4



Thereisnofieldburningofbiomass
PEBB,y0


Leakage
Astheprojectactivitydoesnotuseanyresidualbiomass,thereisnoleakageemission(LEy=0)


Emissionreductions

ERy BEy PEy LEy



Parameter Unit Value

ERy tCO2e/yr 4,211

BEy tCO2e/yr 6,691

PEy tCO2e/yr 4,211

LEy tCO2e/yr 0

Page 86 of 396
EmissionReductionfromBiomassPowerProjectinSumba
TengahRegency

1MWBiomassGasification

9. Applicationofabaselinemethodology
Titleandreferenceoftheapprovedbaselineandmonitoringmethodologyappliedtotheproject:

Methodology
AM0042:Gridconnectedelectricitygenerationusingbiomassfromnewlydevelopeddedicated
plantations(version02.1,sectorscope:01and14,EB55)

Themethodologyalsoreferesto:
1.Toolfordemonstrationandevaluationofadditionality.Version05.2,EB39.
2.Tooltocalculatetheemissionfactorofanelectricsystem.Version01.0,EB35.

Reference
UNFCCCWebsite:http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/PAmethodologies/approved.html
MethodologicaltoolToolforthedemonstrationandassessmentofadditionality,Version05.2,EB
39.
MethodologicaltoolTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystemVersion01.1,
EB35

Applicabilityofthemethodologytobeconfirmed:
Thelandareawherethededicatedplantationwillbeestablishedis,priortoprojectimplementation,
severely degraded and in absence of the project activity would have not been used for any
otheragriculturalorforestryactivity.Thelanddegradationcanbedemonstratedusingoneor
moreofthefollowingindicators:(a)Vegetationdegradation,e.g.,crowncoverofpreexistingtrees
has decreased in the recent past for reasons other than sustainable harvesting activities; (b) Soil
degradation, e.g., soil erosion has increased in the recent past; soil organic matter content has
decreasedintherecentpast.(c)Anthropogenicinfluences,e.g.,thereisarecenthistoryoflossof
soilandvegetationduetoanthropogenicactions;anddemonstrationthatthereexistanthropogenic
actions/activitiesthatpreventpossibleoccurrenceofnaturalregeneration.

10. DataandParameters

Installedcapacity 1200kW
Efficiencyofgasificationsystem 85%(net)
Netelectricaloutput 1056kWe
Annualoperationtime 7920hours/year
Loadfactor 77%

Page 87 of 396
Startup
Parasiticload 12%
Electricitytogrid 8,364MWh/year

Biomassfeedstock:LamtoroGungwood
Annualquantity 15,080tonnes
Averagedistancetosite 20km
Loadpertruck 5tonneswood


11. Baselineemissions
Baseline emissions are CO2 emissions from the displacement of electricity generation in grid
connectedfossilfuelfiredpowerplants.Baselineemissionsarecalculatedasfollows:

BEy EGPJ , y EFgrid , y (1)
Where:
BEy = Baselineemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
EGPJ,y = Netquantityofelectricitygeneratedintheprojectplantintheyeary(MWh/yr)
EFgrid,y = Gridemissionfactorinyeary,monitoredandcalculatedaccordingtothelatestapproved
versionoftheTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystem(tCO2/MWh)

12. ProjectEmission

PEy=PEFC,onsite,y+PEEC,y+PETP,y+PEBF,y+PEFC,PL,y+PEFP,y+PEFA,y+PEBB,y
Where:
PEy = Projectemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEFC,onsite,y = Project emissions in year y from cofiring fossil fuels in the project plant and/or from
other fossil fuel combustion that occurs at the site of the project plant and that is
attributabletotheprojectactivity(tCO2/yr)
PEEC,y = Project emissions from electricity consumption at the site of the project plant that is
attributabletotheprojectactivity(e.g.formechanicalprocessingofthebiomass)inyear
y(tCO2/yr)
PETP,y = Project emissions related to transportation of the biomass from the dedicated project
plantationand/orbiomassresiduestothepowerplantinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEBF,y = Projectemissionsfromcombustionoftherenewablebiomassfromthededicatedproject
plantationandbiomassresiduesintheprojectplantinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
PEFC,PL,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtofossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationduringagricultural
operationsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
PEFP,y = Project emissions related to the production of synthetic fertilizer that is used at the
dedicatedplantationinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
PEFA,y = Project emissions related to the application of fertilizers at the plantation in year y
(tCO2e/yr)
PEBB,y = Projectemissionsarisingfromfieldburningofbiomassattheplantationsite(tCO2e/yr)

Page 88 of 396

a)CO2emissionsfromfuelcombustion(PEFC,onsite,y)
ThisemissionsourceshouldincludeCO2emissionsfromallfuelconsumptionthatoccursatthe
siteoftheprojectplantandthatisattributabletotheprojectactivity.Thisincludes:
Fossil fuels consumed with the renewable biomass from the dedicated plantation in the
generationplant;
Otherbiomassesconsumedwiththerenewablebiomassfromthededicatedplantationin
thegenerationplant;
Fuelsconsumedinthemechanicalpreparationofthebiomassorbiomassdryingprocess.

TheCO2emissionsduetotheburningofbiomass,mustnotbeincluded.
Theemissionsiscalculatedasfollows:

PEFC , on site , y FCon site , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i (17)
i

Where:
PEFC,onsite,y = Projectemissionsinyearyfromcofiringfossilfuelsintheprojectplantand/orfrom
otherfossilfuelcombustionthatoccursatthesiteoftheprojectplantandthatis
attributabletotheprojectactivity(tCO2/yr)
FConsite,i,y = Amountfueltypeithatis(a)cofiredintheprojectplantand/oris(b)combustedatthe
siteoftheprojectplantandattributabletotheprojectactivity,duringtheyeary(massor
volumeunit)60
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactoroffueltypei(tCO2/GJ)
i = Fossilfuelsorbiomassfueltypesotherthanthebiomassfromthededicatedplantationor
biomassresidues


b)CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)
CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)arecalculatedbymultiplyingthe
electricityconsumptionbyanappropriategridemissionfactor,asfollows:

PEEC , y ECPJ , y EFgrid , y (18)

Where:

PEEC,y = Projectemissionsfromelectricityconsumptionatthesiteoftheprojectplantthatis
attributabletotheprojectactivity(e.g.formechanicalprocessingofthebiomass)inyear
y(tCO2/yr)

ECPJ,y = Onsiteelectricityconsumptionattributabletotheprojectactivityduringtheyeary
(MWh)

60
Preferablyuseamassunitforsolidfuelsandavolumeunitforliquidandgaseousfuels.

Page 89 of 396
EFgrid,y = Gridemissionfactorinyeary,monitoredandcalculatedaccordingtothelatestapproved
versionofTooltocalculatetheemissionfactorforanelectricitysystem(tCO2/MWh)

c)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelcombustionduetotransportationofbiomassfromtheplantation
site(s)tothesiteoftheprojectplant(PETP,y)

ThisemissionsourceincludesCO2emissionsfromthetransportationofbiomassfromthededicated
plantation site(s) and biomass residues from their source of generation to the project plant.
Emissions may be calculated either based on information on the number of trips, the return trip
distance and CO2 emission factors of the vehicles (Option1) or based on data on the actual fuel
consumptionofvehicles(Option2).

Wherethebiomassisobtainedfromdifferentsourceswithdifferentdistancesand/ortransportedin
different types of vehicles, emissions are calculated separately for the different distances and
vehiclestypes.

Option1:
Emissionsarecalculatedonthebasisofdistanceandthenumberoftrips(ortheaveragetruckload):
PETP, y N y AVDy EFkm,CO 2 (19)
or
BFPJ , j , y
j
PETP , y AVDy EFkm , CO 2, y (20)
TLy
Where:
PETP,y = Project emissions related to transportation of the biomass from the dedicated project
plantationand/orbiomassresiduesfromtheirsourceofgenerationtothepowerplantin
yeary(tCO2/yr)
Ny = Numberoftrucktripsduringtheyeary
AVDy = Averagereturntripdistance(fromandto)betweenthesourceofthebiomassandthesite
oftheprojectplantduringtheyeary(km),
EFkm,CO2,y = AverageCO2emissionfactorforthetrucksmeasuredduringtheyeary(tCO2/km)
BFPJ,j,y = Quantity of biomass type j fired in the project plant in the year y (tons of dry matter or
liter)61
TLy = Averagetruckloadofthetrucksused(tonsorliter)
j = Alltypesofrenewablebiomassfromthededicatedprojectplantationandtypesofbiomass
residuesthatarefiredintheprojectplant

Option2:

Emissionsarecalculatedbasedontheactualquantityoffossilfuelsconsumedfortransportation.

PETP , y FCTR , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i (21)


i

61
Usetonsofdrymatterforsolidbiomassresiduesandliterforliquidbiomassresidues.

Page 90 of 396
Where:
PECO2,TR,y = CO2emissionsfromoffsitetransportationofbiomassresiduestotheprojectsite(tCO2/yr)
FCTR,i,y = Fuelconsumptionoffueltypeiusedintrucksfortransportationofbiomassduringtheyear
y(massorvolumeunit)58
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactorforfossilfueltypei(tCO2/GJ)

d)CH4emissionsfromcombustionofbiomass(PEBF,y)
CH4emissionsareassociatedwiththecombustionofbiomassfiredintheprojectplant.Thisis
calculatedasfollows:

PEBF , y GWPCH 4 BFPJ , j , y NCV j EFCH 4, BF , j (22)


j

Where:
PEBF,y = Projectemissionsfromcombustionoftherenewablebiomassfromthededicatedproject
plantationandbiomassresiduesintheprojectplantinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
GWPCH4 = GlobalWarmingPotentialofmethanevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tCH4)
BFPJ,j,y = Quantity of biomass type j fired in the project plant in the year y (tons of dry matter or
liter)59
NCVj = Netcalorificvalueofbiomassfueltypej(GJ/tonofdrymatterorGJ/liter)
EFCH4,BF,j = CH4emissionfactorforthecombustionofbiomasstypejintheprojectplant(tCH4/GJ)
j = Alltypesofrenewablebiomassfromthededicatedprojectplantationandtypesofbiomass
residuesthatarefiredintheprojectplant

To determine the CH4 emission factor, IPCC default values are used, as provided in Table 2 of the
methodologyadopted,thedefaultCH4emissionfactorof30 kg/TJfromTable2is used,forwhich
theuncertaintyisestimatedtobe300%,andtheconservativenessfactorfortheuncertaintyis1.37
(fromTable3ofthemethodologyadopted).Thus,inthiscaseaCH4emissionfactorof(30*1.37=)
41.1kg/TJisused.

e)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelconsumptionduringagriculturaloperations(PEFC,PL,y)

CO2emissionsassociatedwithfossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationarecalculatedasfollows:

PE FC,PL ,y FCPL ,i ,y NCVi EFCO2 ,FF,i (23)


i

Where:
PEFC,PL,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtofossilfuelconsumptionattheplantationduringagricultural
operationsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
FCPL,i,y = Amount of fuel type i that is combusted at the dedicated plantation during the year y
(massorvolumeunit)58
NCVi = Netcalorificvalueoffueltypei(GJ/massorvolumeunit)
EFCO2,FF,i = CO2emissionfactoroffueltypei(tCO2/GJ)
i = Fueltypesusedforcombustionatthededicatedplantation

Page 91 of 396

f)Emissionsfromtheproductionofsyntheticfertilizerthatisusedattheplantation(PEFP,y)

The GHG emissions from the production of synthetic fertilizer are estimated for each synthetic
fertilizertypefbymultiplyinganemissionfactorwiththemonitoredquantityoffertilizerappliedat
theplantationduringtheyeary,asfollows:

PE FP , y EFCO 2 e , FP , f FSF , f , y (24)


f

Where:
PEFP,y = Project emissions related to the production of synthetic fertilizer that is used at the
dedicatedplantationinyeary(tCO2e/yr)
EFCO2e,FP,f = Emission factor for GHG emissions associated with the production of fertilizer type f
(tCO2e/kgfertilizer)
FSF,f,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizeroftypefappliedinyeary(kgfertilizer/yr)
f = Typesofsyntheticfertilizersappliedatthededicatedplantation

g)N2Oemissionsfromapplicationoffertilizersattheplantation(PEFA,y)

N2Oemissionsareassociatedwiththeapplicationofbothorganicandsyntheticfertilizers,andare
emitted through direct soil emissions and indirect emissions from atmospheric deposition and
leachingandrunoff.Emissionsarecalculatedasfollows.

44
PEFA, y GWPN 2O PEN 2O N , dir , y PEN 2O N , ind , y (25)
28
Where:
PEFA,y = Projectemissionsrelatedtotheapplicationoffertilizersatthededicatedplantationin
yeary(tCO2e/yr)
GWPN2O = Global Warming Potential of nitrous oxide valid for the commitment period
(tCO2e/tN2O)
PEN2ON,dir,y = DirectN2ONemissionsasaresultofnitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantation
duringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,y = Indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at the dedicated
plantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

DirectsoilN2Oemissions

PEN 2O N , dir , y EFN 2O N , dir FON , y FSN , y (26)


Where:
PEN2ON,dir,y = DirectN2ONemissionsasaresultofnitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantation
duringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

Page 92 of 396
EFN2ON,dir = EmissionfactorfordirectnitrousoxideemissionsfromNinputs(kgN2ON/kgN)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)

IndirectN2Oemissions
Note:Thissourceofemissionisnottobeaccountedforinthecaseofawoodyplantation.
IndirectN2OemissionscompriseN2OemissionsduetoatmosphericdecompositionofNvolatilized
fromtheplantationandN2Oemissionsfromleaching/runoff:

PEN 2O N , ind , y PEN 2O N , ind , ATD, y PEN 2O N , ind , L , y (27)


Where:
PEN2ON,ind,y = Indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at the dedicated
plantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,ATD,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoatmosphericdepositionofvolatilizedN,asaresultof
nitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
PEN2ON,ind,L,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoleaching/runoff,asaresultofnitrogenapplicationat
thededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

IndirectN2Oemissionsduetoatmosphericdecompositionarecalculatedasfollows:

PEN 2O N , ind , ATD, y FSN , y FracGASF FON , y FracGASM EFN 2O N , ATD (28)
Where:
PEN2ON,ind,ATD,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoatmosphericdepositionofvolatilizedN,asaresultof
nitrogenapplicationatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)
FracGASF = FractionofsyntheticfertilizerNthatvolatilizesasNH3andNOX(kgNvolatilized/kgN
applied)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FracGASM = FractionoforganicNfertilizerthatvolatilizesasNH3andNOX(kgNvolatilized/kgN
applied)
EFN2ON,ATD = EmissionfactorforatmosphericdepositionofNonsoilsandwatersurfaces(tN2ON/
tNvolatilized)

IndirectN2Oemissionsduetoleachingandrunoffarecalculatedasfollows:

PEN 2O N , ind , L , y FSN , y FON , y FracLEACH EFN 2O N,L (29)


Where:
PEN2ON,ind,L,y = IndirectN2ONemissionsduetoleaching/runoff,asaresultofnitrogenapplicationat
thededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN2ON/yr)

Page 93 of 396
FSN,y = Amountofsyntheticfertilizernitrogenappliedatthededicatedplantationduringthe
yeary(tN/yr)
FON,y = Amountoforganicfertilizernitrogenfromanimalmanure,sewage,compostorother
organicamendmentsappliedatthededicatedplantationduringtheyeary(tN/yr)
FracLEACH = FractionofsyntheticandorganicfertilizerNthatislostthroughleachingandrunoff
(kgNleachedandrunoff/kgNapplied)
EFN2ON,L = EmissionfactorforN2OemissionsfromNleachingandrunoff(tN2ON/tNleached
andrunoff)

h)CH4andN2Oemissionsfromthefieldburningofbiomass

Biomassmaybeburntatthestartoftheprojectactivity(forlandclearance)orregularlyduringthe
creditingperiod(e.g.afterharvest).Inthesecases,CH4andN2Oemissionsarecalculatedforeach
timethatfieldburningisoccurring,asfollows:

PE BB,y A B M B Cf EFN2O,BB GWPN2O EFCH4,BB GWPCH4 (30)


Where:
PEBB,y = Projectemissionsarisingfromfieldburningofbiomassattheplantationsite(tCO2e/yr)
AB = Areaburned(ha)
MB = Averagemassofbiomassavailableforburningonthearea(tdrymatter/ha)
Cf = Combustion factor, accounting for the proportion of fuel that is actually burnt
(dimensionless)
EFN2O,BB = N2Oemissionfactorforfieldburningofbiomass(tN2O/tonneofdrymatter)
GWPN2O = GlobalWarmingPotentialofnitrousoxidevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tN2O)
EFCH4,BB = CH4emissionfactorforfieldburningofbiomass(tCH4/tonneofdrymatter)
GWPCH4 = GlobalWarmingPotentialofmethanevalidforthecommitmentperiod(tCO2e/tCH4)


13. Leakage
AccordingtoAM0042methodology,potentialsourceofleakageemissionforthisprojectactivityis
the emissions related to the consumption of fossil fuel or other sources due to the devertion of
biomass residues from other uses to the project plant, as a result of the project activity. As the
projectactivitydoesnotuseanyresidualbiomass,thereisnoleakageemission.

14. Emissionreduction

Theemissionreductions(ERy)arecalculatedas:

ERy BEy PEy LEy (31)


Where:
ERy = Emissionreductionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
BEy = Baselineemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)

Page 94 of 396
PEy = Projectemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)
LEy = Leakageemissionsinyeary(tCO2/yr)


15. Exantecalculationofemissionreductions

NetElectricityGeneration
Grosselectricitygenerationcapacity 1MW

Netelectricitygenerationcapacity MW

Loadfactor %

Workinghours/day hours/day

Parasiticload MW

Netannualelectricitygeneration .........MWh/year (EGPJ,y)

Netsteamoutput TJ/year

BaselineEmissions
Parameters Unit Value

BEy (tCO2/yr)

EGPJ,y MWh/yr

EFgrid,y (tCO2/MWh)

Projectemissions
Thetotalofemissionsoftheproject:
PEy=PEFC,onsite,y+PEEC,y+PETP,y+PEBF,y+PEFC,PL,y+PEFP,y+PEFA,y+PEBB,y

a)CO2emissionsfromfuelcombustion(PEFC,onsite,y)


DieselFuelconsumptionformechanical
preparationordryingofthebiomass

Densityofdiesel .......................

Calorificvalueofdiesel NCV .......................

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i .......................

Page 95 of 396
Quantityofdieseloilconsumption FConsite,i,y .......................


.......................
PEFC , on site , y FCon site , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i
i

b)CO2emissionsfromonsiteelectricityconsumption(PEEC,y)

PEEC , y ECPJ , y EFgrid , y

Thereisnoconsumptionofelectricityfromthedistributiongrid.
PEEC,y=0

c)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelcombustionduetotransportationofbiomassfromtheplantation
site(s)tothesiteoftheprojectplant(PETP,y)

Option2:

PETP , y FCTR , i , y NCVi EFCO 2, FF ,i


i


Dieseloilconsumptionfortransportation FCTR,i,y ................................

Densityofdieseloil

Netcalorificvalueofdieseloil NCV

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i

PECO2,TR,y


d)CH4emissionsfromcombustionofbiomass(PEBF,y)

PEBF , y GWPCH 4 BFPJ , j , y NCV j EFCH 4, BF , j


j


Globalwarmingpotential GWPCH4

QuantityofLamtoroGungwoodgasified BFPJ,j,y

NetcalorificvalueofLamtoroGungwood NCVj

Page 96 of 396
CH4 emission factor for the combustion of Lamtoro EFCH4,BF,
Gungwood
Project emission from combustion of lamtoro Gung PEBF,y
wood


e)CO2emissionsfromfossilfuelconsumptionduringagriculturaloperations(PEFC,PL,y)

PE FC,PL ,y FCPL ,i ,y NCVi EFCO2 ,FF,i


i

Project emissions related to diesel consumption used at PEFC,PL,y


thededicatedplantation
Annualdieselconsumptioninthededicatedplantatation FCPL,i,y

Netcalorificvalueofdiesel NCVi

CO2emissionfactorofdiesel EFCO2,FF,i


f)Emissionsfromtheproductionofsyntheticfertilizerthatisusedattheplantation(PEFP,y)

PE FP , y EFCO 2 e , FP , f FSF , f , y
f

Emission factor for GHG emissions associated EFCO2e,FP,f


withtheproductionoffertilizer
Annualquantityoffertilizerused FSF,f,y

Project emission related to the production of PEFP,y


syntheticfertilizer


g)N2Oemissionsfromapplicationoffertilizersattheplantation(PEFA,y)

44
PEFA, y GWPN 2O PEN 2O N , dir , y PEN 2O N , ind , y
28

Global Warming Potential of nitrous oxide valid for the GWPN2O ......tCO2e/tN2O
commitmentperiod
Annual direct N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen PEN2ON,dir,y .......tN2ON/yr
applicationatthededicatedplantation

Page 97 of 396
Annual indirect N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen PEN2ON,ind,y 0
applicationatthededicatedplantation


DirectsoilN2Oemissions

PEN 2O N , dir , y EFN 2O N , dir FON , y FSN , y


Direct N2ON emissions as a result of nitrogen application at PEN2ON,dir,y
thededicatedplantation
Emission factor for direct nitrous oxide emissions from N EFN2ON,dir
inputs
Amount of organic fertilizer nitrogen from animal manure, FON,y
sewage, compost or other organic amendments applied at
thededicatedplantationduring
Amount of synthetic fertilizer nitrogen applied at the FSN,y
dedicatedplantation


h)CH4andN2Oemissionsfromthefieldburningofbiomass

PE BB,y A B M B Cf EFN2O,BB GWPN2O EFCH4,BB GWPCH4



Thereisnofieldburningofbiomass
PEBB,y0

Leakage
Astheprojectactivitydoesnotuseanyresidualbiomass,thereisnoleakageemission(LEy=0)


Emissionreductions

ERy BEy PEy LEy



Parameter Unit Value

ERy tCO2e/yr

BEy tCO2e/yr

PEy tCO2e/yr

LEy tCO2e/yr 0

Page 98 of 396
ATTACHMENT II

FinancialInternalRateofReturn(FIRR)Calculation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037
Investment 2,654,623 1,769,749 0

Income 174,920 167,756 160,490 153,121 98,773 311,503 303,816 296,020 288,113 233,219 271,961 263,712 255,347 246,862 191,382 229,529 220,677 211,699 202,593 146,484

NetCashFlow(P) 2,654,623 1,769,749 174,920 167,756 160,490 153,121 98,773 311,503 303,816 296,020 288,113 233,219 271,961 263,712 255,347 246,862 191,382 229,529 220,677 211,699 202,593 146,484
NetCashFlow(E) 796,387 530,925 174,920 167,756 160,490 153,121 98,773 311,503 303,816 296,020 288,113 233,219 271,961 263,712 255,347 246,862 191,382 229,529 220,677 211,699 202,593 146,484

ProjectIRR 0.01%
EquityIRR 13.4%

NPVrate 4%
NPV(projectbased) ($1,079,257)
NPV(equitybased) $1,852,871

Paybackperiod 13 year

Page 99 of 396
ATTACHMENTIIIIProductivityofLeucaenaLeucocephala

Table1.Biomasscomponentyieldofleucaenaplantedovera4yearperiod(Sources:Songyos
Chotchutimaet.al.,2013) Thailand
Cuttingin Rainfall(mm) Freshweight Dryweight Heatingvalue
(t/ha) (t/ha) (Kcal/kg)

1styear 1156 35.953.2 17.325.4


2ndyear 1372 50.866.5 24.731.7
3rdyear 1249 51.871.3 25.534.2 46304720
4thyear 1428 4462.8 19.328.6 43704410
Total(1st4thyear) 186.2253.8 87.2119.4

Table2.TreegrowthandwoodtraitsofL.leucocephalaat6and12mthafterplantinginAfar
Region,Ethiopia(Sources:AhmedSeidAliet.al.2013)
Parameter 6Monthmean 12Monthmean
Plantheight(m) 2.03 5.22

Stemdiameter(cm) 2.10 5.10


Numberoftrunk 11.10 12.76
Rootlength(m) 2.28 3.29

Stembiomass(kg.tree1) 1.69 2.68


Branchbiomass(kg.tree1) 0.48 0.87

Leafbiomass(kg.tree1) 0.42 0.78


TAB(kg.tree1) 2.39 4.33
Stembiomass(t.ha1) 13.48 23.99
Branchbiomass(t.ha1) 4.34 10.35
Leafbiomass(t.ha1) 3.78 6.66

TAB(t.ha1) 21.60 38.19


Calorificvalue(kJ.kg1) 19.60
Calorificvalue(kcal/kg) 4684

Ash(%) 1.93

Specificgravity 0.52
Means followed by the same lowercase superscript letter within a row are not signifi cant (P < 0.05) at 6 and 12 mth after planting;
TAB = Total above ground biomass; LL = L. leucocephala; Stem diameter = Stem diameter over bark measured at 1.3 m.
Samples of the stem, leaves and branches were taken, dried at 65 C until constant mass and then the dry
biomass of each portion was determined. The total dry biomass and biomass allocation to each component of
each tree were calculated.

Page 100 of 396


Table3.MeanHeight,DBHandWoodYieldofSampleTreesofLeucaenaleucocephalaatagefour
years(Sources:AnthonyAgustusMainooet.al.1996) Ghana
Variable/Component Species(Leucaenaleucocephala)

DBH(cm) 4.46

Heigh(m) 5.94

DryWeight(t/Ha)

Stem 30.35

Branch 8.95

Total 39.30

Volume(m3/Ha)

Stem 42.42

Branch 13.11

Total 55.53

Calorificvaluesofstemcomponents(kcal/kg) 4703

Table4.Leucaenagrowthrateduringyear1(Plantingperiod12Months),Source:SamBonaand
LeukDana,2005 Cambodia
Variable/Component Species(Leucaenaleucocephala)

Fresh(t/Ha) OvenDried(t/ha)

Stem 6.8 3.8

Branch 10.3 5.1

Total 17.1 8.9

Foliage 6.1 2.0

Fruits 0.1 0.0

Totalabovegroundbiomass 23.3 10.9

Table5.BiomassyieldedandcharacteristicsoffiberfromLeucaenavarietiesduring2years
(Sources:F.Lopezet.al.,2008) Spain
Varieties Year1 Year2 Year1sprouts

WD TD WD TD WD TD

Page 101 of 396


L.leucocephala(H) 9.4 12.8 17.1 23.4 28.4 38.8

L.leucocephala(I) 9.1 13.5 20.8 30.9 45.1 67.1

L.leucocephala 7.8 12.3 16.1 25.6 31.5 50.0


(K360)

Note:Plantswereobtainedfromseeds,forsixvarietiesofLeucaena.L.leucocephalafromHonduras(H),L.
leucocephalafromIndia(I),L.leucocephalavar.K360(K360),L.salvadorensis,L.collinsiiandL.diversifolia
werethevarietiesusedinthisexperiment.

InthecaseofL.leucocephala,itcanbeseenthatapruningevery2yearsdoesnotcauseanimportantincrease
intheannualgrowthratio,whileiftheyareprunedwhentheyare1yearold,thegrownsproutduringthat
secondyearnotablyincreasestheproduction,reaching50t/ha/year.

References:
1. SongyosChotchutima,KunnKangvansaichol,SayanTudsri,PrapaSripichitt1,Journalof
SustainableBioenergySystems,2013,3,4856http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jsbs.2013.31006
PublishedOnlineMarch2013(http://www.scirp.org/journal/jsbs),EffectofSpacingon
Growth,BiomassYieldandQualityofLeucaena(Leucaenaleucocephala(Lam.)deWit.)for
RenewableEnergyinThailand
2. AhmedSeidAli,SayanTudsri,SarawutRungmekarat2andKriengkriKaewtrakulpong,
Growth,BiomassProductivityandEnergyCharacteristicsofProsopisjuliflora(Sw.)DC.and
Leucaenaleucocephala(Lam.)DeWitinAfarRegion,Ethiopia,KasetsartJ.(Nat.Sci.)47:663
674(2013)
3. AnthonyAgustusMainoo&FrancisUlzenAppiah,Growth,WoodYieldandEnergy
CharacteristicsofLeucaenaLeucocephala,GliricidiaSepiumandSennaSiameaatagefour
years,GhanaJournalofForestryVol.31996
4. SamBonaandLeukDana,FarmingWoodFuelForSustainableEnergyInRuralAreasIn
Cambodia,WorkshoponIssuesfortheSustainableUseofBiomassResourcesforEnergy,
Colombo,SriLanka,1519August2005
5. F.Lopez,M.M.Garca,R.Yanez,R.Tapias,M.Fernandez,M.J.Daz,Leucaenaspecies
valorationforbiomassandpaperproductionin1and2yearharvest,Bioresource
Technology99(2008)48464853

Page 102 of 396


3. WIND FARM PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY

31

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 103 of 396
www.i-windenergy.com

Client: Asian Development Bank


Title: Preliminary Wind Resource Assessment & Financial
Assessment of Hambapraing, Sumba

Version 2.0
November 30, 2015

Prepared by:
Pramod Jain, Ph.D.
Innovative Wind Energy, Inc.
8578 Ethans Glen, Jacksonville, FL 32256
pramod@i-windenergy.com, +1-904-923-6489

Page 104 of 396


Version

Version Number Date of release Modifications in new release Signature


1.0 October 19, 2015 First release PJ

2.0 November 28, Review of financial model by Xiaodong


2015 Review of entire report by Mike Crosetti

12/14/2015 Innovative Wind Energy, Inc. Page 2

Page 105 of 396


Table of Contents
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................. 6
1. Background ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Disclaimers ...................................................................................................................................... 7
2. Site Location ..................................................................................................................................... 9
3. Wind Data Sources ......................................................................................................................... 10
Data quality .................................................................................................................................... 10
Data Correction .............................................................................................................................. 10
Vertical Extrapolation .................................................................................................................... 11
Long-term data, MCP .................................................................................................................... 11
4. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Resource Map ............................................................................... 13
GIS map of the area ....................................................................................................................... 16
5. Layout of Turbines, Turbine Selection and Annual Energy Production ......................................... 17
6. Notes About Losses and Uncertainty .............................................................................................. 22
7. Financial Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 24
Analysis of Financial Results......................................................................................................... 25
8. Conclusions & Next Steps .............................................................................................................. 26
Appendix I: Financial Analysis Details Cash flow for the 10.2MW wind project ................................. 27

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Annual energy production and capacity factor for the 12x850kW wind farm .............................. 6
Table 2: Results of the financial analysis...................................................................................................... 6
Table 3: Source of wind data used for analysis. Anemometer heights, measurement interval, duration
of mesurement and distance from proposed wind turbine sites are listed. .................................................. 10
Table 4: Average wind speed of various time series................................................................................... 11
Table 5: Long-term data series used for long-term correction of measured data. The last two columns
contain the correlation with measured wind speed data from 1410 met-tower. ......................................... 12
Table 6: Siting and wind energy parameters for the twelve 850-KW WTG wind farm.
Latitude/Longitude are in metric units in UTM84 coordinate system. The average wind speed is at
hub height of 65m. Net AEP = Gross AEP Wake loss. ........................................................................... 21
Table 7: Loss assumptions used in the project. In this preliminary analysis, losses add up to 10%......... 22
Table 8: Annual AEP estimates after losses and with uncertainty. The first column AEP is from
Table 2. 10% losses were used in the calculation. ..................................................................................... 22
Table 9: Uncertainty assumptions used in the project. ............................................................................... 22
Table 10: AEP-P75, AEP-P90 and AEP-P95 are energy production levels for 75, 90 and 95%
exceedance probabilities. ............................................................................................................................ 23
Table 11: Financial and operational assumptions about two scenarios. ..................................................... 24
Table 12: Performance metrics for the two scenarios. ................................................................................ 24

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: North-central region of Sumba island. The ADB met-mast location is labeled. .......................... 9
Figure 2: Zoomed in view of the site. Locations of wind measurement and location of part 1 of wind
farm are labeled as the Met-masts and WTG respectively. Also marked are the primary road in
the area and the 20kV line, which runs along the road. ................................................................................ 9
Figure 3: Process of cleaning the raw wind data and filling holes.............................................................. 11
Figure 4: Plot of variation of MERRA long-term wind data (
). The area shaded in yellow is the measurement period. ...................................................................... 12
Figure 5: Wind climate derived from the corrected data of met-tower 1410. ............................................. 13
Figure 6a,b,c,d: Plots a and b are monthly and hourly profiles of average wind speed at 65m above the
ground level. April through Septemeber are high wind months. Plots c and d are average wind speed
by hour for the peak wind month of August and low wind month of December........................................ 15
Figure 7: Elevation contour and roughness contours for Hambapraing...................................................... 16
Figure 8: Wind resource map of Hambapraing. Areas colored red have the highest, while areas in
gray have the lowest wind power density. The location of met-mast 1410 and placement of twelve
wind turbines is also illustrated................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 9a,b: Zoomed in view of wind resource map of Area 1 and Area 2 in Hambapraing along with
layout of the 12 WTGs. ............................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 10: WTGs with wind rose attached for locations in Area 1 and Area 2; it illustrates that the
frequency of wind from south-east is high and there should be minimal wake effect. The circle
around the WTG has a diameter of 3 times the rotor diameter. The elevation contour lines (in meters)
are also displayed. ....................................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 11: Power production curve (Power output P versus wind speed u) of the Vestas V52-850kW
wind turbine for air density of 1.225 kg/m3. .............................................................................................. 21

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Executive Summary
The Sumba Iconic Initiative (SII) aims to, by 2025, accomplish 95% electrification and a target of 100%
renewable energy for electricity production1. As part of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical
Assistance (TA) No. 8287-INO: Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia Castlerock
prepared a least-cost electrification plan which identified 10MW of wind power2 as part of the future
least-cost generation mix. In accordance with this plan, ADB financed installation and one years
operation of a 60 meter met-mast to collect wind data at Hambapraing, Sumba. The met-mast was
commissioned in October 2014. At the end of one year of data collection, this deliverable is a pre-
feasibility study of 10MW of wind power development in Sumba at Hambapraing. It consists of an initial
wind resource assessment and a preliminary financial assessment of the 10MW wind project.

This wind resource assessment is based on about 10 months of measured wind data over a period of 12
months using the 60m ADB met-mast, and statistical-fill in for the missing 2 months of data using data
from the 33m HIVOS met-mast, which is sited approximately 5 km to the north of the ADB met-mast.

The wind resource analysis is performed using WAsP. The wind turbine generator (WTG) chosen for this
analysis is 850kW with 52m rotor diameter and 65m hub height, which is likely to meet the logistical
constraints in Sumba. A preliminary siting of 12 WTGs in a 10.2MW wind farm is performed, it involves
siting 8 WTGs near the ADB met-mast and siting the rest about 5 km south. These two areas in
Hambapraing have the highest wind energy density and sufficient amount of land. The annual energy
production (AEP), wake loss and capacity factor for the 12 WTG wind farm are presented below.

WTG Wind farm Av. Elevation Av. Wind Gross AEP Net AEP Av. Wake Av. Capacity
Count (MW) (m) speed (m/s) (GWh) (GWh) loss (%) factor (%)
12 10.2 453.7 7.39 31.67 31.16 1.6 34.9
Table 1: Annual energy production and capacity factor for the 12x850kW wind farm

Preliminary estimates of losses and resource uncertainty were applied to the above computations to
determine the exceedance probabilities (P50, P75 and P90). These values were used to perform a
financial analysis of the wind project. The results of the financial analysis suggest that a 10.2MW wind
project is financially viable, under conservative assumptions and a $0.28/kWh feed-in tariff as currently
under discussion by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. It meets the expected return on
equity and the debt service coverage ratio is close to an acceptable threshold.

Cost Scenario 1
P50 P75 P90
AEP with 10% losses (GWh) 28.047 25.775 23.722
Total Installed Cost (million $) $23.49 $23.49 $23.49
Total Annual Revenue (million $) $7.85 $7.22 $6.64
Project IRR, after-tax (%) 17.2 15.7 14.2
Return on Equity, after tax (%) 24.1 20.6 17.5
Debt service coverage ratio 1.49 1.37 1.26
Simple payback period on equity (years) 5 7 9
Table 2: Results of the financial analysis

1
Ministerial Decree 3051 K/30/MEM/2015 on Designation of Sumba Island as a Renewable Energy Iconic Island stipulates that
renewable energy will account for 95% of total energy supply on Sumba by 2020. Further analysis is underway to assess realistic
timing to achieve targets of near-universal electricity access and full reliance on renewable energy.
2
The Least-Cost Plan may be downloaded from http://castlerockasia.com/sumba/sii.html
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1. Background
Innovative Wind Energy Inc. (IWE) has prepared this wind resource assessment report under contract to
Castlerock Consulting as part of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) Technical Assistance (TA) No.
8287-INO: Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia.

The technical assistance program is part of the Sumba Iconic Island (SII) initiative, a multi-stakeholder
undertaking led by the Directorate General of New & Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation within
the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in partnership with Hivos, a Netherlands-based non-
governmental organization (NGO); the provincial government of Nusa Tenggara Timur; the four
kabupaten of Sumba; Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), the Indonesian national utility; other government
ministries and NGOs; and development partners including ADB, the Government of Norway and Agence
Francaise de Developpement (AFD).

The SII initiative aims to accomplish the following by 20253:


Increase the electrification ratio on the island of Sumba from a current level of some 30% of
households to 95% (the electrification ratio target), and
Increase the share of electricity produced from renewable resources on Sumba from some 15% to
100% (the renewable contribution target).

The program aspires to these objectives not only for the benefit of Sumba, but to establish a model that
may be replicated elsewhere in Indonesia.

Within the TA-8287, this report is presented as part of the Final Report. Other principal deliverables
produced under the assignment include:
Inception Report (November 2013)
Deliverable B: Energy Resources for Grid Supply & Electricity Demand Analysis for Sumba
(September 2014)
Met-mast bidding, procurement and installation (October 2014)
Mid-Term Report: Least-Cost Electrification Plan for the Iconic Island (December 2014)
Deliverable A: Achieving Universal Electricity Access in Indonesia (July 2015)

The least-cost electrification plan determined a wind power penetration of 10MW as part of the 2025
generation mix in Sumba4. In order to better understand the wind resources in Sumba, a 60 meter met-
mast was installed in Hambapraing in October 2014. After the culmination of one year of wind
measurement using this tower, a preliminary wind resource assessment and preliminary wind project
financial assessment is being undertaken. The results of the assessments are reported in this document
and will serve as the pre-feasibility report for wind project of size 10MW in the Hambapraing area of
Sumba.

Disclaimers
The analyses presented here and the data it is based on were done with utmost care. However, IWE will
not be held responsible for any damages or liabilities resulting from the application or use of the

3
As noted above, the timing of these targets are being refined to provide realistic guidance.
4
The least-cost analysis was based on a load forecast corresponding to a 95% electrification ratio in 2025. The maximum
penetration of wind generation capacity was limited to 25% of peak demand in that analysis to reflect system operating
constraints. Lower load growth or a failure to upgrade transmission infrastructure would likely result in a lower level of
maximum penetration. The Least-Cost Plan may be downloaded from http://castlerockasia.com/sumba/sii.html.
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data/analyses. The views and recommendations outlined in this document represent the viewpoint solely
of IWE.

The following datasets form the basis of this report: onsite wind measurement data from ADB met-mast,
one year of measurement data from the HIVOS met-mast and long-term data from 3Tier.The ADB met-
mast yielded 10 months of measured wind data over a period of 12 months, the met-mast was unavailable
due to unscheduled maintenance for 2 months. A high quality wind resource assessment requires one
year or more of contiguous dataset with higher than 95% of availability. HIVOS met-mast data was
utilized to statistically fill-in for the 2 months of missing data.

This wind resource assessment does not replace the need to complete a site-specific terrain study,
environmental impact study and other engineering studies in order to determine the viability of the wind
project.

This report and the data contained herein remain ADB's sole property. ADB may release them to the
general public at its sole discretion. Unless or until ADB releases this report to general public, the
contents of the report may not be copied or disclosed to any person or entity except with ADB's prior
written consent.

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2. Hambapraing Site Details
Figures 1 and 2 below are aerial views of the Hambapraing area from Google Earth.

Figure 1: North-central region of Sumba island. The ADB met-mast location is labeled.

Road & 20kV


line

Figure 2: Zoomed in view of the site. Locations of wind measurement and location of part 1 of wind farm
are labeled as the Met-masts and WTG respectively. Also marked are the primary road in the area
and the 20kV line, which runs along the road.

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3. Wind Data Sources
Two sources of measured wind data were used for the analysis, see Table 3. The HIVOS met-mast or
tower 1261 was installed in July 2012; this project was given access to data from October 2014. It is a 33
meter met-mast close to the shore, see Figure 2. Tower-1410 is the ADB met-mast installed in October
2014. It is a 60 meter tower located closer to the region where the 10.2MW wind farm is planned, hence
it is the primary source of wind speed data used in this analysis. Tower-1410 was unavailable for two
months due to unscheduled maintenance, so Tower-1261 data was used to fill up missing data in Tower-
1410 time series.

Table 3: Source of wind data used for analysis. Anemometer heights, measurement interval, duration of
mesurement and distance from proposed wind turbine sites are listed.
Location Height in Measurement Distance*
meters Interval, Duration from site (km)
1 Tower 1261 32 10 minutes; 6.24
(HIVOS met-mast) 23 12 months
10/2014 - 10/2015
2 Tower 1410 57 10 minutes; 1.1
(ADB met-mast) 47 12 months 10 days,
32 10/2014 10/2015
*Straight line distance, i.e. as the crow flies

Data quality
The following data quality and availability issues were noted for Met-Tower 1410 (the ADB tower):
1. Anemometer at 47m was malfunctioning starting October 27, 2014. Loose connection was fixed
on December 9, 2014.
2. Wind vane on Channel 7 at 53m started malfunctioning around January 16, 2015. Its reading
would remain constant while the second wind vane at 43m tracked wind direction.
3. Wind speed on Channel 1 at 57m was slowing and possible malfunction was detected in
February 2015 by comparing it to wind speed readings on Channel 3 for the anemometer at 47m.
4. On May 9, 2015 the met-tower (all instruments) stopped functioning because it fell to the ground
during a lowering manueverto replace sensors. The fall occurred after the met-tower had been
lowered by 80 degrees. More detailed information is available from Winrock, ADBs contractor
for the met-tower.
5. The met-tower was functioning again on July 10, 2015. Redundant anemometers (with
orientation of 210 degrees) at 47m and 32m were removed, and channel for the remaining
anemometer at 47m with orientation of 30 degrees was changed.

Data correction
Given the issues listed above significant amount of data correction was performed to obtain one-year of
wind measurement data that is usable for wind resource assessment. Figure 3 illustrates the process of
data correction. The raw wind file was split into two because there was a change in channels. The two
data streams are merged to create the corrected data stream with correct channels. The Filter block flags
data based on variety of criteria; here wind speed data is flagged when value is 0.2 m/s or empty, which
occured when the met-tower was not functioning. Measure Correlate Prediction (MCP) step takes as
input wind speed data from met-tower 1261, performs correlation with wind speed data from met-tower
1410 to create a new time series of wind speed which is a statistical prediction of the combined wind
speed. The Fill Data step then replaces the flagged wind data in 1410 time series with the MCP

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prediction. At the end of this step, the wind speed time series has been fixedthe missing data from May
9 to July 10, 2015 are replaced with statistically adjusted data from the 1261 tower.
The next set of blocks fix wind direction data. Fill Dirn block removes all the constant value (due to
faulty wind vane) in 53m wind vane with values from the 43m wind vane. The Filter block flags all the
wind direction when the met-tower was not functioning. The Fill Dirn2 block uses the direction data
from 1261 tower and replaces the data flagged in the previous step.

Figure 3: Process of cleaning the raw wind data and filling holes.

Vertical extrapolation
Shear was computed using wind speed data from 57m, 47m and 32m anemometers on 1410 met-mast.
Shear parameters were estimated using the power law for each of the 12 direction sectors, each month and
each hour. These parameters were applied to the 57m wind speed data in order to extrapolate to 65m, see
Table 3. The average shear was computed to be 0.07068.

Table 4: Average wind speed of various time series.


Average Original time Time series after Time series after Time series after
wind speed series with gaps data correction extrapolation long-term
in m/s correction
65m AGL 6.71 7.005
57m AGL 6.007 6.648 6.648 6.941
47m AGL 5.996 6.633 6.633 6.925
32m AGL 5.824 6.44 6.44 6.723

Long-term correction of data using Measure Correlate Predict (MCP)


Two long-term data series were obtained from 3TierMERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for
Research and Applications, http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/merra/) and ERAI (European Centre for
Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim).
The statistics for the two series are in Table 4. The hourly correlations between the measured and each of
MERRA and ERAI is low, so the long-term dataset is not well suited for performing a long-term
correction of the measured time series. However preliminary analysis of the both MERRA and ERAI
dataset suggests that the measured time period has wind speed that are 4.4% lower that the long-term
average. The last column in Table 4 contains the annual average wind speed with the 4.4% increase for
long-term correction. Figure 4 is a plot of the annual variation of wind speed around the long-term mean.

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Since the correlation between the measured and long-term data series is low, all the subsequent analysis
will use the more conservative wind data time series without the 4.4% long-term correction.

Table 5: Long-term data series used for long-term correction of measured data. The last two columns contain the
correlation with measured wind speed data from 1410 met-tower.

Time period Average Wind Correlation with Correlation with


Speed (m/s), 65m measured data measured data
AGL (hourly) (daily)
MERRA data 1981-01-01 to 5.497 0.597 0.842
2015-07-31
ERAI data 1981-01-01 to 5.535 0.395 0.739
2015-06-27

Figure 4: Plot of variation of MERRA long-term wind data ( ).


The area shaded in yellow is the measurement period.

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4. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Resource Map
This section presents analysis of wind data after the data correction task was performed. Figure 5
contains wind statistics. The overall wind speed average of the dataset is 6.71 m/s, while the average of
the modeled dataset is 6.92 m/s. In the modeled dataset, the time series data is segmented into 12
direction sectors, and Weibull distribution parameters (A and k) and Weibull distributions mean wind
speed are computed for each sector. These means are combined by adding sector mean multiplied by
sector frequency to obtain the fitted mean wind speed. The Quality columns in Figure 5 are indications of
the difference between source data mean and fitted mean of wind speed and power. Although the
difference between mean wind speed of fitted versus source is higher than normal, the mean power
difference is small (278 W/m2 versus 276 W/m2). The mean power difference is a better metric for
measuring quality of fit and since it is small, the sectorwise Weibull parameters are used for all
subsequent computations.

Figure 5: Wind climate derived from the corrected data of met-tower 1410.

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The rose plot indicates that the highest frequency of wind is from the 120-degree sector (East-South-
East), and about 65% of the time wind direction is in the three sectors between 90 degs and 150 degs. It
is worth noting that the highest energy is in sector 11 (300-degree), but the frequency is low (5.9%).

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Figure 6a,b,c,d: Plots a and b are monthly and hourly profiles of average wind speed at 65m above the
ground level. April through Septemeber are high wind months. Plots c and d are average wind speed by
hour for the peak wind month of August and low wind month of December.

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The seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed are presented in Figure 6. Months from May to September
are high wind months. Notice that there is a substantial difference between the three diurnal plots b, c and
d. The diurnal profile of the annual average (plot b) is similar to the diurnal profile for December. While
the diurnal profile for the peak month of August has smaller inter-hour variation. In August the highest
winds are between midnight and 6AM. In December the highest winds are between 11AM and 5PM.

GIS map of the area


The elevation contour of the Hambapraing area was obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography
Mission, http://srtm.usgs.gov/), and roughness areas were marked visually based on large-scale vegetation
changes. This is presented in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Elevation contour and roughness contours for Hambapraing.

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5. Layout of Turbines, Turbine Selection and Annual Energy Production
(AEP)
The digital map of Hambapraing was combined with the wind speed statistics by WAsP to create a wind
resource map, see Figure 8. The highest energy density areas are in red.

Turbine selection for this analysis is based primarily on infrastructure in the island and the associated cost
of logistics to transport the turbine from the port to the location. A private investor has conducted
preliminary analysis and determined that the Vestas V52-850kW wind turbine is likely the largest turbine
that can be transported to Hambapraing at reasonable cost. This WTG has a rotor diameter of 52m and
hub height of 65m. This WTG was therefore chosen for computation of AEP.

In order to site a 10MW wind farm, eight V52-850kW WTGs were sited in the red area near the met-
tower (Area 1) and four WTGs were sited about 5 km south (Area 2), see Figures 8, 9 and 10. The total
capacity of the wind farm is 10.2MW.

The eight WTGs are located 160m apart along a straight line. The distance between the turbines is
slightly more than 3D, where D is the rotor diameter ( ). A distance between turbines of
3D in a direction that is perpendicular to the primary wind direction is a good rule of thumb to minimize
wake losses. The second set of 4 WTGs were manually sited in Area 2; locations that are in flat area with
high wind energy density. The power production of the WTG is shown in Figure 10. Table 6 contains
data about the twelve WTG wind farmcoordinates, elevation, wind speed at hub height, gross and net
annual energy production (AEP), wake losses and net capacity factors. All the calculations were done
using WAsP version 11.1.

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Area 1

Area 2

Figure 8: Wind resource map of Hambapraing. Areas colored red have the highest, while areas in gray
have the lowest wind power density. The location of met-mast 1410 and placement of twelve wind
turbines is also illustrated.

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Figure 9a,b: Zoomed in view of wind resource map of Area 1 and Area 2 in Hambapraing along with
layout of the 12 WTGs.

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Figure 10: WTGs with wind rose attached for locations in Area 1 and Area 2; it illustrates that the
frequency of wind from south-east is high and there should be minimal wake effect. The circle around the
WTG has a diameter of 3 times the rotor diameter. The elevation contour lines (in meters) are also
displayed.

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Figure 11: Power production curve (Power output P versus wind speed u) of the Vestas V52-850kW wind
turbine for air density of 1.225 kg/m3.

Table 6: Siting and wind energy parameters for the twelve 850-KW WTG wind farm. Latitude/Longitude
are in metric units in UTM84 coordinate system. The average wind speed is at hub height of 65m. Net
AEP = Gross AEP Wake loss.
WTG Latitude Longitude Elevation Wind Gross Net Wake Capacity
(m) (m) (m) speed AEP AEP loss (%) factor
(m/s) (GWh) (GWh)
1 189049.3 -1054305 464.8 7.31 2.578 2.521 2.22 0.339
2 188910.7 -1054385 470.4 7.33 2.596 2.527 2.66 0.339
3 188772.1 -1054464 471.5 7.33 2.595 2.53 2.52 0.340
4 188633.5 -1054544 474.4 7.38 2.637 2.572 2.44 0.345
5 188494.9 -1054624 469.6 7.33 2.603 2.544 2.26 0.342
6 188356.2 -1054704 465 7.29 2.577 2.523 2.09 0.339
7 188217.6 -1054784 461.2 7.26 2.551 2.505 1.77 0.336
8 188079 -1054864 460.4 7.26 2.551 2.537 0.53 0.341
9 191596.3 -1060845 428 7.55 2.754 2.726 0.99 0.366
10 191591.3 -1061019 426 7.53 2.738 2.714 0.87 0.364
11 191603 -1061215 427.6 7.52 2.739 2.737 0.08 0.368
12 191717.8 -1060700 425.1 7.55 2.755 2.727 1.04 0.366

Turbines 9 to 12 have higher energy production and lower wake losses compared to turbines 1 to 8.
However, from a constructability standpoint, the locations of turbines 1 to 8 are more suitable because of
low variation in elevation (flat area). The total net AEP in Table 6 accounts only for wake losses, the
other losses are applied in the next section. The total net AEP is 31.163 GWh and the average capacity
factor is 34.88%.

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6. Notes About Losses and Uncertainty
The following losses were assumed in the current analysis. The scope of this project does not include
assessing site specific losses, therefore generic estimates (Source: P. Jain, Wind Energy Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, NY, 2010) are used. The net annual AEP after 10% losses is Table 7.

Table 7: Loss assumptions used in the project. In this preliminary analysis, losses add up to 10%.
Name Loss [%]

1. Wake effects, all WTGs Included


2. Availability
Turbine availability 3
Balance of plant (Substation) 1
Grid availability 1
3. Turbine power curve performance 2
4. Electrical losses 2
5. Environmental & Others 1
Total 10%

Table 8: Annual AEP estimates after losses and with uncertainty. The first column AEP is from Table 2.
10% losses were used in the calculation.
AEP Net AEP after Net Capacity
(GWh) losses (GWh) factor

31.163 28.047 31.4%

The uncertainties listed in Table 5 were assumed in the current analysis. The highest uncertainty is wind
speed measurement, because onsite wind speed data is not available. The net one-year uncertainty5 is
12% on AEP. Assessment of site-specific uncertainty is not within scope, therefore a generic estimate
(same source as above) is used.

Table 9: Uncertainty assumptions used in the project.


Parameter Unit Std dev on
Value [%]

A. Wind Data
- Wind measurement AEP-% 6
- Long term correction AEP-% 5
- Year-to-year variability AEP-% 5
B. Wind model AEP-% 6
C. Power curve uncertainty AEP-% 5
D. LOSS AEP-% 1
Total Uncertainty (%) AEP-% 12

5
Same as standard deviation expressed as percentage of mean
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Based on the uncertainty assumptions, the AEP for exceedance probabilities of P75, P90 and P95 are
computed in Table 10. AEP at P50 is the average energy production. AEP at P75 is the energy
production in GWh that will be exceeded with a probability of 75%. Therefore, AEP-P95<AEP-
P90<AEP-P75<AEP-P50.

Table 10: AEP-P75, AEP-P90 and AEP-P95 are energy production levels for 75, 90 and 95% exceedance
probabilities.
Exceedance AEP
Probability Type (GWh)
P50 28.047
P75 25.775
P90 23.722
P95 22.510

Figure 12: Illustration of the exceedance probabilities. As as example, AEP at P90 is 23.72 GWh, which
means that there is 90% confidence that the annual wind energy production will be 23.72 GWh or more.

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7. Financial Analysis
A preliminary financial analysis of the 10.2MW wind project with twelve 850-kW wind turbines is
presented here. The total installed cost analysis is not based on quotations from vendors, rather are
primarily based on numbers provided by one private developer for refurbished turbines for installation of
single turbine in Sumba. The data was provided in 2014 for installation in 2016. Two sets of cost
numbers and assumptions were provided as shown in Table 11, hence Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 are
analyzed below. It is assumed a windfarm of this size can be constructed within one year, hence there is
no separate allowance taken for interest during construction.

Table 11: Financial and operational assumptions about two scenarios.


Scenario 1 Scenario 2
Total installed cost (TIC) $2,303/kW $2,098/kW
Total O&M Costs $0.11/kWh $0.05/kWh
Annual escalation of O&M 0% 5%
Size of wind farm 10.2MW 10.2MW
Sale price of energy $0.280/kWh $0.280/kWh
Depreciation 15-yr accelerated 15-yr accelerated
Tax rate, WACC* 25%, 13.8% 25%, 13.8%
Life of project 15 years 15 years
Financing Structure 70% debt/30% equity 70% debt/30% equity
Debt duration/interest 8 years/12% 8 years/12%
Required return on equity 18% 18%
Investment tax deduction 5% 5%
(ITD)
ITC years 6 years 6 years
Turbine Vestas V52-850kW Enercon 850kW
*WACC: Nominal weighted average cost of capital.

For purposes of comparison of the two scenarios, the amount of net AEP and uncertainty is assumed to
the same. The financial metrics of the project as a result of the financial model are computed for
exceedance probability P50, P75 and P90. The exceedance probability columns in Table 12 contain
results that are likely to be realized with 50%, 75% and 90% probability.

Table 12: Performance metrics for the two scenarios.


Scenario 1 Scenario 2
P50 P75 P90 P50 P75 P90
Annual Energy production (GWh) 28.047 25.775 23.722 28.047 25.775 23.722
Total Installed Cost (million $) $23.49 $23.49 $23.49 $21.40 $21.40 $21.40
Total Annual Revenue (million $) $7.85 $7.22 $6.64 $7.85 $7.22 $6.64
Project IRR, after-tax (%) 17.2 15.7 14.2 24.7 22.6 20.7
Return on Equity, after tax (%) 24.1 20.6 17.5 44.7 38.8 33.7
Debt service coverage ratio 1.49 1.37 1.26 2.12 1.94 1.79
Simple payback period on equity
5 7 9 3 3 3
(years)
Levelized Cost of Energy
$0.245 $0.257 $0.270 $0.187 $0.198 $0.210
(current $/kWh)

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Analysis of Financial Results
The tariff assumed for wind energy is 28 USc/kWh, which is the proposed feed-in tariff for wind projects
in diesel-based 20kV grids such as Sumba. Investment tax deduction (ITD) of 5% for 6 years reduces the
next taxable income of the project for 6 years by an amount equal to 5% of the total capital cost of the
project. This deduction is an incentive taken in addition to depreciation.

The primary differences between Scenarios 1 and 2 are that Scenario 2 is characterized by 15% lower
capital cost and about 55% lower O&M cost. Both scenarios use refurbished wind turbines. In the
judgment of the author, the O&M cost of Scenario 2 is below what can be reasonably expected. The
reasons are: a) Indonesia is a new market for wind turbines so that there is little domestic technical
support available, b) Sumba is a remote island with high logistics costs, and c) the size of wind farm is
too small to provide any economies of scale. For these reasons, the cost of spares, support equipment
(cranes) and personnel (expat) to support O&M operations will be higher. As a matter of reference O&M
cost of wind farm with one or two wind turbines in a developed wind market is in the range of 4 to 5 USc
per kWh; while the cost for 20MW wind farms is in the range of 2 USc per kWh. The life of the project
is assumed to be 15 years because all turbines are assumed to be refurbished; the normal life of a wind
project using new turbines is 20 to 25 years.

Scenario 1 is therefore a more realistic case, hence it will be analyzed in more detail. Equity investors
evaluate projects in terms of P75. A return of equity of 20.6% is higher than the required ROE of 18%.
Lenders evaluate projects in terms of P90, that is, lenders determine amount of loan based on Debt
Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) for the P90 case. The minimum acceptable value of DSCR is typically
in the range of 1.25 or 1.3. This scenario has DSCR of 1.26, which is very close the DSCR threshold and
within allowed margin. The levelized cost of energy is comfortably below USc 28/kWh. Thus, the wind
project is feasible even under the conservative scenario of high O&M cost.

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8. Conclusions & Next Steps
Wind resource assessment was conducted for a wind project in Hambapraing based on wind data from
two met-masts60m ADB met-mast and 33m HIVOS met-mast with one year of measurement.
Statistical methods were used to interpolate in cases of missing data. Spatial extrapolation was performed
by WAsP software and a wind resource map was created. Twelve 850kW wind turbines were microsited
in areas with the highest wind power density to create a 10.2MW wind farm. The average annual energy
production was computed. Site or project specific losses and uncertainty were not assessed, rather typical
values were used.

The financial analysis of the project suggests a viable wind project even with conservative estimates of
key parameters like O&M cost, annual AEP and others. With a tariff of USc 28/kWh, the 10.2MW wind
project meets the return on equity threshold for equity investors and is in the allowable range for the debt
service coverage ratio requirement of lenders.

The following next steps are recommended for the wind project in Hambapraing, Sumba. This list should
be reviewed in light of the wind power development and pricing regulation that are ultimately issued, as
this regulation may impose other requirements as well.

Wind Measurement. The 60m ADB met-mast, which was commissioned one year ago, has seen a
period of about 2 months of unavailability. Although the data has been corrected, wind measurements
should be continued for at least one more year to reduce the uncertainty and enhance the bankability of
the wind resource assessment. The 33m met-mast, which is more than 6 km away from the proposed
site, is useful as a means to correlate and fill in data. This measurement should also continue. The ADB
will hand over the met-mast to Government of Indonesia counterparts by the end of 2015. Arrangements
should be put in place to ensure the sustainability of future operations.

Wind Turbine Class and Extreme Wind Speed. Turbine selection requires analysis of extreme wind
speed, which is not in scope of this study. Based on the wind speed analysis above, a Class III turbine is
appropriate for the Hambapraing wind project. However, Vestas V52-850kW is an IEC Class I/II wind
turbine. Switching to an IEC Class III wind turbine would yield higher energy production because of
larger rotor size.

Logistics Study. A logistics study should be conducted to confirm the size of blades, tower, nacelle and
cranes that can be transported to the Hambapraing site.

Project Siting. Although siting and engineering are not in the scope of this report, the following siting
issues must be taken into account before detailed site engineering is initiated:
Microwave interference
Radar interference for weather, military and homeland security radars
Obstruction to aviation airspace (wind turbines at Hambapraing are unlikely to be hazard to
aviation because of distance to airport)

Environmental and Social Impact Assessments. Studies that are required for most wind farms include:
Wetlands study
Avian migratory path study
Endangered species and other wildlife habitat and breeding
Noise, shadow flicker, visual impact and indigenous cultural impact studies

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9. Appendix I: Financial Analysis Details Cash flow for the 10.2MW wind project
Table I-1. Detailed analysis of the wind project of the P50 with Vestas V52-850kW WTG. All numbers (except DSCR) are in thousand.
Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Gross Income $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853
O&M ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085) ($3,085)
Operating Income
(NOI) $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768
Loan payments ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) ($3,207) $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
DSCR (NOI/Loan
payment) 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Equity Cash flow $(7,047) $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $1,561 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768
Project Cash flow
$(23,491)$4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768 $4,768

Linear depreciation $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566 $1,566
Interest payment $1,973 $1,813 $1,633 $1,432 $1,206 $954 $671 $355 $- $- $- $- $- $- $-
Principal balance $16,443 $15,107 $13,609 $11,932 $10,054 $7,950 $5,594 $2,955 $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $-
NOI-Interest-
Depreciation $1,229 $1,389 $1,569 $1,770 $1,995 $2,248 $2,531 $2,847 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202
Investment tax
deduction $1,175 $1,175 $1,175 $1,175 $1,175 $1,175 $-
Taxable Income $ 54 $215 $394 $596 $821 $1,073 $2,531 $2,847 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202 $3,202
Taxes (25%) -25% ($14) ($54) ($99) ($149) ($205) ($268) ($633) ($712) ($800) ($800) ($800) ($800) ($800) ($800) ($800)
After tax project cash
flow $(23,491)$4,754 $4,714 $4,669 $4,619 $4,563 $4,500 $4,135 $4,056 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968
After tax equity cash
flow $(7,047) $1,547 $1,507 $1,462 $1,412 $1,356 $1,293 $928 $849 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968 $3,968
Liquidity (equity) $(7,047) ($5,500) ($3,992) ($2,530) ($1,118) $238 $1,530 $2,459 $3,308 $7,275 $11,243 $15,210 $19,178 $23,145 $27,113 $31,080

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Table I-2. Detailed analysis of the wind project of the P50 with Enercon WTG. All numbers are in thousand.
Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Gross Income $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853 $7,853
O&M ($1,402) ($1,472) ($1,546) ($1,623) ($1,705) ($1,790) ($1,879) ($1,973) ($2,072) ($2,176) ($2,284) ($2,398) ($2,518) ($2,644) ($2,777)
Operating Income $6,451 $6,381 $6,307 $6,230 $6,149 $6,063 $5,974 $5,880 $5,781 $5,678 $5,569 $5,455 $5,335 $5,209 $5,077
(NOI)
Loan payments ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) ($2,922) $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
DSCR (NOI/Loan 2.21 2.18 2.16 2.13 2.10 2.08 2.04 2.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
payment)

Equity Cash flow $(6,420) $3,529 $3,459 $3,386 $3,308 $3,227 $3,142 $3,052 $2,958 $5,781 $5,678 $5,569 $5,455 $5,335 $5,209 $5,077
Project Cash flow $(21,400)$6,451 $6,381 $6,307 $6,230 $6,149 $6,063 $5,974 $5,880 $5,781 $5,678 $5,569 $5,455 $5,335 $5,209 $5,077

Linear depreciation $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427 $1,427
Interest payment $1,798 $1,651 $1,488 $1,304 $1,099 $869 $612 $323 $- $- $- $- $- $- $-
Principal balance $14,980 $13,762 $12,398 $10,870 $9,159 $7,243 $5,096 $2,692 $- $- $- $- $- $- $- $-
NOI-Interest- $3,227 $3,303 $3,393 $3,499 $3,623 $3,768 $3,936 $4,130 $4,355 $4,251 $4,142 $4,028 $3,908 $3,782 $3,650
Depreciation
Investment tax $1,070 $1,070 $1,070 $1,070 $1,070 $1,070 $-
deduction
Taxable Income $2,157 $2,233 $2,323 $2,429 $2,553 $2,698 $3,936 $4,130 $4,355 $4,251 $4,142 $4,028 $3,908 $3,782 $3,650
Taxes (25%) -25% ($539) ($558) ($581) ($607) ($638) ($674) ($984) ($1,033) ($1,089) ($1,063) ($1,036) ($1,007) ($977) ($946) ($912)
After tax project cash $(21,400)$5,912 $5,823 $5,726 $5,623 $5,510 $5,389 $4,990 $4,847 $4,693 $4,615 $4,533 $4,448 $4,358 $4,263 $4,164
flow
After tax equity cash $(6,420) $2,990 $2,901 $2,805 $2,701 $2,589 $2,467 $2,068 $1,926 $4,693 $4,615 $4,533 $4,448 $4,358 $4,263 $4,164
flow
Liquidity (equity) $(6,420) ($3,430) ($529) $2,276 $4,977 $7,566 $10,033 $12,102 $14,027 $18,720 $23,335 $27,868 $32,316 $36,674 $40,937 $45,101

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4. MICRO-HYDRO SCREENING STUDY

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 132 of 396
The Government of Indonesia
& Asian Development Bank
ADB TA 8287-INO: Scaling Up Renewable
Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia
Micro Hydro Study Report
14 December 2015

Page 133 of 396


ADB TA 8287-INO:
Scaling Up Renewable
Energy Access in
Eastern Indonesia

Micro Hydro Study Report

14 December 2015

Castlerock Consulting
Prepared for: Government of Indonesia & Graha Iskandarsyah, 7th floor
Asian Development Bank Jl. Iskandarsyah Raya No. 66C
Jakarta 12160
Prepared by: PT. Castlerock Consulting Indonesia
Tel: +62 21 270 2404
Fax: +62 21 270 2405
www.castlerockasia.com

Version: 1.0

Government of Indonesia / ADB 12/14/15


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword i

1. Summary 1-1
1.1 Background 1-1
1.2 Method 1-1
1.3 Result and Recommendation 1-2
1.4 Annexes 1-3

2. List of Sites Considered 2-1

3. Desk Study Results 3-1

4. Individual Reports For Each Site 4-1


4.1 Paberamanera 4-1
4.2 Karita 4-5
4.3 Waikanabu 4-8
4.4 Pulu Panjang 4-13
4.5 Pondok 4-17
4.6 Katikutana 4-21
4.7 Kuki talu 4-24
4.8 Mahu Bokul 4-28
4.9 Maidang tai Tiring 4-32
4.10 Maidang - Tanarara 4-35
4.11 Wula 4-38
4.12 Walan Ndimu 4-42
4.13 Wee Kombaka 4-46
4.14 Wambidi 4-50
4.15 Soru 4-53
4.16 Weeluri 4-57
4.17 Sodana 4-61
4.18 Mbatapuhu 4-64
4.19 Praibakul 4-68
4.20 Kawangu 4-71
4.21 Waiyengu 4-75

ii

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1. SUMMARY

1.1 BACKGROUND

Based on desk study using the GIS and Network Planner analysis, there are
opportunities for larger grid-connected hydro plants as well as for mini grid micro
hydro in Sumba. This activity focuses on the assessment of mini-grid micro-hydro
opportunities. A desk study indicated 40 potential micro hydro sites. There are 13
sites located in western Sumba and 27 sites located in eastern Sumba.

1.2 METHOD

The desk study used methodology as follows:


1. Identify all mini grid location from Network Planner under low cost scenario.
There are 300 site potential of these.
2. Of those mini grid locations, around 100 sites were within 1 km or less of a
perennial river, as indicated on BIG digital maps.
3. Of those, the 40 were selected on the following basis:
Calculated the change in elevation from 1 km upstream to 1 km
downstream of the settlement. This provides an estimate of head.
Calculated the catchment area upstream of the settlement. This is a
proxy for water debit.
The sites were ranked by the product of (head x catchment area), where
sites with larger values were considered to be more prospective.

For those 40 sites, Google Earth was used to:


a. Count houses and other buildings within 1 km radius or less. Locations with
more than 30 buildings within the radius were selected.
b. Assess the settlement characteristic. Locations with relatively centralized
settlement patterns were selected.
c. Assess road access, distance to the site from the main road (jalan provinsi),
sub main road (jalan kabupaten) and jalan desa. Locations with within 1 km or
less of a road that is at least 3 m wide were selected.

Based on above assessment there are 22 sites have been selected and
recommended for field survey. The objective of the survey to determine the sites
that are candidates for development and that should be evaluated through a
detailed feasibility study. The parameter for field survey will summarize
description of the following items:

1. Watershed characteristic

This item will be analyzed by interview with local villager and spot ground
survey and filling the parameter of river dimension and estimated head along
the river.

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1. Summary. . ..

2. Social community

General information of social and community will be collected by interview and


secondary data on site. These will include demography, education, rate of
income, livelihood, productive activity, etc.

3. Site accessibility

These will describe distance the site from village road, kabupaten road and
provincial road. Including road condition and types, also distance from the
closest electricity LV/MV PLN lines.

4. Public Facility

Describe such of public facilities buildings, such as school, village building,


Puskesmas, Pustu (Puskesmas Pembantu), Mosque/Church, etc.

5. Initial information of System capital and operating cost

Key component of the system will be sized and cost, including:


engineering design
turbine and generator (delivered on-site)
civil works (material)
civil works (labor could be provided by the community in-kind
rather than a cash expense)
LV distribution
household connection
Annual system operating and maintenance costs

1.3 RESULT AND RECOMMENDATION

The summary result of this field assessment as described on the below table:

No. Conclusion Recommendation Site

1. There are 5 sites having high Need FS for DED Pulu Panjang,
potential for Micro Hydro Karita, Pabera
Power Generation off grid manera, Pondok,
system and Waikanabu

2. There are 2 sites having Need FS for DED and Soru and Wala
potential for Micro Hydro discuss with PLN Ndimu
Power Generation connected
on grid system

3. There is 1 sites having Individual Solar PV will Sodana


potential for Micro Hydro but be efficient
not efficient, intake distance

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1. Summary. . ..

more than 4 km from the


settlement and relative
spreadly

4. There are 5 sites have no Extended grid will be Wula, Kawangu,


potential head for Micro Hydro mostly recommended, Praibakul, We Luri
Development and more only 2 Km distance from and We Kombaka
efficient for grid extention the existing PLN grid.

5. There are 6 sites have no Isolated or indivisual Katikutana, Kutikula,


potential head for Micro Hydro system is recommended Mabaha Bakul,
Development for these sites maidang 1 and 2,
(Genset/PLTS) Mabatapuhu and
Wangga.

Note:
Kananggar is canceled due PLN will developed Micro Hydro on this site.
Wambidi is not accessible for site survey.

1.4 ANNEXES

1. List of 100 potential sites based on watershed

2. Result of Desk study using Google Earth

3. Field survey assessment form

1-3

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2. LIST OF SITES CONSIDERED

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 60 62.5 300 209.41 237.5 49,735
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LUKUKAMARU 66 87.5 425 117.56 337.5 39,677
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 59 100 312.5 179.56 212.5 38,157
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KALAMBA 109 212.5 400 184.12 187.5 34,523
SUMBATENGAH Western SORU 113 350 450 312 100 31,200
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KUKITALU 47 150 350 130.74 200 26,148
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PABERAMANERA 26 300 550 95.19 250 23,798
SUMBATIMUR Eastern UMAMANU 55 12.5 100 234.94 87.5 20,557
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 46 137.5 400 76.59 262.5 20,105
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAHUBOKUL 54 87.5 300 89.9 212.5 19,104
SUMBATENGAH Western WEELURI 128 250 525 64.55 275 17,751
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DENDUKA 97 25 187.5 107.89 162.5 17,532
SUMBATENGAH Western MADERI 129 112.5 512.5 43.07 400 17,228
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKUTANA 25 437.5 787.5 46.58 350 16,303
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIBAKUL 134 37.5 150 116.5 112.5 13,106
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WALLANDIMU 107 62.5 187.5 101.62 125 12,703
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KARITA 36 212.5 425 48.72 212.5 10,353
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PULUPANJANG 65 437.5 550 84.14 112.5 9,466
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAWANGU 91 12.5 87.5 123.9 75 9,293
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TAMBURI 24 212.5 412.5 42.82 200 8,564
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DANGGAMANGO 102 200 237.5 217.87 37.5 8,170
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAHIRU 18 225 425 40.46 200 8,092
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 32 237.5 462.5 32.86 225 7,394
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WATUPUDA 38 62.5 175 64.02 112.5 7,202
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKULUKU 45 350 625 23.14 275 6,364

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAIMBONGA 56 250 337.5 71.05 87.5 6,217
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIMBIDI 61 262.5 462.5 30.63 200 6,126
SUMBATENGAH Western PONDOK 125 287.5 400 53.4 112.5 6,008
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KALAMBA 114 112.5 212.5 56.9 100 5,690
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WEEKOMBAKA 124 300 387.5 64.56 87.5 5,649
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KANANGGAR 21 425 612.5 28.96 187.5 5,430
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KOTAKKAWAU 68 37.5 112.5 71.33 75 5,350
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DELO 110 237.5 337.5 50.08 100 5,008
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAUBOKUL 49 337.5 500 29.43 162.5 4,782
SUMBATENGAH Western WANGGAWAIYENGU 123 200 225 189.35 25 4,734
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAPUHU 117 300 387.5 51.17 87.5 4,477
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WULA 8 12.5 100 49.82 87.5 4,359
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAINJANJI 6 12.5 87.5 57.5 75 4,313
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAINJANJI 1 12.5 187.5 24.58 175 4,302
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAHUBOKUL 51 400 625 16.01 225 3,602
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KURUWAKI 12 25 287.5 13.33 262.5 3,499
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAMANGGIH 34 412.5 637.5 14.95 225 3,364
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TAPIL 33 200 375 19.17 175 3,355
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAKAPIDU 76 125 250 24.94 125 3,118
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 85 50 162.5 27.46 112.5 3,089
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KALAMBA 111 212.5 412.5 14.02 200 2,804
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIMBIDI 63 200 400 13.96 200 2,792
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 93 62.5 262.5 13.36 200 2,672
SUMBABARATDAYA Western KAHALE 88 12.5 87.5 34.04 75 2,553
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WEELONDA 138 12.5 50 66.42 37.5 2,491

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKULUKU 31 625 750 19.16 125 2,395
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAKAPIDU 78 350 475 19.07 125 2,384
SUMBATIMUR Eastern HANGGARORU 23 87.5 112.5 93.09 25 2,327
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIKALALA 22 387.5 612.5 8.78 225 1,976
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAIMBONGA 57 287.5 350 30.72 62.5 1,920
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MATAWAIAMAHU 64 425 612.5 10.08 187.5 1,890
SUMBATENGAH Western MADERI 127 200 400 9.41 200 1,882
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATAKA 44 287.5 487.5 9.09 200 1,818
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MEORUMBA 40 400 487.5 20.36 87.5 1,782
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WANGGABEWA 13 75 162.5 20.06 87.5 1,755
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIMADITA 11 12.5 125 14.67 112.5 1,650
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WATUPUDA 43 37.5 200 9.78 162.5 1,589
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAINJANJI 3 12.5 137.5 12.4 125 1,550
SUMBATIMUR Eastern NGGONGI 7 37.5 50 123.69 12.5 1,546
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MONDULAMBI 53 25 75 30.45 50 1,523
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 35 187.5 425 6.24 237.5 1,482
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAILUNGGI 17 187.5 287.5 14.21 100 1,421
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAHIRU 19 187.5 437.5 5.35 250 1,338
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TARIMBANG 39 37.5 150 11.23 112.5 1,263
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAUBOKUL 41 400 600 6.15 200 1,230
SUMBABARAT Western PATIALABAWA 70 12.5 112.5 12.26 100 1,226
SUMBABARAT Western GAURA 72 0 125 9.69 125 1,211
SUMBABARAT Western BALILEDO 118 400 487.5 13.8 87.5 1,208
SUMBABARAT Western WANOKAZA 121 437.5 637.5 5.5 200 1,100
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAHANG 16 12.5 62.5 21.52 50 1,076

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MONDULAMBI 48 12.5 37.5 41.02 25 1,026
SUMBATIMUR Eastern RAMUK 15 125 237.5 8.65 112.5 973
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKUTANA 29 387.5 512.5 7.7 125 963
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIMADITA 9 25 62.5 25.45 37.5 954
SUMBABARAT Western WETANA 77 25 125 8.6 100 860
SUMBABARAT Western NGADUPADA 133 150 250 8.5 100 850
SUMBATENGAH Western WELUKPRAIMEMANG 122 375 450 10.69 75 802
SUMBABARAT Western BALILEDO 120 375 487.5 7.01 112.5 789
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 92 37.5 212.5 4.42 175 774
SUMBABARATDAYA Western TOTOK 130 250 462.5 3.48 212.5 740
SUMBATENGAH Western KONDAMALOBA 69 0 25 29.24 25 731
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAKAPIDU 82 187.5 300 6.26 112.5 704
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TAMBURI 27 187.5 337.5 4.67 150 701
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TARIMBANG 30 0 25 27.35 25 684
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 62 62.5 200 4.76 137.5 655
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WALLANDIMU 104 62.5 112.5 12.77 50 639
SUMBATENGAH Western WENDEWABARAT 139 12.5 162.5 4.2 150 630
SUMBATENGAH Western SORU 115 375 437.5 9.68 62.5 605
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 96 137.5 362.5 2.63 225 592
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAYURI 42 12.5 50 15.63 37.5 586
SUMBABARAT Western DEDEKADU 95 87.5 237.5 3.71 150 557
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIMADITA 5 12.5 87.5 7.12 75 534
SUMBABARATDAYA Western NOHA 119 112.5 125 39.91 12.5 499
SUMBABARAT Western LABOYADETE 89 25 162.5 3.56 137.5 490
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MATAWAIMARINGU 58 100 162.5 7.53 62.5 471

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBABARAT Western BALILOKU 71 0 125 3.74 125 468
SUMBABARAT Western LOLOWANO 136 100 212.5 4.01 112.5 451
SUMBATIMUR Eastern NGARUKANORU 28 175 350 2.57 175 450
SUMBATENGAH Western TANAMBANAS 135 225 300 5.89 75 442
SUMBABARAT Western WELIBO 84 137.5 400 1.65 262.5 433
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MATAWAIMARINGU 52 137.5 162.5 16.34 25 409
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAMBATAWUNDUT 87 450 462.5 32.53 12.5 407
SUMBABARAT Western WETANA 86 137.5 312.5 2.25 175 394
SUMBABARAT Western MAMODU 80 12.5 62.5 7.49 50 375
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIMADITA 4 0 62.5 5.91 62.5 369
SUMBABARAT Western KAREKANDUKU 126 350 550 1.81 200 362
SUMBATENGAH Western MBILURPANGADU 99 500 525 13.79 25 345
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DENDUKA 108 187.5 225 9.19 37.5 345
SUMBABARAT Western WEEKAROU 98 162.5 387.5 1.43 225 322
SUMBABARATDAYA Western KARUNI 132 187.5 337.5 2.14 150 321
SUMBABARAT Western HUPUMADA 90 50 137.5 3.48 87.5 305
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DANGGAMANGO 101 125 175 5.39 50 270
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAWANGU 94 12.5 62.5 5.02 50 251
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAINJANJI 2 12.5 75 3.93 62.5 246
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MATAWAIAMAHU 67 375 475 2.18 100 218
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MONDULAMBI 50 12.5 62.5 4.35 50 218
SUMBATIMUR Eastern NGGONGI 10 62.5 100 5.34 37.5 200
SUMBABARAT Western BALILEDO 116 425 475 3.32 50 166
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WAIHA 103 87.5 137.5 3.22 50 161
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WAIHA 105 62.5 150 1.75 87.5 153

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

Mini_Grid_ Min_Height Max_Height Watershed_ Indicatorof


Kabupaten Region Desa Head
ID _m _m Area_Km2 Potential
SUMBABARATDAYA Western MANGGANIPI 131 37.5 50 11.19 12.5 140
SUMBATIMUR Eastern NAPU 137 187.5 212.5 5.27 25 132
SUMBABARAT Western GAURA 79 87.5 150 2.09 62.5 131
SUMBABARATDAYA Western KAHALE 83 37.5 112.5 1.66 75 125
SUMBATENGAH Western PRAIKAROKUJANGGA 106 400 475 1.57 75 118
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WATUPUDA 37 387.5 462.5 1.56 75 117
SUMBABARAT Western PATIALADETE 81 100 300 0.57 200 114
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DANGGAMANGO 100 100 150 2.05 50 103
SUMBABARAT Western WETANA 73 0 100 0.76 100 76
SUMBABARAT Western BALILOKU 75 0 25 2.88 25 72
SUMBABARAT Western GAURA 74 0 87.5 0.61 87.5 53
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAMBAKARA 14 18.75 50 1.2 31.25 38
SUMBATENGAH Western SORU 112 387.5 375 44.79 0 560
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAHANG 20 387.5 100 6.31 0 1,814

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2. List of Sites Considered. . ..

450

400

350
CatchmentArea,km2

300

250 PrimaryWestern

200 PrimaryEastern
SecondaryWestern
150
SecondaryEastern
100

50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Head,m

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3. DESK STUDY RESULTS

Distancefrom
Mini_Grid Houseclustering Numberofhouses
Kabupaten Region Desa MainRoad Conclusion
_ID Characteristic nearbyriver<500m
(km)

SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 60 15 Centralized 50< Selected


SUMBATIMUR Eastern LUKUKAMARU 66 10 Spreadly Nopopulation NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 59 18 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KALAMBA 109 10.3 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBATENGAH Western Soru 113 8.6 Centralized 60< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KUKITALU 47 20< Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PABERAMANERA 26 18.5 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern UMAMANU 55 16 Spreadly Nopopulation NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 46 20< Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAHUBOKUL 54 18 Centralized 40< Selected
SUMBATENGAH Western WEELURI 128 12.8 Centralized 50< Selected
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DENDUKA 97 10.5 Spreadly <20 NotRecommended
SUMBATENGAH Western MADERI 129 12 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKUTANA 25 <20 Centralized 2030 Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIBAKUL 134 1.6 Centralized 60< Selected
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WALLANDIMU 107 4.1 Centralized 60< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KARITA 36 19 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern PULUPANJANG 65 6.4 Centralized 50< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAWANGU 91 3.4 Centralized 50< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern TAMBURI 24 20< Spreadly <10 NotRecommended

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Distancefrom
Mini_Grid Houseclustering Numberofhouses
Kabupaten Region Desa MainRoad Conclusion
_ID Characteristic nearbyriver<500m
(km)

SUMBABARATDAYA Western DANGGAMANGO 102 9.7 Spreadly <20 NotRecommended


SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAHIRU 18 16.1 Spreadly <20 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 32 32.5 Spreadly <20 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WATUPUDA 38 10.2 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKULUKU 45 22.5 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern LAIMBONGA 56 16.1 Spreadly Nopopulation NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIMBIDI 61 10 Centralized 40< Selected
SUMBATENGAH Western PONDOK 125 9.7 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KALAMBA 114 7.8 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBABARATDAYA Western WEEKOMBAKA 124 7.3 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KANANGGAR 21 20.2 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern KOTAKKAWAU 68 7.8 Spreadly <10 NotRecommended
SUMBABARATDAYA Western DELO 110 9.3 Spreadly 20< NotRecommended
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAUBOKUL 49 22.5 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATENGAH Western WANGGAWAIYENGU 123 8.9 Centralized 30< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAPUHU 117 13.6 Centralized 20< Selected
SUMBATIMUR Eastern WULA 8 2 Centralized 3040 Selected
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 85 3.4 Centralized 40< Selected
SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 93 5.7 Spreadly 20< NotRecommended
SUMBABARATDAYA Western KAHALE 88 7.8 Spreadly 20< NotRecommended

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4. INDIVIDUAL REPORTS FOR EACH SITE

4.1 PABERAMANERA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 26 Kecamatan :Paberiwai


Kampung / Desa:MAUMARU/PABERAMANERA Kabupaten :Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 100010.4 E 1202923.4 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 27 June 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar. Air berkurang
pada berkurang saat musim kemarau (Juli-Oktober), tetapi
berkurang tidak terlalu signifikan.

Nama Sungai Paberamanera

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah Tdk ada data


hujan/Bulanbasah

Perkiraan head 26 meter

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 155 KK

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani Ladang (jagung, padi ladang, ubi kayu), budidaya
tanaman umur panjang (kemiri, sirih, pinang, kelapa, kopi)

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu

Komoditas utama Jagung, kemiri, sirih, pinang, kelapa, kopi

Sumber energy saatini Menggunakan Pelita, genset (sudah rusak)

Potensi industry Kerajinan anyaman, pengolahan biji kemiri

Organisasimasyarakat Tananua

3. FasilitasUmum

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BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 4 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit (SD)

Gereja/masjid 2 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 101 KM (Waingapu Paberamanera)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 700 meter (dari Gedung SD Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Badan Jalan 700 meter


lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 23 km (dari Jaringan PLN Melolo Lokasi)


PLN

5. Informasi awal system desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 700 km dari pemukiman


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 150 Rumah, 5 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudahdidapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenagaker jalokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

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6. Fotolokasi

Terjunan 1 Jondisi Sungai di lokasi survey Terjunan 2 dan 3

SD Paberamanera Lokasi Perkampungan

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7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsalokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Informan : Benyamin Landumarada

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10. Kesimpulan : Lokasi layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro

4.2 KARITA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 36 Kecamatan :Tabundung


Kampung / Desa :Karita Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 095559.6 E1200238.5 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 28 Juni 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air cukup, berdasarkan
temuan lapangan tidak di temukan bukti banjir pada bibir
sungai. Air berkurang pada saat musim kemarau (Juli-
November)

Nama Sungai Mau Lewa

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah Tdkada data


hujan/Bulanbasah

Perkiraan head Ada head : 23 meter

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 55 KK (Desa Karita), 32 KK (Desa Tapil)

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani Ladang dan Peternak (Tradisional)

Pendidikan rata-rata Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 6 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu, sangat tergantung hasil pertanian/ternak

Komoditas utama Jagung, Ubi Kayu dan Ternak Besar (Kuda, Sapi, Kerbau),
Kambing dan Babi

Sumber energy saat ini Menggunakan Lampu Pelita, Sehen (sebagian besar sudah
di tarik PLN)

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Potensi industry Pengolahan Jagung

Organisasimasyarakat Ada LSM Yayasan Tananua

Lainnya -

3. FasilitasUmum

Balai Desa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 2 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit (SD)

Gereja/masjid 1 unit (gereja)

Lainnya -

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasike jalan Kabupaten 105 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Karita)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 1 KM (dari Simpang Karita Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju 1 KM (jalan pengerasan)


lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 15 km (dari Jaringan PLN Malahar Lokasi)


PLN

5. Informasi awal sistemd esain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) Arah Desa Karita (Kampung Maulewa) 1 km, Arah
pemukiman Desa Tapil (Kampung Desa Tapil) 5 KM

Jumlah rumah & bangunan Desa Karita 59 Rumah, 4 Bangunan, Desa Tapil
30 Rumah 3 Bangunan.

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudahd idapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia dengan biaya swadaya.

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6. Foto lokasi

Kondisi Sungai Mau Lewa di Desa Karita, Kecamatan Tabundung, Kab. Sumba Timur

Simpang Karita Kondisi Jalan Menuju Lokasi

7. Peta Lokasi

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8. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Keterangan lain:tidak ada

10. Informan : Bapak K. Karamula dan Bapak Hillu K. Windi

11. Kesimpulan : Lokasi layak untuk dikaji lebih lanjut untuk pembangunan mikro hidro

4.3 WAIKANABU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 46 Kecamatan :Tabundung


Kampung / Desa:MANDORA/WAIKANABU Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS: S 095743.9 E 1200748.0 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 30 June 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar. Air berkurang
pada berkurang saat musim kemarau (Juli-Oktober), tetapi
tidak terlalu signifikan.

Nama Sungai Waikanabu

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

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Curah hujan/Bulan Tdkada data


basah

Perkiraan head 10 meter

2. Sosia Ekonomi

Jumlahpenduduk / KK 90 KK

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani sawah dan Petani Ladang

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 6 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu

Komoditas utama Padi Sawah, Padi ladang dan Jagung

Sumber energy saatini Pelita

Potensi industry Penggilingan Padi

Organisasimasyarakat -

3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 5 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit (SD)

Gereja/masjid 2 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke jalan Kabupaten 16 KM (Simpang Waikanabu Malahar Desa


Waikanabu)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 131 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Desa Waikanabu)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 50 meter (dari jalan Desa)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Aspal Putus-putus


lokasi

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Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 16 km (dari Jaringan PLN Malahar Lokasi)


PLN

5. InformasiawalsistemdesaindanOperasiPemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 200 m dari pemukiman


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 80 Rumah, 7 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

6. Foto lokasi

Bentuk Sungai Waikanabu di Kabupaten Sumba Timur

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Kondisi pemukiman di Desa Waikanabu di Kabupaten Sumba Timur

Pemukiman Warga

Kondisi Akses jalan di Desa Waikanabu, Sumba Timur

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7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

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9. Informan : Hamba Pullu

10. Kesimpulan :Lokasi Layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro

4.4 PULU PANJANG



FORMSURVEYLAPANGANMIKROHYDROSUMBA2015
Minigrid_ID :65 Kecamatan :NggahaOriAnggu
Kampung/Desa:PuluPanjang/PuluPanjang Kabupaten :SumbaTimur
KoordinatGPS :S09.46.257E120.06.806 Surveyor :Warin&UmbuBahi
TanggalSurvey:23April2015
1.KarakteristikDAS
Kondisialiranair Airsepanjangmusim,kadangkadangbanjirsaatmusimhujan
(JanuariApril)dandebitairberkurangsaatmusimkemarau(Juli
Okt)
NamaSungai PuluPanjang
DimensiSungai Lebar68m;kedalamanair5080cm
Perkiraanhead 22m.Diukurdariselisihelevasisungaidgjarak100200mdgalat
GPSgarmin.Adaairterjuntapitidakterlalutinggi(2m).


2.SosialEkonomi
Jumlahpenduduk/KK 228KK(totaldiDesa),khususyangtinggaldiKampungPulu
Panjang149KK.Ada138KKdilampunglainyangakanmekar
menjadiDesaBaruPaomba.
MataPencaharianutama PetanidanTernak
Pendidikanrata2 SD(sebagianbesar)danSMP(sebagiankecil)
Rataratajmlorg/KK 56jiwa
Pendapatanrata2/bln/KK Tidaktentu,tergantunghasilpanensawahdanpenjualanternak.
Komoditasutama Jagung,ubi,sapi,kerbau,babidankuda,kambing.
Potensiindustri Industripemipiljagung
Organisasimasyarakat Tidakada
FasilitasUmum 2GedungSekolah(SD&SMP),1Gereja,1Pustu(Puskesmas
Pembantu),1BalaiDesa
KeteranganLain BarusajaadapergantianKepalaDesa

3.KondisiPemakaianEnergySaatIni
JarakdenganJaringanPLN
10KmdarijaringanMV(JalanrayaWaingapuLewa),9KmdariLV
(berhentipada1kmdarijalanraya).
Sumberlistriksaatini Genset(pendudukyangmampu),lampupelita(sebagianbesar
penduduk).
Belanjaenergylistrik Genset=5LtBBM/hari;Pelita=2Ltperbulan.

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KeteranganLainnya PernahmendapatSEHENdariPLN,namunditarikkembalioleh
PLNkarenapembayarantidaklancar.Pernahmendapatbantuan
mesinGensetdariPemdanamunsudahrusak(2012).

4.AksesJalan
JaraklokasikejalanUtama 10KmdariJalanrayaWaingapuWaikabubak
JaraklokasikeJalanDesa 100300mdaripusatDesa
Kondisijalanmenujukelokasi 10Kmjalanmenujudesakombinasiaspaldanjalan
tanah/batu.Kondisibaikdanbisadilaluikendaraanroda
4


5.Informasiawalsistemdesain,operasidanpemeliharaan
Jarakintake(sungai)pemukiman 100300m
Jumlahrumah&bangunan 55(kampungterdekat)dan78(kampungtetangga,jarak
1kmdarilokasi)
KetersediaanMateriallokal Ada,danmudahdidapat(30kmdariKotaWaingapu)
Ketersediaantenagakerjalokal Cukup
GambaranpembiayaanOM Bersediadenganswadayanamunharusdibinadan
dipersiapkan.PengalamankerusakanGensetbantuan
PemdadanditariknyaSEHENPLNharusdijadikan
pertimbangan.
Perkiraankapasitasturbin 2030Kw

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6.Petalokasi

Jalan Raya Waikabubak Waingapu

Desa Pulu Panjang,


Kec. Nggaho Orianggo,
Sumba Timur


7.Sketsa/Denahlokasi(sungai,jalan,pemukiman)
ke dusun lain
(Paomba)


S.Pulu


200m
Keterangan:
LokasiIntake(bendung) ke main road
(10 km)
LokasiPowerhouse(turbin)

8.Informan:
1.UmbuDjuanda(KepalaDesaPuluPanjang);2.HokiLadanRime(Warga)

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9.FotoLokasi




Lokasipowerhouse,adaairterjun(2m)GedungSekolahSMPPuluPanjang




Jalan menuju Desa Pulu Panjang Lokasi Intake, Sungai Pulu Panjang









Lokasi power house, ada air terjun (2m) Gedung Sekolah SMP Pulu Panjang









Kepala Desa Pulu Panjang (tengah) SEHEN yang sdh ditarik oleh PLN

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10.Kesimpulan&Rekomendasi
LayakdibangunPembangkitListrikMikroHidrodengansystemminigridkapasitas2030
Kw.
Potensi penerima manfaat 55 rumah dan bisa diperluas / ditambah 78 rumah yang
berlokasidikampungPaomba(1.5km).
PerludilanjutkandenganFSuntukpenyusunanDED

4.5 PONDOK

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 125 Kecamatan :Umbu Ratu Nggai Barat


Kampung / Desa:MANALUSU/PONDOK Kabupaten :Sumba Tengah
Koordinat GPS : S 100010.4 E 1202923.4 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 1 July 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar. Air berkurang
pada berkurang saat musim kemarau (Juli-Oktober), tetapi
tidak signifikan.

Nama Sungai Paberamanera

Debit air (data Tdkada data


sekunder)

Curah Tdkada data


hujan/Bulanbasah

Perkiraan head 7 meter

2. SosialEkonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 200 KK

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani sawah

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu

Komoditas utama Padi Sawah

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Sumber energy saatini Menggunakan Pelita

Potensi industry Penggilingan Padi

Organisasimasyarakat -

3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 5 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit (SD)

Gereja/masjid 1 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 11 KM (Waibakul Pondok)

Jara klokasi keJalan Desa 500 meter (dari Kantor Desa Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Jalan pengerasan


lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 10 km (dari Jaringan PLN Waibakul Lokasi)


PLN

5. InformasiawalsistemdesaindanOperasiPemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 500 m dari pemukiman


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 200 Rumah, 5 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

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6. Fotolokasi

Kondisi sungai Pabera Manera di Desa Pondok, Sumba Timur

Kondisi Pemukiman Warga di Desa Pondok

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7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsalokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Informan : Kawalu Ndaungu

10. Kesimpulan : Lokasi layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro

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4.6 KATIKUTANA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 25 Kecamatan :MATAWAILAPAU


Kampung / Desa:LA TIRING/KATIKUTANA Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 095854.1 E1201554.1 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 26 June 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar. Terjadi
pengurangan Debit Juli-November, tetapi tidak terlalu
signifikan.

Nama Sungai La Tiring

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan Tdk ada data


basah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 100 KK

Mata Pencaharian Petani g (jagung, kemiri, siri, pinang, padi ladang, padi
utama sawah) dan Peternak (Tradisional)

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan Tidak menentu


rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama Jagung, kemiri, siri, pinang, padi ladang, padi sawah, ubi
kayu dan Peternak

Sumber energy saat ini Menggunakan Pelita

Potensi industry Olah pasca panen seperti jagung, kemiri

Organisasi masyarakat Ada LSM Yayasan Tananua

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Lainnya

3. Fasilitas Umum

Balai Desa -

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 3 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit

Gereja/masjid 5 unit (gereja)

Lainnya -

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke jalan Kabupaten 9 KM (dari simpang kantor kecamatan matawai


lapau Lokasi)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 75 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Kantor


Kecamatan Matawailapau)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 500 meter

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Badan jalan dan bisa di akses dengan kendaraan
lokasi tertentu

Jaraklokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 7 km (dari Jaringan PLN Kecamatan


PLN Matawailapau Lokasi)

5. Informasi awal sistem desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 500 meter dari pemukiman


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah& bangunan 95 rumah dan 7 bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

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6. Foto lokasi

Lokasi tidak bisa di foto karena pada saat sampai ke lokasi kondisi sudah gelap , jam
17.50 sore

7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

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9. Keterangan lain:tidak ada

10. Informan : Ayub Ndawa Radji

11. Kesimpulan :
Lokasi tidak layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro, tidak ditemukan head di
sekitar lokasi desa. Lebih direkomendasikan untuk PLTS.

4.7 KUKI TALU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 47 Kecamatan :Tabundung


Kampung / Desa:Kuki Talu Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 095419.4 E1200840.9 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 28 June 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air cukup, berdasarkan
pengakuan warga setempat sering terjadi banjir pada puncak
musim hujan. Air berkurang pada musim kemarau (Juli-
November)

Nama Sungai Sungai Marabung

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan Tdkada data


basah

Perkiraan head Ada head rendah( < 5m) namun debit air sungai kecil

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 110 KK

Mata Pencaharian Petani Ladang, sawah dan Peternak (Tradisional)


utama

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

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Pendapatan Tidak menentu (tergantung curah hujan)


rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama Jagung, Padi Sawah dan Ternak Besar (Kuda, Sapi,
Kerbau) dan Babi

Sumber energy saat ini Listrik Genset (bantuan PNPM tahun 2012)

Potensi industry Penggilingan Padi

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak Ada

3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 2 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit

Gereja/masjid 5 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke jalan Kabupaten 8 KM (Simpang Kukitalu Lokasi)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 120 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Kukitalu)

JaraklokasikeJalanDesa 1 KM (dari pusat Desa ke Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Dari Pusat Desa Lokasi hanya ada badan jalan
lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 12 km (dari Jaringan PLN Malahar Lokasi)


PLN

5. Informasi awal system desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 300 meter


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan Desa Karita 90 Rumah, 5 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

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Ketersediaantenagakerjalokal Cukup

Gambaranpembiayaan O M Bersediaswadaya.

6. Foto lokasi

Kondisi Akses Jalan


Kondisi Sungai

Salah satu cabang sungai lain yang ada head


Sarana Penerangan Jalan Warga, Genset tetapi airnya sangat kecil (dekat dengan lokasi
PNPM survei)

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7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Informan : Bapak ND Hamandika

10. Kesimpulan :
Lokasi tidak layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro, head rendah dan volume
air sungai tidak cukup.

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4.8 MAHU BOKUL

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 54 Kecamatan: Kambata Mapambuhang


Kampung / Desa:MBOTA NITU /Maidang/Mahubokul Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 095202.2 E1201404.5 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 29 June 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar, sering terjadi
banjir besar pada puncak musim hujan. Air berkurang pada
berkurang saat musim kemarau (Juli-November) tetapi tidak
signifikan

Nama Sungai Sungai Maidang

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan Tdk ada data


basah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 20 KK

Mata Pencaharian Petani Ladang dan Peternak (Tradisional)


utama

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan Tidak menentu (tergantung curah hujan)


rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama Jagung dan petani tembakau

Sumber energy saat ini Pelita

Potensi industry -

Organisasi masyarakat Koppesda


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Lainnya

3. Fasilitas Umum

Balai Desa -

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Posyandu

Sekolah -

Gereja/masjid 1 unit (gereja)

Lainnya -

4. Aksesibilitas
8 KM (dari simpang Maidang Pusat Desa)
Jarak lokasi ke jalan Kabupaten

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 36 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Maidang)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 4 KM (dari pusat Desa ke Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Tidak ada jalan kendaraan menuju lokasi
lokasi

Jaraklokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 43 km (dari Jaringan PLN Waingapu Lokasi)


PLN

5. Informasi awal sistem desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 300 meter


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah& bangunan 19 Rumah, 1 bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

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6. Foto lokasi

Lokasi di ambil dari jalan jauh (kurang lebih 3,5 KM)

Jalan menuju lokasi tempat pengambilan gambar.


Menuju Lokasi Mbotanitu

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7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Keterangan lain:

Karena pertimbangan jarak yang terlalu jauh dan sulitnya akses menuju ke lokasi, maka
untuk diskusi untuk informasi dilakukan dengan Warga Kampung Tanarara, Maidang.
Diskusi dilakukan dengan memperlihatkan Peta yang sudah tersedia terhadap warga dan
masayarakat mengenal dengan baik lokasi yang dituju. Dikampung tersebut bermukim
warga 2 Desa yakni Desa Maidang dan Desa Mahu Bokul dengan total 20 KK. Sesuai
informasi dari warga Tanarara, bahwa lokasi tersebut tidak terdapat perbedaan ketinggian
yang signifikan antara hulu dan hilir..

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10. Informan : Stefanus Wulang dan kawan-kawan

11. Kesimpulan : Lokasi tidak layak untuk untuk pembangunan pembangkit mikro hidro,
akses jalan sangat sulit dan jumlah jumlah KK relative sedikit ( <20).

4.9 MAIDANG TAI TIRING

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 59 Kecamatan : Kambata Mapambuhang


Kampung / Desa:Tai Tiring/Maidang Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS :- Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 30 June 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar, sering terjadi
banjir besar pada puncak musim hujan. Air berkurang pada
musim kemarau (Juli-November) tetapi tidak signifikan

Nama Sungai Sungai Maidang

Debit air (data Tdka da data


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan Tdkada data


basah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. SosialEkonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 22 KK

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani Ladangdan Peternak (Tradisional)

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu (tergantung curah hujan)

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi kayu dan Ternak Besar (Kuda, Sapi, Kerbau)
dan Babi

Sumber energy saatini Pelita

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Potensi industry -

Organisasimasyarakat Koppesda

Lainnya

3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa -

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit

Gereja/masjid 1 unit (gereja)

Lainnya -

4. Aksesibilitas
8 KM (dari simpang Maidang Pusat Desa)
Jarak lokasi kejalan Kabupaten

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 36 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Maidang)

Jarak lokasi keJalan Desa 4 KM(dari pusat Desa ke Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Tidak ada jalan kendaraan menuju lokasi
lokasi

Jaraklokasikejaringan LV/MV PLN 43 km (dari Jaringan PLN Waingapu Lokasi)

5. InformasiawalsistemdesaindanOperasiPemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 500 meter


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 20 Rumah, 2 bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Tidak ada

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersediaswadaya.

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6. Peta Lokasi

7. Sketsa lokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

8. Keterangan lain:

Karena pertimbangan jarak yang terlalu jauh dan tidak ada akses menuju ke lokasi, untuk
diskusi dilakukan dengan Warga Kampung Tanarara, Maidang sebagai informasi awal
untuk menuju ke lokasi. Diskusi dilakukan dengan memperlihatkan Peta yang sudah
tersedia terhadap warga dan masayarakat mengenal dengan baik lokasi yang di tuju.
Sesuai informasi dari warga Tanarara, bahwa lokasi tersebut tidak terdapat perbedaan
ketinggian yang signifikan antara hulu dan hilir.

9. Informan : Stefanus Wulang dan kawan-kawan

10. Kesimpulan : Lokasi tidak layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro.

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4.10 MAIDANG - TANARARA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 60 Kecamatan :Kambata Mapambuhang


Kampung / Desa:Tanarara/Maidang Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 095008.1 E1201224.5 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 30 June 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar, sering terjadi
banjir pada puncak musim hujan. Air berkurang pada
musim kemarau (Juli-November) tetapi tidak signifikan

Nama Sungai Sungai Maidang

Debit air (data Tdkada data


sekunder)

Curah Tdkada data


hujan/Bulanbasah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. SosialEkonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 57 KK

Mata Pencaharian Petani Ladang dan Peternak (Tradisional)


utama

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan Tidak menentu (tergantung curah hujan)


rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi kayu dan Ternak Besar (Kuda, Sapi, Kerbau)
dan Babi

Sumber energy saatini Pelita, Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) oleh PNPM (sudah
tidak berfungsi)

Potensi industry -

Organisasi masyarakat Koppesda

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3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 3 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit

Gereja/masjid 2 unit (gereja)

Lainnya -

4. Aksesibilitas
8 KM (dari simpang Maidang Lokasi)
Jarak lokasi kejalan Kabupaten

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 36 KM (dari Kota Waingapu Simpang Maidang)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 300 meter (dari pusat Desa ke Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Jalan pengerasan


lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 39 km (dari Jaringan PLN Waingapu Lokasi)


PLN

5. InformasiawalsistemdesaindanOperasiPemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) pemukiman 300 meter

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 50 Rumah, 5 bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudahdidapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaantenagakerjalokal Cukup

Gambaranpembiayaan O M Bersediaswadaya.

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6. Fotolokasi

Batas Akses

Kondisi Bentuk Sungai Maidang di Lokasi Bentuk Sungai


survey

7. Peta Lokasi

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8. Sketsalokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Informan : Stefanus Wulang

10. Kesimpulan : Lokasi tidak layak untuk dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro

4.11 WULA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015


Mini grid _ID : 8 Kecamatan : Wula Waijelo
Kampung / Desa: Hakuli/Lei Pandak/Wula Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 10.11.277; E 120.31.497 Surveyor : Warin & Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 22 April 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air ada sepanjang musim, kadang-kadang banjir saat musim
hujan;

Nama Sungai Sungai Waijelo

Dimensi sungai Lebar 8 m; Kedalaman air 50 cm

Perkiraan head Kondisi topografi aliran sungai relative landai-datar.Tidak


ditemukan head yang memadai ( kurang dari 2m)

2. Sosial Ekonomi

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Jumlah penduduk / 25 KK
Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak.

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, Kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Tidak ada

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

Fasilitas Umum Tidak ada

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan 2 Km dari jaringan PLN (LV) desa Kawangu. 3.5 Km dari MV
PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini SEHEN dan Pelita.

Belanja listrik 20-30 ribu per bulan

Keterangan Lainnya Kondisi rumah tersebar

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 5 Km dari Jalan Raya Waingapu Simpang Wula

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 2 Km I dar Jalan tanah Desa Wula

Kondisi jalan menuju ke lokasi Jalan beraspal dan sebagian pengerasan batu, n
hingga ke lokasi baik dan bisa dilalui kendaraan
roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) Tidak ada lokasi potensial, Head tidak ditemukan di
pemukiman sekitar lokas (radius 2 km)

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Jumlah rumah & bangunan 25, kondisi rumah tersebar.

Ketersediaan material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat (60 km dari Kota
Waingapu)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Tidak tersedia, sangat terbatas

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia dengan swadaya namun harus dibina dan


dipersiapkan

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin Tidak berpotensi untuk lokasi Pembangkit Mikro


Hidro

7. Peta lokasi

8. Informan:

1. Bustonimus (warga kampong Hakuli)

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9. Foto Lokasi

Kondisi Sungai Waijelo di Kampung Hakuli, Lei Pandak, Wula, Sumba Timur, tidak
ditemukan head, tidak berpotensi untuk PLTMH

Kondisi Kampong Hakuli di Lei Pandak, Wula Waijelo, Sumba Timur , hanya 2 Km dari
Jaringan Listrik PLN terdekat di Desa Wula.

10. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi tidal layak untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro dikarenakan tidak
ditemukan head pada radius 2 km disekitar pemukiman.
Lokasi sangat memungkinkan untuk dilayani listrik PLN karena hanya berjarak 2 Km
dari jaringan terdekat PLN di Desa Wula.

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4.12 WALAN NDIMU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 107 Kecamatan : Kodi Bangedo


Kampung / Desa: Walan Ndimu Kabupaten : Sumba Barat
Daya
Koordinat GPS : S 09.38.439; E 119.03.832 Surveyor : Warin & Devid
Rakam Tanggal survey : 28 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Kondisi aliran air Aliran sungai sepanjang tahun, banjir saat musim hujan,.

Nama Sungai Weha

Dimensi sungai Lebar 8-10 m; Kedalaman air 60-100 cm.

Perkiraan head 20 m, ada air terjun 5 m

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 243 KK di 4 Dusun.


Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD , SMP.

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung, pariwisata (pantai)

Organisasi masyarakat WMI

Fasilitas Umum Balai Desa, Gedung SD, SMP, Polsek, SMP, Kantor
Kecamatan, Gereja.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan Jaringan listrik PLN sudah masuk di 2 dusun, sepanjang
PLN jalan Kodi Bangedo. Dusun yang belum ada listrik berjarak
4-6 Km dari LV.

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Sumber listrik saat ini 2 Dusun sudah mendapat listrik PLN, 2 dusun lain sebagian
mendapatkan SEHEN.

Belanja listrik 30-50 ribu per bulan.

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya Dusun yang belum mendapat listrik 4-6 Km dari jalan
Raya Kodi Bangedo

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 1-2 Km dari pusat Desa

Kondisi jalan menuju ke Kondisi jalan beraspal baik, sebagian jalan batu hingga
lokasi ke lokasi dan bisa dilalui kendaraan roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 6 km dari pusat Desa, namun hanya kurang 1 km dari
pemukiman jaringan PLN

Jumlah rumah & bangunan Sebagian besar sdh berlistrik PLN dan SEHEN

Ketersediaan material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Cukup


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Selama ini membayar listrik PLN dan SEHEN dengan
lancar

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin 20-30 Kw, lokasi sungai jauh dari lokasi dusun yang
belum berlistrik (6 Km) namun dekat dengan jaringan
PLN (1 km)

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6. Peta lokasi

7. Informan:

1. Wongo Dadi dan Marcelinus (Perangkat Desa).

8. Foto Lokasi

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Desa Walan Ndimu, sebagian besar area sudah mendapat aliran listrik PLN dan SEHEN.

Sungai Weha di Desa Walan Ndimu yang memeliki potensi head 20 m dan air terjun 5m,
namun lokasinya jauh dari pemukiman yang belum berlistrik (lebih dari 6 Km).

9. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi memiliki potensi untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro namun jaraknya
cukup jauh dari pemukiman (6 km)

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Lebih layak dibangun PLTM yang menyambung ke Grid PLN, jarak 1-2 Km dari
jaringan terdekat.
Untuk memenuhi listrik dari 2 dusun yang belum ada jaringan lebih efisien untuk
memperpanjang jaringan dari pusat desa dan jalan raya utama Kodi yang hanya
berjarak 2-3 Km menuju 2 Dusun yang belum berlistrik.

4.13 WEE KOMBAKA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 124 Kecamatan : WejehaSelatan


Kampung / Desa: Wee Kombaka Kabupaten : Sumba Barat
Daya
Koordinat GPS : S 09.31.244 E 119.09.286 Surveyor : Warin & Devid
Rakam Tanggal survey : 28 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Kondisi aliran air Aliran sungai banjir saat musim hujan, namun debit air
berkurang saat musim kemarau.

Nama Sungai Wee Kombaka

Dimensi sungai Lebar 4 m; Kedalaman air 30 cm. Lokasi di tepi hutan


lindung.

Perkiraan head Tidak ditemukan Head yang memadai (kurang dari 2m)

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 515 KK, di 4 dusun. Pusat dusun di Wano Guru.


Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD , SMP.

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak, serta mencari kayu di hutan.

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung, industry saw mill

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

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Fasilitas Umum Balai Desa, Gedung SD, SMP.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan Jaringan listrik PLN sudah masuk di 3 dusun.


PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini 3 Dusun sudah mendapat listrik PLN, kecuali dusun 3
(Adalara) sebagian mendapatkan SEHEN.

Belanja listrik 30-50 ribu per bulan.

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 8 Km dari simpang jalan utama Waitabula-


Waikabubak.

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 4 Km dari pusat desa Wee Kombaka (Wano Guru)

Kondisi jalan menuju ke lokasi Kondisi jalan beraspal baik hingga ke lokasi dan
bisa dilalui kendaraan roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 4 km


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan Sebagian besar sdh berlistrik

Ketersediaan material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Selama ini membayar listrik PLN dengan lancar

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin -

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6. Peta lokasi

7. Informan:

1. Yohanes Perus Rado; 2. Andreas Ahde Nali; 3. Heridion Mutuado

8. Foto Lokasi

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Lokasi Desa Wee Kombaka, 3 dusun sudah mendapat listrik PLN dan 1 dusun dengan
listrik SEHEN

Sungai Wee Komba berada di tepi Hutang Lindung. Debit air kecil pada musim kemarau.
Tidak layak untuk pembangkit listrik dan jauh dari pemukiman (4 Km).

9. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi tidal layak untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro dikarenakan tidak
ditemukan sumber air sungai yang emmadai dan head pada sungai yang ada.
Sebagian besar penduduk sudah mendapatkan listrik PLN baik grid maupun
SEHEN.
Lebih efisien memperpanjang jaringan 2 Km untuk menjangkau dusun yang belum
mendapat listrik.

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4.14 WAMBIDI

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 61 Kecamatan: Kambata Mampabuhang


Kampung / Desa: Wambidi Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : tidak terdata Surveyor : Warin & Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 23 April 2015
1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air -

Nama Sungai -

Debit air (data -


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan -
basah

Perkiraan head -

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK --

Mata Pencaharian -
utama

Pendidikan rata2 -

Rata2 jml org / KK -

Pendapatan -
rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama -

Potensi industri -

Organisasi masyarakat -

Fasilitas Umum -

Keterangan Lain Lokasi tidak bisa dijangkau, Jalan desa menuju ke lokasi
desa Wambidi terputus 2 km dari desa Maidang.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

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Jarak dengan Jaringan -


PLN

Sumber listrik Saat ini -

Belanja Energy -

Keterangan Lainnya -

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan 28 Km dari Waingapu - Maidang


Utama

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa Terputus pada Km 2 dari Kantor Kecamatan. Lokasi masih
5-6 Km dari jalan yang terputus.

Kondisi jalan menuju ke Terputus pada Km ke-2 dari jalan utama. Jalan
lokasi menyempit, licin dan nlongsor. Lokasi Tidak bisa dialkses.
Kondisi jalan sangat buruk dan berbahaya.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) -


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan -

Ketersediaan Material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal -

Gambaran pembiayaan O M -

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin -

7. Foto Lokasi

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Kondisi jalan menuju Lokasi Desa Wambidi, terputus pada Km 28+2, setelah kantor
kecamatan dan gedung sekolah. Jalan menyempit, longsor dan sangat licin (kondisi
hujan). Lokasi tidak dapat diakses, diperkirakan jalan putus menuju ke lokasi masih 6-10
Km dari jalan yang terputus

8. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi tidak layak untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro dikarenakan tidak dapat
disurvey, dan tidak didapatkan data lapangan.
Akses menuju lokasi juga tidak memadai untuk pengiriman barang dan material dan
peralatan (batu, semen, kabel, turbin, dsb).

4.15 SORU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015


Mini grid _ID : 113 Kecamatan : Umbu Ratu Nggay
Kampung / Desa: Wacu Kao/Soru Kabupaten : Sumba Tengah
Koordinat GPS : S 09.33.766; E 119.50.719 Surveyor : Warin & Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 25 April 2015

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1. Karakteristik DAS

Kondisi aliran air Aliran sungai sepanjang tahun, berkurang saat musim
kemarau.

Nama Sungai Soru

Dimensi sungai Lebar 10-12 m; Kedalaman air 60-100 cm.

Perkiraan head 15 m

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 60 KK
Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung.

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

Fasilitas Umum Balai Desa, Gedung SD, SMP, Gereja.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan 12 Km dariarah Jalan Utama Waingapu-Waikabubak, 6 Km


PLN arah ke Rakawatu/Lewa.

Sumber listrik saat ini Genset, SEHEN dan Lampu Pelita.

Belanja listrik 30-35 ribu per bulan.

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 12 Km dari Jalan raya Waingapu-Waikabubak

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 6 Km dari pusat Desa Soru

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Kondisi jalan menuju ke Kondisi jalan beraspal baik, sebagian jalan batu hingga
lokasi ke rumah terluar, dilanjut jalan kaki 1 km menuju ke
lokasi sungai.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 3 km kampung terdekat, 5 km ke pusat desa.


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 60 namun tersebar di beberapa kampong, masing-


masing 15-20 rumah.

Ketersediaan material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Terbatas


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Selama ini membayar listrik SEHEN namun sebagian


tidak lancar dan ditarik kembali.

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin 20-30 Kw, namun lokasi sungai jauh dari lokasi
pemukiman terdekat (3 Km) . dan pusat desa (6 km).

6. Peta lokasi

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7. Informan:

1. Parabung Namukali Warga).

8. Foto Lokasi

Kampung Wacu kao, Desa Soru, Sumba Tengah. Sebagian besar listrik menggunakan
SEHEN PLN.

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Sungai di Desa Soru, Kecamatan Umbu Ratu Nggay, Sumba Tengah. Kondisi sungai
mempunyai potensi head 16 m untuk PLTMH, namun berjarak 3-5 Km dari pemukiman
terdekat yang rumahnya 20-30 menyebar.

9. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi memiliki potensi untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro namun jaraknya
cukup jauh dari pemukiman (3-4 km) ke pemukiman terdekat, Kampung Wacu Kao.
Apabila dibangun PLTMH maka lebih baik connect dengan karingan PLN terdekat
di Lewa/Rakawatu.
Untuk memenuhi listrik pada kampong lebih efisien untuk menggunakan PLTS
tersebar (SEHEN) dengan alasan rumah bersifat tersebar dan tidak begitu banyak
, setiap kluster 15-20 rumah.
PLN akan membangun PLTMG 2 x 50 Kw di lokasi lebih arah ke Hulu Sungai dan
diinterkoneksikan dengan jaringan Lewa-Rakawatu-Tanambanaspada tahun
2015/2016.

4.16 WEELURI

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

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Mini grid _ID : 128 Kecamatan : Loli


Kampung / Desa: Wai Pangali/Weeluri Kabupaten : Sumba Barat
Koordinat GPS : S 09.30.144; E 119.31.351 Surveyor : Warin & Devid
Rakam Tanggal survey : 27 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Kondisi aliran air Aliran sungai sepanjang tahun, namun sungai masuk ke
dalam tanah sebelum memasuki Desa Weeluri.

Nama Sungai Wai Luri

Dimensi sungai Lebar 8-10 m; Kedalaman air 50-80 cm.

Perkiraan head Tidak ditemukan head di sekitar desa

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 50-60 rumah


Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD , SMP.

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung, penggilingan padi.

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

Fasilitas Umum Balai Desa, Gedung SD, SMP, Gereja.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan 3 Km dari jaringan MV terdekat di Desa Loli.


PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini Sebagian Genset dan sebagian mendapatkan SEHEN.

Belanja listrik 35 ribu per bulan.

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya Pemukiman di kanan-kiri jalan raya Loli - Mamboro
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Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa Pemukiman di kanan-kiri jalan raya Loli - Mamboro

Kondisi jalan menuju ke Kondisi jalan beraspal baik dan bisa dilalui kendaraan
lokasi roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 6 km, sungai kemudian masuk di bawah tanah


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan Sebagian besar SEHEN dan sebagian Genset

Ketersediaan material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Cukup


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Selama ini membayar SEHEN dengan lancar

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin Tidak ditemukan head di sekitar lokasi

6. Peta lokasi

7. Informan:

1. Yoseph Malik

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8. Foto Lokasi

Desa Wee Luri, sebagian besar listrik saat ini menggunakan genset dan SEHEN PLN.

Sungai Wee Luri di Desa Wee Luri Ndimu, tidak mempunyai potensi head yang memadai
di sekitar lokasi desa dan pemukiman terdekat.

9. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi

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Lokasi tidak memiliki potensi untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro.


Lokasi desa dan pemukiman yang hanya berjarak 4-5 Km dari jaringan PLN
terdekati di Desa Loli dan kondisi jalan raya yang strategis menghubungkan
Waikabubak dan Mamboro layak dibangun jaringan listrik PLN MV dengan
memeperpanjang jaringan yang ada saat ini di Loli.

4.17 SODANA

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 107 Kecamatan : Lamboya


Kampung / Desa: Weetena/Sodana Kabupaten : Sumba Barat
Koordinat GPS : S 09.41.840; E 119.22.355 Surveyor : Warin & Devid
Rakam Tanggal survey : 27 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Kondisi aliran air Aliran sungai sepanjang tahun, berkurang saat musim
kemarau.

Nama Sungai Lulu

Dimensi sungai Lebar 6-8 m; Kedalaman air 40-60 cm.

Perkiraan head 12 m, ada air terjun 2-3 m

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 112 KK, tersebar di 4 kampung.


Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Tidak ada

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

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Fasilitas Umum Balai Desa, Gedung SD, SMP, Gereja.

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan 6 Km dari Jaringan Lamboya


PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini Genset, SEHEN dan Lampu Pelita.

Belanja listrik 30-35 ribu per bulan.

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 7 KM dari Jalan raya Lamboya

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 4 Km dari pusat desa Sodana/We Tana

Kondisi jalan menuju ke Kondisi jalan beraspal baik, sebagian jalan batu hingga
lokasi ke lokasi dan bisa dilalui kendaraan roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 6 km dari pemukiman terdekat di We tana


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 80 namun tersebar di 4 kampung, masing-masing 15-


20 rumah.

Ketersediaan material lokal -

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Tidak ada


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Selama ini membayar listrik SEHEN dengan lancar


namun sebagian tidak lancar dan ditarik kembali.

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin 15-20 Kw, namun lokasi sungai jauh dari lokasi
pemukiman terdekat (6 Km) .

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6. Peta lokasi

7. Informan:

1. Maria Tabora (Guru SD Sodana); 2. Joseph Kanai (Warga).

8. Foto Lokasi

Kampung dan gedung sekolah di Kampung Weetana, Desa Sodana, sebagian mendapat
penduduk listrik SEHEN PLN.

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Jalan menuju Sungai di Desa Sodana, Kecamatan Lamboya. Kondisi sungai mempunyai
potensi head 12 m untuk PLTMH, namun berjarak 4 Km dari pemukiman terdekat yang
rumahnya 20-30 menyebar.

9. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi memiliki potensi untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro namun karena
jaraknya cukup jauh dari pemukiman (5 km) ke pemukiman terdekat, Kampung
Weetana maka menjadi kurang layak dibangun.
Untuk memenuhi listrik pada kampong lebih efisien untuk menggunakan PLTS
tersebar (SEHEN) dengan alasan rumah bersifat tersebar dan tidak begitu banyak
, setiap kluster 15-20 rumah.

4.18 MBATAPUHU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 117 Kecamatan :Haharu


Kampung / Desa:Mbatapuhu Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 093045.4 E1195923.2 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 27 June 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air cukup, berdasarkan
temuan lapangan tidak di temukan bukti banjir pada bibir
sungai. Air berkurang pada berkurang saat musim kemarau
(Juli-November)

Nama Sungai Mbatapuhu

Debit air (data Tdkada data


sekunder)

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Curah Tdkada data


hujan/Bulanbasah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. SosialEkonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 63 KK

Mata Pencaharian utama Petani Ladang dan Peternak (Tradisional)

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 5 Orang

Pendapatan rata2/bln/KK Tidak menentu (curah hujan)

Komoditas utama Jagung, Ubi Kayu dan Ternak Besar (Kuda, Sapi, Kerbau),
Kambing dan Babi

Sumber energy saatini Menggunakan Pelita, Sehen (sebagian besar sudah di tarik
PLN)

Potensi industri Pengolahan Jagung

Organisasimasyarakat Ada Yayasan WVI

3. FasilitasUmum

BalaiDesa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 2 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit

Gereja/masjid 5 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi kejalan Kabupaten 4 KM (dari Kantor Desa Lokasi)

Jarak lokasi keJalan Provinsi 30 KM (dari Kantor Kecamatan Lokasi)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju 4 KM tidak ada jalan (hanya bisa jalan kaki)
lokasi

Jarak lokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 30 KM (dari Kantor Kecamatan Lokasi)


PLN

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Site

5. Informasi awal system desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 6 KM


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 60 Rumah, 9 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudahdidapat (60 km dari Kota


(batu/pasir/semen, dll) Waingapu)

Ketersediaantenagakerjalokal Cukup

Gambaranpembiayaan O M Catatan pernah ditariknya sehen karena tidak


mampu membayar

6. Fotolokasi

Jalan Kabupaten Menuju Desa Mbatapuhu Kampung Mbatapuhu

Sekolah Dasar Mbatapuhu Batas Akses Menuju Lokasi

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

7. Peta Lokasi

8. Sketsalokasi (sungai, jalan, pemukiman)

9. Keterangan lain:
Karena pertimbangan jarak yang terlalu jauh dan tidak ada akses menuju ke lokasi, untuk
diskusi dengan Sekretaris Desa Mbatapuhu sebagai informasi awal untuk menuju ke
lokasi. Diskusi dilakukan dengan memperlihatkan Peta yang sudah tersedia, dan
Sekretaris Desa Mbatapuhumengenal dengan baik lokasi tersebut. Sesuai informasi dari
Sekretaris Desa Mbatapuhu, bahwa lokasi tersebut tidak terdapat perbedaan ketinggian
yang signifikan antara hulu dan hilir.

10. Informan : Sekretaris Desa Mbatapuhu

11. Kesimpulan : Lokasi tidak layak dibangun pembangkit mikro hidro

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

4.19 PRAIBAKUL

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 134 Kecamatan : Haharu


Kampung / Desa: Praibakul Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 09.28.749; E 120.02.417 Surveyor : Warin & Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 22 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air ada sepanjang musim, kadang-kadang banjir saat musim
hujan;

Nama Sungai Sungai Kapunduk

Dimensi sungai Lebar 8-10 m; Kedalaman air 5-100 cm

Perkiraan head Kondisi topografi aliran sungai relative landai-datar.Tidak


ditemukan head yang memadai ( kurang dari 2m)

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / 70 KK
Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD & SMP

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak.

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, Kerbau, babi dan kuda, kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

Fasilitas Umum Sekolah SD, Balai Desa, Gereja

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

Jarak dengan Jaringan 2 Km dari PLTD PLN Haharu.


PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini PLN, SEHEN dan PLTD bantuan PNPM Perdesaan.

Belanja listrik SEHEN 35.000, PLTD 20.000 per bulan

Keterangan Lainnya Rumah pada jarak 1 Km mendapat jaringan PLN, setelah 1


Km sebagian SEHEN dan PLTD bantuan dari PNPM
Perdesaan (2012).

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 2 Km (Jalan Raya Pantaiu Utara Waingapu


Hambapraing)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 2 Km (Jalan tanah Desa Praibakul)

Kondisi jalan menuju ke lokasi Jalan beraspal dan sebagian pengerasan batu, n
hingga ke lokasi baik dan bisa dilalui kendaraan roda
4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) Tidak ada lokasi potensial, Head tidak ditemukan di
pemukiman sekitar lokasi

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 70, tersebar di 3 kampung.

Ketersediaan material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat (30 km dari Kota Waingapu)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Tidak tersedia, sangat terbatas


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia dengan swadaya namun harus dibina dan


dipersiapkan. Pengalaman iuran Genset bantuan
PNPM adalah Rp. 20.000/bulan/KK.

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin Tidak berpotensi untuk lokasi Pembangkit Mikro Hidro

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

7. Peta lokasi

8. Informan:

1. Agus Hambadita; 2. Hima Malitaka

9. Foto Lokasi

Kondisi Sungai Kapunduk di DEsa Praibakul, Sumba Timur. tidak ditemukan head, tidak
berpotensi untuk PLTMH

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

Jaringan Listrik PLN di Desa Praibakul, PLTD Haharu berlokasi 2 KM dari Desa.

10. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi tidal layak untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro dikarenakan tidak
ditemukan head pada radius 2 km disekitar pemukiman.
Lokasi sangat memungkinkan untuk dilayani listrik PLN karena hanya berjarak 2 Km
dari PLTD Haharu dan akses jalan sangat memadai.

4.20 KAWANGU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 91 Kecamatan : Pandawai


Kampung / Desa :Palumung/ Kawangu Kabupaten : Sumba Timur
Koordinat GPS : S 09.42.916; E 120.19.567 Surveyor : Warin & Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 22 April 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air ada sepanjang musim, kadang-kadang banjir saat musim
hujan;

Nama Sungai Sungai Kawangu

Dimensi sungai Lebar 8-10 m; Kedalaman air 40-60 cm

Perkiraan head Kondisi topografi aliran sungai relative landai-datar.Tidak


ditemukan head yang memadai ( kurang dari 2m).

2. Sosial Ekonomi

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Page 218 of 396
4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

Jumlah penduduk / 25 KK di Kampung Palamung.


Rumah

Mata Pencaharian Petani dan Ternak


utama

Pendidikan rata2 SD

Rata2 jml org / KK 5-6 jiwa

Pendapatan Tidak tentu, tergantung hasil panen sawah dan penjualan


rata2/bln/KK ternak. Hasil pertanian hanya untuk dimakan keluarga dan
tidak dijual.

Komoditas utama Jagung, ubi, sapi, kerbau, babi dan kambing.

Potensi industri Industri pemipil jagung

Organisasi masyarakat Tidak ada

Fasilitas Umum Tidak ada

3. Kondisi Pemakaian Energy Saat Ini

Jarak dengan Jaringan 2 Km dari jaringan terdekat PLN (LV).


PLN

Sumber listrik saat ini SEHEN dan Genset

Belanja listrik 20-35 ribu/bulan

Keterangan Lainnya Kampung hanya berjarak 2 Km dari jaringan terdekat PLN


(LV), kondisi rumah tersebar

4. Akses Jalan

Jarak lokasi ke jalan raya 5 Km dari alan Raya Waingapu Melolo

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan desa 2 Km dari Jalan tanah pusat Desa Kawangu)

Kondisi jalan menuju ke Jalan beraspal dan sebagian pengerasan batu hingga
lokasi ke lokasi baik dan bisa dilalui kendaraan roda 4.

5. Informasi awal sistem desain, operasi pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 1 km, namun tidak ada lokasi potensial, head tidak
pemukiman ditemukan di sekitar lokasi

Jumlah rumah & bangunan 25, namun tersebar

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

Ketersediaan material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat (20 km dari Kota Waingapu)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja Tidak tersedia dan sangat terbatas


lokal

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia dengan swadaya namun harus dibina/


dipersiapkan

Perkiraan kapasitas turbin Tidak berpotensi untuk lokasi Pembangkit Mikro Hidro

7. Peta lokasi

8. Informan:

1. Langi Kandaramu (warga kampong Palamung)

9. Foto Lokasi

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

Kondisi Sungai Kawangu di Kampung Palamung, Desa Kawangu, Sumba Timur, tidak
ditemukan head sehingga tidak berpotensi untuk PLTMH

Jaringan Listrik PLN (MV) sudah masuk di Desa Kawangu sejauh 2.5 Km, dan LV sejauh
4.5 Km dari Simpang Jalan Raya Waingapu-Melolo.

10. Kesimpulan & Rekomendasi


Lokasi tidal layak untuk dibangun Pembangkit Mikro Hidro dikarenakan tidak
ditemukan head pada radius 2 km disekitar pemukiman.
Lokasi sangat memungkinkan untuk dilayani listrik PLN karena hanya berjarak 2 Km
dari jaringan listrik PLN yang terdekat.

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

4.21 WAIYENGU

FORM SURVEY LAPANGAN MIKRO HYDRO SUMBA 2015

Mini grid _ID : 123 Kecamatan :Umbu Ratu Nggai Barat


Kampung / Desa:Wangga Waiyengu Kabupaten : Sumba Tengah
Koordinat GPS : S 093155.0 E1193723.6 Surveyor : Umbu Bahi
Tanggal survey : 1 July 2015

1. Karakteristik DAS

Aliran air Air sepanjang musim dengan debit air besar. Air berkurang
pada saat musim kemarau (Juli-Oktober), tetapi berkurang
tidak terlalu signifikan.

Nama Sungai Wangga Weiyengu

Debit air (data Tdk ada data


sekunder)

Curah hujan/Bulan Tdk ada data


basah

Perkiraan head Tidak ada head

2. Sosial Ekonomi

Jumlah penduduk / KK 190 KK

Mata Pencaharian Petani Ladang dan pengumpul/penambang pasir


utama

Pendidikan rata2 Sebagian besar pendidikan SD, sebagian kecil SMP dan
SMA

Rata2 jml org / KK 4 Orang

Pendapatan Tidak menentu


rata2/bln/KK

Komoditas utama Jagung dan Pasir Kali

Sumber energy saat ini Menggunakan Pelita, Sehen (sebagian besar sudah di tarik
PLN)

Potensi industry -

Organisasi masyarakat -

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Page 222 of 396
4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

3. Fasilitas Umum

Balai Desa 1 unit

Puskesmas/posyandu 1 unit Pustu, 4 unit Posyandu

Sekolah 1 unit (SD)

Gereja/masjid 1 unit (gereja)

4. Aksesibilitas

Jarak lokasi ke jalan Kabupaten 4 KM (simpang Lawonda Lokasi)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Provinsi 15 KM (dari Kota Waibakul pusat Desa Wangga
Waiyengu)

Jarak lokasi ke Jalan Desa 1 km (dari lokasi kantor desa Wangga Waiyengu)

Kondisi jalan terdekat menuju Baik dan berasal


lokasi

Jaraklokasi ke jaringan LV/MV 4 km (dari Jaringan PLN Lokasi)


PLN

5. Informasi awal sistem desain dan Operasi Pemeliharaan

Jarak intake (sungai) 1 km dari pemukiman


pemukiman

Jumlah rumah& bangunan 200 Rumah, 6 Bangunan

Ketersediaan Material lokal Ada, dan mudah didapat


(batu/pasir/semen, dll)

Ketersediaan tenaga kerja lokal Cukup

Gambaran pembiayaan O M Bersedia swadaya.

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4. Individual Reports For Each
Site

6. Foto lokasi

Kondisi Sungai Wainyengu di Kampung Wangga, Kabupaten Sumba Tengah.

7. Peta Lokasi

8. Informan : Umbu Ndatta


9. Kesimpulan : Lokasi tidak layak untuk pembangunan mikro hidro

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Page 224 of 396
5. INVESTOR FORUM

51

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 225 of 396
AGENDA
SUMBAICONICISLANDINVESTMENTFORUM

TheHermitageHotel,MentengCentralJakarta
15th December2015

Time Activity
08.0008.30 Registration
Opening Ceremony
08.3008.40 OpeningbyMC
08.4008.50 SingingtheNational Anthem IndonesiaRaya
08.5009.00 OpeningPrayer
09.0009.20 KeynoteSpeechbyRida Mulyana
(DirectorGeneralofNew,RenewableEnergyandEnergyConservation
(DGNREEC)MinistryofEnergyandMineralResources(MEMR),Republic
ofIndonesia):

TheRoleofGovernmentofIndonesiainEngagingthePrivateSectorfor
RenewableEnergyDevelopmentinIndonesia

1st Session
09.2009.35 PresentationbyMaritje Hutapea
(DirectorforVariousNewandRenewableEnergy,DGNREECMEMR):

CommitmentfromtheGovernmentofIndonesiatoSupportthe
InvolvementofPrivateSectorfortheSumbaIconicIslandfor100%
RenewableEnergyProgramme

09.3509.50 Presentationbythe Local Government of East Sumba District:

CommitmentfromtheLocalGovernmentofSumbaIslandtosupportthe
AccelerationofRenewableEnergyDevelopmentinEastSumba

09.5010.05 PresentationbyGeneral Manager of PT. PLN East NusaTenggara(NTT)


ProvincialOffice:

ElectrificationInfrastructureDevelopmentandPlanningofSumba
Island

10.0510.25 QAsession

Page 226 of 396


2nd Session

10.2510.35 PresentationbyMikeCrosetti(CastlerockConsulting):

LeastCostElectrificationPlaninSumbaIsland

10.3510.55 PresentationbyWarintoko (CastlerockConsulting):

PreFSofMicrohydroProjectinEastSumba

10.5511.15 PresentationbySyaifulBakhri Ibrahim(CastlerockConsulting):

PreFSofMinihydrowithDaminKadahangRiver(5MW)andPraikalala
River(3,5MW)

11.1511.35 PresentationbyPramod (InnovativeWindEnergy):

PreFSofWindProjectinHambapraing( 10MW)

11.3511.55 PresentationbyRomadhi Ridlo (CastlerockConsulting):

PreFSofBiomassProject(1MW)

3rdSession

11.5512.40 DiscussionwithFinancialInstitution:
FinancialInstitutionPointofViewonREProjectFinancing

PTSMI
BankBRI
MCAIndonesia
12.4012.45 Closingremarks

12.4513.30 Lunch &Networking

Page 227 of 396


SumbaLeastCost
ElectrificationPlan

SumbaIconicIslandInvestorForum
15December2015

www.castlerockasia.com
1

TheSumbaIconicIslandInitiative

CurrentSituation 2025Targets
<30%electrification 95%electrification
~15%renewable 100%renewable
powersupply powersupply

Whatprojectsandassociatedinvestmentarerequiredto
achievetheIconicIslandtargets?
Developmentofafeasible,leastcostplan
Gridvs.offgrid
Expansionplanforgridconnectedgeneration
Networkdevelopment
Goodplanningsupportsprivateinvestment&optimizes
publicexpenditure
2

Page 228 of 396


Electrification Theplanningmethodology
Targets
http://castlerockasia.com/sumba/sii.html

Gridvs.off Geospatial planning tools:


gridanalysis Network Planner
EBT
Resource
Griddemand Assessment

Offgrid Gridleastcost Generation planning tools:


investment generation Homer
opportunities expansionplan

Loadflow& Network planning


transmission tool: ETAP
Private Ongrid plan
sector investment
investment opportunities

PLN Network Network


investment infrastructure operating
investment requirements
3

Availabletechnologies
Thefollowingtechnologieswerecandidatesfortheleastcost
generationexpansionplanforthegrid:
Wind
PV
Biomass
Hydro
Pumpedstorage
Diesel
Allrenewableswerecheaperthandiesel
However,feasiblerenewablecapacityadditionsdependon
otherfactors

Page 229 of 396


Keydependencies loadgrowth
Maximumtechnicalavailability
Limitedbytheresource:hydro,biomass
Limitedbytheabilityofgridtoabsorbpower:PV,wind
Maximumcapacityoftechology=25%ofsystempeakdemand

350
300
GWhSalesperYear

RUPTL20152024
250
200 ElectrificationTarget=95%in
2025
150 ElectrificationTarget=95%in
100 2020

50
0

Year
5

Keydependencies transmissioninfrastructure
Wind&hydrofarfromloadcenters requireHVtransmission
PLNplansHVlineforcommissioningin2017

Page 230 of 396


Principalfindings
Investor Load Trans.
Technology depndt. depndt.
Comment
Forum?
Offgrid
Comprehensivereconnaissance study
Microhydro n.a. n.a. conducted.
Requiressubsidytobeaffordable.No
CommunityPV n.a. n.a. subsidy mechanisminplace.
Ongrid
AllidentifiedRoRlocations >500kW
RoR Minihydro No No alreadyclaimed.
PreliminarystudyforPraikalala(3.5MW)
Storage Hydro No Yes andKadahang(5MW)
Notcleariffinanciallyfeasibleatcurrent
Pumped Storage Yes Yes dieselprice.Largeinvestment.
PreFS for1MW.
Biomass No No
PreFS for 10MWatHambapraing
Wind Yes Yes
UtilityscalePVregulationtoberevised.
PV Yes Yes 7

THANK YOU !

www.castlerockasia.com

Page 231 of 396


ADBTA8287INO:
ScalingUpRenewableEnergyAccess
inEasternIndonesia

StudyPotensi PLTMH
di Pulau Sumba

DAFTARISI

Latar Belakang
Metode
Hasil Study
Potensi Resiko

Page 232 of 396 1


Latar Belakang
Rasio Elektrifikasi di Pulau Sumbamasih sangat rendah (<40%)
85%Kebutuhan listrik di P.Sumba saat ini dipasok dari PLTD(7
Mw)
Sebagian besar pola pemukiman penduduk di Perdesaan P.
Sumbayangmenyebar dan berjauhan memerlukan listrik off
grid
Potensi Pengembangan Pembangkit Listrik dari Sumber Energi
Terbarukan menjadi prioritas (SumbaIconicIsand)
Perlu dilakukan surveypotensi PLTMHdi Sumbauntuk
mendukung listrik offgrid

Kondisi Elektrifikasi Pulau SumbaTahun 2013

Sumber:
Desa berlistrik PLNAreaSumba
4

Page 233 of 396 2


Metode

Tahap I Desk Study :


1. Identikasi lokasi mini grid pada Network Planner basis low cost
scenario, ditemukan 300 lokasi potensial.
2. Disaring 100 lokasi yang berdekatan (1km) dari sungai berdasarkan peta
BIG.
3. Disaring menjadi 40 lokasi terpilih berdasarkan:
Beda elevasi pada 1 km aliran sungai untuk memperkirakan head.
Perkiraan luas area tangkapan air untuk memperkirakan debit air.
Berdasarkan perkiraan beda elevasi dan luas area tangkapan air
dilakukan perangkingan lokasi potensial PLTMH

Hasil DeskStudyTahap I

Page 234 of 396 3


Metode

Tahap II Desk Study :


Menganalisis 40 lokasi dengan Google Earth dengan mempertimbangkan :
a.Menghitung jumlah bangunan pada radius1kmlokasi untuk memilih lokasi
yangmemiliki lebih dari 30bangunan/rumah
b.Menganalisis pola pemukiman yangrelatif berdekatan untuk dipilih.
c.Memilih lokasi yangmemiliki akses jalan,minimalbisa dilalui mobil kendaraan
roda 4.

Hasil Analisis DeskStudyTahap II


Mini_Grid DistancefromMainRoad Numberofhousesnearby
No. Kabupaten Region Desa
_ID (km) river<1 km
1 SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 60 15 50<
2 SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAIDANG 59 18 30<
3 SUMBATENGAH Western Soru 113 8.6 60<
4 SUMBATIMUR Eastern PABERAMANERA 26 18.5 30<
5 SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIKANABU 46 20< 30<
6 SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAHUBOKUL 54 18 40<
7 SUMBATENGAH Western WEELURI 128 12.8 50<
8 SUMBATIMUR Eastern KATIKUTANA 25 <20 2030
9 SUMBATIMUR Eastern PRAIBAKUL 134 1.6 60<

10 SUMBABARATDAYA Western WALLANDIMU 107 4.1 60<


11 SUMBATIMUR Eastern KARITA 36 19 30<
12 SUMBATIMUR Eastern PULUPANJANG 65 6.4 50<
13 SUMBATIMUR Eastern KAWANGU 91 3.4 50<
14 SUMBATIMUR Eastern WAIMBIDI 61 10 40<
15 SUMBATENGAH Western PONDOK 125 9.7 30<

16 SUMBABARATDAYA Western WEEKOMBAKA 124 7.3 30<


17 SUMBATIMUR Eastern KANANGGAR 21 20.2 30<
18 SUMBATIMUR Eastern MAUBOKUL 49 22.5 30<

19 SUMBATENGAH Western WANGGAWAIYENGU 123 8.9 30<


20 SUMBATIMUR Eastern MBATAPUHU 117 13.6 20<
21 SUMBATIMUR Eastern WULA 8 2 3040
22 SUMBABARAT Western SODANA 85 3.4 40<

Page 235 of 396 4


Metode
Tahap III Survey Lapangan :

1.Watershedcharacteristic
Melakukan observasi :Dimensi sungai,kondisi aliran air,perkiraan head.
2.Socialcommunity
Pendataan kondisi demography,education,pendapatan,pekerjaan,aktivitas
produksi ,dsb.
3.Siteaccessibility
Pendataan kondisi akses jalan dan akses terdekat dengan jaringan PLN
4.PublicFacility
Pendataan jenis dan fasilitas layanan publik:sekolah,tempat ibafah,puskesmas,
dsb.

HASILSURVEYTAHAPIII
No. Kesimpulan Rekomendasi Lokasi (Desa)
1. Ada 5 lokasi sangat berpotensi Diperlukan FSdan DED Pulu Panjang,Karita,
untuk PLTMH mini grid Pabera Manera,
Pondok,and
Waikanabu
2. Ada 2 lokasi berpotensi PLTMH Diperlukan FS&diskusi lbh Soru andWala Ndimu
disambungkan ke Jaringan PLN lanjut dgPLNSumba

3. Ada 1 lokasi berpotensi untuk Lebih efisien dikembangkan Sodana


PLTMH namun tidak efisien, 4 km SolarPV offgrid
jarak intake ke pemukiman

4. Ada 5 lokasi tidak berpotensi untuk Disambungkan dengan Wula,Kawangu,


PLTMH, jarak dengan jaringan PLN jaringan PLN yang ada dg Praibakul,WeLuriand
relatif dekat jarak 2 Km WeKombaka

5. Ada 6 lokasi yang tidak berpotensi Lebih efisien dikembangkan Katikutana,Kutikula,


untuk PLTMH dan berjarak sangat SolarPVoffgrid Mabaha Bakul,Maidang
jauh dengan jaringan PLN 1and2,Mabatapuhu
andWangga.

10

Page 236 of 396 5


Contoh Hasil Survey:Desa Pabena Manera

11

Analisis Finansial
Deskripsi Pulu Karita Pabera Pondok Waikanabu
Panjang Manera
Potensi Pelanggan 128 90 155 100 90
(KK)
Potensi 35 40 50 25 30
(Kw)
Biaya Investasi 1,890 2,160 2,700 1,350 1,620
(Rp juta)
Produksi Listrik 8.820 10,008 12,600 6,300 7,560
(Kwh/bulan)
Pendapatan 6,175 7,056 8,820 4,410 5,292
(Rp jt/bulan)
Biaya O&M 3,700 4,233 5,292 3,080 3,175
(Rp/bulan)
Pendapatan Bersih 2,365 2,823 3,528 1,330 2,116
(Rp juta/bulan)

12

Page 237 of 396 6


Potensi Resiko
Melesetnya biaya rencana investasi (transportasi logistik)
dikarenakan kondisi akses jalan yangburuk.
Pengalaman kemauan membayar yangrendah di Pulau Sumba
berisiko terhadap keberlangsungan operasi dan pemeliharaan
Terbatasnya ketersediaan penyedia jasa setempat untuk
memenuhi memasok peralatan PLTMHdi Pulau Sumba
Apabila mengacu kepada peraturan yangada maka diperlukan
izin tarif dari Pemerintah daerah melalui Peraturan Daerah,
dan ini akan memakan waktu cukup lamadikarenakan harus
dibahas bersama DPRDProvinsi.

13

Terimakasih

Page 238 of 396 7


Studi Pendahuluan Tentang Kemungkinan
Pembuatan Storage Hydro (Bendungan)
Untuk Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik di Sumba

15 Desember 2015
Daftar Isi

Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kegiatan

Pemilihan & Penilaian Lokasi

Pemantauan Sungai Kambaniru

Temuan Umum
2
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 239 of 396


Daftar Isi

Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kegiatan

Pemilihan & Penilaian Lokasi

Pemantauan Sungai Kambaniru

Temuan Umum

3
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Tujuan & Ruang Linkup Kegiatan
Tujuan Umum Program Sumba Sebagai Pulau Ikonik Energi Terbarukan
Meningkatkan rasio elektrifitas dari 30% saat ini menjadi 95%,
Meningkatkan produksi listrik dari sumber energi terbarukan dari 15% saat
ini menjadi 100%.

Tujuan Khusus
Pembangkitan yang dapat di-dispatch dibutukan untuk mencapai tujuan
umum tersebut sisi operasi sistem
Kajian sumber daya EBT didanai oleh ADB mengidentifikasikan tiga calon
lokasi PLTM dengan bendungan. Dikonfirmasikan oleh least- cost analysis.
Study pendahuluan ini didanai oleh AFD sebagai dasar untuk menentukan
apakah lokasi tersebut menjamin pengembangan lebih lanjut.

Aktifitas
Aktifitas Hasil yand diperoleh
Aktifitas 1 / Desain & pemasangan stasiun pengukuran
Desain stasiun pengukuran hidrologi dan arus air
hidrologi serta arus air
Pengoperasian stasiun pengukuran hidrologi dan arus air
(November Desember 2014)

Aktifitas 2 / Penilaian Lokasi Laporan berupa rekomendasi apakan pembangunan harus


4

terus untuk setiap lokasi, dan juga penjabaran langkah


14/12/2015 ARTELIA

(November 2014 Pebruari 2015) berikutnya.

Aktifitas 3 / Persiapan pembuatan kurva durasi arus


Kurva durasi arus Sungai Kambaniru
Sungai Kambaniru River - 2015

Page 240 of 396


Daftar Isi

Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kegiatan

Pemilihan & Penilaian Lokasi

Pemantauan Sungai Kambaniru

Temuan Umum

5
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Penilaian Lokasi
Proses pemilihan lokasi
Untuk memaksimalkan potensi kontribusi PLTM bendungan, tiga daerah aliran
sungai (DAS) terbesar dan dekat jaringan PLN diidentifikasikan: Praikalala, Kadahang
& Kambiniru
Karena lokasi Kambiniru akan dibutuhkan perpindahan tempat tinggal, Bupati Sumba
Timur meminta lokasi itu tidak
diprioritisasikan Kambiniru

Praikalala

Kadahang

Ada 9 DAS > 200 km2


Di Pulau Sumba
6
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 241 of 396


Penilaian Lokasi
Lokasi yang memungkinkan
Studi teoritis dilakukan pada peta topografi sekala 1:25.000 dan citra
satelit untuk mendukung pekerjaan dilapangan.
Beberapa konfigurasi dipertimbangkan di masing-masing lokasi

Lokasi Struktur Aksesibilitas


Sungai MEMBORO Bendungan Praikalala dengan Melalui jalan
(nama lokasi: saluran pembawa terowongan, Memboro-Waiurang
Praikalala) pembangkit 3.5 MW

Sungai KADAHANG Bendungan Kadahang melalui Melalui jalan Pantai-


(nama lokasi: terowongan, pembangkit yang Cemara dan jalan
Kadahang) dihasilkan 5 MW desa Tapendang

7
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Rencana Praikalala

Photo Fig 5-1 du rapport 8


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Page 242 of 396


Rencana Praikalala

9
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Rencana Praikalala

Rencana ini mencakup


10 sampai 20 m tinggi bendungan dan berlokasi 1.5 km ke hulu di pertemuan
dengan Sungai Loko Madori,
1.5 km terowongan saluran pembawa (headrace tunnel)
Sebuah bak penenang sebagai ruang penampung pipa pesat (penstock)
Pembangkit listrik dengan ketinggian (head) 55m dan daya terpasang 3.5 MW

Rencana Operasi akan disesuaikan dengan jenis pembangkitan Run of River (RoR) yang
disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan harian mengikuti kurva permintaan energi listrik dari
jaringan PLN (grid). Ketinggian bendungan akan cukup untuk membuat reservoir
dengan volume air yang dibutuhkan harian untuk operasi sistem.
10
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 243 of 396


Rencana Hulu Kadahang

11
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Rencana Hulu Kadahang

Photo Fig 5-6 du rapport 12


14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 244 of 396


Rencana Hulu Kadahang

Rencana ini mencakup


10 - 20 m tinggi bendungan dan berlokasi di hulu Sungai Kadahang
2.1 km saluran pembawa (headrace tunnel) yang terbuat dari beton terbuka
Sebuah bak penenang sebagai ruang penampung pipa pesat (penstock)
Pembangkit listrik dengan ketinggian (head) 55m dan daya terpasang 5 MW

Rencana Operasi akan disesuaikan dengan jenis pembangkitan Run of River (RoR) yang
disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan harian mengikuti kurva permintaan energi listrik dari
jaringan PLN (grid). Seperti rencana Praikalala

Ketinggian bendungan akan cukup untuk membuat reservoir dengan volume air yang
dibutuhkan sehari-hari.

13
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Kondisi Geologi

Semua kondisi geologi berada dalam formasi sedimen, dengan napal, batu pasir, tufa
dan sisipan batu gamping

Dalam semua kasus, masa batuan secara umum terlihat mempunyai karakteristik
mekanik rendah, meskipun berada pada lebih dari 100 - 150 m tebing yang tinggi atau
lereng yang sangat curam dan juga terdapat pada lapisan yang kompeten yang dapat
diamati kejadiannya di tepi lembah.

Kami dapat mempertimbangkan bahwa karakteristik mekanik masa batuan adalah


cukup untuk mendukung struktur gravitasi sederhana (<50 m), tetapi masalah utama
adalah permeabilitas masa batuan tersebut. Hal ini harus mendapatkan perhatian
khusus apabila ingin membangun bendungan dengan volume air yang cukup besar.
14
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Page 245 of 396


Kapasitas Setiap Rencana
Praikalala Kadahang

Mean annual rainfall mm 2500 2250 Hidrologi berdasar curah


Annual runoff mm 928 740 hujan dan metode Turc,
Catchment area km 240 440
konsisten dengan
Average inflow Mm3/year 222.72 325.6
pengalaman PLTM lain di
Average discharge m3/s 7.06 10.32
Sumba.
Ketinggian
Bendungan 12.5 m 25 m 12.5 m 25 m
Construction cost
M US$Dam 1.99 6.72 8.68 23.75 Biaya pekerjaan sipil yang
Headrace tunnel
Penstock
4.86
0.21
4.86
0.21
6.81
0.48
6.81
0.48
diperkirakan berdasarkan
Power station 1.90 2.00 2.90 3.00 pengalaman internasional
Access road 2.60 2.60 1.20 1.20
Total civil works M US$ 11.56 16.39 20.08 35.24 dan diperiksa terhadap
model MITI
M&E equipment 6.43 6.79 7.64 8.21
Transmission line 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50

Total CW + M&E + TL
M US$ 18.40 23.58 28.22 43.95

Installed Power MW : 3.32 3.86 4.63 5.64


Energi yang

15
dihasilkan GWh : 21.57 25.06 30.18 37.14
BPP proyek ini dibawah

14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Biaya pokok
produksi
US$/kWh 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.14 FiT sesuai Permen ESDM
19/2015

Penilaian Awal Dampak Sosial


Praikalala Kadahang Kambiniru/Maidang
TinggiBendungan(m) 12.5 25 50 12.5 25 50 25 50
Perkiraanjumlahrumahtanggaterdampakdengan
0 0 0 0 0 0 21 72
pendekatananalisakedekatanpenduduk(proximity)

PerkiraanjumlahPendudukterdampakdenganpendekatan
0 0 0 0 0 0 98 331
analisakedekatanpenduduk(proximity)

JumlahBangunandarianalisadigitalpetaBIG 0 0 0 0 0 0 52 101

Perkiraanjumlahrumahtanggaterdampakdengan
0 0 0 0 0 0 42 81
pendekatananalisadigitalpetaBIG

Perkiraanjumlahpendudukterdampakdenganpendekatan
0 0 0 0 0 0 192 371
analisadigitalpetaBIG
Perhitunganmanualjumlahbangunanmenggunakancitra
0 0 0 0 0 0 66 104
satelitGoogleEarth(2013)
Perkiraanjumlahpendudukterdampakdenganpendekatan
0 0 0 0 0 0 302 476
analisadigitalpetaBIG

Tiga metodologi yang digunakan untuk menghitung jumlah rumah tangga


yang akan terdampak:
Lokasi terdampak genangan relatif terhadap sebaran populasi vs populasi
analisis kedekatan sebaran penduduk
16

Analisa peta digital dari Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) yang


14/12/2015 ARTELIA

mengidentifikasikan struktur Bangunan.


Analisa manual menggunakan citra satelit Google (2013) untuk menghitung
struktur individual bangunan di daerah dampak genangan.
Page 246 of 396
Daftar Isi

Ringkasan

Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kegiatan

Pemilihan & Penilaian Lokasi

Pemantauan Sungai Kambaniru

Temuan Umum

17
14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Hidrologi diasumsikan
Asumsi hidrologi
Berdasar data curah hujan dan metode Turc
Konsisten dengan pengalaman PLTM Lokomboro

Praikalala Kadahang
18
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 247 of 396


Tujuan stasiun hidrologi
Kegunaan stasiun hidrologi sementara di Sumba
Desain dan evaluasi pembangkit listrik tenaga air memerlukan informasi
yang akurat dari kurfa durasi arus sungai (FDC)
Sekarang ini, tidak ada FDC yang akurat untuk Sumba
Belum ada sungai di Sumba yang di ukur secara langsung
Model Hidrologi belum dikalibrasi untuk kondisi di Sumba
Proyek PLTA seperti Lokomboro hanya menyediakan data untuk
produksi energi listrik, dimana tidak ada data mengenai aliran yang
terjadi selama perioda pemadaman listrik atau banjir
Stasiun hidrologi dapat memberikan data satu tahun atau lebih untuk
mendukung investasi yang berhubungan dengan masalah hidrologi
Data ini dapat dikalibrasi terhadap data curah hujan untuk perkiraan
jangka panjang
Beberapa stasiun cuaca di Sumba mempunyai > 10 tahun data curah
hujan
Lokasi di Maidang pada Sungai Kambiniru dipilih untuk pengukuran
stasiun hidrologi sementara, dengan alasan:

19
Mempunyai DAS terbesar di Sumba

14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Berpotensi untuk dibangun bendungan yang besar
Hasilnya dapat di ekstrapolasikan ke DAS lainnya di Sumba

Pengukuran Debit Air di Maidang


Lokasi Sungai Kambaniru
Lokasi terbaik terdapat di
Jembatan Maidang yang
berada di Sungai Kambaniru
Lebar Sungai: 50m
Aliran sungai terendah
(November): 4.4 m/s
Aksesibilitas yang bagus
Penjaga stasiun dapat
diperoleh dari desa terdekat
Kondisi hidrolik dapat
diterima
Salm on alat ukur yang
dapat di pasang dari atas
jembatan
AWLR (Pengukur ketinggian air otomatis) sudah dipasang
Pengukuran arus air dapat dilakukan secara periodik sepanjang tahun
20

AWLR data dapat digabungkan dengan pengukuran arus sungai untuk


14/12/2015 ARTELIA

mendapatkan kurva durasi arus sungai (FDC)


Hasilnya dapat dibandingkan dengan data curah hujan jangka panjang dari
stasiun pengamatan cuaca BMKG di Malahar, Tanarara and Waingapu

Page 248 of 396


Hasil sampai saat ini
Hasil 11 bulan pertama
AWLR dipasang sejak awal Januari 2015
Pengukuran debit air on- going
Kurva durasi arus sungai untuk tahun
pertama diharapkan pada triwulan pertama
tahun 2016

Hidrograf di Maidang
400

350
Period of maximum
300 wind and solar
250 output
LevelofRiver,cm

200

150

100

50

0 Anomaly due to low

21
water conditions; to be
50
corrected

14/12/2015 ARTELIA
Jan Jun Nov
2015 2015 2015
Daftar Isi

Ringkasan

Tujuan & Ruang Lingkup Kegiatan

Pemilihan & Penilaian Lokasi

Pemantauan Sungai Kambaniru

Temuan Umum
22
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 249 of 396


Resiko utama
Hidrologi
Pengukuran sungai di Sumba sedang berjalan.
Geologi
Survei lapangan pendahuluan dibutuhkan.
Biaya diperkirakan
Lokasi terpencil
Terowongan
Implementasi Permen ESDM 19/2015
Struktur PJBL
PJBL yang berlaku saat ini tidak membayar kapasitas pembangkit yang
tersedia, hanya membayar energi yang diproduksi
Konsep PJBL yang diusulkan oleh PLN sesuai Permen ESDM 19/2015 mungkin
bisa mengatasi kapasitas tersedia tapi tidak dapat digunakan karena gangguan
jaringan PLN
Lebih baik kalau bisa menggunakan PJBL struktur biaya ABCD
Faktor yang menringankan
Biaya produksi PLTM lebih rendah dibanding PLTD bahkan jika tidak ada
pertumbuhan beban

23
Dukungan pemda

14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Dukungan biaya pengembangan, e.g. Infraco

Temuan Utama
Lokasi terbaik dari sisi biaya pokok produksi adalah:
Dua Sungai, Kadahang and Praikalala, tampaknya layak untuk studi lebih lanjut
sebagai bendungan kecil sebagai kolam penampungan air harian

Langkah Berikutnya
Hidrologi : Melanjutkan penyusunan data hidrologi
Pemaparan dan sosialisasi temuan kepada para pemangku kepentingan
Geologi : Melakukan kajian aspek geologi (~USD 15,000)
Kompilasi semua informasi yang berhubungan dengan aspek geologi dan
hidrogeologi pada sekala lokal dan regional,
Kunjungan lapangan pada lokasi yang diidentifikasi sebagai bendungan
yang potensial.
Topografi: Survei topografi untuk mengkonfirmasi ketinggian bendungan dan
penampang melintang ketinggian sekitar bendungan.
Studi Kelayakan: Pembaharuan hasil analisa dari masalah yang berhubungan
dengan teknis, keuangan, sosial dan lingkungan
24
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 250 of 396


Terima Kasih atas perhatiannya

ARTELIA2525
14/12/2015 ARTELIA

Page 251 of 396


WindResourceAssessmentandPrefeasibilityfor
WindEnergyProjectsinSumba

InvestorForum
December15,2015

PramodJain,Ph.D.
President,InnovativeWindEnergy,Inc.
pramod@iwindenergy.com
+19049236489

IWE 1

Agenda

Projectdescription
Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Preliminarywindresourceassessment
Demandanalysis
Expectedwindregulations
Preliminaryfinancialassessment
Keyrisks

IWE 2

Page 252 of 396


SumbaIconicIslandInitiativeLeastcostGenerationPlan

Theleastcostgenerationplandeterminedwindpowerpenetration
of10MWby2025
Windmeasurementcampaignwasinitiatedtobetterunderstand
thewindresource
3TierandpastwinddatawasusedtodeterminethatHambapraing
wastheareawithgoodwindresource
Hambaprainghasreasonablygoodroadandgridaccess,andisin
plannedrouteforhighervoltagetransmissionlinethatwill
interconnecteastandwestpartsofSumba
60metermetmastwasinstalledinHambaprainginOctober2014
Aftertheculminationofoneyearofwindmeasurement,a
preliminarywindresourceassessmentandwindprojectfinancial
assessmentisbeingundertaken

IWE 3

ProjectDescription

10MWwindfarmintheHambapraingareaofSumba
Areaof
12turbines,eachofsize0.85MW interest

IWE 4

Page 253 of 396


SiteDetails

HIVOS33mmet Road,20kV
tower line

ADB60mmet Highestwind
tower resourcearea

IWE 5

SummaryofoneyeardatafromADBmetmast

Winddatafrom57manemometer&53mwindvane
Datacorrectedformissingdataandlongtermcorrection

IWE 6

Page 254 of 396


TurbineSelectionandLocations

Logisticalcapabilitiessuggestthat
0.85MWwindturbinegenerator
(WTG)with65mhubheightand
52mrotoristhelargestWTGthat
canbetransportedanddeployedat Road,20kV
reasonablecostinSumba line

8x0.85MWWTGs
Elevation:465m

4x0.85MWWTGs
Elevation:426m
IWE 7

WindResourceMapofHambapraingwithMicrositing

Redzoneshavethehighest
winddensity
Area1
8WTGs OneKilometerawayfrom
themeasurementtowerisa
redzone
Resolutionis100mby100m
Area1nearmettowercan
Area2 site8WTGs
4WTGs Area2cansite4WTGs

IWE 8

Page 255 of 396


Micrositing of12x0.85MWWTGs

EightWTGsinArea1and
fourWTGsinArea2are
sitedwithadistanceof10D
Contourplotoftheareais
displayed
Windroseattheturbine
sitesshowtheprimary
directionofwindisESE

IWE 9

Averageannualenergyproduction(AEP)

WTG Latitude Longitude Elevation Wind Gross NetAEP Wake Capacity


(m) (m) (m) speed AEP (GWh) loss(%) factor
(m/s) (GWh)
1 189049.3 1054305 464.8 7.31 2.578 2.521 2.22 0.339
2 188910.7 1054385 470.4 7.33 2.596 2.527 2.66 0.339
3 188772.1 1054464 471.5 7.33 2.595 2.53 2.52 0.340
4 188633.5 1054544 474.4 7.38 2.637 2.572 2.44 0.345
5 188494.9 1054624 469.6 7.33 2.603 2.544 2.26 0.342
6 188356.2 1054704 465 7.29 2.577 2.523 2.09 0.339
7 188217.6 1054784 461.2 7.26 2.551 2.505 1.77 0.336
8 188079 1054864 460.4 7.26 2.551 2.537 0.53 0.341
9 191596.3 1060845 428 7.55 2.754 2.726 0.99 0.366
10 191591.3 1061019 426 7.53 2.738 2.714 0.87 0.364
11 191603 1061215 427.6 7.52 2.739 2.737 0.08 0.368
12 191717.8 1060700 425.1 7.55 2.755 2.727 1.04 0.366

NetAEPof12WTGwindfarm=31.163GWh

AEPandcapacityfactorsarebeforelosses
IWE 10

Page 256 of 396


LossesandUncertaintyofAEP

10%losses
NetAEP NetAEPafter NetCapacity
(GWh) losses(GWh) factor

31.163 28.047 31.4%

12%uncertainty
Exceedance AEP(GWh)
ProbabilityType
P50 Asanexample,AEPatP90is23.72GWh,
28.047 whichmeansthatthereis90%
P75 25.775 confidencethattheAEPwillbe23.72
GWhormore.
P90 23.722
P95 22.510

WindEnergyBelongsintheLeastCostPlan

LevelizedCostofEnergyforwindenergyischeaperthandieselin
Sumba
ThehighqualityresourceisintheHambapraingarea
Sufficientlandareaisavailablefor10MWwindfarm
MeasurementsareongoinginLeipori;itmayhavepotentialfor
winddevelopment
Hencewinduptakeisnotlimitedbytheresourceorcostof
competingtechnologiesbutbytheabilityofthegridtoabsorb
production
Theleastcostplannedassumedthatwindcapacitycouldnot
exceed25%ofpeaksystemdemand.Currentsystempeakdemand
isaround11MWwith15%gridelectrificationratio.Over10years
thisisforecasttogrowtoabout40MWifthetargetof95%
electrificationratioisachieved.

IWE 12

Page 257 of 396


WindEnergyPolicy

ESDMisdevelopingwindenergyfeedintariff(FiT)
Easternislandgridthatareprimarilysuppliedbydieselare
expectedtogetFiT of28UScentsperkWh
ProposedregulationrequiresPLNtoconductgridintegration
studytodeterminelevelofwindenergypenetration
Toqualifydevelopersshouldhavecompletedatleastoneyear
ofwindmeasurement

IWE 13

Preliminaryfinancialassessment:Assumptions

Scenario1 Scenario2
Totalinstalledcost(TIC) $2,303/kW $2,098/kW
TotalO&MCosts $0.11/kWh $0.05/kWh
AnnualescalationofO&M 0% 5%
Sizeofwindfarm 10.2MW 10.2MW
Salepriceofenergy $0.280/kWh $0.280/kWh
Depreciation 15yraccelerated 15yraccelerated
Taxrate,WACC* 25%,13.8% 25%,13.8%
Lifeofproject 15years 15years
FinancingStructure 70%debt/30%equity 70%debt/30%equity
Debtduration/interest 8years/12% 8years/12%
Requiredreturnonequity 18% 18%
Investmenttaxdeduction 5% 5%
(ITD)
ITCyears 6years 6years
Turbine VestasV52850kW Enercon 850kW

IWE 14

Page 258 of 396


Preliminaryfinancialassessment:Results

Scenario1 Scenario2
P50 P75 P90 P50 P75 P90
AnnualEnergyproduction(GWh) 28.047 25.775 23.722 28.047 25.775 23.722
TotalInstalledCost(million$) $23.49 $23.49 $23.49 $21.40 $21.40 $21.40
TotalAnnualRevenue(million$) $7.85 $7.22 $6.64 $7.85 $7.22 $6.64
ProjectIRR,aftertax(%) 17.2 15.7 14.2 24.7 22.6 20.7
ReturnonEquity,aftertax(%) 24.1 20.6 17.5 44.7 38.8 33.7
Debtservicecoverageratio 1.49 1.37 1.26 2.12 1.94 1.79
Simplepaybackperiodonequity
5 7 9 3 3 3
(years)
LevelizedCostofEnergy
$0.245 $0.257 $0.270 $0.187 $0.198 $0.210
(current$/kWh)

IWE 15

KeyRisks

Successof10MWofwindpowerinstallationsispredicatedon
thefollowing
Growthindemandfrom10MWin2015to40MWin2025
InterconnectionofeastandwestgridsofSumbawith70kVor
highervoltageline
Abilityofgridtoabsorb10MWofwindpower
Concentrationofwindprojectsinoneareamaycausegridintegration
issues,whichneedstobestudied
Energystoragemayberequiredinthegrid,whichwouldincreasecost
Hybridcontrollersformanagingdiesel,hydro,solarPVandwind
generatorsandhighspeedcommunicationnetworkwouldberequired
tomanagetheprojectedmixofgeneration
Windenergyforecastingandtoolsforsystemoperations

IWE 16

Page 259 of 396


KeyRisks

Successof10MWofwindpowerinstallationsispredicatedon
thefollowing:
Windtariffof28UScentsperkWh
Requiredupgradestoport,roadsandbridgesas
recommendedbythelogisticsstudycanbeimplemented
Projectsitingstudyformicrowave,radar,andaviation
airspaceinterferencedonotuncoveranyissues
Environmentalimpactassessmentforbirds,wildlifeand
othersdoesnotuncoveranyissues
Landaccessisgrantedinatimelymanner

IWE 17

Page 260 of 396


ADBTA8287INO:
ScalingUpRenewableEnergy
AccessinEasternIndonesia
PrefeasibilityStudyon
Biomass PowerProjects in
Sumba Island
Jakarta
14December 2015

CONTENTS

Section1:Projectobjectives
Section2:Physicaldescriptionoftheproject
Section3:Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Section4:Demandanalysis
Section5:Legalbasis
Section6:Financialanalysis
Section7:Keyrisks
Section8:Conclusion

Page 261 of 396 1


Section1
ProjectObjectives
Assessmentofpotentialbiomassresourcesin
SumbaIsland
Assessmentofsmallscalebiomasscombined
heatpower,gasificationanddirectfired
combustiontechnology basedonthebiomass
resourcesavailability
Assessmentoneconomicallyavailablebiomass
fuel (Projectsiteselection)
ConductfinancialanalysisofsmallscaleBiomass
powerplantinSumbaIsland

PhysicalDescription oftheProject

IdentificationofpotentialBiomasssourcesfor
electricitygenerationthroughonsitesurvey,
conductedintheperiode 2013 2014

Assesstechnicallyandfinancialfeasibilityonthe
developmentofBiomassPowerPlantforelectricity
generationbasedonthepotentialbiomasssources
intheSumbaIsland

Page 262 of 396 2


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Background
Program:developingrenewableenergyinSumbaIsland(includingfrombiomass
energy),forachieving100%renewableenergyand95%electrificationratioby2025
Electricityfrombiomass:10MW(by2025)

BiomassidentificationinSumbaIsland
TypeBiomass Remarks
Foodcropsresidues Generally,constraintsbyitsavailability
Ricehusk,maize,cobs,coconutshells, ricehusk(onlylowpotential 0.5MW,constraints
candlenutshells byseasonalvariationandclimateinSumbaIsland
andcollectionmethod)
Forestplantation Ensurefornot disturbinglocalfoodsecurity
Leucana Leucochephala (Lamtoro Gung) highproductivityplant(30ton/ha/year),grows
eveninaridlandthroughoutSumbaIsland

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Reviewofpotentialforestplantationcandidatesites,followingthe
communicationwithlocalstakeholders(Dinas Kehutanan SumbaTimur,Dinas
Kehutanan SumbaBaratandDinas Kehutanan SumbaTengahandPTUsahaTani
Lestari)
Regency/location Village Subdistrict Potential Wood Technical Power
area(ha) productivity Potential Generation
(tons/year) (tons/year) MWh/year
SumbaTimur Meu Rimba Kahaungu Eti 36,965 1,108,950 776,265 579,442
(Candidate1)
SumbaTimur Rakawatu Lewa 19,748 592,440 414,708 309,558
(Candidate2)
SumbaTengah Soru Umbu Ratu 6,350 190,500 133,350 99,539
(Candidate3) Nggay
SumbaBarat Bodohula Lamboya 4,720 141,600 99,120 73,988
(Candidiate 4) Lamboya Dete

*Assumptions:BiomasspotentialfromLamtoro Gung,woodyield30tons/ha/yearandtechnicalavailability
ofbiomass70%,withaveragecalorificvalue19.25kJ/kg(4,597kcal/kg).

Page 263 of 396 3


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

MapindicatingcandidatelocationsforLamtoro Gungenergyplantation

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

Preliminaryfuelanalysis:
Estimatedlandrequiredforelectricitygenerationcapacity
No Remarks Amountrequired
1 WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree (MC:20%) 28.8 tons/day(24hours)
2 WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree (MC:40%) 38.4 tons/day(24hours)
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoroGungtree (MC:
3 1,152 tons/month
40%)
WoodChiprequiredfromLamtoro Gungtree (MC:40%
4 12,672 tons/year
and330d/y)
5 PlantingareaforLamtoroGungtree (70%availability) 603.5 ha
6 Annualharvestingproduct (MC:40%) 30tons/year/ha
Anareaof1000ha (70%availability)couldproduce
7 21,000tons/year
woodlogwithdiameterof5cm

Assumption:20%moisturecontent

Page 264 of 396 4


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

Forestplantation
Forestplantation(Lamtoro Gung)asbiomasssourceforelectricitymanagedbyathird
party(forsecuringbiomassandbiomassprice)
ThelocationofplantationshouldbeatreasonabledistancefromBiomassPower
Plant(foracceptabletransportprice)
SumbaTimur andSumbaTengah(mainlysavannaharea,>60%ofproposedsites
area)

ProposedsitesforLamtoro GungenergyplantationinSumbaIsland
Regency/ Village Subdistrict Forest Savannah Farmland/ Potential
Candidate site Plantation area(ha)
Sumba Timur Meu 37%(Protection
KahaunguEti 60% 3% 36,695
(Candidate 1) Rimba forest)
Sumba Timur 9%(Production
Rakawatu Lewa 90% 1% 19,748
(Candidate 2) forest)
Sumba Tengah 8%(Production
Soru Umbu Ratu Nggay 90% 2% 6,350
(Candidate 3) forest)
Sumba barat Bodohula 35% 60% 5%
(Candidate 4) Lamboya Lamboya 4,720
Dete

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

Estimationcostofforestsourcedfuel
Biomasspretreatments/processingoptions:
Physicalprocess:particlesizereduction,separation(screening),drying,compaction/pelletizing

Costsrelatedtopreparationofbiomassasfuel:
Drying
FreshwoodyLamtoro Gung:MC3050%MCmustbereduced
AcceptedLamtoro Gungforfuel:MC20%
Ifpossible:airdrytoMC30%(therebysaveenergyfordrying,andthusthecost)

Transportation
Fromtheforestlandingtothepowergenerationplant
TransportationcostsarecalculatedbasedondistancetraveledanddieselfuelcostofRp 6000/litre

ProjectedBiomasspurchasingandcost
Assumedtobepurchasedfromathirdparty(appointedbylocalgovernmentwhichisalsoresponsibleforthemanagementof
theplantationsandharvesting)
EstimatedindustrialplantationforestdevelopmentcostperthawouldbeRp 15,356,350/Ha

EstimatedcostandpriceofwoodybiomassinSumba:
woodproductionRp 239,523/tonanddeliverycostRp 25,000/ton.
productsaresoldatpriceofRp 450,000/ton
Forfeasibilityreport:assumedthatthepriceofbiomassis40USDpertononairdrybase(notwet,notdryweight).,excludes
chippingcostafterharvestingwood

Page 265 of 396 5


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Costestimationofindustrialplantationforestdevelopmentperha
No Activity Unit Cost/Unit
I.NonloanCostcomponent/KomponenBiayaBukan
A. Planning
1 PreparationofFSandEIA Ha 32,500
2 PreparationRKUPHHK Ha 25,000
3 PreparationRKTUPHHK Ha 12,500
4 IMB(buildingpermit)cost Ha 14,000
5 Boundaries(TataBatas) Ha 40,000
6 Layoutarea Ha 196,000
TotalA 320,000

B. Developmentoffacilitiesandinfrastructure
1 MakingBuilding,ProcurementandConstructionEquipmentRoad Ha 2,450,000
2 MaintenanceofInfrastructure Ha 32,750
TotalB 2,482,750

C. Administrationandgeneral
1 EducationandTraining Ha 49,000
2 Researchanddevelopment Ha 98,000
3 Generalcosts Ha 980,000
4 Appraisal Ha 71,000
TotalC 1,198,000
TotalI 4,000,750

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Estimatedcost
II.Costcomponentofrevolvingloanfundasworkingcapital
A. Planting
1 NurseryandSeedling Ha 2,420,000
2 Landpreparation Ha 3,214,000
3 Cultivation Ha 684,000
TotalA 6,318,000

B. Maintenance
1 MaintenanceYearI Ha 1,082,000
2 MaintenanceYearII Ha 852,000
3 MaintenanceYearIII Ha 748,000
4 FurtherMaintenanceI Ha 425,000
5 FurtherMaintenanceII Ha 213,000
TotalB 3,320,000

C. ProtectionandForestsafeguard
1 PestandDiseasecontrol Ha 260,000
2 Firecontrol Ha 110,000
3 SecurityForests Ha 122,000
TotalC 492,000

D. Foodcropcost(inaagroforestrypattern) Ha 1,000,000
TotalD 1,000,000

E. Obligationtothecountry(fee,landvaluetax)
1 contributionIUPHHK Ha 2,600
2 Propertytaxes Ha 3,000
TotalE 5,600
TotalII 11,135,600

Page 266 of 396 6


Estimatedcost Lanjutan

III.Costcomponentwhichcanbeborrowedornotasrevolvingfund
E LiabilityTotheEnvironment
1 PhysicalChemistryBiology Ha 98,000
2 SocialEnvironment Ha 122,000
TotalE 220,000
TotalIII 220,000

Total(I+II+III) 15,356,350

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Fuelsupplyagreementoptions:
o Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodlog
o Wooddeliveredtostoragefacilityintheformofwoodchip

Technologyoptions
Forbiomassutilizedasfuelforelectricitygenerationotherthanheat:
Directcombustioninconventionalboiler/steamturbine/condensertechnology
Gasificationwithselectionofgasturbineorinternalcombustionengine

Page 267 of 396 7


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Selectionofpowergenerationtechnology
Items Gasification Combustion Remarks
Plantcapacity Minimum10kW Economical Directcombustiontechnologyis
combustion steam mature(proven)thangasificationbut
powergeneration directcombustionhashigher
process>3MWe emissionsandalessefficient
conversionprocess
ElectricalEfficiency biofueltoelectricity 1535% Combustionisusuallycarriedoutina
efficiency3040%and boilertogeneratesteamforelectricity
overallperformance generationbysteamturbine.
efficiencyaround90% theelectricalefficiencyis
greaterthanbysteamturbine.
Utilitywater Eliminationofwater 5.3m3/MWh*) Biomasspowerplantistobe
use,ifpowergeneration developedinSumbaIslandwithdry
withoutsteamturbine climatearea
Engine Gasengine lowcost,andreliability;italsoworks
wellevenatlowloads
Statusoftechnology Mature mature

*)Source:CENTRALELECTRICITYAUTHORITYNewDelhi India,2010ReviewofLandRequirementforThermalPower
Stations

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

Selectionofpowergenerationtechnology

BiomassPowerPlant:gasificationtechnologies
Statusofthetechnology(commercializedGasificationtechnologyforwoodybiomasspower
plant)
Plantcapacity
Minimalwateruse

Drawbackgasification:
requiresshortmaintenanceintervalresultinginlowavailability
Biomassgasificationresultsintars(butsolvedwithgascleaningsystem)

Page 268 of 396 8


Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate
Estimatesizeofpowerfacility
SizeofBiomasspowerplant
dimensionedwithregardtopotentialavailableLamtoro Gungwoodchipsinrespectivecandidate
sitesandreasonableplantsize

Candidatesite PowerPlantsize*(MW) Connectiondistanceto20


kVPLNsgrid
Kapohakpenang (Candidate1) 61.26 50km
Rakawatu (Candidate2) 32.73 15km
Pahedutili (Candidate3) 10.52 12km
Lamboya (Candidate4) 7.82 5km
*Basedontechnicalpotentialoflamtoro gungwoodandtheselectedtechnologyisgasificationandTechnicalavailabilitywasassumedtobe70%

Powerplantlocation
Reasonable distance from the plantation to the power plant:
maximum 20 km (related to the transportation cost of the harvested wood from the plantation sites to the
plant)
Gridconnection
TheelectricitygeneratedfromtheplantistobeconnectedtoPLNsgridaslocaldemandislowerthanthegeneration.

Backgroundandwork/analysisconductedtodate

Biomasspowerplantoperation,assumptions:
Loadfactor:77%(forallcandidatesites)
GasificationPlantconfiguration:

Page 269 of 396 9


Demandanalysis

ElectricityinSumbaIsland
Currentsupply:55%fromrenewableenergy
Peakload(2013/2014):10.3MW(PLNRUPTL2015to2024)

Plan
PLN:increasecapacityfrom16.0to21.7MWover2014 2020(RUPTL2015
2024),consistingof6.7MWdieselcapacityinoperation,3.0MWofbiomass
capacity,0.5MWofhybrid,andtheremaining11.5MWassmallhydro.
1MWBiomassPP(RUPTL20122023)

Demandanalysis

Despites the potential of the wood available in all candidate sites capable
for producing > 2 MW, it is suggested to develop biomass power plants of
1 MW (based on projected electricity demand over 10 years in the Island
only around 10 MW, and considering the capability of PLN transmission
line to which the electricity of the plant is connected)

Gridconnection
The electricity generated from Biomass plant is to be connected to PLNs
grid as local demand is lower than the generation.

Page 270 of 396 10


LegalBasis
Candidatesite1:SumbaTimur regency
Anareaof36,000hasuggestedfortheenergyplantation:locatedinMeu Rimba Village,Kahaungu Eti
Subdistrict.area(3%),about37%protectionforest
500haofCandidate1wasconvertedtocommunityforestbasedonDecisionoftheMinistryofForestry
(Surat Kuasa)110/MenhutII/2009.Anadditionalconversionof2,754hafromtheprotectedforestat
thisCandidatelocationtocommunityforestisbeingproposedbytheForestryOfficeofSumbaTimur to
theMinistryofForestry.
obtainedbusinessLicenseonIndustrialForestPlantation(hutan tanaman industri /HTI)fromThe
MinistryofForestrybasedonSK.216/Menhut11/2013,25March2013foranareaof41,515ha
consistingof4,720hainSumbaIsland(SumbaBaratRegency)andof36,795HainFloresIsland(Kupang
Regency).
Candidatesite2:SumbaTimur regency
TheproposedsiteislocatedinRakawatu Village,Lewa Subdistricttotalling anareaof19,000ha.Most
ofthisissavannaharea(90%)thoughabout1%isafarmareaandtheremainingisproductionforest.
Candidatesite3:SumbaTengahregency
The3rd siteproposedfortheenergyplantationisinSoru village,Umbu Ratu Nggay Subdistrict.
savannah(90%)whilefarmlandconstitutesofonly2%.alsocoversprotectionforestwhichcouldbe
usedforenergyplantation.
Candidatesite4:SumbaBaratregency
Thesitecoversanareaof4,720haandisinLamboya Subdistrict.Thisareaisunderthemanagementof
aprivatecompany,PTUsahaTani Lestari.
theIndonesianforestrylawsandregulationsallowtheuseofProtectedForests(Hutan Lindung)and
ProductionForests(Hutan Produksi)foruseslikeforestenergyplantations.

LegalBasis

electricitypricespecifiedintheMinisterial
regulationNo.27/2014onsmallandmedium
scalepowergenerationfrombiomassand
biogas
Indonesiacurrentdayelectricitytarifffor
mediumvoltageisIDR1150/kWhxF(=IDR
1840/kWh)

Page 271 of 396 11


FinancialAnalysis
Calculationbasedoncost Projectcoststructure1MWBiomassPowerPlant
datain2014 BasicPriceinUSD
No PlantItem/Description Quantity
Site1 Site2 Site3 Site4
Basiccurrency:Indonesia 1 DetailDesign&EngineeringCharges
Lump
52,195 52,195 52,195 52,195
Sum
Rp isUS$1=Rp 13,000 BiomassSizing&ConveyingSystem,Biomass Lump
2 125,000 125,000 125,000 125,000
Drying Sum
3 SkipCharger 2Nos. 43,510 43,510 43,510 43,510
BiomassGasifieralongwithbasicaccessoriesand
auxiliarieswithDryGasFiltrationSystem
4 2Sets. 1,042,460 1,042,460 1,042,460 1,042,460
DryGasFiltrationSystem
Flaresystem
Lump
5 GasifierCoolingTower 26,320 26,320 26,320 26,320
Sum
Lump
6 CondensateNeutralizationSystem 48,430 48,430 48,430 48,430
Sum
Lump
7 52TRChiller 95,940 95,940 95,940 95,940
Sum
732,475 732,475 732,475 732,475
8 ProducerGasEngine&OtherRelatedAccessories 5Nos. (5x (5x (5x (5x
146,495) 146,495) 146,495) 146,495)
Lump
9 RadiatorforEngineCooling 65,800 65,800 65,800 65,800
Sum
SubTotal 2,232,130 2,232,130 2,232,130 2,232,130
215,407 215,407 215,407
10 Packing&TransportationCharges 215,407

12 StartupPowerForTheSystem 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000


13 InstallationandCivil&foundationwork 166,667 166,667 166,667 166,667
14 GridInterconnection 1,500,000 450,000 360,000 150,000
15 Building 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000
Total 4,254,204 3,204,204 3,114,204 2,904,204
Contingency(4%) 170,168 128,168 124,568 116,168
TotalPlantCost 4,424,372 3,332,372 3,238,772 3,020,372

FinancialAnalysis
ConditionsforFinancialEvaluation
Constructiontermoftheplantis11months;andtermofevaluationis20years.
Scheduledyearofstartup2018
UnitproductionpriceisRp 1840/kWh.

Maintenance(7%Gasifier cost+0.01US$/kWh) US$146,313


Majoroverhaul(3%EPCevery5years) US$66,964
Insurance (0.5%ofinvestmentcost) US$22,122
Biomassfuelcost 40US$/ton
Water US$3,564
CommunityDevelopment US$5,769/y
Depreciation US$122,168

Page 272 of 396 12


FinancialAnalysis
Basedcondition(salesprices
USD0.142/kWh,andbiomasspriceis40 Sensitivity ofbiomasspriceis30US$/t
US$/t)
Site Payback Site Payback
IRR NPV IRR NPV
Period Period
SiteNo.1 9.33% 14year ($213,796) SiteNo.1 13.57% 11year $334.435
SiteNo.2 14.73% 11year $365,850 SiteNo.2 20.18% 9year $914,080
SiteNo.3 15.35% 11year $415,534 SiteNo.3 20.95% 9year $963,764
SiteNo.4 16.94% 10year $531,463 SiteNo.4 22.92% 8year $1,079,693

Sensitivity:salespricesUS$0.1538/kWh,
Sensitivity of investmentcostonly80% biomasspriceUS$40
Site Payback Site Payback
IRR NPV IRR NPV
Period Period
SiteNo.1 13.46% 11year $255,905 SiteNo.1 13.19% 12year $285,176
SiteNo.2 20.07% 9year $719,622 SiteNo.2 19.70% 9year $864,821
SiteNo.3 20.83% 9year $759,369 SiteNo.3 20.45% 9year $914,505
SiteNo.4 22.80% 8year $852,112 SiteNo.4 22.39% 8year $1,030,434

FinancialAnalysis
ResultsofprefeasibilitystudyofBiomasspowerplantinSumbaIsland
Site1 Site2 Site3 Site4
PeakCapacity(kW)gross 1200 1200 1200 1200
PeakCapacity(kW)net 1056 1056 1056 1056
Continuousdutygross (kW) 1020 1020 1020 1020
Continuousdutynet (kW) 898 898 898 898
GasifierType DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft DownDraft
Electricitytothegrid(kWh) 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520 8,363,520
Electricityproduce(gross)kWh 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000 9,504,000
Biomassconsumption(t/y) 20%MC 11,310 11,310 11,310 11,310
Biomassconsumption(t/y)DryBase 9,048 9,048 9,048 9,048
Biomassconsumption(t/y) 40%MC 15,080 15,080 15,080 15,080
Parasiticload(kW) 144 144 144 144
Environment Baseline DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP DieselPP
GHGreduction 2,480 2,755 2,761 2,767
(tCO2e/y)
Energysubstitution 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248 1,777,248
effect(literdiesel
oil/yr)
Costperformance Initialinvestment
(US$) 4,424,372 3,332,372 3,238,772 3,020,372

IRR 9.33% 14.73% 15.35% 16.94%


Investmentpayback 14year 11year 11year 10year
period

Page 273 of 396 13


KeyRisks

Plantationestablishment(criticalphaseofabiomassenergy
project)
Relatestowoodsupplytopowerplant(anymiss
calculationcanresultinexpensivedelaysinpower
generation)
Issuesthatmustbeaddressedinclude:sitepreparation,
seedlingorcuttingsupplyandquality,availabilityof
requiredsoilmicroorganisms,nurseryoperation,spacing
ofplantings,fertilization,watering,weedcontrol,road
construction,protectionofnurserystockandplantings
frominsectpests,disease,animals,humans,fire,and
otherthreats

KeyRisks
RisksrelatedtotheBiomassfuel
Risks Mitigation
Seasonalvariation Variationoffeedstocksupplyand Reasonable bufferstock(outdoor
climate price storage15days)
Plant disease Lowerproduction Periodicalcheckingandwellmanaged
plantation
Fuelsupplycontract Contractviolationbybiomass Insurance,possiblebackupsourceof
suppliers biomass,largestorage
Landavailability Lackoftransparencyofland Advisefromlocalgovernmentis
acquisitionorpermitonland necessary
utilization
Competitiveusers Illegallogging Socializationtolocalpeopleforenergy
plantationforenergygeneration
Transportation Pricevariestodistance Toincludefuelpricesensitivityand
distance inflation
Firerisks Particularly duringdryseason Minimizeirresponsible actions
Publicacceptance Informpublicto thebenefitof Informationtostakeholdersandlocal
biomassPP people

Page 274 of 396 14


KeyRisks

BiomassPowerPlanttechnologyselection:
Gasificationtechnology
The presence of tars in syngas: minimized using
cleaning system technology or if necessary, pre
drying of wood is performed prior to gasification
for sustaining combustion

Conclusion andRecommendation
ItisconcludedthattheinvestmentofBiomass
PowerPlantinSumbaistechnicallyviable and
financiallyfeasible.

Page 275 of 396 15


Thekeypointsofthenextsteps
ProjectProponentshouldreviewthispreFSintermofthe
projectscheme,technicalaspect,andfinancialfeasibility
ProjectProponentstarttoengagewiththePLNDistribution
(Wilayah)ofNTTinordertogetthePPA,andlocalauthority
togetenvironmentalpermit
ProjectProponentengageswiththeEPCwhowillconstruct
theplant,andthetechnologysuppliers,especiallyforthe
gasification,gasengine,andcivilworkandstructure
construction.
ProjectProponentintroducetheprojecttothepotential
financinginstitutiontogetprojectfinanceasproposed

Page 276 of 396 16


6. KICK-OFF FOR ELECTRIFICATION WORKING GROUP

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 277 of 396
Workshop Summary
Workshop on Improving Electricity Access
Using Renewable Energy
Lokakarya Peningkatan Akses Kelistrikan
Berbasis Energi Terbarukan di Indonesia

Doubletree Hotel
Jakarta
19 March 2015

i
Workshop on Electricity Access
Page 278 of 396
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction 1-1

2. Agenda 2-1

3. List of Invitee and Attendance List 3-1

4. Summary 4-1

5. Next Steps 5-1

APPENDICES - Presentation Materials


Appendix A : Achieving Universal Electricity Access

Appendix B : Electricity Access - Break-Out Groups

Appendix C : Electricity Access - Lessons from SII

Appendix D : Summary of Break-out Group 1 Planning & Implementation

Appendix E : Summary of Break-out Group 2 Financing & Subsidy

ii
Workshop on Electricity Access
Page 279 of 396
1. INTRODUCTION

Indonesia has achieved monumental results in bringing electricity to 84% of its


widespread population. In the past 10 years alone, PLN, the national electric utility, has
managed to connect approximately 20 million households, or some 78 million people.
However, the approaches to electrification that have served the country so well in the past
are increasingly ill-suited to reaching the remaining 16% of its population, representing
nearly 40 million people. In combination with the continuing extension of the grid, these
remaining connections may also require alternative approaches incorporating clear
service quality standards, innovations in planning and financing, new implementation
approaches, expanded use of renewable energy and close collaboration with local
government.

A workshop on achieving universal electricity in Indonesia was conducted at the


Doubletree Hotel in Jakarta on 19 March 2015. The objective of this seminar was to
present the ongoing activities of key government stakeholders and share different
perspectives on Indonesia's electrification challenge. The workshop also focused on
identifying how to achieve the governments goals through planning and implementing
large-scale electrification programs in Indonesia.

The seminar was hosted by the Directorate General of New and Renewable Energy
Resources (DG-EBTKE), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) and
supported by Asian Development Bank (ADB). Participants included officials from
Indonesias Ministry of Finance (MOF), Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources
(MEMR), the State Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS),
Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs (CMEA), and State-Owned Enterprises
including PT PLN, as well as representatives of the ADB and the World Bank. The
workshop agenda is provided in Chapter 2 and list of invitees as well as attendance list is
provided in Chapter 3.

The speakers focused on the key financial, infrastructural, and institutional problems that
constrain the expansion of electricity access in Indonesia. The workshop was opened by
the Director General, EBTKE. Presentations were delivered by representatives from the
Directorate General, EBTKE, MEMR; the Directorate General, Electricity, MEMR;
BAPPENAS; the World Bank; and the ADB.

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2. AGENDA

Date : 19 March 2015


Venue : Double Tree hotel

Time Description Speaker

08.00 09.00 Registrasi

09:00 - 09: 15 Pembukaan oleh Dirjen EBTKE Direktur Jenderal


EBTKE, KESDM

09.15 09.35 Review Target dan Pencapaian Rasio Direktur Jenderal


Eletrifikasi Indonesia hingga tahun 2014 Ketenagalistrikan,
KESDM

09.35 09.55 Keberhasilan dan Tantangan Program Listrik Direktur Utama PT


Perdesaan di Indonesia oleh PLN PLN (Persero)

09.55 10.15 Kebijakan Pendanaan dan Subsidi Kelistrikan Kepala Badan


di Indonesia Kebijakan Fiskal

10.15 10.35 Efektivitas Perencanaan antara Instansi pada Deputi Bidang Sarana
Program Kelistrikan di Indonesia dan Prasarana,
BAPPENAS

10. 35 10.50 Rehat

10.50 11.05 Pembelajaran Peningkatan Akses Energi ADB


Listrik pada Program Sumba Iconic Island

11.05 11.20 Review Program Bantuan Teknis Program World Bank


Eletrifikasi di Indonesia

11.20 12.00 Diskusi dan Tanya Jawab Fasilitator/Moderator

12.00 13.00 Makan siang dan Istirahat

13.00 14.15 Diskusi Kelompok I Fasilitator

14.15 14.30 Break Fasilitator

14.30 -15.45 Diskusi Kelompok II Fasilitator

15.45 16.30 Ringkasan Hasil Diskusi Kelompok Fasilitator

Rencana Aksi dan Jadwal Kegiatan


selanjutnya

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3. LIST OF INVITEES AND ATTENDANCE LIST

List of Invitee

1. Direktur Jenderal Ketenagalistrikan, Kementerian ESDM

2. Deputi Bidang Koordinasi lnfrastruktur, Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Kemaritiman

3. Deputi Ill Bidang Koordinasi Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Kementerian
Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian

4. Direktur Energi, Telekomunikasi dan lnformatika, Deputi Bidang Sarana dan


Prasarana, BAPPENAS

5. Direktur Perencanaan Pembangunan Daerah, Ditjen Bina Pembangunan Daerah,


Kementerian Dalam Negeri

6. Direktur Pendayagunaan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, Direktorat Jenderal Kelautan, Pesisir


dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil, Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan

7. Direktur Pembinaan Program Ketenagalistrikan, Direktorat Jenderal


Ketenagalistrikan, Kementerian ESDM

8. Asisten Deputi Urusan lnfrastruktur Energi, Deputi Bidang Peningkatan lnfrastruktur,


Kementerian Desa, Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal dan Transmigrasi

9. Kepala Pusat Kebijakan Pembiayaan Perubahan lklim dan Multilateral, Sadan


Kebijakan Fiskal

10. Kepala Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Ketenagalistrikan,


Energi Baru, Terbarukan dan Konservasi Energi, Kementerian ESDM

11. Direktur Konstruksi dan Energi Baru Terbarukan, PT PLN (Persero)

12. ADB

13. Bank Dunia

3-1
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3. List of Invitees and Attendance List

Attendance List

No. Name Title/Company

1 RidaMulyana DirekturJenderalEBTKE

2 DadanKusdiana DirekturBionergi

3 Wanhar KasubditProgresDJK

4 PuguhImanto WorldBank

5 EdimorGu.. ADB

6 Hartono DitBioenergi

7 AnnaRufuida DJEBTKE

8 NoorKhayati DJK

9 AgusSaptono DJEBTKE

10 SandraW HIVOS

11 TodyFerdica DJEBTKE

12 AdolfLeopoldSihombing P3TKEBTKEKESDM

13 CecepS EBTKE

14 Alihuddin DJEBTKE

15 FabbyTumiwa IESR

16 HeruSS PLN

17 Dimas PLN

18 GeryBaldi PSTKEBTKE

19 IisHernaningsih DitJenPerencanaan

20 Berkana ADB

21 SiswaTrihadi KPDTDesa

22 JadhieJA Bappenas

23 SyaifulNST P3TKEBTKEKESDM

24 AgusWibowo MenkoEkon

25 Abinanto Castlerock

26 IryanPermanaD EBTKE

27 MauraLilis Adb(Cons)

28 PennyRahim

29 AnggifaA. BKFKemenkeu

30 AgusTriWandoyo DAKDEA

31 SetiadiIndraDN KemenkoEkonListrik

3-2
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4. SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS & DISCUSSIONS

1. Pidato Dirjen EBTKE

Target rasio elektrifikasi Indonesia 100% pada tahun 2019, namun 10-15%
terakhir adalah wilayah yang tersulit (off grid)
Elektrifikasi pada wilayah off grid memerlukan biaya yang mahal sehingga
memerlukan koordinasi, partisipasi dan investasi dari berbagai pemangku
kepentingan.
Keterlibatan PLN sebagai BUMN yang diberikan mandate untuk melayani listrik
sangat penting dan strategis.
Pembelajaran pada program Sumba Iconic island memerlukan tindaklanjut dari
berbagai instansi terkait, terutama pada sisi kebijakan usaha, tariff dan subsidi
listrik pada lokasi off grid, serta partisipasi dari investasi swasta.

2. Paparan DJK

Kondisi kelistrikan pada tahun 2014: kapsitas pembangkit 53.5 MW, Konsumsi 199
TWh, Produksi 228 TWh, dan rasio elektrifikasi 84.35%
Traget rasio elektrifikasi nasional pada tahun 2019 menurut RUKN adalah 97.35%
dan akan mencapai 99.35% pada tahun 2020.
Jumlah sambungan baru rata-rata 2.47 juta per tahun
Tingkat pertumbuhan konsumsi listrik Indonesia adalah 8% pertahun.
Kebutuhan penambahan daya listrik yang diperlukan 10.000 MW per tahun
Penambahan jaringan distribusi yang diperlukan hingga tahun 2019 adalah 30.000
kms
Anggaran penyediaan listrik perdesaan tahun 2015 (APBN-P) Rp. 5.237 T, terdiri
dari DJK Rp. 201 M, UIP-APBN Rp 1.172 T, dan Lisdes Rp. 3.863 T.

3. Paparan Bappenas

Kedaulatan Pangan dan Energi terbasuk dimensi pembangunan prioritas pada


RPJMN 2015-2019
Sasaran rasio elektrifikasi minimal 96.6% tercapai pada tahun 2019
Pemerintah akan membangun pembangkit listrik 35.000 MW pada tahun 2015-
2019, 10.000 MW oleh PLN dan 25.000 MW oleh Swasta (IPP).
Investasi yang diperlukan untuk pembangunan pembangkit diperkirakan Rp.608
Trilyun oleh PLN dan Rp.580 Trilyun oleh pihak swasta
Kebutuhan pasokan listrik tambahan tsb sangat diperlukan bagi pembangunan
infrastruktur pada tahun 2015-2019, antara lain: Jalan Tol dan Jalan arteri baru,
Jalur Kereta Api, Pelabuhan untuk Tol Laut, Bandara baru, waduk dan irigasi untuk
kedaulatan pangan.
Sangat diperlukan koordinasi antar instansi pemerintah dan partisipasi swasta
dalam pelaksanaan pembangunan infrastruktur prioritas tersebut, termasuk
ketenagalistrikan.

4. Sesi Diskusi & Tanya Jawab

Kemenko Perekonomian: Program kelistrikan yang sudah ada dan sudah


berjalan baik harus tetap dilanjutkan, sedangkan yang belum berjalan dengan baik
perlu diperbaiki, baik aspek regulasi maupun sinergi dan kooordinasi antar
pemangku kepentingan.

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4. Summary of Presentations & Discussions

Kemenkeu: Bappenas dan kemenkeu berperan penting dalam program


pembangunan, termasuk bidang energy. Mulai dari proses perencanaan sistem
hingga skema pengelolaan dan subsidi. Channeling pendanaan termasuk subsidi
baik sifat off grid dan on grid dengan PT. PLN menjadi sangat penting. Semua
kebijakan pendanaan adalah keputusan pada kemenkeu. Untuk channeling off grid
subsidi opex masih memungkinkan, namun untuk on grid belum memungkinkan
karena ada UU otonomi daerah yang baru. Anggaran di kementrian lewat proses
DIPA kategorinya PSO selama ini penyerapannya rendah sehingga sedang
dipertimbangkan untuk memberikan penyertaan modal kepada PT PLN. DAK
untuk membangun listrik pedesaan, selama ini aturannya fisik padahal skemanya
sangat fleksibel (bisa fisik dan non fisik). Konsep seperti ini harusnya masuk di
DAK, karena hal ini merupakan channeling pelimpahan kewenangan. Hal ini perlu
dikawal oleh kementerian ESDM.

Bappenas: UU ketenagalistrikan menugaskan PLN untuk menyediakan listrik di


Indonesia, sehingga PLN punya kewenangan sekaligus kewajiban. Dengan UU ini,
PLN wajib melistriki seluruh wilayah Indonesia. PLN bisa melaksanakan program
tersebut baik dengan dana dari Pemerintah maupun non Pemerintah, yang
terpenting memenuhi sasaran rasio elektrifikasi 96,6% pada tahun 2019. Apapun
skemanya, on/off grid/PPP PLN harus membangun listrik (meningkatkan rasio
elektrifikasi Nasional), bisa dengan mempertimbangkan least cost analysis system,
baik capex ataupun opex. Namun demikian tidak bisa hanya berpedoman kepada
RUPTL saja. Kalau hanya berdasarkan least cost saja maka Pembangkit yang
dibangun hanya PLTU saja karena paling murah, namun harus dipertimbangkan
juga bahwa bahan bakar fosil akan habis suatu saat. Selama ini PLN ingin
mebangun dalam bentuk proyek atau subsidi langsung besar dari pemerintah.
Seharusnya PLN dapat mencari modal sendiri untuk membangun infrastruktur dan
pemerintah akan menutup sisa kebutuhan pendanaan opex selama kewajiban
PLN untuk memenuhi kebutuhan listrik masyarakat terpenuhi.

DJK: DJK menyambut baik ide/pendapat dari Bappenas. Dengan


mempertimbangkan situasi kondisi saat ini, sebetulnya pada tahun 2016 PLN
sudah tidak memerlukan APBN untuk program UIP dan Lisdes. Harus dipastikan
bahwa PLN serius menangani program ini karena berdasarkan UU PLN memang
berkewajiban. Pertimbangan penggunaan APBN pada program Lisdes adalah
mudahnya pengawasan. Ditengarai jika tidak ada dukungan APBN, maka kegiatan
pengawasan akan cenderung lebih lemah. Selama ini sering terjadi
kesalahpahaman antara PLN dengan DJK terkait program Lisdes melalui APBN.

Kemen Koperasi dan UKM: Selama ini prosedur penyerahan capex kepada PLN
rumit dan sulit. Diperlukan kebijakan atau aturan yang lebih jelas dan mudah untuk
diimplementasikan di lapangan.

PLN: Pada RUPTL tetap ditulis bahwa untuk program Lisdes sumber pendanaan
dari APBN dan APBD. Untuk APBD sudah banyak KSO, contohnya Pemda
memberikan diesel kepada desa dan kemudian PLN yang melaksanakan operasi
dan pemeliharaan. Program Lisdes saat ini lebih banyak untuk membangun
jaringan dan distribusi listrik, dan hanya sedikit saja untuk membangun
pembangkit. Jika pembangunan EBT merupakan salah satu kunci pembangunan
jangka panjang maka APBN sebaiknya mendukung pembangunan pembangkit
listrik sumber EBT. Berdasarkan penugasan PLN dari presiden bahwa PLN harus
melistriki daerah perbatasan dalam 1 tahun, sehingga PLN dibolehkan membeli
diesel tapi dengan sistem hybrid dengan energy terbarukan untuk kebutuhan ini.

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4. Summary of Presentations & Discussions

5. Rekomendasi Breakout Session

Kebijakan dan Implementasi:


Perencanaan ketenagalistrikan on-grid dan off-grid sudah digariskan di RUKN dan
RUKD yang disusun berdasarkan RUPTL. Identifikasi off-grid yang sulit dilistriki
PLN sudah diidentifikasi. PLN ditugaskan untuk tetap melistriki daerah yang belum
berlistrik.
Isu di kebijakan dan perencanaan kelistrikan:
Prioritas politik pemerintah daerah
Perubahan insfrastruktur akses jalan baru, jaringan listrik baru
Pembangkit, gardu induk dan transmisi masuk RUPTL, distribusi lebih
fleksibel (kadang ad hoc)
Untuk service standards: disesuaikan di masing masing daerah, tidak bisak
dseragamkan untuk R-1 450 VA
Untuk kewenangan kelistrikan baik off-grid dan on-grid, sesuai dengan UU
30/2009:

Pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah bertanggung jawab


menyelenggarakan pendyediaan listrik

Pelaksanaan penyediaan listrik dilakukan oleh PLN

Pemerintah daerah masih belum sadar apa yang harus mereka lakukan

EBTKE tetap mempunyai wewenang kuat untuk off-grid, tetapi tanggung jawab
Pemda harus ditingkatkan untuk memastikan anggaran APBD yang cukup untuk
O&M dan dapat diproses dengan tepat waktu. Listrik tidak bisa gratis untuk
masyarakat, tetapi harus dicari jalan bagaimana mendapatkan subsidi untuk O&M.

Peraturan ESDM no 10/2012 mengenai pelaksanaan kegiatan fisik energi


terbarukan, pada saat serah terima asset disebutkan bahwa Pemda sanggup
menerima dan mengelola fasilitas fisik (contoh: PLTMH, PLTS)

Untuk program Listrik Desa institusi yang sudah ada seperti DEN seharusnya
dioptimalkan untuk perencanaan ketenagalistrikan, tidak perlu membentuk suatu
institusi baru. Institusi yang sudah ada perlu diberdayakan dan dioptimalkan
peran sertanya di dalam perencanaan dan implementasi ketenagalistrikan.

Investasi dan Subsidi


Adanya resiko bagi PLN atau pihak lain bahwa regulasi yang ada belum dapat
mengakomodir semua mekanisme perpindahan aset dan kepemilikannya
sehingga meimbulkan kekhawatiran.
Subsidi tidak perlu diberikan ke PLN namun bisa dibuat di dalam DAK di bawah
Kementrian yang berwenang, misalnya KESDM.
Target LISDES dibagun berdasarkan RUKN dan RUPTL yang tentunya
berkorelasi dengan dana yang ada di dalam APBN.
Pada saat ini ada pembagian yang cukup jelas, bahwa untuk off grid akan
dikerjakan oleh EBTKE dan on grid adalah DJK
Tariff dibangun rekomendasi dengan dasar TDL (tarif dasar listrik) untuk wilayah
tertentu dalam pembangunan listrik desa, dengan diberikan harga yang sama
maka LISDES juga merupakan bagian nasional subsidi
Mekanisme pemberian Subsidi dalam diskusi masih tetap menggunakan format
yang telah ada yaitu kepada PLN dan DAK di kementrian yang berwenang.

4-3
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4. Summary of Presentations & Discussions

Monitoring dan evaluasi mengacu kepada UU 23/2014, dimana propinsi menjadi


perpanjangan tangan dari Pemerintah Pusat dan perwakilan pemerintah pusat.
Langkah selanjutnya ; perlu membuat Keppres yang dikordinasikan oleh
Kementrian Koordinator Ekonomi. Keppres ini akan fokus didalam Pembangunan
Listrik Desa di seluruh wilayah. Dasar pembuatan keppres ini adalah RUKN
(rencana umum ketenagalistrikan nasional). KESDM bisa menjadi penggagas ide
ini. Transfer asset melalui DAK bisa diberikan kepada propinsi, baru diserahkan
kepada wilayah atau kabupaten yang berkepentingan.

4-4
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5. NEXT STEPS

Next steps resulting from the workshop:

A new, two-pronged framework for rural electrification is needed:

o Improved planning, financing and implementation of publicly financed grid-


extension projects implemented by PLN

o A new framework for private sector participation for electrification of off-


grid areas (non-PLN areas)

A high-level discussion of these issues and possible solutions can be considered


for inclusion in the 2015 RUKN

An inter-ministerial working group should be established to consider how this


new framework can be developed

In the near-term, the working group should produce an action plan to define the
policies, regulations and activities required to implement this new framework.

5-1
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APPENDIX A: ACHIEVING UNIVERSAL ELECTRICITY ACCESS

A-1
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Achievinguniversal
electricityaccessin
Indonesia

Jakarta
13April2015

Currentsituation
Indonesiahasmaderemarkableprogressinelectrification
84%electrificationratioasatend2014
PLNaddingsome3.7millioncustomersperyear(2013)
However,Indonesiafacesnew&differentchallenges
Populationgrowthof1.4%p.a. ~900,000newhouseholdsp.a.
Some40millionpeopleremainwithoutelectricity
Asinothercountries,thelast10to15%ofthepopulationisthemost
costlyanddifficulttoserve

Therateofelectrification
oftendecreases
significantlyforthelast10
to15%ofthepopulation
duetothecostand
difficultyofservingthese
households

Page 290 of 396 1


Barrierstouniversalaccess
KENtarget:approach100%by2020
PLNchallenges
Underpressuretoreducesubsidy(PSO)butremotehouseholdstypically
mostcostlytoserve
Offgridservicewillbecomeincreasinglyimportant
Sumbaindicatesoffgridsolutionsleastcostfor1/3ofremaining
households
PLNnotorganizationallysetupforoffgriddevelopment
PLNfacesmanycompetinginvestmentneeds
Governmentchallenges
Fragmentation:LisDes,DAK,otherlineministryprograms
Nocomprehensiveleastcostplan
2015LisDes:Rp2.6t;DAK:Rp0.7t;EBTKE&others:Rp0.7t
Manyoffgridprojectsfail focustodateonprojects,notsustainability
2015targetconnections:LisDes209,000&ListrikHemat93,000
3

Anewframeworkforelectrification?

ElectrificationPolicy

PLN Designationofoffgrid
(nonPLN)businessareas
Private
(grid) byDJKformicroIPPs (offgrid)
Fundingadequacy Servicestandards R1450VA?
Designationofgridvs.offgrid Tariffs TDL?
areas Roleofrenewables
Subsidyfundingoptions Participationmodality
LisDes cumbersome Tenderforbusinessareaconcessionse.g.10
Equity uncertaintyforfutureyears years?
&notresultsbased Buildoperate?
PSO+ fundelectrificationlike
PSO.Consideredinvestment? Subsidyfundingoptions
Designatedaccount similarto CapitalsubsidyfromDAK?
SLAprocess Operationalsubsidyfrom???
Supervision Legalbasis revisiontoPP14/2010?
Implementation&supervision
4

Page 291 of 396 2


Immediatenextsteps?
Establishinterministerialworkinggroup
RoleofPLN&others
FromTheJakartaGlobe,A
Planning BrightFuturefortheVillage
Tarifflevels WheretheLightsDontGoOut,
Servicestandards 10April2015..

Businessmodalities
Roleofrenewables
Funding
Supervision
Legalbasis
DevelopElectrificationActionPlan
DefineprinciplesinRUKN
EstablishElectrificationPolicy

ADBconsultants
availabletosupportGovernment
Sustainable&InclusiveTAteam
MikeCrosetti
WilliamDerbyshire
DavidBraithwaite
BruceSmith
TatianaTumenggung
AndreSusanto
MirantiAisyah
Otherexperts
DonaldHertzmark

Page 292 of 396 3


THANK YOU !

www.castlerockasia.com

Page 293 of 396 4


APPENDIX B: ELECTRICITY ACCESS - LESSONS FROM SII

B-1
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LessonsLearnedfromthe
SumbaIconicIslandProgram
LokakaryaPeningatanAksesEnergi
ListrikPerdesaanBerbasisEnergi
TerbarukandiIndonesia
Jakarta
19March2015

www.castlerockasia.com

TheSumbaIconicIsland(SII)Initiative
CurrentSituation 2025Targets
~30%electrification 95%electrification
~15%renewable 100%renewable
powersupply powersupply

Amultistakeholderinitiativeestablishedin2010byESDM&Hivos
Pilotprojects
Planning
Policy&regulatorysupport
Promotion&coordination
LedbyEBTKEwithparticipationby
Otherministries
Pemda(provinceandkabupaten)
PLN
HivosandotherNGOs
Privatesector
Developmentpartners
ADBsupportsince2013 2

Page 295 of 396 1


ExperienceinSumbashowstheneedforanew
approachtoelectrification
ADBsupportfortheSumbaIconicIslandhasincluded:
Afeasible,leastcostplantodetermineinvestmentneeds
Gridvs.offgrid
Expansionofgridconnectedgeneration
Networkdevelopment
Thisindicatedaneedforsustainableoffgridsupply
leadingtothedesignofPVminigridpilotprograms
thatcouldnotproceedduetoregulatorybarriers.

FindingsoftheADBwork:
Toolsareavailabletosupportleastcostelectrificationplanning
Indonesiarequiresanewframeworkforelectrificationifitisto
achieveuniversalaccess

Electrification Theplanningmethodology
Targets
http://castlerockasia.com/sumba/sii.html

Gridvs.off Geospatialplanningtools:
gridanalysis NetworkPlanner

Offgrid Gridleastcost Generationplanningtools:


investment generation Homer
opportunities expansionplan

Loadflow& Networkplanning
transmission tools:ETAP
Private Ongrid plan
sector investment
investment opportunities

PLN Network Network


investment infrastructure operating
investment requirements
4

Page 296 of 396 2


Currentsituation(~30%electrification)

Settlements & Buildings with Existing 20 kV Network

Existing 20 kV network

Situationin2025(95%electrification) BaseCase
Numberof
householdsin Sales in2025,
2025 GWh
grid 129,130 285.9
minigrid 4,162 2.1
offgrid 33,396 9.9
Total 166,688 297.9

Existing20kVgrid
Future20kVgrid
Gridconnectedsettlements
FuturePVminigrids
IndividualhouseholdPVsystemsnotshown

Page 297 of 396 3


Situationin2025(95%electrification) LowCase
Numberof
householdsin Sales in2025,
2025 GWh
grid 138,670 290.0
minigrid 17,208 6.5
offgrid 10,810 1.4
Total 166,688 297.9

Existing20kVgrid
Future20kVgrid
Gridconnectedsettlements
FuturePVminigrids
IndividualhouseholdPVsystemsnotshown

Minigrid&offgridinvestment
Base Case LowCase
MiniGrids
capitalcost(USD) 6.6million 21.2million
numberofhouseholds 4,162(3%) 17,208(10%)
capex /household(USD) 1,597 1,234
OffGrid
capitalcost(USD) 43.1million 6.2million
numberofhouseholds 33,396(20%) 10,810(7%)
capex/household(USD) 1,290 574
Grid
numberofhouseholds 129,130(77%) 138,670(83%)
Totalannualgridsales(GWh) 285.9 290.0
Totalnumber of electrified
166,688(100%) 166,688(100%)
householdsin2025

Page 298 of 396 4


Totalinvestmentsummary

Notcheap
Butcheaperthan
thealternative
71% Renewable 87% Renewable
Off-grid & Mini-grid* 49.7 49.7
Grid
- Generation** 215.9 434.9
- Network 171.9 171.9
- Other*** 12.9 19.5
TOTAL 450.4 676.0
Total per household 2,702 4,055
ValuesareovernightcapitalcostsstatedinmillionUSD,exceptfortotalper
household,whichisexpressedinUSD.
*BaseCaseassumed.
**Netofexistinggeneration
***Otherrepresentsanestimateofthecostsofacontrolsystemandother
studiesandimplementationactivities.Assumedtobe3%ofallgridcapex.

Gridvs.OffGridFindings

Gridextension
Leastcostmeansofelectrificationfor~80%ofhouseholds
Thisdrivesanearlysixfoldincreaseingridloadby2025
Generationexpansionplanning&investmentisthereforecritical

Minigrid&offgridsolutions
Leastcostmeansofelectrificationfor~20%ofhouseholds
whichrepresentnearly1/3ofremaininghouseholdstobeelectrified

Offgrid&minigridsolutionswillbeimportanttoachieveunivesalaccess

10

Page 299 of 396 5


Developingamodelforsustainableminigrids
Manyoffgridprojectsfail
Inadequateunderstandingofcommunityneeds
Poordesignandworkmanship
Lackofpostcommissioningtechnicalsupport
NomechanismtoensurefundingforO&M
Customerpaymentobligationshigherthanwillingnesstopay(WTP)

Asustainablesolutionwillbecharacterizedbythefollowing:
Priorcommunityengagementandloadsurveys
Rigorousspecifications,supervisionandpaymentterms
Provisionofpostcommissioningtechnicalsupport
SecurefundingforO&M
Customerpaymentdiscipline,alignedwithWTP
Operationalsubsidieswhererequired

11

Model1:PLNOperation&Maintenance
PLNistheonlypublicinstitutioncapableofsustaininga
solution
Qualifiedmanpowerthroughoutthecountry
Provenbilling&collectionsystemsthatimposepaymentdiscipline
Aninstitutionalizedoperationalsubsidymechanism
Anestablishedregulatoryframework(licensing,pricing)
ADBsfirstmodelattemptedtobuildonPLNsstrengths
Assetwouldremainpropertyofpemdaduetodifficultyoftransferring
assetstoPLN.
.butcouldnotmoveforward
InitiallyreliedonPermen4/2012whichobligesPLNtopurchasepower
atfeedintariff,butinformeditwasnolongervalidforPV(evenoff
grid)
ThenproposedPLNKSOwithpemda,butPLNwasreluctanttotakeon
O&Mresponsibilityforthirdpartyassets.

12

Page 300 of 396 6


Model2:Privatesectorbuildoperate
Privatesectorstrengths
Abletoprovidequalifiedmanpowerundertherightconditions
Billing&collectionsystemsavailable
Modelusedelsewhere
Pemdacouldstillretaintheasset
Buildoperatemodelalignsinterestforproperdesign,construction,O&M
Regulatorybarriers
LicenseissuedbyprovincialgovernmentbasedonDJKbusinessarea
TariffsmustbeapprovedonaprojectbyprojectbasisbyProvincialDPRD
Nosecureprovisionforoperationalsubsidies
IftariffssettofullycoverO&M,thenmuchhigherthanTDLandperhapsWTP
Thepooresthouseholdswillbepayingthehighesttariffs

13

1 Model2Details
ADB 1. ADBprocurestheBuilderOperator,whichconstructs
ProcuresBuilderOperator
Transfersthe forconstruction theAssetandinstallsconsumerwiring.Upon
asset commissioningADBtransferstheAsset&warranties
2 toESDMandconsumerwiringtoconsumers.
ESDM
Setsbusinessarea 2. ESDMdeterminesthebusinessareaandtransfersthe
Transfersthe
asset AssettothePemda.
3 Issueslicense 3. PemdathentransferstheAssettoacooperativeor
Pemda regionalgovernmentownedcompanytoserveas
Transfersthe Paysannual Owner.ThePemdaalsoissuesanelectricitylicenseto
asset subsidy/fee theBuilderOperator(BO).
4 JointOperating Builder 5 4. TheOwnerreceivestheAssetandanannualfeefrom
Owner Agreement 6 operator thePemdaforexpensesandsystemexpansion.The
Ownerisresponsibletoaddsystemcapacityifitis
Owns& additionalcapacityisneededinthefuture.
expands
5. TheBOoperatesandmaintainstheAsset,which
TheAsset includesthePVarrays,batteries,inverters,
distributionnetwork,andmeters.BOisalso
PVSystem, Operates&maintainsthe responsibletohonorwarranties.
PVsystem
Batteries, 6. TheBOoperates&maintainstheAssetunderajoint
Inverters Operates&maintainsthe operatingagreement(kerjasamaoperasi,KSO)with
network&metering theOwner.TheOwnercontributestheAsset.
7. ThecustomerswillbeBOcustomersusing
prepaymentmeters,andwillpayforelectricityata
7 tarifftobeapprovedbythePemdaperPP14/2012.
Customers ThisrequiresapprovaloftheDPRD.
Paysforelectricityattariff
approvedbyPemda
14

Page 301 of 396 7


ReviewoftheCurrentSituation
Indonesiahasachieved84%electrificationaccess.
However,existingmechanismsarepoorlysuitedtoprovideaccessforthe
remaining16%
TheGoIspendssignficantamountsforelectrification,but Itisunknownwhethercurrent
therehasbeennonationwideanalysisofthecosts levelsofexpenditureareadequate
requiredtoservetheremaining16%ofhouseholdsthat toreachthetarget
donotyethaveelectricity
KENtargetof100%accessby2020
Offgridsolutionswillbean
AnalysisforeasternIndonesiaindicatesthatoffgrid importantpartofachieving
solutionswouldbeleastcostforupto1/3of universalaccessatleastcost.
remaininghouseholds

Householdwillingnesstopayinremoteareasislow Capitalandoperationalsubsidies
Offgridsupplycancost>Rp20,000/kWh arerequired

GoIspendsmorethanRp1trillionannuallyfor Asingle,comprehensiveplanis
electrificationactivitieswhichhavenotbeenplannedona requiredtoensureefficiency&
leastcostbasisandareoutsideofPLNexecutedprograms effectivenessofallelectrification
expenditure
Manyoffgridprojectsfail.
OtherthanPLN,thereisnopublicinstitutionwiththe
capacitytosustainoffgridsolutions. Anewregulatoryregimeisneeded
PLNisfinanciallyconstrainedfornewcapex& tomobilizeprivatesectorinitiative
organizationalstructurenotconducivetooffgridwork foroffgridsupply.
Regulationsgoverningprivatesectorinvolvementare
adhoc&cumbersome 15

Keyissues
Targets
Planning ManyPartners,OneTeam,OnePlan
Funding
Capitalsubsidies
Operationalsubsidies
Whowillimplement?
Ongrid:PLN
OffGrid:???
Supportingregulations
UnderLaw23/2014..
Thereiscurrentlynolegalbasisforoffgridsupplyintheabsenceof:
DefinitionofbusinessareabyDJK
ProvisionoflicensebyPemdaProvinsi
ApprovaloftariffonprojectbyprojectbasisbyDPRDProvinsi
16

Page 302 of 396 8


THANK YOU !

www.castlerockasia.com

17

Resourceavailability
UsedHOMERtodetermine
Maximum With
leastcostmix available
Nopumped
pumped
storage
Futureloadfrom MW storage
geospatialanalysis PV 10 30
Resourceavailabilitybased Wind 10 20
onDeliverableBreport Biomass 10 10
Maximumavailable RoR Hydro 6.8 6.8
capacityofeachgeneration Storage
10/ 20 10
type Hydro
Costandhourly Pumped
0 18
performance Storage
Diesel 60 60

18

Page 303 of 396 9


Leastcostgenerationanalysis
2025gridpeakdemand52MW,286GWhannualconsumption
Maximumavailablecapacityforeachtechnologybasedon:
Maximumgridpenetration:PV,wind
Resourceavailability:biomass,runofriverhydro,storagehydro
Unconstrained:diesel
Leastcostmixachieves71%relianceonrenewables
Seasonalhydrologyandwindavailabilityforcescontinueduseofdiesel

19

Pumpedstoragecanincreaserenewablepenetration
HOMERindicatespumpedstorage
couldincreasepenetrationto87%
Actualpenetrationcouldbehigher
throughoptimaloperational
planning

20

Page 304 of 396 10


Transmissioninfrastructurerequirements
Transmissionneedsdeterminedfrom2025loadflowsusingETAP
Reducedsystemrepresentation
Scenariosreflectingvariabilityinresources
150kVtransmissionbackbonerequired

150kVnetwork
20kVnetwork
Lumpedloads
150/20kVsubstation
Generatingstation
21

Ongridgenerationinvestment
PumpStorageCase10MW
BaseCase20MWStorageHydro BaseCase10MWStorageHydro
StorageHydro
Capacity Production CapitalCost Capacity Production CapitalCost Capacity Production CapitalCost
(MW) Share (millionUSD) (MW) Share (millionUSD) (MW) Share (millionUSD)
PV 10.0 6% 30.0 10.0 6% 30.0 30.0 16% 90.0
Wind 10.0 8% 33.0 10.0 8% 33.0 20.0 15% 66.0
Hydro(ROR) 6.8 20.6 6.8 20.6 6.8 20.6
37% 37% 36%
Hydro(Storage) 20.0 80.0 10.0 45.0 10.0 45.0
PumpedStorage 18.0 8% 126.0
Biomass 10.0 20% 45.0 10.0 20% 45.0 10.0 20% 45.0
Diesel 60.0 29% 60.0 60.0 29% 60.0 60.0 13% 60.0
TOTAL 116.8 100% 268.6 106.8 100% 233.6 154.8 108%* 452.6
lessexistingRoRhydro** 2.3 7.0 2.3 7.0 2.3 7.0
lessexistingdiesel*** 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7
TOTALexcl.Existing 103.8 250.9 93.8 215.9 141.8 434.9
LevelizedCostofEnergy**** USD0.357/kWh USD0.279/kWh USD0.276/kWh
Notes:
*Percentageofconsumerload.Sumsto>100%becauseofproductionrequiredtooperatepumpedstorageaswellasmeetload.
**BasedonPLNdataforLokomboroA&B(derated),April2013
***BasedonPLNdataforalldieselsets>350kWandderated,April2013
****Totalsystemgenerationlevelizedcostsatthebusbar,includingexistingplant.Networkcostsareexcluded.

22

Page 305 of 396 11


Transmissioninvestment

Total Capex
(USD million)
150 kV lines 23.7
150 kV substations 19.8
New 20 kV lines 48.0
New 20/0.4 kV transformers 15.3
20 kV line regulators 0.3
20 kV field circuit breakers 0.6
LV Line 48.2
Customer connections 16.0
TOTAL 171.9

23

Page 306 of 396 12


APPENDIX C: ELECTRICITY ACCESS - BREAK-OUT GROUPS

C-1
Workshop on Electricity Access
Page 307 of 396
LokakaryaPeningkatan
AksesEnergyListrik
PerdesaanBerbasisEBT

DiskusiKelompok

Jakarta
19March2015

FormatoftheBreakOutGroups
Twogroupsestablished:
ElectrificationPlanning&Implementation
ElectrificationFinancing&Subsidies
Jointhegroupthatismostrelevanttoyourjob
Objectiveisforeachgroupto:
Identifykeyissues
Proposepossiblesolutions debatetheoptions!
Recommendnextsteps
Nofixedagenda,butsampletopicsandoptionsprovided
Eachgrouptoappointitsownchairmanandrapporteur
Chairmain &rapporteurwillreportfeedbacktotheworkshop
Timing
1.5hours(includingcoffeebreak)todiscuss&preparepresentation
Upto0.5hoursforeachgrouppresentationandfeedback

Page 308 of 396 1


BreakoutGroup1:Planning&Implementation
SampleTopics(1)
SampleTopic SampleOption1 SampleOption2
1.Electrification Governmentelectrificationpolicy Government electrificationpolicy
technology refersonlytogridextension. encompassesbothgridextension&
offgridsupply.
2.Electrification Allhouseholdsreceiveaminimum Servicestandardsdependonthe
service ofR1450VAservice(24/7) costofserving anarea.For
standards example,inthehighestcostareas,
householdsreceive3lightsfor5
hours/nightat95%reliability.
3.Planning PLNshould determinetheleast Aneworexistinggovernment
costmeanstoelectrifytheentire agency(nationalorpemda?) should
country,grid&offgrid evenif planelectrificationnationally,
PLNisnotresponsibleto incorporatingPLNsownplan&also
implementoffgridelectrification. planningfornonPLN/offgridareas.
4.Businessarea Based onplanningresults,areas Ruralelectrification businessareas
designation whereoffgridsupplyisleastcost shouldnotbecarvedoutfornon
shouldbeidentifiedand PLNsupply. NonPLNsupplyshould
designatedasnonPLNbusiness beallowedonlyforindustrial
areas. estates.
3

BreakoutGroup1:Planning&Implementation
SampleTopics(2)
SampleTopic SampleOption1 SampleOption2
5. Implementation TheGovernmentshouldassign NonPLN/offgridbusinessareas
Responsibility PLNforallelectrification in shouldbetenderedtotheprivate
Indonesia(on andoffgrid) sector
<<OR>> <<OR>>
Pemda Provinsi shouldbe AnewnationalagencyorBUMN
responsibleforoffgridsupply. shouldbeestablishedforoffgrid
6.Roleof There shouldbenorestriction Supply tooffgridareasshouldbe
Renewables onthetypesofpower basedentirelyonrenewables,
generationusedinoffgrid possiblywithuseofdieselonlyfor
areas,provideditisleastcost& backupsupply.
reliable
7.LegalBasis Existingregulationsare Newregulationsarerequired
sufficient (Specify)
8.NextSteps Menko, ESDM,Bappenas,MoF, Eachagencycontinues todevelop
MoHA etctoformallyestablish itsownapporach,withfuturead
interministerial workinggroup hocmeetingslikethisto
toestablishelectrificationpolicy coordinate.
&processes.ADBtosupport.
4

Page 309 of 396 2


BreakoutGroup2:Financing&Subsidy
SampleTopics(1)
SampleTopic SampleOption1 SampleOption2
1.Needfor TheGovernment(andpemda?) The totallevelofsubsidyprovided
Subsidy must rigorouslytargetsubsidies, forelectrificationmustdecrease,
butbepreparedtoprovidehigher regardlessoftheimpactonaccess.
subsidiesperhouseholdfor
eligiblehouseholds,regardlessof
impactontotalsubsidylevel
2.Electrification Electrification targetsshouldbe 100% accessby2020isnon
Targets setaccordingtoavailable negotiable.TheGovernmentmust
funding. providethefundingrequired.
3.Consumer AllhouseholdsinIndonesiapay Tariffsinhighcostareasshouldbe
Pricing TDL(exceptBatam &Tarakan) sethigherthanTDL.(Butthendo
thepoorest householdspaythe
highesttariffs?)
4.Valuefor Governmentshouldprovide Offgrid supplyshouldbe
Money capitalsubsidyforoffgridsupply, responsibilityofPLNorPemda.
thentendertoprivatesector Governmentwilldefinestandards
basedonlowestoperational forelectrification, thenrequire
subsidyrequirement. themtotenderforcontractors.
5

BreakoutGroup2:Financing&Subsidy
SampleTopics(2)
SampleTopic SampleOption1 SampleOption2
5.NonPLN ViaPLN.PLNwillenterintoKSO Vianewmechanismfundedby
Subsidy withoffgridsuppliers,andwillpay DAK.Government willestablisha
Mechanism themanoperationalsubsidy BadanLayananUmum(BLU)to
ultimatedfundedviaPLNPSO receiveDAKfundsinyearproject
commissions,anddisburse
subsidyoverconcessionperiod
6.Monitoring& StrictM&Emustbeestablished,and M&Eisneeded,butonlyfor
Evaluation paymentstiedtoresultsachieved helpingtorefinetheprogram.
7.LegalBasis Existingregulationsaresufficient Newregulationsarerequired
(Specify)
8. NextSteps Menko, ESDMorBappenasto Eachagencycontinues todevelop
formallyestablishinterministerial itsownapporach,withfuturead
workinggrouptoestablish hocmeetingslikethisto
electrificationpolicy&processes coordinate.
<<AND/OR>>
Exploreinternationalfunding
sources,likeGreenClimateFund
6

Page 310 of 396 3


THANK YOU !

www.castlerockasia.com

ExistingLisDesprocess
PLN Wilayah & Pemda & Instansi
Bappenas KESDM DJK KemKeu DJA KemKeu DJP PLN Pusat
Business Units Lain (e.g. MenHut)

Prepare Rencana Provide planning


Umum Ketenagalistrikan guidance to
Nasional (RUKN) Wilayah
Prepare (1) Road Map
Electrification LisDes, and (2) inputs to
targets Rencana Usaha
Penyediaan Tenaga
Prepare Recana Listrik (RUPTL)
Provide inputs for
Pembangunan Compile Road
electrification
Jangka Menengah Map LisDes and
targets
Nasional (RPJM-N) finalize RUPTL

Electrification
targets Determine funding
via RKP
sources for
Provide indicative investment
budget ceiling
Discuss
Prepare budget request for electrification
Program Listrik Perdesaan needs with DJK
(LisDes) and Proyek Induk
Reviews conformity Pembangkit & Jaringan Discuss and finalize After approval of
of RKA-KL with RKP (UIP-APBN) as part of Anggaran Pendapatan & APBN by DPR and Manage funds for
Rencana Kerja & Belanja Negara (APBN) work approval by P2K, UIP-APLN
Anggaran Kementrian/ for approval by Dewan pay contractor for
Lembaga (RKA-KL) Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) LisDes and UIP-APBN
Conduct procurement &
manage UIP-APLN
Appoint Pejabat Pembuat
Issue licenses &
Komitmen (P2K) from PLN
permits
for LisDes & UIP-APBN

Construct & commission


UIP-APBN & LisDes
projects
Construct & commission
UIP-APLN projects

Transfer completed
LisDes and UIP-APBN
Own assets
projects to PLN as
government equity Operate &
maintain assets
Monitor & report
against elect. targets

Page 311 of 396 4


Possibleprocessforprivatesectorengagement
MEMR / DGE PLN Wilayah Satker Lisdes Pemda (Province) Private Developer
(budget through DGB)

Establish Satker Operational Satker Second personnel


Lisdes Lisdes to Satker Lisdes
Second personnel
to Satker Lisdes

Preparation
Establishes
Strengthens planning skills,
electrification standards
e.g. geospatial planning
in Electrification Policy

Prepares wilayah Proposes projects &


electrification plan business areas
Estimates long-term
electrification funding
needs; aligns targets
with funding

Review & approve


proposed projects. Start
APBN budget process

Notify Pemda of Express interest in


indicative funding from administering DAK
DAK for off-grid projects projects
Prior year

Finalize DAK budget incl.


indicative future years

Prepare & submit


Prepare & issue tender
proposal

Evaluate bids and


issue contract

Constructs System

Pays for construction


per HPS
Current year

Applies for & receives


DAK funding

Receives
asset

Pays operational Operates & maintains


Future DAK allocations
subsidy based on system; bills & collects
for operational subsidy
system output customer payments

Updates program
Conducts Monitoring &
Future years

design & electrification


Evaluation; Reports to
targets based on M&E
DGE
results Takes over operations
at end of contract
period or retenders

Page 312 of 396 5


APPENDIX D: SUMMARY OF BREAK-OUT GROUP 1 PLANNING &
IMPLEMENTATION

D-1
Workshop on Electricity Access
Page 313 of 396
Breakoutgroup1
PLANNING&IMPLEMENTATION

Ringkasan Diskusi:Perencanaan dan


Implementasi
Perencanaan ketenagalistrikan ongriddan offgridsudah digariskan diRUKN.RUKDdisusun berdasarkan
kepada RUPTL.Identifikasi offgridyangsulit dilistriki PLNsudah diidentifikasi.
Isu dikebijakan dan perencanaan kelistrikan:
Prioritas politik pemerintah daerah
Perubahan insfrastruktur akses jalan baru,jaringan listrik baru
Pembangkit,gardu induk dan transmisi masuk RUPTL,distribusi lebih fleksibel (kadang adhoc)
Untuk servicestandards:disesuaikan dimasing masing daerah,tidak bisak dseragamkan untuk R1450
VA
Untuk kewenangan kelistrikan baik offgriddan ongrid,sesuai dengan UU30/2009:
PLNtetap bertanggung jawab untuk daerah daerah yangtidak terlistriki
Listrik:tanggung jawab pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah
Pemerintah daerah masih belum sadar apa yangharus mereka lakukan

Page 314 of 396


1
Ringkasan diskusi:Perencanaan dan
implementasi
EBTKEtetap punya wewenang kuat untuk offgrid,tetapi tanggung jawab Pemda harus
ditingkatkan bagaimana memastikan anggaran APBDyangcukup untuk O&M? tidak bisa
gratisuntuk masyarakat,tetapi harus dicari jalan bagaimana mendapatkan subsidi untuk O&M
Sudah ada peraturan ESDMno10/2012mengenai pelaksanaan kegiatan fisik energi terbarukan
pada saat serah terima,pemda sanggup menerima dan mengelola
PLTMHvsPLTS lebih murah
Institusi yangsudah ada seperti DENseharusnya dioptimalkan untuk perencanaan
ketenagalistrikan,tidak perlu membentuk suatu institusi baru.
institusi yangsudah ada perlu diberdayakan dan dioptimalkan peran sertanya di dalam
perencanaan dan implementasi ketenagalistrikan

Page 315 of 396


2
APPENDIX E: SUMMARY OF BREAK-OUT GROUP 2 FINANCING & SUBSIDY

E-1
Workshop on Electricity Access
Page 316 of 396
FINANCING & SUBSIDY
Break Out Group 2

Ringkasan Diskusi

(1) Need for Subsidy (2) Electrification Targets

Adanya resiko bahwa Target LISDES dibagun


regulasi yang ada belum berdasarkan RUKN dan
dapat mengakomodir RUPTL yang tentunya
semua khususnya berkolerasi dengan dana
perpindahan aset dan yang ada di dalam APBN
kepemilikannya Pada saat ini ada
Subsidi nya tidak perlu ke pembagian yang cukup
PLN tapi bisa di buat jelas, bahwa untuk off
didalam DAK dibawah grid akan dikerjakan
Kementrian yang oleh EBTKE dan on grid
berwenang adalah DJK

Page 317 of 396 1


Ringkasan Diskusi

(3) Consumer Pricing (4) Value of Money

Dibangun rekomendasi Capital subsidi


dengan dasar TDL (tarif
dasar listrik) untuk
wilayah tertentu dalam
pembangunan listrik
desa
Dengan diberikan harga
yang sama maka LISDES
juga merupakan bagian
nasional subsidi

Ringkasan Diskusi

(5) Non PLN Subsidy Mechanism (6) Monitoring & Evaluation

Dalam diskusi masih Diskusi dimulai adanya


UU pasal 23. Dimana
tetap menggunakan propinsi menjadi
format yang telah ada perpanjangan tangan
yaitu dari Pemerintah Pusat
Dalam diskusi
PLN direkomendasikan
DAK di kementrian bahwa Propinsi yang
yang berwenang menjadi perwakilan
pemerintah pusat.

Page 318 of 396 2


Ringkasan Diskusi

(7) Legal Basis

Sama dengan point


pertama bahwa
regulasi adalah point
pertama yang harus
dibahas dan selanjutnya
adalah kordinasi
Adanya keinginan
dimasukkan issues
semua ini kedalam
RUKN

(8) Langkah Selanjutnya

Membuat keppres yang dikoordinasaikan


oleh Ke-mentrian Koordinator Ekonomi.
Keppres ini akan fokus didalam
Pembangunan Listrik Desa di seluruh
wilayah.
Dasar pembuatan keppres ini adalah RUKN
(rencana umum ketenagalistrikan nasional)
ESDM menjadi penggagas dari semua ini.
Transfer asset melalui DAK bisa diberikan
kepada propinsi, baru diserahkan kepada
wilayah atau kabupaten yang berkepentingan

Page 319 of 396 3


Selesai

Page 320 of 396 4


Efektivitas Perencanaan Antar Instansi Pada Program
Kelistrikan di Indonesia

Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/BAPPENAS


Jakarta, 19 Maret 2015

STRATEGI PEMBANGUNAN
NORMA PEMBANGUNAN

M
U




A

3 DIMENSI PEMBANGUNAN

DIMENSI PEMBANGUNAN DIMENSI PEMBANGUNAN DIMENSI PEMERATAAN &


MANUSIA SEKTOR UNGGULAN KEWILAYAHAN

Kedaulatan Pangan Antarkelompok


Pendidikan Pendapatan
Kedaulatan Energi &
Kesehatan Ketenagalistrikan Antarwilayah: (1)
Kemaritiman dan Desa, (2) Pinggiran, (3)
Perumahan
Kelautan Luar Jawa, (4)
Mental / Karakter Pariwisata dan Industri Kawasan Timur

KONDISI PERLU
Kepastian dan Penegakan Keamanan dan
Politik & Demokrasi Tata Kelola & RB
Hukum Ketertiban

QUICK WINS DAN PROGRAM LANJUTAN LAINNYA

Page 321 of 396


1
PENINGKATAN KAPASITAS DAYA LISTRIK
PER PER WILAYAH TAHUN 2015-2019
Pertumbuhan Ekonomi (Persen)
Wilayah
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Sumatera

Jawa Bali

Nusa Tenggara

Kalimantan

Sulawesi

Maluku

Papua

Penambahan Kapasitas (GW)


Wilayah
2015 2019 *
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Sumatera

Jawa Bali

Nusa Tenggara

Kalimantan

Sulawesi

Maluku

Papua

Sasaran dan Kebijakan Pembangunan


Ketenagalistrikan Nasional

1. Peningkatan pelayanan ketenagalistrikan nasional


termasuk wilayah perdesaan, terpencil dan
perbatasan melalui peningkatan kapasitas
(availability), jangkauan (accessibility), dan kualitas
(acceptability) pasokan tenaga listrik serta dengan
memperbesar peran swasta.

2. Peningkatan optimalisasi bauran energi untuk


ketenagalistrikan:
kebijakan Domestic Market Obligation (DMO )
produksi gas dan batubara nasional untuk
ketenagalistrikan.
pemanfaatan energi terbarukan.

3. Kebijakan harga yang tepat dengan pengalihan


subsidi energi (listrik) yang konsumtif ke sektor
produktif untuk percepatan infrastruktur dan
kesejahteraan rakyat.

Page 322 of 396


2
RENCANA PERCEPATAN PEMBANGUNAN PEMBANGKIT
LISTRIK 35.000 MW 2015-2019
Kemampuan investasi PT PLN dan bantuan APBN selama lima tahun sebesar Rp 250
2014 Kapasitas Pembangkit 2014 adalah 50,7 GW
triliun, terdapat kekurangan sebesar Rp 359 triliun, diharapkan dari anggaran
dan Rasio Elektrifikasi 81,5* Persen
Pertumbuhan Ekonomi pemerintah, yang sebagian dalam bentuk Penyertaan Modal Negara (PMN) dan
6,7 persen pinjaman/penerusan pinjaman, agar kondisi keuangan PT. PLN menjadi sehat. Debt
Equity Rasio PT. PLN saat kondisinya kronis sekitar 257 %.
Kapasitas pembangkit sekitar 85,7 GW dan
2019 Investasi yang paling mendesak untuk mengatasi krisis listrik/potensi krisis listrik.
Rasio Elektrifikasi 96,6 persen
Diperlukan program penyehatan kondisi keuangan PT. PLN melalui :
Oleh PLN: Pembangkit: 10,8 GW ( berikut Transmisi 46,6 Penyesuaian tarif dasar listrik mencapai nilai keekonomiannya pada tahun 2017,
ribu kms; Gardu Induk 105 GVA; Jaringan Distribusi 150 dengan tarif yang mencerminkan kemampuan investasi PT. PLN secara mandiri
ribu kms) (memperhitungkan beban investasi sesuai kondisi demografi dan geografi yang
Oleh Swasta: Pembangkit 25 GW (berikut transmisi 360 ada serta beban sasaran bauran energi)
kms) Merlukan injeksi Penyertaan Modal Negara untuk meningkatkan kesehatan
PT.PLN
Subsidi yang semakin tepat sasaran (hanya untuk pengguna dibawah 60 KWh)
Kebutuhan Investasi :
per bulan
PT. PLN 609 triliun dan Swasta Rp 580 triliun Fasilitasi pemerintah dalam mengatasi hambatan (bottleneck) investasi, berupa: (a)
penjaminan pemerintah untuk investasi; (b) Percepatan persetujuan PKLN; (c)
Konsumsi Listrik per kapita (kWh) fasilitasi pembebasan lahan; (d) mempermudah perijinan (e) penyesuaian harga jual
beli listrik IPP yang lebih menarik terutama energi terbarukan; (f) fasilitasi penyediaan
843 1.200
gas untuk pembangkit listrik: serta (g) perlindungan hukum bagi pelaksana proyek.
PLTM,737 PLTA;634 PS,1,040
PLTLain,81

PLTG/MG,4,288

PLTGU,9,165
PLTU,25,839

PLTP,1,160
Dalam
MW
5
*Perkiraan pada saat awal penyusunan RPJMN 2015-2019

Rasio Elektrifikasi
Rasio Elektrifikasi 2014 serta target 2014- JawaBali
Pulau
Bali
Provinsi 2004
76,60
2009
73,71
2013
78,08
2015
83,70
2016
86,51
2017
87,92
2018
92,70
2019
95,00

2019 JawaBali
JawaBali
Banten
DIYogyakarta
57,88
82,11
70,04
70,55
86,27
80,57
94,39
85,58
97,00
88,09
98,31
89,34
99,02
93,70
99,38
95,88
JawaBali DKIJakarta 81,30 90,57 99,99 99,99 99,99 99,99 99,99 99,99
JawaBali JawaBarat 57,84 67,13 80,15 86,66 89,92 91,54 93,50 95,80
JawaBali JawaTengah 82,09 70,29 86,13 94,05 96,03 97,02 98,03 99,02
JawaBali JawaTimur 59,10 65,63 79,26 86,08 89,48 91,19 95,60 97,81
Kalimantan Kalbar 44,50 55,45 70,80 78,48 81,70 85,20 90,60 95,43
Kalimantan Kalsel 68,77 82,03 88,66 91,98 93,63 94,46 96,71
Kalimantan Kaltara 70,60 76,00 78,70 84,30 91,80 95,55
Kalimantan Kalteng 51,23 66,45 74,06 77,87 83,40 91,00 94,80
Kalimantan Kaltim 49,60 67,22 83,81 92,11 94,00 95,20 96,00 98,25
Maluku Maluku 51,19 69,45 78,36 82,82 85,04 87,30 89,00 95,00
Maluku MalukuUtara 51,26 58,52 87,67 90,00 91,70 92,55 93,00 95,40
NusaTenggara NTB 28,10 32,49 64,43 80,40 84,00 87,65 91,30 95,81
NusaTenggara NTT 22,50 28,54 54,77 67,89 75,50 85,05 91,40 94,70
Papua Papua 28,59 32,90 36,41 69,50 77,00 83,52 88,70 94,90
Papua PapuaBarat 28,89 33,21 75,53 90,30 91,00 92,70 93,55 95,60
Sulawesi Gorontalo 44,83 67,81 79,30 82,70 87,50 92,70 95,30
Sulawesi Sulbar 36,65 55,19 65,00 73,00 83,50 90,50 95,68
Sulawesi Sulsel 54,49 68,50 82,33 89,25 91,00 92,70 93,55 95,80
Sulawesi Sulteng 53,06 71,02 80,30 85,70 89,00 91,60 95,24
Sulawesi Sultra 54,33 46,14 74,53 88,73 93,50 95,89 97,08 98,70
Sulawesi Sulut 47,10 64,28 81,82 90,59 93,20 94,51 95,16 96,80
Sumatera Aceh 56,40 90,76 89,72 93,00 94,64 95,46 96,02 97,50
Sumatera Babel 53,10 65,08 97,13 98,30 98,89 99,18 99,32 99,40
Sumatera Bengkulu 57,08 78,53 89,26 91,70 93,00 95,70 97,05
Sumatera Jambi 39,80 41,09 75,14 92,17 94,05 95,60 96,38 97,25
Sumatera Kepri 67,00 56,79 69,66 77,00 80,67 85,40 90,80 95,63
Sumatera Lampung 37,10 53,43 77,55 89,61 92,30 93,65 94,32 97,25
Sumatera Riau 38,90 56,79 77,56 87,95 90,00 91,03 93,02 95,80
Sumatera Sumbar 61,10 69,64 80,22 85,51 88,16 89,48 91,70 95,60
Sumatera Sumsel 39,80 63,13 70,90 76,30 79,00 89,80 95,20 97,90
Sumatera Sumut 67,50 78,41 87,62 92,23 94,53 95,68 96,25 98,80
RasioElektrifikasiRata
rata 59,13 76,41 85,15 88,19 91,09 93,90 96,61
RasioElektrifikasi
Nasional 65,80 80,16 85,15 88,19 91,09 93,90 96,61

REALISASI TARGET
RasioElektrifikasi
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
(%)
72,95 76,56 80,16 81,51 85,18 88,19 91,09 93,90 96,6

Page 323 of 396


3
Pola Koordinasi Perencanaan dan Implementasi Program Pembangunan
Ketenagalistrikan Nasional
UKP4

Monev
Persetujuan PKLN Kemenko
Kemenko APBN (Incl Subsidi) Kemaritiman
Perekonomian Koordinasi pengembangan TKDN
Kemenko
Perekonomin
APBN (Incl Subsidi)
Kemenko
Kemaritiman

KemAgrariaTR:
Pengadaan lahan,

Pemda
Kejaksanaan :
Re-eksaminasi dan peningkatan
profesionalitas penegakan hukum

BKPM (PTSP):
PenggunaanLahan
Tim Koordinasi
Izin prinsip PMA (UP3KN ) dan KementerianBUMN,KemenHub,
IjinJetty PMO ESDM KemPU:
Izin usaha Persetujuanpinjaman
Rekomendasi IPPKHdan PersetujuanPenyertaanModal
dukungan pengadaan lahan Negara
Ijinpinjampakaikawasanhutan KoordinasipenggunaanjalurKA,
(iclPerhutani) jalantol,penggunaanlahanBUMN
IPPKHAMDALdll lainnyaalPelindo
Koordinasipenggunaanjalurjalantol
Koordinasipenyediaanenergiprimer

KementerianPPN/Bappenas
Arah&KebijakanPembangunan(RPJMN,RKP)
Penerbitan Bluebook,MekanismeDirect
Lending
APBN(InclSubsidi)
Kementerian ESDM, KemUMKM, Kem Daerah Kemkeu KPS(PPPBook)
tertinggal, Kementerian Kominfo, Pemda: Jaminan Pemerintah &Ijin Kementerian Pertahanan: Monev
Kebijakan dan Regulasi Sektor,FeedinTariff, Multiyears contract PenggunaanlahanTNI
DMO APBN(InclSubsidi)
Koordinasipenyediaanenergiprimer PenyempurnaanRegulasiPMN,
Perencanaan,penyiapan,pelaksanaan, PNBP,Pajak,skemaresultbased
pengoperasian,danmonevLisdes approach
PemutihanPMNAPBN RegulasiDirectLendingdengan
Penyiaran,telekomunikasiyangperlulistrik jaminanpemerintah
RegulasiPenyertaanModalNegara
7

INFRASTRUKTUR YANG HARUS DIBANGUN 2015-2019


MEMERLUKAN DUKUNGAN PENYEDIAAN LISTRIK

Jalan baru 2.650 Km Pembangunan Jalur KA 3.258 km di Jawa,


Jalan tol 1.000 Km Sumatera, Sulawesi dan Kalimantan (KA
Pemeliharaan jalan 46.770 Km Antar kota 2.159 km; dan KA Perkotaan
1.099 km)

Pembangunan 15 Bandara baru Pembangunan Pelabuhan


Pengadaan 20 Pesawat Perintis Penyeberangan di 60 lokasi
Pengembangan Bandara untuk Pengadaan kapal penyeberangan
pelayanan Cargo Udara di 6 Lokasi (terutama perintis) sebanyak 50 unit

Pembangunan 24 Pelabuhan baru Pembangunan BRT di 29 kota


Pengadaan 26 Kapal Barang Perintis Pembangunan angkutan massal cepat di
Pengadaan 2 Kapal Ternak kawasan perkotaan (6 Kota metropolitan,
Pengadaan 500 unit kapal Rakyat 17 Kota besar)

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4
INFRASTRUKTUR YANG HARUS DIBANGUN 2015-2019
MEMERLUKAN DUKUNGAN DPENYEDIAAN LISTRIK

Pembangunan 49 Waduk Baru dan 33 Pembangunan Rusanawa 5.257 Twinblok


PLTA (515.711 rumah tangga)
Pembangunan/Peningkatan jaringan Bantuan stimulan perumahan swadaya 5,5
irigasi 1 Juta Ha Juta rumah tangga
Rehabilitasi 3 Juta Ha Jaringan Irigasi Penanganan kawasan kumuh 37.407 Ha
Fasilitasi kredit perumahan untuk MBR 2,5
Jangkauan Pitalebar/broadband di 100% Juta rumah tangga
kab/kota
Pembangunan SPAM di perkotaan 21,4 juta
Indeks e-government mencapai 3,4 sambungan rumah (268.680 liter/detik)
(skala 4,0) Pembangunan SPAM di perdesaan 11,1 juta
Pengmbangan e-pengadaan, e- sambungan rumah (22.647 desa)
kesehatan, e-pendidikan, dan e-logistik

Pembangunan sistem air limbah komunal Pembangunan 2 kilang minyak 2x300 ribu
di 227 kota/kab dan terpusat di 430 barrel
kota/kab Pembangunan FSRU 5 lokasi
Pembangunan IPLT untuk pengelolaan Jaringan gas kota sebesar 1 juta
lumpur tinja perkotaan di 409 kota/kab sambungan rumah
Pembangunan TPA sanitary landfill dan Pembangunan SPBG 78 unit
fasilitas 3R di 341 kota/kab dan fasilitas 3R Pembangkit listrik sebesar 35 ribu MW
terpusat & komunal di 294 kota/kab Gas bumi untuk 600 ribu nelayan
Pengurangan genangan seluas 22.500 Ha Eksplorasi minyak bumi di laut dalam
di kawasan permukiman

TOL LAUT DALAM MENDUKUNG POROS MARITIM DUNIA

Nilai
Keterangan Program Keterangan
(Rp.Milyar)
24 Pelabuhan Strategis 243,696 Termasuk pengerukan, pengembangan terminal kontainer, serta lahannya
Short sea shipping 7,500 Kapal, pelabuhan Panjang, sumur, Bojanegara, Kendal, Pacitan, Cirebon
Fasilitas kargo umum dan bulk 40,615 Rencana induk pelabuhan nasional
Pengembangan pelabuhan non-komersil 198,100 1.481 pelabuhan
Pengembangan pelabuhan komersil lainnya 41,500 83 pelabuhan
Transportasi multimoda untuk mencapai pelabuhan 50,000 Jalan akses, kereta pelabuhan, kereta pesisir.
Revitalisasi industri galangan kapal 10,800 12 galangan kapal
Kapal container, barang perintis, bulk carrier, tug & barge, tanker, dan kapal
Kapal untuk 5 tahun ke depan 101,740
rakyat
Kapal patroli 6,048 Kapal patrol dari Kelas IA s/d V
Total 699,999 10

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5
Pengembangan Transportasi Penyeberangan
(Komplemen Konsep Tol Laut)
Arah kebijakan pengembangan
transportasi penyeberangan 2015-2019:

Penyelesaian dan penguatan jalur


lintas Sabuk Utara, Sabuk Tengah dan
Sabuk Selatan serta poros
penghubung.
Terobosan regulasi termasuk
kebijakan pengadaan kapal oleh
pemerintah dan pembentukan Otorita
Pelabuhan Penyeberangan.

Program Strategis dan Target:


Koridor
Keb.
Penyebe Kondisi Saat ini dan Rencana Pembangunan Pembangunan pelabuhan

Biaya
rangan penyeberangan di 60 lokasi
Sabuk Utara Terdapat lintas yang belum terhubung yaitu: Tj. Pembangunan kapal penyeberangan
Pinang Sintete, akan diselesaikan pada 2017- (terutama perintis) 50 unit
2019 Pemisahan operator dan regulator
Sabuk Terdapat lintas yang belum terhubung: Wahai (pembentukan Otorita Pelabuhan)
Tengah Fak Fak, akan diselesaikan pada akhir tahun Pembangunan kapal untuk mengatasi
Rp. 40 T
2014. Akan dilakukan peningkatan layanan bottleneck pada lintas utama termasuk
(pelabuhan dan kapal)
lintas Merak -Bakauheni (melalui PMN
Sabuk Telah terhubung sejak tahun 2013, akan pada BUMN)
Selatan dilakukan peningkatan layanan (pelabuhan
dan kapal) 11

RENCANA PEMBANGUNAN 15 BANDARA BARU DAN


PENGEMBANGAN 10 BANDARA MELALUI KPS

Miangas

Letung
Juwata Siau
Maratua

MuaraTeweh
TojoUna2
Tambelan SultanBabullah

Mutiara Werur
Morowali
TjilikRiwut SamarindaBaru
Fatmawati Sentani
Hananjoedin
BuntuKunik Namniwel
RedinIntenII

Kertajati Matohara KorowayBatu

KabirPatar
Komodo
Keterangan:
RencanaPembangunan
BandaraBaru
BandaraDitawarkanKe
Swasta

12

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6
Pembangunan Infrastruktur Mendukung
13 Kawasan Industri di Luar Jawa
PROYEK STRATEGIS
Kebutuhan penanganan infrastruktur untuk Pelabuhan: Pembangunan Pel.Kualatanjung, Tanjung Perak, Pontianak, Bitung,
Makassar, Banjarmasin, Kupang dan Halmahera
mendukung 13 Kawasan Industri sebesar
Tol: Pembangunan Jalan Tol Manado Bitung
Rp.55,444.8 Triliun Jalan: Pembangunan Jalan Lingkar Batulicin, Palu-Parigi, Lingkar Kupang, Jalan
Susumuk-Bintuni
SEKTOR INVESTASI Kereta Api: Pembangunan jalur KA antara Manado Bitung, Sei Mangke
Bandara 8,200.00 Bandar Tinggi - Kuala Tanjung, Pasoso Tanjung Priok, DDT dan
Elektrifikasi ManggaraiBekasi -Cikarang, Lingkar Luar Kereta Api .
Jalan 8,079.74
Listrik: Pembangunan pembangkit listrik (PLTU Kualatanjung, Asahan 3, Pangkalan
Kereta Api 10,085,00 Susu, PLTU Palu, PLTA Poso, PLTMG Morowali, PLTU NTT-2 Kupang, PLTU
Ketenagalistrikan 10,477.06 Ketapang (FTP2), PLTG/MG Pontianak Peaker, PLTU Bengkayang, Parit Baru, Pulau
Pisau, PLTA Konawe, PLTA/MH Morowali, Bantaeng dan PLTGU Tangguh, dll.
Pelabuhan 17,664.00
Bandara: Pengembangan Bandara Mutiara Palu, Eltari Kupang, Pengembangan,
Sumber Daya AIR 939.00 Halu Oleo Kendari. Sam Ratulangi Manado dan Bandara Syamsuddin Noor-
Total 55,444,80 Banjarmasin

SUMATERA MALUKU
1. Kuala Tanjung - Sumut 12. Buli, Halmahera
2. Seimangke Sumut Timur-MaluT
3. Tanggamus - Lampung
PAPUA
KALIMANTAN 13. Teluk Bintuni, Papua
4. Batulicin Kalsel Barat
5. Ketapang - Kalbar
6. Landak - Kalbar;

SULAWESI
7. Palu Sulteng
8. Morowali - Sulteng
9. Bantaeng - Sulsel
10. Bitung Sulut
11. Konawe Sultra

13

PEMBANGUNAN INFRASTRUKTUR MENDUKUNG 14

KAWASAN EKONOMI KHUSUS

1
8
7
5
6
2

5. KEK MALOY BATUTA TRANS


1. KEK SEI MANGKEI 3. KEK TANJUNG LESUNG KALIMANTAN
7. KEK BITUNG

Pelabuhan Kuala Pelabuhan Tanjung Pelabuhan Maloy Pelabuhan Hub Int.


Tanjung Priuk Akses Jalan Bitung
Bandara Kualanamu Bandara Banten Selatan Pembangkit Listrik Bandara Samratulangi
Akses Jalan Akses Jalan Akses Jalan
Akses Jalur KA Akses ASDP Akses Penyeberangan
Pembangkit Listrik Akses Jalur KA Akses Kereta Api
Pembangkit Listrik Pembangkit Listrik

2. KEK TANJUNG API-API 4. KEK MANDALIKA 6. KEK PALU 8. KEK MOROTAI


Bandara Sultan Bandara Int. Lombok Bandara Mutiara Sis Pelabuhan Ternate
Mahmud Badaruddin II Pelabuhan Lembar Baru Aljufri Palu Bandara Pitu Morotai
Akses Jalan Integrasi Moda Pelabuhan Pantoloan Akses Jalan
Akses Jalur KA Akses Jalan Akses Jala Akses Penyeberangan
Pembangkit Listrik Akses Ferry Akses Penyeberangan Pembangkit Listrik
Pembangkit Listrik Pembangkit Listrik

Page 327 of 396


7
Pembangunan Infrastruktur Mendukung Kawasan Strategis
Pariwisata Nasional dalam Destinasi Pariwisata Nasional
DUKUNGANLANJUTANTERHADAP Proyek Strategis
16KSPNPRIORITAS
Danau Toba, dskt Rantauprapat - Gunung Tua - Padang Sidempuan- Sibolga
Sumatera
Jalan Tol Medan-Kualanamu-Tebing Tinggi
Kep. Seribu, dskt
Reaktivasi jalur KA antara Yogyakarta Magelang & Magelang
Kota Tua Sunda Kelapa, dskt
Jawa Ambarawa
Borobudur, dskt
Pembangunan Bandara Internasional di DI Yogyakarta
Bromo Tengger Semeru, dskt
Pembangunan Jalan Lingkar Probolinggo
16 KSPN Prioritas

Kalimantan Tanjung Puting, dskt Pelebaran Jalan Sp. Meluang - Pelabuhan Derawan
pelebaran jalan Lingkar Luar Kota Labuhan Bajo
Toraja, dskt
Bunaken, dskt pembangunan jalan Toraja
Sulawesi
Wakatobi, dskt Pembangunan jalur KA antara Manado - Bitung

Kintamani-Danau Batur, dskt Bandara Internasional Lombok


Bali-Nusa Menjangan-Pemuteran, dskt Pembangunan dermaga kapal pesiar di Labuan Bajo,
Tenggara Kuta-Sanur-Nusa Dua, dskt Pelabuhan Laut Pulau Komodo
Rinjani, dskt Pengembangan Dermaga Wisata di Rinca,
Pulau Komodo, dskt Pengembangan Dermaga Wisata di Maumere
Ende-Kelimutu, dskt Pengembangan Dermaga Wisata di Ende
Papua-Kep.
Maluku Pengembangan Pelabuhan di Sorong dan Faspel Laut Arar
Raja Ampat, dskt

15

LOKASI 33 PEMBANGUNAN PLTA (Program 49 Waduk)


Wampu, 45 Mw,-Asahan
III (FTP 2), 174 Mw, Karama Peaking (Unsolicited)
Hasang (FTP 2, 40 Mw, 150 Mw, Karama Baseload
Simonggo-2, 86 MW, (Unsolicited), 300 Mw (Sulbar)
Batang Toru (Tapsel), 510 PLTA Tersebar Maluku
Mw, Masang-2, 55 Mw Duminanga, 1 Utara, 4.5 Mw, (Malut)
Peusangan 1 2, 88 Mw,
(Sumut) Mw,Sawangan, 12 Mw
Peusangan-4, 400 Mw (NAD)
(Sulut)
Bontobatu (FTP2),
110 Mw, Malea, 90 Isal 3 , 4 Mw, Nua (Masohi), 6
Mw (Sulsel) Mw, Wai Tala 13.5 Mw, Wai
Tala 40.5 Mw, Isal, 6 Mw,
PLTA Tersebar Maluku , 18.5
Mw(Maluku)

Simpang Aur (FTP2),


23 Mw, Ketahun-3,
61 Mw (Bengkulu)
Warsamson, 46,5
Mw(Papua Barat)

Merangin, 350
Mw(Jambi)

Orya 2, 10 Mw,
Kusan, 65 Mw(Kalsel) Kalibumi-2, 5 Mw,
Semangka (FTP2), 56
Mariarotu II 1.3 Mw,
Mw(Lampung)
Brang Beh 1, 8 Mw, Baliem, 10 Mw,
Brang Beh 2, 4.1 Mw Konawe, 50 Mw, Maubesi ,1 Mw, Kalibumi III Cascade,
NTB) Watunohu 1, 20 Mw Kudungawa, 2 Mw, 5 Mw, Baliem, 40 Mw,
(Sultra) Ubungawu III, 0.2 Mw Tatui, 4 Mw, Amai,
(NTT) 1.4 Mw (Papua)

16

Page 328 of 396


8
gx|t ^t|{

17

Page 329 of 396


9
TARGET DAN PENCAPAIAN RASIO ELEKTRIFIKASI INDONESIA
Disampaikan pada acara Lokakarya Peningkatan Akses Energi Listrik Perdesaan Berbasis
EBT di Indonesia
Direktorat Pembinaan Program Ketenagalistrikan
Jakarta, 19 Maret 2015

DAFTAR ISI:

I. GAMBARAN UMUM KONDISI KETENAGALISTRIKAN


II. PRAKIRAN KEBUTUHAN TENAGA LISTRIK (DRAFT
RUKN 2015 2034)
III. REALISASI RE S.D 2014 DAN RENCANA PROGRAM
LISDES 2015

Page 330 of 396


1
I. GAMBARAN UMUM KONDISI
KETENAGALISTRIKAN NASIONAL

Gambaran Umum Kondisi Ketenagalistrikan Nasional


Persentase Kapasitas Pembangkit

Total Kapasitas Terpasang Pembangkit (2014)

53.585 MW
(PLN: 37.280 MW, IPP: 10.995 MW, PPU: 2.634 MW, IO Non BBM: 2.677 MW)

Konsumsi Energi Listrik (2014) Produksi Tenaga Listrik (2014)*)

199 TWh 228 TWh


Persentase Pemakaian Listrik
Per-golongan

Pangsa BBM pada Energi Mix untuk Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik

Persentase Energy Mix


11,65 %
Air LainLain
Panas 6.5% 0.4% BBM Rasio Elektrifikasi Nasional (2014)
Bumi 11.7%

84,35%
4.4% Gas
24.2%
Batubara
52.8%

*) Hanya PLN dan IPP

Page 331 of 396


2
Realisasi Pembangkit PLN dan IPP (2010 2014)

(MW) Per Jenis Pembangkit


Tambahan Kapasitas per Jenis
Realisasi COD per Tahun Pembangkit
PLTA,
PLTM,89 424 PS, PLTLain,41
PLTG/MG,
1,516
PLTD,2,960

PLTU,10,516
PLTGU,1,733

PLTP,216

Kapasitas pembangkit PLN & IPP akhir tahun 2009 sekitar 30 GW meningkat menjadi
sekitar 48 GW pada akhir tahun 2014

Sumber: DJK & RUPTL PLN 2015-2024

Rasio Elektrifikasi 2014


Aceh Category :
92,75%
Sumut > 70 %
91,17% Kaltim&Kaltara
50 - 70 %
88,28%
Riau
< 50 %
Kalbar Sulut
84,28%
Kepri 79,78% Gorontalo 85,31%
Malut
80,53% 73,60%
90,21% Papua Barat
77,16%
Sumbar Sumsel
Kalteng
79,82% 76,87%
66,60% Sulteng
75,26%
Babel Sulbar
Jambi Papua
95,48% 71,55%
80,17% 43,17%
Sultra

Bengkulu
Jakarta Jateng 66,87% Maluku
Kalsel
99% 87,11%
83,49% 83,03% 82,22%
Bali Sulsel
Lampung 85,30% 85,10%
80,91% Banten
92,57%
Jabar
85,95% DIY Jatim NTB NTT
81,84% 83,30% 67,57% 59,52%

REALISASI TARGET SESUAI DRAFT RUKN 2015-2034


2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
(67,15%) (70,40 %) (73,60 %) (76,80 %)
(81.51%) 84.35% 87.35% 90.15% 92.75% 95.15% 97.35%
67.15% 72.95% 76.56% 80.51%

Page 332 of 396


3
II. PRAKIRAAN KEBUTUHAN TENAGA LISTRIK
(DRRAFT RUKN 2015 2034)

ASUMSI DAN PROYEKSI DRAFT RUKN 2015 - 2034

No. Uraian 2015 2019 2020 2034

1. Asumsi Pertumbuhan Ekonomi 5,7% - 7,0% 6,5% - 7,0%

2. Asumsi Inflasi 5,0% - 3,8% rata-rata 3,6%


Asumsi Pertumbuhan Penduduk
per-tahun (rata-rata) *)
3. - Jawa - Bali 0,75 %
- Luar Jawa - Bali 1,19 %
- Indonesia 0,94 %
Prakiraan Pertumbuhan Kebutuhan
Energi Listrik per-tahun (rata-rata)
4. - Jawa - Bali 7,5 %
- Luar Jawa - Bali 9,2 %
- Indonesia 8,0 %
*) Sumber: proyeksi penduduk Indonesia 2010-2035 (Bappenas-BPS-UNPF), 2013

Page 333 of 396


4
PRAKIRAAN INDONESIA TWh
250 1,000

900

200 800

700

150 600
GW
500

100 400

300

50 200

100

0 0
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034
Kebutuhantambahandaya(GW)**) 11 17 23 29 36 45 53 62 72 83 95 105 115 125 137 148 161 174 188 203
Kapasitasexsisting(GW)*) 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 32 31 30 29 28 28 27 26 26 25
Kapasitastahunberjalan(rencana)(GW) 52 56 61 67 73 80 87 96 104 114 125 134 143 153 163 174 185 197 210 224
BebanPuncak(GW) 38 41 45 49 54 59 64 70 76 84 92 98 105 112 119 127 135 144 154 164
KebutuhanEnergiListrik(TWh) 214 233 254 277 303 331 362 395 432 472 517 553 591 630 671 714 760 809 862 919
*) Kapasitas tahun 2014 Kapasitas merupakan Daya Mampu Netto
**) Akumulasi

No. Uraian 2015 - 2019 2020 - 2034 Potensi Energi Primer:


1. Pertumbuhan ekonomi 5,7% - 7,0% 6,5% - 7,0%
Batubara : 148.356,06 Juta Ton
2. Inflasi 5,0% - 3,8% rata-rata 3,6% Gas Bumi : 153,38 TSCF
Minyak Bumi : 7.732,28 MMSTB
3. Pertumbuhan penduduk per-tahun (rata-rata ) 0,19 %
Panas Bumi : 29.215,00 MWe
4. Pertumbuhan kebutuhan listrik per-tahun rata-rata 8,0 % Air : 12.411,20 MW
5. Kebutuhan tambahan daya rata-rata per-tahun (20 thn) 10.048 MW CBM : 453,30 TCF
6. Kebutuhan tambahan daya rata-rata per-tahun (10 thn) 8.097 MW

PETA TAPAK PEMBANGKIT PROGRAM 35,5 GW DAN 7,4 GW


Sumatera: Kalimantan: Sulawesi: Maluku:
PLN :2.79GW(23unit) PLN :0,92GW(18unit) PLN :2,02GW(28unit) PLN :0,26GW(18unit)
IPP :5.96GW(49unit) IPP :0,96GW(12unit) IPP :0,68GW(40unit) IPP :0,02GW(4unit)
Papua:
Total :8.75GW(72unit) Total :1,87GW(30unit) Total :2,70GW(68unit) Total :0,28GW(22unit)
PLN :0,22GW(19unit)
Sumatera: Kalimantan: Sulawesi: Maluku: IPP :0,12GW(17unit)
PLN :1.43GW(14unit) PLN :0.88GW(28unit) PLN :0.33GW(15unit) PLN :0.05GW(5unit) Total :0,34GW(36unit)
IPP :1.14GW(18unit) IPP :0.09GW(7unit) IPP :0.14GW(10unit) IPP :
Total :2.57GW(32unit) Total :0.97GW(35unit) Total :0.47GW(25unit) Total :0.05GW(5unit) Papua:
PLN :0.07GW(8unit)
IPP :
Total :0.07GW(8unit)

Kalimantan Maluku
Sumatera
Sulawesi Papua

JavaBali
NusaTenggara
JawaBali:
PLN :7,38GW(19unit)
IPP :13,53GW(76unit) NusaTenggara:
Total :20,91GW(95unit) PLN :0,66GW(16unit) Indonesia:
JawaBali: IPP :0,05GW(9unit) PLN :18,42GW(232unit)
PLN :1.21GW(6unit) Total :0,70GW(25unit) IPP :24,51GW(260unit)
IPP :1.75GW(12unit) NusaTenggara: Total :42,93GW(492unit)
Total :2.96GW(18unit) PLN :0.19GW(15unit)
IPP :0.08GW(6unit) Program:35,56GW
Total :0.27GW(21unit) OnGoing:7,37GW
Sumber: RUPTL PLN 2015-2024

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5
PETA TRANSMISI PROGRAM 35,5 GW DAN 7,4 GW

Sumatera:
70kV :611kms
150kV :11.239kms
275kV :5.082kms Kalimantan: Sulawesi: Maluku: Papua:
500kV :1.130kms 150kV :7.703kms 70kV :86kms 70kV :237kms 70kV :304kms
500kVDC :1.243kms 275kV :180kms 150kV :4.900kms 150kV :416kms 150kV :60kms
TOTAL :19.305kms TOTAL :7.883kms TOTAL :4.986kms TOTAL :653kms TOTAL :364kms

Kalimantan Maluku
Sumatera
Sulawesi Papua

JavaBali
NusaTenggara
JawaBali:
70kV :44kms
150kV :8.431kms
500kV :2.411kms Nusra:
70kV :1.408kms INDONESIA:
500kVDC :300kms
150kV :813kms 70kV :2.689kms
TOTAL :11.185kms
TOTAL :2.221kms 150kV :33.562kms
275kV :5.262kms
500kV :3.541kms
500kVDC :1.543kms
TOTAL :46.597kms
Sumber: RUPTL PLN 2015-2024

KEBUTUHAN FASILITAS DISTRIBUSI DI INDONESIA

Uraian satuan 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 Jumlah

JaringanTM ribukms 15,6 16,5 16,5 16,5 17,0 16,9 16,4 16,4 16,8 17,1 165,8

JaringanTR ribukms 13,2 13,3 13,5 13,8 14,3 14,3 13,9 13,8 14,1 14,2 138,4

TrafoDistribusi ribuMVA 3,9 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,3 4,4 4,4 4,4 4,6 4,7 43,4

TambahanPelanggan jutaplgn 3,3 3,2 2,6 2,5 2,2 1,7 1,5 1,4 1,3 1,3 21,0

Sumber: RUPTL PLN 2015-2024

Page 335 of 396


6
III. REALISASI RE S.D 2014 DAN RENCANA
PROGRAM LISDES 2015

Rasio Elektrifikasi 2014


Aceh Category :
92,75%
Sumut > 70 %
91,17% Kaltim&Kaltara
50 - 70 %
88,28%
Riau
< 50 %
Kalbar Sulut
84,28%
Kepri 79,78% Gorontalo 85,31%
Malut
80,53% 73,60%
90,21% Papua Barat
77,16%
Sumbar Sumsel
Kalteng
79,82% 76,87%
66,60% Sulteng
75,26%
Babel Sulbar
Jambi Papua
95,48% 71,55%
80,17% 43,17%
Sultra

Bengkulu
Jakarta Jateng 66,87% Maluku
Kalsel
99% 87,11%
83,49% 83,03% 82,22%
Bali Sulsel
Lampung 85,30% 85,10%
80,91% Banten
92,57%
Jabar
85,95% DIY Jatim NTB NTT
81,84% 83,30% 67,57% 59,52%

REALISASI TARGET SESUAI DRAFT RUKN 2015-2034


2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
(67,15%) (70,40 %) (73,60 %) (76,80 %)
(81.51%) 84.35% 87.35% 90.15% 92.75% 95.15% 97.35%
67.15% 72.95% 76.56% 80.51%

14

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7
NATIONAL BUDGET (APBN)

Additional
ProposedAPBN
APBN 2015 proposalsAPBN
No. PROJECTUNIT(SATKER) (APBNP)2015
2015

Satker Ketenagalistrikan
1. 201.617,3 201.617,3
(DGE)
MainUnitof
2. 1.172.130,8 1.172.130,8
Development(UIPPLN)
3. RuralElectricity(Lisdes) 2.563.380,3 1.300.000 **) 3.863.380,3
Total 3.937.128,4 1.300.000 5.237.128,40

LISDES PROGRAM YEAR 2015 (1)


LISTRIK PERDESAAN LISTRIK GRATIS
Fisik Biaya
Jaringan (Kms) GD
No. Provinsi Pagu Listrik Pagu Total
Pagu Lisdes RTS
JTM JTR GD Gratis
JTM JTR Total Unit MVA

1 Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 167.00 175.00 342.00 101 4.025 42,954,787,000 25,219,700,000 10,383,743,000 78,558,230,000 4,352 9,792,000,000 88,350,230,000

2 Sumatera Utara 142.00 125.00 267.00 100 3.000 45,820,698,000 17,988,475,000 9,183,460,000 72,992,633,000 1,241 2,792,250,000 75,784,883,000

3 Sumatera Barat 121.00 161.89 282.89 58 2.900 39,324,246,000 23,978,467,000 5,858,400,000 69,161,113,000 1,241 2,792,250,000 71,953,363,000

4 Riau 147.50 211.75 359.25 100 6.600 38,235,371,000 27,238,245,000 15,369,804,000 80,843,420,000 1,250 2,812,500,000 83,655,920,000

5 Kep. Riau 97.07 112.00 209.07 44 3.000 28,382,891,000 16,244,244,000 6,813,548,000 51,440,683,000 1,000 2,250,000,000 53,690,683,000

6 Jambi 145.14 129.17 274.31 91 6.600 52,085,201,000 16,678,186,000 13,042,528,000 81,805,915,000 1,471 3,309,750,000 85,115,665,000

7 Bangka Belitung 121.40 91.00 212.40 59 4.050 38,259,774,000 15,323,778,000 7,165,408,000 60,748,960,000 2,360 5,310,000,000 66,058,960,000

8 Bengkulu 112.00 148.00 260.00 75 4.600 32,469,683,000 26,858,152,000 15,415,289,000 74,743,124,000 2,134 4,801,500,000 79,544,624,000

9 Sumatera Selatan 154.00 169.50 323.50 92 5.600 55,611,402,000 24,946,849,000 13,301,860,000 93,860,111,000 2,422 5,449,500,000 99,309,611,000

10 Lampung 114.00 121.00 235.00 71 5.350 33,753,583,000 21,857,561,000 14,889,196,000 70,500,340,000 1,111 2,499,750,000 73,000,090,000

11 Banten 39.50 143.85 183.35 85 4.400 17,445,581,000 30,311,714,000 13,117,581,000 60,874,876,000 3,361 7,562,250,000 68,437,126,000

12 Jawa Barat 112.00 186.05 298.05 83 5.300 40,558,609,000 31,411,007,000 11,641,716,000 83,611,332,000 3,295 7,413,750,000 91,025,082,000

13 Jawa Tengah
110.00 178.00 288.00 172 8.600 22,963,390,000 30,979,476,000 11,957,096,000 65,899,962,000 3,229 7,265,250,000 73,165,212,000
14 DI Yogyakarta

15 Jawa Timur 84.00 140.00 224.00 89 8.900 32,258,839,000 29,223,656,000 12,446,212,000 73,928,707,000 2,093 4,709,250,000 78,637,957,000

16 Kalimantan Barat 111.00 90.80 201.80 56 3.600 43,858,469,000 16,780,362,000 8,053,629,000 68,692,460,000 1,376 3,096,000,000 71,788,460,000

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8
LISDES PROGRAM YEAR 2015 (2)
LISTRIK PERDESAAN LISTRIK GRATIS
Fisik Biaya
Jaringan (Kms) GD
No. Provinsi Pagu Listrik Pagu Total
Pagu Lisdes RTS
JTM JTR GD Gratis
JTM JTR Total Unit MVA

TARGET RE DRAFT RUKN 2015-2034


99.99 99.99 99.99 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
99.35
100.00
97.35

95.15
95.00
92.75

90.15
90.00
87.35

85.00

80.00
2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2031

2032

2033

2034

LuarJawaBali JawaBali INDONESIA

Kebutuhan penambahan penyambungan baru 2015-2019 rata-rata sekitar 2,47 juta sambungan per tahun.
Kebutuhan penambahan penyambungan baru 2015-2021 rata-rata sekitar 2,24 juta sambungan per tahun.
Sebaran target RE per provinsi tahun 2015-2021 dibreakdown berdasarkan taget Nasional dengan mempertimbangkan provinsi
yang memiliki banyak pulau kecil;
Target RE Jakarta 100% pada tahun 2018;
RE Banten mencapai 100% lebih lambat (pada tahun 2025) dibanding provinsi lainnya di Jawa, diestimasikan pada tahun 2025
Suku Badui baru mau menerima sambungan listrik.

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9
TARGET RE DRAFT RUKN 2015-2034

Dengan asumsi dan kondisi saat ini target sesuai draft RUKN dan RUPTL sampai dengan 2020 sebesar 99,35%
dapat tercapai.
Pada periode sejak tahun 2021 dimana pada tahun 2024 target RE sebesar 100% diharapkan tercapai maka
diperlukan terobosan dan kebijakan yg mendukung dalam pengembangan usaha listrik perdesaan yang
melibatkan pihak swasta.
Saat ini DJK sedang memikirkan wacana regulasi tentang micro grid dan micro IPP dalam pengembangan usaha
listrik perdesaan atau daerah terpencil.

www.esdm.go.id

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10
7. BIOMASS ASSESSMENT FOR BALI AND PAPUA

Government of Indonesia and ADB December 2015


Page 340 of 396
AssessmentofBiomassResourceinBaliandPapuaProvince
ofIndonesia

Prepared for ADB

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Abbreviations and Acronyms

Acronym Extension
BOD Biochemical oxygen demand
BDT Biomass Dry Tonnes
CH4 Methane (chemical formula)
CO2 Carbon dioxide (chemical formula)
COD Chemical oxygen demand
CPO Crude palm oil
EFB Empty fruit bunches
FFB Fresh fruit bunches
GDP Gross domestic product
GHG Greenhouse gas
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LHV Low heating value
MC Moisture content
MCF Methane conversion factor
MF Mesocarp fiber
MSW Municipal solid waste
MTCO2e Metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent
OPF Oil palm fronds
OPT Oil palm trunk
PKS Palm Kernel Shell
POME Palm oil mill effluent
SBR Sequencing batch reactor
t Tonne
TSS Total suspended solids
UASB Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

ii

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Units of Measure

boe barrel oil equivalent


GWh Gigawatt hour
ha hectare
kg -kilogram
kWh kilowatt hour (103 Wh)
L liter
M3-cubic meter
Mt Megatonne (103 tonnes)
MWh Megawatt hour (106 Wh)
MWe Megawatt electric
TJ Terajoule (1012 J)
Tonne -metric ton

iii

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Glossary of Plant Names

Acacia (Acacia mangium)


Cacao (Theobroma cacao)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera)
Coffee (Rubiaceae family)
Candlenut (Aleurites moluccanus)
Groundnut (Peanut/ Arachishypogaea)
King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
Maize (Zea mays)
Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)
Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
Sugarcane (Poaceae sp.)

iv

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Table of Contents
Abbreviations and Acronyms .................................................................................................... ii
Units of Measure ........................................................................................................................ iii
Glossary of Plant Names ........................................................................................................... iv
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................. vii
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................... vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... viii
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 1
1.1BIOMASS.......................................................................................................................................1
1.2PROJECTOBJECTIVEANDAPPROACH..........................................................................................1
1.3ORGANIZATIONOFTHISREPORT.................................................................................................2
2. BIOMASS AGRICULTURE RESOURCES, FOREST RESOURCES, URBAN
RESOURCES ...................................................................................................................... 3
2.1BIOMASSAGRICULTURERESOURCES...................................................................................3
2.1.1Paddy.....................................................................................................................................3
2.1.2Groundnuts...........................................................................................................................3
2.1.3Cassava..................................................................................................................................4
2.1.4Maize.....................................................................................................................................5
2.1.5 Coconut................................................................................................................................7
2.1.6 Coffee...................................................................................................................................8
2.1.7 Cocoa....................................................................................................................................9
2.1.8 Candlenuts(Aleuritesmoluccana(L.)Wild).......................................................................10
2.1.9 Sugarcane...........................................................................................................................11
2.1.10 OilPalmwastes..................................................................................................................13
2.2 BIOMASSFORESTRESOURCES...........................................................................................14
2.2.1 Rubberwood......................................................................................................................14
2.2.2 Forestresidues...................................................................................................................16
2.2.5 LoggingresidueofAcaciaMangium..................................................................................19
2.2.6 ElephantGrass(RumputGajah/Pennisetumpurpureum)..................................................20
2.3 BIOMASSURBANRESOURCES............................................................................................20
2.3.1 MunicipalSolidWaste........................................................................................................20

APPENDIX A: FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT RATIO OF BIOMASS......................................................22


APPENDIX B: YIELD AND HEATING VALUE OF BIOMASS.............................................................25
APPENDIX C: TYPES OF BIOMASS GENERATORS PLANTS.........................................................28
APPENDIX D: TERMS OF REFERENCE..............................................................................................31

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APPENDIX E: BIOMASS WASTE GENERATION FROM BALI PROVINCE AND PAPUA
PROVINCE......................................................................................................................................32

vi

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List of Tables

Table 2-1. Biomass generated from paddy harvesting (source: APPENDIX E)..............................3
Table 2-2. Biomass generated from groundnuts harvesting (source: APPENDIX E).....................4
Table 2-3. Solid biomass production from cassava (source: APPENDIX E)...................................5
Table 2-4. Biomass production from maize in Bali and Papua provinces (source:APPENDIX E)6
Table 2-5. Biomass production from coconut harvesting fruit in Bali and Papua provinces
(source: APPENDIX E)....................................................................................................................7
Table 2-6. Generation of coffee hulls as biomass waste in Bali and Papua provinces (source:
APPENDIX E)....................................................................................................................................8
Table 2-7. Cocoa husk production in Bali and Papua provinces (source: APPENDIX E)..............9
Table 2-8. Biomass productivity generated from candlenuts harvesting (source: APPENDIX E)
..........................................................................................................................................................11
Table 2-9. Biomass generated from sugarcane harvesting and processing (source: APPENDIX
E)......................................................................................................................................................12
Table 2-10. Biomass from Oil Palm plantation (source: APPENDIX E)..........................................14
Table 22-11 Biomass production from rubber tree (source: APPENDIX E)...................................15
Table 22-12 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: Limbah Pemanenan
Dan Faktor Eksploitasi Pada Pengusahaan Hutan Tanaman Industri)..................................17
Table 22-13 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: APPENDIX E)............18
Table 22-14 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: APPENDIX E)............19
Table 22-15 Estimated waste potential from acacia replanting activity.........................................20
Table 22-16 Biomass from elephant grass (source: APPENDIX E)................................................20

List of Figures

Figure 2-1. Mass balance of tapioca (source: PT Wira Kedaton)......................................................5


Figure 2-2. Types of waste generated from maize (corn) cultivation (source: calculation)..........6
Figure 2-3. Wastes from coffee fruit (source: Peluang mendayagunakan Kulit Kopi)...................8
Figure 2-4. Parts of candlenuts (source: B.H.Tambunan et.al).......................................................10
Figure 2-5. Schematic sugarcane processing (based on national data), (source: Case Study
Indonesian sugar industry)..........................................................................................................12
Figure 2-6. Distribution of Oil Palm Biomass (source: Sabri Ahmad et.al 2009)..........................13

vii

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The objective of this assignment is to assist Infrastructure Specialist (GIS) for ongoing work
on Geo-enabled Decision Support System (DSS) for National Electrification Program.

The specific tasks of the Assignment are


Collect Fresh and Dry weight ratio data for broad categories of biomass in
Indonesian context
Collect yield and heating value of all land use types and categories
(agriculture, plantation crops/tree, natural forest tree, etc.) in Indonesia
Brief description of types of biomass generator plants available in South and
Southeast Asia and one example of each type installed in Indonesia along
with their main features.

Study Area is Bali and Papua provinces of Indonesia. The methodological approach is to
focus on those residues, which are most dominant in terms of volume in Indonesia.

Bali and Papua biomass assessment has been updated using 2014 year data, the most
recent available data. The biomass data of Bali province was collected and calculated
according to district and village inventories level, while that of Papua was only available at
regency level. Resource estimates were derived from Kecamatan Dalam Angka / District in
Figure (Bali Province data), and from Kabupaten Dalam Angka /Regency in Figure (Papua
Province Data) and Tree Crop Estate Statistics of Indonesia 2013-2015 (Directorate General
of Estate Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, 2013-2015 data).

The total biomass in the Bali Province is estimated to be about 1.29 million tonnes/year
(fresh), while that in the Papua province is around 49.36 million tonnes/year.

The biomass considered to be available on a technically sustainable basis is estimated to be


35 million BDTs/year. Of the gross resource, 25 million tonnes are from agriculture, 27
millions from forest resources, and 26 million tonnes from municipal wastes, exclusive of
waste in place in landfills and biomass in sewage. The current technical potential includes
more than 12 million BDTs/year in agriculture, 14 million BDT/year in forestry, and 9 million
BDTs/year in municipal wastes. Dedicated crops are being grown mostly on an experimental
basis at present and are not included in the total.

viii

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Gross electrical generation potential from biomass is currently near 9,900 MWe with more
than 2,300 MWe from agriculture, 3,500 MWe from forestry, and 3,900 MWe from municipal
solid wastes including landfill and sewage digester gas. The technical resource generating
potential is some 4,600 MWe. Biogas potential from animal manures, landfill gas, anaerobic
digestion of food, leaves and grass from the current MSW disposal stream, and from waste
water treatment plants is estimated to be about 93 billion cubic feet of methane per year.

ix

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BIOMASS

Biomassisacollectivetermusedforallmaterialsthatarebiogenicinorigin,whichisderivedfrom
theproductofphotosynthesis1.Biomasscanbeofvarioustypes,itcanhaveplantoriginoranimal
origin. Classification of biomass resources on the basis of their origin is presented in Figure 21.
Mass balance of tapioca.
Biomass energy is derived from plant-based material and residues where solar energy has
been converted into organic matter. Biomass resources can be broadly classified into the
following categories:

Agricultural crops and residues (rice, corn etc);


Plantation crops and residues (sugarcane, oil palm etc.);
Dedicated energy crops (herbaceous and tree species);
Forestry products and residues;
Residues and by products from food, feed, fiber, wood, and materials processing plants
[CPO mills, sawdust from sawmills, black liquor (a by product of paper making), and
animal manure];
Post-consumer residues and wastes, such as fats, greases, oils, construction and
demolition wood debris and other urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes and
wastewater, and landfill gases.

1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVE AND APPROACH

This report informs biomass resources potentially available in Bali province and Papua
province. The biomass resource estimates are based on either references or assumptions.
The results are presented in a tabular for the respective province.

For practical reasons this report does not cover all possible biomass types. For instance,
aquatic biomass (algae, seaweed, etc.) is not covered in this report, because the potential of
this type of biomass is highly uncertain and data availability is scarce. Residues from the
food industry are also not covered because they consist of a large variety of different
biomass types, for which hardly any national or international resource assessment has been
carried out so far. Peat is also excluded, since peat is not a renewable type of biomass
within the timeframes relevant for climate and energy policies.

1
http://recap.apctt.org/Docs/Biomass.pdf

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Use of units, conversion factors, etc
The biomass potentials will be expressed as its total mass including moisture (tonnes) and
as its total net calorific content (kcal or kJ).
- Along with the mass, the average moisture content of the biomass will be expressed on
a wet basis.
- The lower heating value of the biomass resource will be used to calculate the total net
calorific content.

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THIS REPORT

This report briefly describes biomass wastes generation from agricultural resources, forest
resources and urban resources in Bali province and Papua province. The report is organized
as follows:
Chapter 1 Introduction describes the background, objectives and overall approach
to the assignment.
Chapter 2 Biomass agriculture resources, forest resources and urban resources
Appendix A presents fresh and dry weight ratio of biomass
Appendix B presents yield and heating value of biomass
Appendix C presents types of biomass generation plants
Appendix D presents the terms of reference for this assignment
Appendix E biomass waste generation from Bali and Papua provinces

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2. BIOMASS AGRICULTURE RESOURCES, FOREST RESOURCES, URBAN
RESOURCES

2.1 BIOMASS AGRICULTURE RESOURCES

2.1.1 Paddy

In 2014, there were totally 13,797,307 ha of land used for rice cultivation in the country,
producing 70,846,465 tonnes of rice. The cultivation leaves straw and rice husk as biomass
residues. Straw residue is generated at ratio per product of 1 and generation of rice husk is
at 25%. These figures are based on the practice of rice harvesting in Indonesia.
With a total national production as above, there would be 17,711,616 tonnes rice husk and
35,423,233 tonnes rice straw generated from paddy cultivation. Table below shows
estimated rice husk and straw generation in Bali and Papua provinces.

Table 2-1. Biomass generated from paddy harvesting (source: APPENDIX E)


Biomass
Production Husk Straw Productivity
Province Area (ha)
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
Husk Straw
Bali 874,005 160,127 218,501 874,005 1.36 5.46
Papua 240,527 45,713 23,587 93,755 1.32 5.26

Rice straw is usually left in the rice field and burnt or used as fodder or fertilizer. Rice husk
with heating value of 14 MJ/kg (dry basis)2 has been commonly used as fuel for making such
as bricks.
Taking the total residues from the cultivation, approximately, 2.15 millions GJ energy is
generated from the biomass.

2.1.2 Groundnuts

It was reported in the national statistic that the production of groundnuts in the country has
reached 638,896 tonnes in 2014, averaging 1.28 tonnes/ha. Three crops could be grown
annually (three times groundnut harvest). Of the total production, 20% (127,779 tonnes) is
nuts shells at moisture content of 50%. With a calorific value of 16.42 MJ/kg3 this makes up
a potential energy of 30.884 GJ from the nuts shells.

2
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
3
https://www.ecn.nl/phyllis2/Biomass/View/2789

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Table 2-2. Biomass generated from groundnuts harvesting (source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass
Production Biomass Productivity
Province Area (ha) shell
(tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes)
Bali 10,221 8,043 1,609 0.25
Papua 2,815 3,656 563 0.15

2.1.3 Cassava

Cassava is not included as solid biomass because the tube is used for producing liquid fuel
(bioethanol) while most of the stem is used for establishing new plantation, and the leaves
are used as animal fodder4.1 tonne cassava roots will produce around 38% stem and leaves
and cassava peels (5%).

According to the survey conducted by CDMI consulting,5 the ratio of utilization of cassava by
industries to the total national production in 2014 has reached 35%.

The following is the mass balance of tapioca starch industry of PT Wira Kedaton; with
cassava wastes consisting of solid waste (32 kg cassava pulp 6 per 500 kg cassava
processed), and liquid waste with COD of around 15,000 mg/liter (producing 2,867 kg liquid
waste per 500 kg processed into tapioca).

Distance between plants depends on the varieties to be cultivated and the soil fertility. In
monoculture cultivation, 100x100 cm is the common distance with 10,000 plants/ha and is
harvested in 8-11 months depending on variety.7

4
https://biomassourlastresource.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/d103biomassresourceinindonesia2011itbfinalpdfbambang
prastowo.pdf(PaperispresentedintheGermanIndonesiaWorkshoponBiomass:OurLastResource,DefiningSustainablePoliciesand
ManagementofIndonesiasBiomassUtilization,26September2011InstituteTechnologyofBandung,BiomassResourcein
Indonesia:IndonesiasSolidBiomassEnergyPotential,BambangPrastowo,IndonesianCenterforEstateCropsResearchandDevelopment)
5
http://www.cdmione.com/source/Tapioka2015.pdf
6
Traditionallyknownasonggok
7
http://tanamanpangan.pertanian.go.id/files/PednisUbik_2012.pdf

Page 353 of 396


Table 2-3. Solid biomass production from cassava (source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass
Cassava Total biomass
Peels
Province Production Area (ha) Stem & leaves productivity
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
Bali 130,281 8,357 49,507 6,514 6.72
Papua 32,777 4,466 12,455 1,639 3.16

Figure 2-1. Mass balance of tapioca (source: PT Wira Kedaton)8

2.1.4 Maize

Indonesia accounted for a production of maize (corn) of 19 million tonnes in 2014 (Badan
Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, 2014).9
The mass balance of solid wastes generated from producing maize grain is given in ,
showing amount of husk of 15/20 tonne maize grain produced, and so as for the cobs as
other waste generated. Table 2-4 shows biomass production per ha in both provinces.

8
DatafromPTWirakencanaKedatonFactoryandTulangbawangFactory(LampungProvince)
9
http://www.bps.go.id/Brs/view/id/1122(www.bps.go.id/website/brs_ind/brsInd20150302130203.pdf)

Page 354 of 396


Table 2-4. Biomass production from maize in Bali and Papua provinces
(source:APPENDIX E)
Total
Province Production Area Cobs Husk Stalk Leaves biomass
(tonnes) (ha) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) productivity
(tonnes/ha)
Bali 30,960 17,474 23,220 23,220 46.440 30,960 7.09
Papua 8,590 4,480 6,443 6,443 12,885 8,590 7.67

Although there is a high energy potential from maize cob, the utilization of maize residue for
electricity generation would still face some barriers such as its scattered production area and
the low bulk density of corn. As a result, the transportation cost to collect the product may be
expensive. For the purpose of biomass assessment, technical and economic potential of
maize cob and stove will not be further discussed.

Figure 2-2. Types of waste generated from maize (corn) cultivation (source:
calculation)10

10
Calculation

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2.1.5 Coconut

Coconut cultivation in Indonesia was reported to have tree population between 130 180
trees/ha.11
Wood, fronds, husks and shells are common types of residues generated from coconut
cultivation and consumption. Assumed that 12 fronds are shed per tree/year throughout the
year with 1.5 kg dry woody biomass/frond, this results in 2.34 tonnes dry biomass/ha (based
on tree population of 130 trees/ha.12 Fronds are left in the field or used as a domestic fuel by
smallholder farmers.

Tall coconut starts to produce fruit at age 6 7 years. Dwarf coconut at 3-4 years, and
hybrid at 4-5 years. A hybrid coconut produces 120 fruits/tree/ha in average. The average
productive life of coconuts in Indonesia varies up to 50 years depending of the coconut
variant. Replanting is reported through gradual annual cutting of 20% old coconut tree as the
most recommended option. Replanting is suggested for coconut plant of older than 50
years.13 Tree trunks are commonly used as fuel and as timber. Taking the assumption as
given in the reference that an average coconut tree trunk is 590 kg/tree (12 m tall with
diameter of 30 cm), there would be 76.7 tonnes tree trunk biomass /ha.

Biomass wastes from coconuts fruit are husks (fiber) 28% and shell 15%. This indicates that
21,757 tonnes husks and 11,655 tonnes dry shells were generated in Bali province in 2014,
as seen in the following table.

Table 2-5. Biomass production from coconut harvesting fruit in Bali and Papua
provinces (source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass production
Production Area Fiber Shell
Province (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes) (ha) (tonnes) (tonnes)
Fiber Shell
Bali 77,703 73,012 21,757 11,655 0.3 0.16
Papua 10,959 20,572 3,068 1,644 0.15 0.08

Husks are used such as domestic fuel, for coconut processing or filling of mattresses.
Meanwhile, the shells are being used as domestic fuel and preparation of activated carbon.
From those biomass, 26,222 TJ and 93,341 TJ energy is potentially generated from coconut
cultivation in Papua and Bali province respectively.

11
http://Hutanb2011.blogspot.co.id/2013/06/agribisniskomodititanamankelapa.html
12
http://www.fao.org/deocrep/006/AD576E/ad576e00.pdf
13
http://www.ejournal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/psp/article/download/2929/2556

Page 356 of 396


2.1.6 Coffee

Coffee processing will generate waste in the form of coffee hulls. The following figure shows the
percentage of waste generation from coffee processing.

Figure 2-3. Wastes from coffee fruit (source: Peluang mendayagunakan Kulit Kopi)14

Fresh coffee fruit consists of 54.5% coffee bean, 28.7% coffee pulp, 11.9% coffee hulls and
4.9% mucilage. Based on the statistic data, biomass wastes generated in these provinces
are given in the next table.

Table 2-6. Generation of coffee hulls as biomass waste in Bali and Papua provinces
(source: APPENDIX E)
Production Hulls Biomass Productivity
Province Area (ha)
(tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
Bali 12,364 28,970 2,699.7 0.09
Papua 1,604 9,138 350.2 0.04

Coffee husk have a calorific value of 18.34 MJ/kg (Moisture Content 6.7%)15. The productive
life of coffee tree varies in the range of 30-40 years and it starts to bear fruits (mature plant)
after around 2.5-3 years.

14
PeluangMendayagunakanKulitKopiSebagaiBahanPakanDalamSistemIntegrasiTanamanternak
Ruminansia
15
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/196103/tab3/

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There are a number of coffee varieties of Arabica and Robusta cultivated in the country,
varies in an average productivity of 800 1,700 kg/ha/year and population variation of 1,600
2,000 trees/ha, depending on the varieties.16
It is suggested from a reference that cultivation of coffee with a tree population of 1,600 per
hectare, and thus this figure is adopted in this report.17
No information is available on the actual residues generated during pruning activities in the
country. An estimate of 1-5 MT/ha/year biomass residues, based on a reference value, was
made for the biomass resulted due to pruning activity.18

2.1.7 Cocoa
According to the Indonesian statistic, the cacao production in Bali and Papua provinces is
presented inTable 2-7.

Table 2-7. Cocoa husk production in Bali and Papua provinces (source: APPENDIX E)
Pod Pruning Replanting Biomass
Production Area
Province husk (tonnes) (tonnes) Productivity
(tonnes) (ha)
(tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
Bali 6,891 14,145 6,361 356,454 3,259 0.45
Papua 6,826 17,417 6,301 438,908 4,013 0.36

Cacao cultivation would generate wastes due to fruit harvesting, pruning activity and
replanting. Harvesting cocoa beans from cocoa fruits will produce cocoa pod husk of
approximately 48%of the total fruit harvested, which is normally disposed at the plantation
for fertilizer.

The average productive life of cacao tree is 20-25 years during which regular pruning is
required.

Cocoa plantation generates wastes from pruning process, replanting and fruit harvesting.
1. Pruning (throughout the year):
Trees have to be pruned regularly to keep them at acceptable size, cutting cocoa
trees through pruning activity is assumed to result in 25.2 tonne dry biomass/ha/year
(generating branches, twigs, leaves).19
2. Replanting:20

16
http://Iccri.net/bahantanamkopi/
17
http://web.ipb.ac.id/tepfteta/elearning/media/Teknik%20Pasca%Panen/tep440_files/Pengolahankopi.htm
(web.ipb.ac.id/~usmanahmad/Pengolahankopi.htm)
18
https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Coffea_arabica.html#Energy
19
https://cdm.unfccc.int/filestorage/E/9/B/E9BNZ5TOP4QWJVKC3X0S72D6LFYU1A/Biomass%20Assessment_supporting%20Appn.7?t=TX
B8bzBoZW40fDBc9AZMy5kEyfqK77BWwzr

Page 358 of 396


Replanting involves replacing non-productive or old trees after 25 years.
As there is no official value on biomass generation from this activity, it is estimated as
45.76 dry tonnes/ha of biomass generated from replanting. It is assumed that the tree
trunk has calorific value of 18 MJ/kg.
3. Harvesting: dry cocoa pod husk (calorific value 17 MJ/kg) 21 is generated at 48%
while cocoa bean is produced at 52% of the fruit.

2.1.8 Candlenuts (Aleurites moluccana (L.) Wild)

Based on the national statistic 2015, candlenut production in the country was 107,300
tonnes22.
A dry nut could have weight in the range of 8-14 gram/nut. Each kilogram of candlenuts seed
will produce 30% hazelnut core and 70% shell.23

Figure 2-4. Parts of candlenuts (source: B.H.Tambunan et.al)24

Candlenut tree could have reached a height between 15 -25 m.25 It is reported that the trees
at age of 24.5 years could have an average diameter of 46.9 and 25.2 m height.26
Candlenut tree has high productivity between 11-35 years. A 15 years old candlenut tree is
reported able to produce 1,000 - 2,000 nuts or in average 20 kg/tree/year27. Tree could still

20
assumedoccursevery25years,producing48kgdrybiomass
21
http://www.jpeces.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/JML/article/view/246/182
22
http://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1670
23
http://isomase.org/JOMAse/Vol.9%20Jul%202014/93.pdf
24
http://isomase.org/JOMAse/Vol.9%20Jul%202014/93.pdf
25
www.jurnalasia.com/2014/02/19/15803/
26
https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books?BKrisnawati1107.pdf
27
http://balittro.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ind/images/file/Perkembangan%20TRO/edsusvol18no2/1KEMIRI.pdf

10

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produce nuts at 70 years, but only producing 8 kg peeled nuts/year. At this age a candlenut
tree could have reached a diameter of 110 cm.28

In Hawai, candlenuts trees are cultivated with a population in the range of 200 300
trees/ha. In Indonesia it is cultivated in various tree spacing, depending on the objective of
the cultivation; for multi culture / agroforestry (spacing 6 x 6 m or 8 x 8 m), monoculture
(spacing 3 x 3 m or 4 x 4 m), for pulp wood production (4 x 4 m), for candlenut oil production
(10 x 10 m).

Biomass from candlenuts cultivation could be obtained from the shells and tree trunk from
replanting activity. Taking the residue to product ratio of 2.33, biomass from shell of
approximately 0.71 tonnes/ha and 2.33 tonnes/ha could be produced in Papua province and
Bali province respectively.

The tree of 30 years were reported to have an average volume 432 m3/ha (assuming
average tree density of 310 kg/m3, moisture content 15%). For high nuts productivity,
replanting period of 20 years could be assumed for the tree.29

Table 2-8. Biomass productivity generated from candlenuts harvesting (source:


APPENDIX E)
Replanting
Production Area Shell Biomass Productivity
Province Trunk
(tonnes) (ha) (tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes)
Bali 1 44 2.33 5,892 0.05
Papua 63 207 147 27,721 0.71

2.1.9 Sugarcane

Sugarcane cultivation generates wastes in the form of cane tops (leaves) and bagasse and
sugar molasses from the processing of sugarcane. Residue generated from harvesting
sugarcane is sugarcane tops and leaves (average value 12.6 MJ/kg, moisture content
30%).30

28
http://isomase.org/JOMAse/Vol.9%20Jul%202014/93.pdf
29
https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books?BKrisnawati1107.pdf
30
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf

11

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About 30-33% wt of sugarcane processed would be land at the end of the process as solid
residue (fresh bagasse, Moisture content 50%, calorific value 7.7 MJ/kg).31 The sugarcane
processing yield in the country is approximately 7%-8%.

Table 2-9. Biomass generated from sugarcane harvesting and processing (source:
APPENDIX E)
Biomass Productivity
Tops &
National/ Production Area Bagasse (tonnes/ha/year)
leaves
Province (tonnes) (ha) (tonnes/ha) Bagasse
(tonnes/ha)
Cane tops & leaves
Indonesia
2,728,393 487,095 23.6 1.19 24.55
(National)
Bali 0 0 - - -
Papua 2 56 0.012 0.001 0.012

At sugarcane production of 2 tonnes in 2014, Papua produced only 0.66 tonnes


baggase/year. This corresponds to potential energy of approximately 3 GJ. Currently,
bagasse has been used by most sugar mills as fuel for sugarcane processing.
Considering the residues above, sugarcane cultivation has generated a potential energy of
15 GJ in that year from bagasse and sugarcane top and leaves.

Figure 2-5. Schematic sugarcane processing (based on national data), (source: Case
Study Indonesian sugar industry)32
1 ha
area of
sugar plantation

Haytop (1.34 t/y)

Imbibition Chemicals
water

80 t/y Cooking
Sugar Mill Purification Evaporation and White
cane station station station Centrifuge Sugar
station 4800-5600 Kg Sugar

Bagasse Filter Cake (Blotong) Molasses


2400 Kg of Bagasse 8000 kWh

31
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
32
CaseStudyIndonesiansugarindustry

12

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2.1.10 Oil Palm wastes

As shown in
Figure 2-6, every hectare of oil palm plantation shall result in approximately 74.48 tonnes
(dw) of oil palm trunks, 14.47 tonnes (dw)33 of oil palm fronds during replanting, 10.40
tonnes/ha on annual pruning, 10.59 tonnes (dw) of empty fruit bunch (EFB) waste, 1,626 kg
(dw) of mesocarp fiber, and 938 kg (dw) of palm kernel shells. All of these solid wastes
contain energy that can be recovered by combustion in a boiler. In addition, each tonne of
FFB processed results in around 0.6 m3 of palm oil mill effluent (POME).
Total number of trees planted per hectare varies for each oil palm plantation company. A
range of 125135 trees planted per hectare is the most utilized, based on feedback given by
PTPN III.
One hectare of oil palm plantation will yield the following biomass after felling:
1) Oil Palm Trunk: Dry weight approx. 75 tonnes/ha, with a tree density of 125-- 135 palms
/ha
2) Oil Palm Fronds:
a. Felling: 14.47 tonnes/ha (dry weight)
b. Annual pruning during productive life: 10.4 tonnes/ha (dry weight)

Figure 2-6. Distribution of Oil Palm Biomass (source: Sabri Ahmad et.al 2009)34

33
dw=dryweight
34
SabriAhmadandChooYuenMay,NextGenerationBiofuels:MalaysianExperience,InternationalConferenceonGreenIndustryinAsia,
Manila,Philippines,911September2009
(http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/UNIDO_Header_Site/Subsites/Green_Industry_Asia_Conference_Manila_/Biofuel_Malayis
a.ppt)

13

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Table 2-10. Biomass from Oil Palm plantation (source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass Biomass
CPO Biomass
National/ waste from waste from
Production Area (ha) Production
Province processing plantation area
(tonnes) (tonnes/ha)
(ton/ha) (tonnes)
National 30,948,931 11,444,808 4.43 143,407,865 17.25
Bali 0 0 - - -
Papua 76,857 55,944 2.40 701,000 14.93

2.2 BIOMASS FOREST RESOURCES

2.2.1 Rubber wood

Indonesia has becoming the second-largest rubber producer worldwide, which supplies a
substantial amount of rubber to the international market. According to data from the Ministry
of Agriculture (Directorate General of Estate Crops), the total natural rubber production in
2015 amounted to 3.2 million tonnes, which produced from 3.6 million ha plantations
scattered across Indonesia.35 The product from such plantation is in the form of latex. About
85% of the total production is exported (Indonesia Investment).36

Rubber wood has a calorific value of about 15 MJ/kg at moisture content of 20%, with
estimated wood density of 0.6 tonne/m3.
Rubber plantations in the country are managed by small holders (farmers), private
companies or the state company (Badan Usaha Milik Negara/BUMN, The Government
owned State Company). About 80% of Indonesias rubber production is accounted for by
small holders (farmers). Rubber plantations managed by smallholders are mostly located in
Sumatera and Kalimantan islands, while that managed by private company are in Sumatera
and Java (totally 488 companies).

The average period of effective yield of rubber trees in Indonesia is 25 years (around 20-30
years). As a result, 3-4% of the rubber plantation area must be replanted every year after
cutting the trees due to aging. For this purpose, old trees must be felled. Wood residue is
sourced from replanting of rubber trees after the trees 30 years. In this report, it is assumed
that the waste generation is 3% of the total area of rubber plantation.

35
http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id/tinymcpuk/gambar/file/statistik/2015/KARET%202013%202015.pdf
36
http://www.indonesiainvestments.com/id/bisnis/komoditas/karet/item185

14

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Biomass production from rubber plantation is shown in Figure 4. Per hectare of rubber
plantation area will produce about 180 m3.

Based on the research from two rubber plantations in Subang (West Java) and Cilacap
(Central Java), it followed that for every hectare of rubber plantation will produce dry rubber
wood (ready for fire wood) of at least 100 tonne/ha. The total wood product from the rubber
plantation above, therefore, is around 10 million tonnes/year.

Wood resulted from rubber tree cutting composes of 40% large wood log (diameter of over
10 cm) and 60% smaller wood log (or 108 m3).

Large wood log has a good economical value, used for building material or commercial
firewood. The remaining 60% wood log is in the form of pieces of tree branches, which are
generally less or not utilized, thereby they are technically potential for use as energy source.
Other potential waste is from sawmill, with totally 70% of the processed rubber wood log
(70% x 40% x 180 m3/ha = 50.4 m3/ha). The total waste from rubber trees processing is thus
158.4 m3/ha or 95 tonne/ha.
Replanting process that takes place every 25 years, further contributes 0.91 tonnes /ha and
1.94 tonnes/ha from sawmilling wastes and branches (including twigs etc.) respectively in
Bali province. Calculating the 25 years between replanting, the potential of energy is 24,571
GJ/year and 434,209 GJ/year in Bali province and Papua province respectively.

Table 22-11 Biomass production from rubber tree (source: APPENDIX E)


Total Total
Area biomass branches, Biomass Productivity
Province
(ha) sawmilling twigs etc. (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes) (tonnes)
Bali 551 499.6 1,070.6 2.85
Papua 9,737 8,829 18,919 2.85

15

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Figure 2.2- 1 Balance of rubber wood waste (source: Production Potential of
Rubberwood in Malaysia)37

2.2.2 Forest residues

Waste generated from forest logging is distinguished in timber cutting waste, skidding or
yarding waste, hauling waste and transportation waste.
Timber waste is divided in two sources:
a. Logging waste in forest, that is waste generated due to logging
b. Processing wood waste, that is waste generated due to wood industry activities such as
sawmill, furniture processing etc.

Forest logging
Timber logging consists of a series of activities including transferring wood from forest to a
processing plant through timber cutting activities, skidding or yarding (transferring logs from
timber cutting area (cutting lot) to a temporary wood collecting area at the road side,
transportation and grading.

37
ProductionPotentialofRubberwoodinMalaysia:ItsEconomicChallenges

16

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Logging wastes, according to the Government Regulation of Indonesia No.59 of 1998, are
timber wastes generated from allowed felling, that are not or has not yet been utilized in the
form of trimming of stems, stumps, twigs, shoots with a diameter of less than 30 cm or a
length of less than 1.30 m.

The result of research on waste potential to some exploitation of natural forest and industrial
plantation forest in Indonesia is as in the following table.

Table 22-12 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: Limbah
Pemanenan Dan Faktor Eksploitasi Pada Pengusahaan Hutan Tanaman Industri)38
Kind of forest Location; Researcher; Year Waste potential
Natural forest 23 HPH in 9 provinces; Simarmata & 23,6%
Sastrodimedjo; 1980
South Kalimantan; Sugiri; 1981 51%
East Kalimantan; Widiananto; 1981 39,9%
Laut Island, South Kalimantanl; 20,4%
Sianturi 1982
PT Medang Kerang Jaya, West 1,55 m3/tree
Kalimantan; Thaib; 1990
8 areal HPH di Central Kalimantan and 5,61 m3/tree for conventional logging
South Kalimantan; Dulsalam; 1990 techniques
4,51 m3/tree for low-impact logging
techniques
PT Austral Byna MuaraTeweh, Central 114,304 m3/ha
Kalimantan;
Butarbutar; 1991
PT Narkata Rimba, East Kalimantan; 86.46 m3/ha
Sukanda; 1995
PT Suka Jaya Makmur, West 13,704 m3/ha for conventional logging
Kalimantan; Muhdi; 2001 techniques
11,059 m3/ha for low-impact logging
techniques
HPH PT Sumalindo Lestari Jaya II; 3.80% (26.28 m3/ha )
Sasmita; 2003
HutanTanaman Industri/ South Kalimantan; Hidayat; 2000 17.6%
Forest plantation HPHTI Kayu Pertukangan BKPH 16,8% (60.12 m3/ha)
Cikeusik, KPH Banten; Gustian; 2004
HPHTI Kayu Pertukangan BKPH 21%
Gunung Kencana, KPH Banten; Safitri;
2004
HutanTanaman Industri/ PT INHUTANI II, Pulau Laut, South 10,583% (27,456 m3/ha)
Forest plantation Kalimantan; Rawenda; 2004
PT INHUTANI II, Pulau Laut, South 23.268%
Kalimantan; Kartika; 2004
HPHTI PT Musi Hutan Persada, South 29.32 m3/ha
Sumatera; Rishadi; 2004

38
LimbahPemanenanDanFaktorEksploitasiPadaPengusahaanHutanTanamanIndustri

17

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In this report, it is assumed that timber waste comes from production forest which is
periodically harvested every 5 year. The amount of timber waste is calculated as follow:
Timber waste = 29.32 m3/ha x 0.866 t/m3 x production forest area (ha): 5.

When the production of log is known, logging waste is calculated as follow:


Logging waste is 21% of that processed logs, while the log production is 79%.
Therefore, logging waste = 21/79 x log production x 0.866 tonne/m3.

Table 22-13 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass biomass
timber logging Biomass Productivity
Province Area (ha)
felling waste waste (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes) (tonnes)
Bali
Papua 32,429,487 8,829 18,919 2.85

Sawmilling industry

The average rendement (yield) from sawmilling is 50%, available in various types and sizes
of planks and wood beam. Based on processed logs, for example, from 1 million m3/year,
around 0.5 million m3/year of waste will be generated in the form of pieces of planks, tree
bark, beam discharged, small pieces and sawdust (estimated to be about 15% of the total
waste).

Utilization of wood waste generated by sawmill differ from one place to another. But in
general, not all waste can be utilized appropriately. Each sawmill always leaves about 50%
of the waste or about 0.25 million m3/year, which has to be destroyed by incineration or
landfilling.

Wood waste from sawmilling industry is calculating as follow: 50% x sawn timber (m3) x
0.866 tonnes/m3.
Therefore, the total logging waste and processing of wood waste: [(21/79 x logs production
(log) x 0.866 tonnes/m3) + (50% x sawn timber (m3) x 0.866 tonnes/m3)] tonnes/year.

18

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Table 22-14 Waste potential from various categories of forests (source: APPENDIX E)
Total
biomass Biomass Productivity
Province Area (ha)
sawmilling (tonnes/ha)
(tonnes)
Bali
Papua 32,429,487 8,829 2.85

2.2.5 Logging residue of Acacia Mangium


(Case at PT. Tanjung Enim Lestari)

Acacia mangium is a fast-growing plant with a yield of about 200-250 m3/ha in year five.
Such plants can be harvested at the age of 5 years.

Using the conversion from tonne to m3, where 1 m3 = 0.866 tonnes (PT. Musi Hutan
Persada).

Harvesting waste generated at HTI Pulp is 24.09 m3/ha which consists of felling waste of
3.47 m3/ha, skidding waste of 2.59 m3/ha, loading/landings waste of 1.48 m3/ha and
transportation waste of 16.56 m3/ha.

The percentage of waste harvesting activities at HTI Pulp is 10.5 % of the total potential
utilized which consists of felling waste 1.7 %, 1.3 % skidding waste, waste of landings 0.9 %
and the transportation waste 6.6 %.

Acacia mangium residues are generated from felling residue in the form of stems, stumps,
twigs and branches that are mostly left in the forest. In the industrial processing, common
wastes available are in the form of logs and pieces and dominated by sawdust.

The average weight of acacia wood at age 5 is 133.1 tonnes/ha or 178.66 kg/tree (the
number of trees at age 5 is 745 trees/ha). Approximately 30 % will be in the form of waste.
Waste of timber harvesting in the Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No.
59 of 1998 is a timber that is not or has not been utilized on activities that involves allowed
tree cutting (felling), in the form of stems trimming, stumps, twigs, shoots which have a
diameter of less than 30 cm or length less than 1.3 m.
Thus, calculated acacia felling residue: 178.66 kg / tree x 30 % x number of trees : 5

19

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Table 22-15 Estimated waste potential from acacia replanting activity
(source: APPENDIX E)
Biomass
Number Biomass Productivity
Province production39
trees (tonnes/ha/year)
(tonnes/year)
Bali 534 5.72 7.99
Papua 4,728 50.68 7.99

2.2.6 Elephant Grass (Rumput Gajah/Pennisetum purpureum)

The growth and production of Elephant grass are greatly varies in Indonesia, depending on
fertilization, location, rainfall and other factors.
High productivity of the grass could produce various weight of fresh elephant grass weight,
in the range of 21.4 tonnes/ha - 525 tonnes/ha. In this report, the elephant grass productivity
is assumed to be 21.4 tonnes (fresh)/ha/year.
Typical yield in the range 25-35 oven dry tonnes per hectare annually (equals to 100
boe/ha). The grass could be harvested up to four times within a year.
Elephant grass has an average moisture content of 75% with a calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg.
Therefore, the biomass produced from elephant grass is estimated equals to 491.6 TJ.

Table 22-16 Biomass from elephant grass (source: APPENDIX E)


Forest area Biomass waste Biomass Production
Province
(ha) production (tonnes/year) (tonnes/ha/year)
Papua 5,138 109,953 21.40

2.3 BIOMASS URBAN RESOURCES

2.3.1 Municipal Solid Waste

MSW is the waste generated by sectors such as residential, commercial, industrial, and
institutional. The major biomass components in MSW are food, vegetable waste and paper.
There are four main types of MSW management: landfilling, incineration, composting and
anaerobic digestion.
On average, a waste generation rate is 0.76 kg/day/person or 3.68 liters/day/person of solid
waste. Thus, with total population 4,104,90040 the waste generation of urban area of Bali is

39
Intheformofstemtrimmed,stumps,twigs,shoots,etc
40
www.bappeda.baliprov.go.id/files/subdomain/bappeda/file/BUKU%20Bali%20MEMBANGUN%20TAHUN%202014.pdf

20

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estimated at 3,119.7 tonnes/day of MSW. Biomass fraction in the MSW is a resource that
can be converted to electricity, heat gaseous and liquid fuels through thermo-chemical
(incineration, pyrolisis, and gasification), and bio-chemical (anaerobic digestion and
fermentation) conversion processes.

Volume of MSW generation varies among cities in Bali province (2012); Denpasar (1,904
m3/day), Badung Regency (1.151 m3/day), Buleleng (322 m3/day), Gianyar (415 m3/day),
Tabanan (331 m3/day), Jembrana (281 m3/day), Klungkung (150 m3/day), Karangasem (120
m3/day) and Bangli (124 m3/day)41.

41
www.bappeda.baliprov.go.id/files/subdomain/bappeda/file/RPJMD%20TAHUN%2020132018/BAB%20IV_RPJMD_Final.pdf

21

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APPENDIX A: FRESH AND DRY WEIGHT RATIO OF BIOMASS

Bali province
Fresh&Dry Moisture
Production Fresh dry
BiomassTypes WeightRatio content
(t/ha) weight weight
(%) (%)
Rice
Ricehusk 1.36 116% 14%42 100 86
RiceStraw 5.46 385% 74%43 100 26
Corn
Cobs 1.33 1.25 20%44 100 80
Husk 1.33 2.00 50%45 100 50
Sugarcane
Bagasse 23.36 2.00 50% 100 50
Coconut
Shell 0.16 1.09 8% 100 92
Fiber 0.30 1.43 30% 100 70
Cocoa
Shell 0.45 1.19 16% 100 84
Candlenut
Shell 0.06 1.11 10%46 100 90.5
Cassava
Stem/leaves 5.94 3.31 70%47 100 30
Peanuts
Shell 0.25 125% 20% 100 80
Coffee
Hulls 0.09 107% 6.7% 100 93.3
PalmOil
PKS 0.63 118% 15% 100 85
MF 1.27 167% 40% 100 60
EFB 2.53 286% 65% 100 35
POME 6.90
Trunks 11.92 400% 75% 100 25
Leaves 41.34 286% 65% 100 35
Rubberwood
Wastewood 2.85 188% 47% 100 53
ProductionForest

42
https://core.ac.uk/display/11704441(eprints.undip.ac.id/3376/1/MAKALAH_KARAKTERISTIK_PENGERINGAN_GABAH.pdf
(byAhmadMHWinataandRachmatPrasetiyo))
43
Balitnak.litbang.pertanian.go.id/phocadownload/JITV/litkayasa/ptek9918.pdf
44
http://renewables.morris.umn.edu/biomass/documents/ZychViabilityOfCornCobsAsABioenergyFeedstock.pdf
45
http://renewables.morris.umn.edu/biomass/documents/ZychViabilityOfCornCobsAsABioenergyFeedstock.pdf
DaronZych:BiomassResearchIntern,WCROCUniversityofMinnesota,ViabilityofCornCobsasaBioenergyFeedstock.
46
http://isomase.org/JOMAse/Vol.9%20Jul%202014/93.pdf
47
Pelletforbundet.se/wpcontent/uploads/2015/01/RAPPORT2014Kassavasomadditivvidpelleteringavbiobrnsle.pdf
(OscarLockneus)

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Fresh&Dry Moisture
Production Fresh dry
BiomassTypes WeightRatio content
(t/ha) weight weight
(%) (%)
Woodwaste 5.08 220% 55% 100 45
Acacia
Fellingwaste 7.99 118% 15% 100 85
Grassland
Elephantgrass 21.4 417% 76%48 100 24

Papua province

Fresh&
Moisture
Production Dry Fresh dry
content
(t/ha) Weight weight weight
(%)
Ratio(%)
Paddy
Ricehusk 0.52 116% 14% 100 86
Ricestraw 2.05 385% 74% 100 26
Maize
Cob 1.59 1.25 20% 100 80
Husk 1.59 2.00 50% 100 50
Sugarcane
Bagasse 0.012 2.00 50% 100 50
Tops&Leaves 0.001 1.43 30% 100 70
Coconut
Shell 0.08 1.09 8% 100 92
Fiber 0.15 1.43 30% 100 70
Cocoa
Podhusk 0.36 1.19 16% 100 83.9
Candlenuts
Shell 0.71 1.11 10% 100 90.46
Cassava
Stem&leaves 2.80 3.31 70% 100 30.2
Groundnuts
Shell 0.15 125% 20% 100 80
Coffee
Husks 0.04 107% 6.7% 100 93
PalmOil
PKS 0.38 118% 15% 100 85
MF 0.93 167% 40% 100 60
EFB 1.51 286% 65% 100 35

48
Balitnak.litbang.pertanian.go.id/phocadownload/JITV/litkayasa/ptek9918.pdf
(LokakaryaFungsionalNonPeneliti1999:"KONVERSIDATAHASILANALISISPROKSIMATKEDALAMBAHANSEGAR",BalaiPenelitianTernak,
PoBox221,Bogor16002)

23

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Fresh&
Moisture
Production Dry Fresh dry
content
(t/ha) Weight weight weight
(%)
Ratio(%)
POME 4.12
Trunks 11.93 400% 75% 100 25
Leaves(Frond) 41.34 286% 65% 100 35
Rubberwood
Woodwaste 2.85 188% 47% 100 53
ProductionForest
Woodwaste 5.10 220% 55% 100 45
Acacia
Fellingwaste 7.99 118% 15% 100 85
Grassland
Elephantgrass 21.4 417% 76% 100 24

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APPENDIX B: YIELD AND HEATING VALUE OF BIOMASS

Yield and Heating Value

Residuals from Agriculture/Plantation

ResidualContent
Yield HeatingValue
Products oftotal
(t/ha) (MJ/Kg)
Production(%)

6.82(Bali)
25%(husk) 14.0(husk,atMC12%)49
Rice 6.58(Papua)
100%(straw) 11.7(straw,atMC50%)50


15%(cobs)
15%(husk) 14.6(cob,atMC14%)51
7.09(Bali)
Maize 20%(leaves) 10.5 (husk, stalk, leaves, at
7.67(Papua)
30%(stalk) MC40%)52

24.55
33%(bagasse) 7.7(bagasse,atMC50%)53
(National)
Sugarcane 1.68% (hay top 12.6 (hay top cane, at MC
0.012(Papua)
cane) 30%)54

19(fiber,atMC10%)55
15%(shell)
0.46(Bali) 18(shell,atMC13%)56
Coconut 28%(fiber)
0.23(Papua) 18(Fronds)57

18(trunk,atMC11%)58
17 (cocoa pod husk, at MC
48% (cocoa pod
0.45(Bali) 16.1%)59
Cocoa husk)
0.36(Papua) 18 (pruning, wood

replanting)60
0.05(Bali)
Candlenut 70%(shell)61 21.96(shell)62
0.71(Papua)
6.7(Bali)
38%(stem/leaves) 17.4(stem,atMC15%)63
Cassava 3.16(Papua)
5%(peels 4.97(peels,atMC70.4%)64

49
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
50
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
51
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
52
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
53
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
54
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
55
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
56
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
57
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
58
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
59
http://www.jpeces.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/JML/article/view/246/182
60
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
61
http://isomase.org/JOMAse/Vol.9%20Jul%202014/93.pdf
62
http://www.jpeces.ugm.ac.id/ojs/index.php/JML/article/view/246/182
63
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
64
www.inderscienceonline.com/doi/abs/10.1504/IJTEM.2015.068414

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0.16(Bali)
Groundnut 20%(shell) 16.42(shell,atMC8%)65
0.15(Papua)
0.09(Bali) 11.9%(husk)
Coffee 18.34(husk,atMC6.7%)66
0.04(Papua)
EFB = 22% 5(EFB,atMC45%)68
4.43(Bali) FFB67Fiber=13.5% 14(Fiber,atMC30%)69
Palmoil 2.25(Papua) FFB (1.626 18(Shell,atMC15%)70
tons/ha)
Shells=5.5%FFB

Plantation

HeatingValue
BiomassTypes Annualproduction(t/ha)
(MJ/Kg)
18.2(pruningand 14(Palmfronds,
replanting) MC20%)71
PalmOil(branches,deadtree,etc.)
15(Palmtrunks,
MC20%)72
2.85 (Bali, Papua, from
18(wood,
Rubber(branches,twigs,etc.) sawmilling & branches,
replanting)73
twigsetc)
2.52(Bali,Papua,from
Coffee(branches,twigs,etc.) Notavailable
pruning)
79.04 (Bali, trunk &
frondsreplanting) 18(fronds)74
Coconut(branches,twigs,etc.)
79.04 (Papua, trunk & 18(trunk)75
frondsreplanting)
25.7(Bali,pruningand 18(pruning)76
replanting) 18 (trunk
Cocoa(branches,twigs,etc.)
25.6(Papua,pruningand replanting,
replanting) dry)77
134 (Bali, Papua, assumed as
Candlenut(branches,twigs,etc.)
replantingtrunk) wood
Cassava(branches,twigs,etc.) 5.92(Bali,stem&leaves) 17.5 (stem &

65
https://www.ecn.nl/phyllis2/Biomass/View/2789
66
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/196103/tab3/
67
EFB=EmptyFruitBunch,FFB=FreshFruitBunch
68
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
69
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
70
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
71
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
72
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
73
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
74
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
75
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
76
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
77
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)

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2.79 (Papua, stem & leaves)78
leaves)
Acacia(branches,twigs,etc.) 7.99(Bali,Papua) 20.120.579


Productionat HeatingValue
BiomassTypes Maturity(Yr.)
Maturity(t/ha) (MJ/Kg)
3(trunk,dryweight) 14(Palmfronds,
MC20%)80
PalmOilTree 2530 0.4(fronds,felling)
15(Palmtrunks,
15(fronds,pruning) MC20%)
95 ton/ha (total
wastes from logging
andsawmilling) 15(woodatMC
RubberTree 2030
180 m3/ha (108 20%)
ton/ha, total wood
harvested)
58(forpulpwood) 133.1 tonnes/ha x
81
AcaciaTree 1520 (for sawn 30% (Felling residues, 20.120.5
timber) afteryear5)

Others

Annualproduction HeatingValue
LanduseandBiomasstype
(t/ha) (MJ/Kg)

Agriculturalwaste

Elephant Grass (pennisetum 18.1 (MC


21.4
purpureum) 75%)82
Natural forest (waste leaves,

branches,etc.)

Naturalforest(timber) 1.52

Municipalsolidwaste

78
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/44808pdf(heatingvalueisLHV/LowHeatingValue)
79
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BCIFOR1105.pdf
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BKrisnawati1101.pdf
80
http://calculator2050.esdm.go.id/assets/mini_paper/bioenergi/id/Panduan%20Pengguna%20untuk%20Sektor%20Bioenergi.pdf
81
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BCIFOR1105.pdf
http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BKrisnawati1101.pdf
82
https://www.ncsu.edu/bioresources/BioRes_10/BioRes_10_4_6457_Mohammed_AKYAC_Pyolysis_Napier_Grass_Fixed_Bed_Reactor_7
443.pdf

27

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APPENDIX C: TYPES OF BIOMASS GENERATORS PLANTS

a. Gasification usually used for small capacity for mini-grid


Until recently, there is still no gasification power plant supplying electricity to the
national electricity grid..Generally, it is used for own consumption, both in industries
or for local grid.
Biomass consumption depends on feedstock types and moisture content.
The following is an example of biomass consumption for rice husk gasification with
a 400 kW in Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia.
Biomass consumption: 1.1 ~ 2.0kg/kWh (Biomass feedstock: < 20% Moisture
content in particle form)

b. Steam usually used for large capacity for industrial complex


In Indonesia, steam generated from biomass is commonly used in Palm oil mill,
sugar mill, particle board plant, dll

Biomass consumption for sugar mill factory (case of PT Gunung Madu Plantation,
2005) is as in the following:
Sugarcane milled Ton 1,849,068
Total bagasse production Ton 613,617.45
Steam per ton cane Ton/Ton 0.46
KWh per ton cane KWh/Ton 22.55

Biomass consumption at PT. Murini Samsam Palm Oil Mill:


For the mill, fuel used is palm kernel shell (PK shell) and mesocarp fiber/MB. Fuel
consumption is:
4.5 tonnes of steam per MWh; 0.25 tonne PK Shell per tonne steam
Own Consumption of PK - Shell and Fiber for Palm Oil Mill
Net Calorific Value Fiber = 2710 kcal/MT = 11.35 GJ/tonne
Net Calorific Value PK Shell = 4120 kcal/MT = 17.35 GJ/tonne
1 MT Fiber is equivalent to 0.65 MT PK Shell (caloric value)

Consumption of PK - Shell for Turbine


1 KWh requires 4.5 Kg Steam
1 MT Steam requires 250 Kg PK Shell
Power Use for Turbine = 67,977,600 kWh/year

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PK Shell Use for Turbine = 67,977,600 kWh/year x 4.5 Kg/1,000 x 250 Kg/1,000 =
76,475 MT/year
Consumption of PK - Shell for Steam Boiler for Oil Production
1 MT Steam = 250 Kg PK Shell
280,000 MT Steam/year x 250 Kg/1,000 = 70,000 MT/year

c. Case study of the existing EFB fired Co-generation in Pabatu Power Plant
(PTPN IV), North Sumatera
In Pabatu palm oil mill (POM), two factories are existed, the Pabatu POM and
Pabatu PKOM (Palm Kerneil Oil Mill). The steam for electricity generation and
factory processing in the Pabatu POM is generated by boiler using fiber and shell
as fuel. Formerly, the electricity demand of about 2.3 MW in the PKOM was
supplied by diesel generator. Since the subsidy of heavy fuel was deleted, the cost
for operating the diesel generation increased. To reduce the cost, the management
had decided to utilize EFB as fuel for biomass power plant to substitute the diesel
power generation.
Based on a common accepted material balance, solid wastes produced from a
POM is as follows:
EFB: 13.8 t/hr
Fiber: 10.8 t/hr
PKS: 4.2 t/hr

Pre-treatment
Before being fed into a furnace, EFB is dewatered by double press, mono press
and is shredded. A heated screw conveyor is used to increase the dryness level of
EFB. However, after this treatment, the moisture content is still greater than 50%. A
Stoker Boiler of Takuma N-600-SA is designed for fuelled with biomass with
moisture of 40%. This type of boiler is not designed for EFB fuel.

Biomass Power Plant Operation


In order to define energy balance in the power plant, the efficiency of boiler, turbine
and generator should be defined, by reference. Actual data is not obtained, as the
data is not publicly available. All solid wastes (MKF/fiber, PKS/shell and EFB)
produced from CPO (Crude Palm Oil) processing is used by the boiler of the
Pabatu Power Plant (PP) to generate 3 MW electricity and also used by the power
generation in the Pabatu POM to generate electricity and steam processes in the
POM at a capacity of 60 t-FFB/hr. All fiber is used for boiler fuel in Pabatu POM

29

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and all EFB is used for the fuel in Pabatu PP. Partly of the shells is used as in both
boiler of Pabatu POM and Pabatu PP. The amount of solid waste is calculated
according to the general material balance as presented in the following Figure.

Flow Process in Pabatu Biomass PP

FFB
Steam

Capacity: 3 MW
Steam Turbine
Cooling
PKO factory: 2.3 MW Tower
Pabatu 13.8 t EFB/h
Lighting and etc.

Palm 1.05 t PKS/h


Stoker Boiler
Takuma
Oil Mill Feed water N-600 SA Condensor

60 t/h
3.1 t PKS/h
Electricity

Steam
10.8 t fiber/h
steam

Steam Turbine
Boiler
Pabatu
POM

In order to increase calorie value of fuel, higher calorie of shell is fed into furnace
when the temperature of furnace is down.
All solid waste is owned by the factory, there is no cost for fuel purchase in this
case. Generated electricity is supplied to Palm Kernel Factory having demand of
2.3 MW. The remaining electricity is used to lighting etc.

30

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APPENDIX D: TERMS OF REFERENCE

TERMS OF REFERENCE

Title of the Work:

Biomass Resource Assessment Consultant (Local)

Input/ Assignment duration:

10 person-days/ intermittent starting from last week of Nov to 25 Dec 2015

Objective of the Assignment

The objective of this assignment is to assist Infrastructure Specialist (GIS) for


ongoing work on Geo-enabled Decision Support System (DSS) for National
Electrification Program.

Study Area

Bali and Papua provinces of Indonesia; Bali detailed and Papua preliminary analysis.
As much detail as possible is desired, but it is understood the level of detail of the
data may be limited by the ability to compile the data within the time available.

Specific Tasks

The consultant will work under Infrastructure Specialist (GIS) supervision. The
specific tasks are

Collect Fresh and Dry weight ratio data for broad categories of biomass in
Indonesian context (ref Annex Table 1)
Collect yield and heating value of all land use types and categories
(agriculture, plantation crops/tree, natural forest tree, etc.) in Indonesia (ref
Annex Table 2)
Brief description of types of biomass generator plants available in South and
Southeast Asia and one example of each type installed in Indonesia along
with their main features.

Deliverables

Collected data in tabular (XLS format) and reports in Microsoft word and/or
PDF format mentioned in above task
Metadata of collected data and
Brief report

Qualifications

The Consultants should have following qualifications and expertise


University degree in Agriculture, Forestry, Natural Resource Management or
related filed.
Specific training or work experience in Biomass Resource Assessment and
Renewable Energy for electrification

31

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APPENDIX :

Bali Province
Rice Maize Sugarcane Coconut

Rice Husk Corn grain Sugar cane Bagasse Hay top Blotong
No Regency Area (Ha) GKG (t) (t) Straw (t) Area (Ha) (t) Cobs (t) Husk (t) Area (Ha) (t) (t) cane (t) (t) Area (Ha) Coconut (t) Shell (t) Fiber (t)
1 Jembrana 9,363 65,710 16,427 65,710 85 352 264 264 - - - - - 17,595 15,501 2,325 4,340
2 Tabanan 32,576 211,940 52,985 211,940 644 2,316 1,737 1,737 - - - - - 14,445 14,536 2,180 4,070
3 Badung 16,955 107,970 26,992 107,970 367 1,201 901 901 - - - - - 2,471 1,585 238 444
4 Gianyar 29,713 193,982 48,496 193,982 577 752 564 564 - - - - - 4,138 3,749 562 1,050
5 Klungkung 5,655 32,061 8,015 32,061 2,705 9,407 7,039 7,039 - - - - - 3,293 5,428 814 1,520
6 Bangli 5,254 28,276 7,069 28,276 437 2,599 1,949 1,949 - - - - - 2,939 7,326 1,099 2,051
7 Karangasem 35,738 66,399 16,600 66,399 6,569 11,022 8,267 8,267 - - - - - 17,933 14,940 2,241 4,183
8 Buleleng 21,693 143,134 35,783 143,134 5,643 3,310 2,483 2,483 - - - - - 10,198 14,638 2,196 4,099
9 Denpasar 3,270 24,534 6,133 24,534 447 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Bali Province 160,217 874,005 218,501 874,005 17,474 30,960 23,204 23,204 - - - - - 73,012 77,703 11,655 21,757

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Bali Province
Cocoa Candlenut Cassava Peanuts
Cassava usage
ratio of the total
national
production by Wastewater
Candlenut Candlenut Cassava Stem/leav Cassava the industry of Onggok (COD: 15000 Peanuts Peanuts
No Regency Area (Ha) Cocoa (t) Shell (t) Area (Ha) (t) shell (t) Area (Ha) Roots (t) es (t) Peel (t) tapioca (t) ppm) Area (Ha) (t) shell (t)
1 Jembrana 5,587 2,849 2,630 - - - - - - - 0.35 - - 181 249 50
2 Tabanan 4,240 2,595 2,396 - - - - - - - 0.35 - - 38 11 2
3 Badung 566 146 135 - - - 109 2,544 970 127 0.35 57 5,106 582 901 180
4 Gianyar 227 141 130 - - - 178 1,626 620 81 0.35 36 3,263 96 164 28
5 Klungkung 55 61 57 - - - 1,325 16,403 6,254 820 0.35 367 32,919 2,084 1,678 336
6 Bangli 258 289 267 - - - 360 6,192 2,361 310 0.35 139 12,426 493 773 155
7 Karangasem 1,066 237 219 44 1 2 5,750 89,444 34,100 4,472 0.35 2,004 179,505 3,800 4,143 829
8 Buleleng 2,147 571 527 - - - 635 14,072 5,365 704 0.35 315 28,241 769 2,303 461
9 Denpasar - - - - - - - - - - 0.35 - - - - -
Bali Province 14,145 6,891 6,361 44 1 2 8,357 130,281 49,669 6,514 0.35 2,918 261,460 8,043 10,221 2,040

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Bali Province
Coffee Palm Oil Rubberwood Forest Grassland

Coffee POME Wood


Area (Ha) Coffee (t) Area (Ha) FFB (t) PKS (t) MF (t) EFB (t)
hulls (t) (m3) Total Total Productio waste of Acacia Total Area
biomass biomass Total Area n forest production Acacia wood Forest Elephant
No Regency Area (Ha) (m3) waste (t) Forest (Ha) (Ha) forest (t) (Trees) waste (t) (Ha) grass (t)
1 Jembrana 1,189 283 62 - - - - - - 551 2,975 1,571 43,624 2,993 15,201 534 6 - -
2 Tabanan 10,655 4,471 976 - - - - - - - - - 9,969 - - 3,091 33 - -
3 Badung 1,813 439 96 - - - - - - - - - 1,780 - - 7,716 83 - -
4 Gianyar 361 219 48 - - - - - - - - - - 1,116 5,667 7,265 78 - -
5 Klungkung 87 57 13 - - - - - - - - - 5,333 - - 41,448 444 - -
6 Bangli 566 484 106 - - - - - - - - - 9,916 453 2,300 4,322 46 - -
7 Karangasem 826 494 108 - - - - - - - - - 14,260 4,598 23,350 71,078 762 - -
8 Buleleng 13,474 5,917 1,292 - - - - - - - - - 41,472 200 1,016 2,893 31 - -
9 Denpasar - - - - - - - - - - - - 735 - - 4 0 - -
Bali Province 28,970 12,364 2,700 - - - - - - 551 2,975 1,571 127,089 9,360 47,534 138,351 1,483 - -

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Bali Province
Fresh & Dry
Biomass Production Moisture Fresh dry
Weight
Types (t/ha) content (%) weight weight
Ratio (%)
Rice
Rice husk 1.36 116% 14% 100 86
Straw 5.46 385% 74% 100 26
Corn
Cobs 1.33 1.25 20% 100 80
Husk 1.33 2.00 50% 100 50
Sugarcane
Bagasse #REF! 2.00 50% 100 50
Top canes #REF! 1.43 30% 100 70
Coconut
Shell 0.16 1.09 8% 100 92
Fiber 0.30 1.43 30% 100 70
Cocoa
Shell 0.45 1.19 16% 100 83.9
Candlenut
Shell 0.06 1.11 10% 100 90.46
Cassava
Stem/leaves 5.94 3.31 70% 100 30.2
Peanuts
Shell 0.25 125% 20% 100 80
Coffee
Hulls 0.09 107% 7% 100 93
Palm Oil
PKS #REF! 118% 15% 100 85
MF #REF! 167% 40% 100 60
EFB - 286% 65% 100 35
POME -
Trunks - 400% 75% 100 25
Leaves (Frond) - 286% 65% 100 35
Rubberwood
wood waste 2.85 100% 0% 100 100
Production Forest
Wood waste 5.08 100% 0% 100 100
Acacia
Felling waste 7.99 118% 15% 100 85
Grass land
Elephant grass 21.4 385% 74% 100 26

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Papua Province
Rice Maize Sugarcane

Rice Husk Corn grain Sugar Bagasse Hay top Blotong


No Regency Area (Ha) GKG (t) (t) Straw (t) Area (Ha) (t) Cobs (t) Husk (t) Area (Ha) cane (t) (t) cane (t) (t)
1 Merauke 39,191 205,452 14,670 58,679 311 95 738 738 52 - - - -
2 Jayawijaya 392 594 297 594 211 253 190 190 - - - - -
3 Jayapura 859 3,379 845 3,379 559 1,328 996 996 - - - - -
4 Nabire 1,532 6,321 1,580 6,321 408 1,023 767 767 4 2 1 0 0
5 Kepulauan Yapen 90 120 30 120 519 1,298 974 974 - - - - -
6 Biak Numfor - 8,968 2,242 8,968 224 538 403 403 - - - - -
7 Paniai - 2,537 634 2,537 265 629 472 472 - - - - -
8 Puncak Jaya 100 50 13 50 6 15 11 11 - - - - -
9 Mimika 406 1,426 357 1,426 280 633 475 475 - - - - -
10 Boven Digoel 29 87 22 87 - - - - - - - - -
11 Mappi 321 764 191 764 70 145 109 109 - - - - -
12 Asmat 321 764 191 764 - 8 6 6 - - - - -
13 Yahukimo - - - - 112 266 200 200 - - - - -
14 Pegunungan Bintang 59 154 38 154 201 409 306 306 - - - - -
15 Tolikara 2 4 1 4 495 88 66 66 - - - - -
16 Sarmi 20 88 22 88 88 95 71 71 - - - - -
17 Keerom 1,219 4,138 1,034 4,138 319 899 674 674 - - - - -
18 Waropen - - - - 6 15 11 11 - - - - -
19 Supiori - - - - 12 20 15 15 - - - - -
20 Mamberamo Raya 45 196 49 196 3 7 5 5 - - - - -
21 Nduga - - - - - - - - - - - - -
22 Lanny Jaya - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 Mamberamo Tengah - - - - - - - - - - - - -
24 Yalimo - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 Puncak 0 1 0 1 108 178 133 133 - - - - -
26 Dogiyai - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 Intan Jaya - - - - - - - - - - - - -
28 Deiyai - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 Kota Jayapura 1,126 5,486 1,372 5,486 283 649 487 487 - - - - -
Papua Province 45,713 240,527 23,587 93,755 4,480 8,590 7,110 7,110 56 2 0.66 0.034 0

Page 385 of 396


Papua Province
Coconut Cocoa Candlenut

Coconut Pod husk Candlenut Candlenut


No Regency Area (Ha) (t) Shell (t) Fiber (t) Area (Ha) Cocoa (t) (t) Area (Ha) (t) shell (t)
1 Merauke 6,651 567 85 159 - - - 207 63 147
2 Jayawijaya - - - - - - -