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CDB 3062 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY III MAY 2016 EXPERIMENT : 8-FLOWMETER MEASUREMENT GROUP : 17 GROUP

CDB 3062 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY III MAY 2016

EXPERIMENT

: 8-FLOWMETER MEASUREMENT

 

GROUP

:

17

GROUP MEMBERS

: ROSLINA AIFAR BINTI ROSLI

19414

MOHD NOOR HADEEF BIN NOOR AZLAN

19431

KOI ZI KANG

18868

MUHAMMAD AMIRUL MUKMIN BIN MARZUKHI

19030

NUR AMALINA BINTI DAWI CAHYONO

19092

LAB INSTRUCTOR

: MR ASIF

DATE OF EXPERIMENT

: 18 th JULY 2016

 

Table of Contents

  • 1.0 ...........................................................................................................................................

Summary

1

Theory

  • 2.0 ...............................................................................................................................................

2

Objectives

  • 3.0 .........................................................................................................................................

4

Procedures

  • 4.0 ........................................................................................................................................

5

  • 5.0 Results

...............................................................................................................................................

6

  • 6.0 Discussions

........................................................................................................................................

7

  • 7.0 Conclusion

10

  • 8.0 References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

...

11

  • 9.0 Appendix………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………

...

..

12

1.0 SUMMARY

The flow meter measurement experiment helps in understanding the principles of flow measurement and exposing us to different types of flow meters which resulting in different accuracies. There are many types of flow meters used in the industrial activities with different specific purpose. In this experiment, we used three types of flow meters which are integral orifice flow meter, magnetic flow meter (EMF) and Coriolis flowmeter (mass). Theoretically, the orifice flow meter has low accuracy at low flow rates. Integral orifice flow meter works on the basis of differential pressure. The differential pressure is proportional to the square of the velocity, it therefore follows that if all other factors remain constant, then the differential is proportional to the square of the rate of flow. For the magnetic flow meter (EMF), it operates on using the principle of Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction. This gives the meaning that the voltage produced is directly proportional to the flow rate. Meanwhile, the Coriolis flow meter acts differently. Its working principle is direct mass measurement that is not sensitive to changes in pressure, temperature, viscosity and density. It measures the amount of mass moving through the element. From the results that we obtained, we may conclude that the Coriolis flow meter (mass) has the highest accuracy followed by the magnetic flow meter (EMF) and then the integral orifice flow meter. Each flow meter has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, its use depends on the needs of the industry itself. Among all flowmeters, Coriolis flowmeter is highly marketable as many products are sold by weight rather than by volume, and in these cases it is often desirable to measure mass flow and this is where Coriolis flowmeter comes in.

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2.0 THEORY

2.1 ORIFICE FLOWMETER

An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create a pressure drop. A nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice can be used as the flow restriction. In order to use any of these devices for measurement it is necessary to empirically calibrate them. Due to the ease of duplicating and the simple construction, the thin sharp edged orifice has been adopted as a standard and extensive calibration work has been done so that it is widely accepted as a standard means of measuring

2.0 THEORY 2.1 ORIFICE FLOWMETER An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create

fluids.

Figure 2.1 Orifice Flowmeter

As the fluid approaches the orifice the pressure increases slightly and then dropped suddenly as the orifice is passed. It continues to drop until it reached the point of fluid

stream where the diameter of the stream is the least, and fluid velocity is at its maximum.

The decrease in pressure as the fluid passes thru the orifice is a result of the increased velocity of the gas passing thru the reduced area of the orifice. When the velocity decreases as the fluid leaves the orifice the pressure increases and tends to return to its original level.

All of the pressure loss is not recovered because of friction and turbulence losses in the stream. The pressure drop across the orifice increases when the rate of flow increases. When there is no flow there is no differential. The differential pressure is proportional to the square of the velocity, it therefore follows that if all other factors remain constant, then the differential is proportional to the square of the rate of flow.

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2.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS

Electromagnetic flow meters operate on using the principle of Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction. The voltage produced is directly proportional to the flow rate. The liquid serves as the conductor and the magnetic field is created by energized coils outside

the flow tube, while two electrodes mounted in the pipe wall detect the voltage which is measured by a secondary element. When a conductive fluid moves in a magnetic field, a voltage is generated between two electrodes at right angles to the fluid velocity and field orientation.

2.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS Electromagnetic flow meters operate on using the principle of Faraday’s L aw of

The flow tube has a fixed area & field intensity so the developed voltage is linearly proportional to the volumetric flow rate.

Electromagnetic flow meter can measure difficult and corrosive liquids and slurries, and they can measure flow in both directions with equal accuracy. It have a relatively high power consumption and can only be used for electrical conductive fluids as water.

Figure 2.2 Magnetic Flowmeter

Magnetic flow meter has been used worldwide because of its flow rate unaffected by fluid density, consistency, viscosity, turbulence, or piping configuration. In addition, magnetic flow meter is highly accurate due to absence of moving parts/ external sensing lines and its corrosion-resistant ability which used Teflon liner and platinum electrodes. Plus, it has wide flow measuring ranges & no pressure drop.

However, magnetic flow meter is costly compared to other flow meter types. The temperature of the fluids being metered limited by the liner material rating causing it is unable to be used for gas flow measurement.

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2.3 CORIOLIS FLOWMETER

Direct mass measurement sets Coriolis flowmeters apart from other technologies. Mass measurement is not sensitive to changes in pressure, temperature, viscosity and density. Coriolis flowmeters are universal meters as it has the ability to measure liquids, slurries and gases.

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter uses the Coriolis effect to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. The fluid to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in an angular harmonic oscillation. Due to the Coriolis forces, the tubes will deform and an additional vibration component will be added to the oscillation. This additional component causes a phase shift on some places of the tubes which can be measured with sensors.

2.3 CORIOLIS FLOWMETER Direct mass measurement sets Coriolis flowmeters apart from other technologies. Mass measurement is

Figure 2.3 Coriolis Flowmeter

The Coriolis flow meters are in general high in accuracy, and capable of measuring difficult handling fluids. The Coriolis meter can also be used to measure the fluids density. It is independent of density changes, flow profile and flow turbulence. Hence straight lengths are not required. Plus, no routine maintenance required since no moving parts. On the other side, Coriolis meter is more expensive compared to other flow meters. In addition, its high flow velocities required for detection resulting in high pressure drop, and difficult to measure low pressure gases.

3.0 OBJECTIVES

The objective of this experiment are:

  • 1. To introduce various types of flowmeters commonly found in industrial applications.

  • 2. The principles of flow measurements and accuracies of each flowmeters.

  • 3. To familiarize methods of flow measurement of an incompressible liquid.

Problem Statement: What are the accuracies of different types of flowmeters at various flow rates?

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4.0 PROCEDURES

Experiment A: Orifice Flowmeter VS Calibration Tank

1. The hand valves positions were made sure to be as follow:

Close: HV511, HV514, HV515, HV516, HV518, HV519, HV520, HV521, HV525, HV526 Open: HV512, HV517, HV522, HV523 Pump P-501 was started, HV524 was used to regulate the flowrate to 10L/min then HV525 was opened. 2) When the water level reached 0L at the sight glass SG505, the stopwatch was started.

3) The time taken to fill 50 liters of water was recorded and the reading on the flowmeter was recorded.

4) The experiment was repeated with a flowrate of 15L/min.

Experiment B: Magnetic Flowmeter VS Calibration Tank

1) The hand valves positions were made sure to be as follow:

Close: HV511, HV514, HV515, HV516, HV518, HV519, HV522, HV523, HV525, HV526 Open: HV512, HV517, HV518, HV519 Pump P-501 was started, HV524 was used to regulate the flowrate to 10L/min and HV525 was opened. 2) When the water level reached 0L at the sight glass SG505, the stopwatch was started.

3) The time taken to fill 50 liters of water was recorded and the reading on the flowmeter was recorded.

4) The experiment was repeated with a flowrate of 15L/min.

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Experiment C: Coriolis Flowmeter VS Calibration Tank

1) The hand valves positions were made sure to be as follow:

Close: HV511, HV515, HV516, HV520, HV521, HV522, HV523, HV525, HV526 Open: HV512, HV517, HV518, HV519 Pump P-501 was started, HV524 was used to regulate the flowrate to 10L/min and HV525 was opened. 2) When the water level reached 0L at the sight glass SG505, the stopwatch was started.

3) The time taken to fill 50 liters of water was recorded and the reading on the flowmeter was recorded.

4) The experiment was repeated with a flowrate of 15L/min

5.0 RESULTS

i) Table

Types of

FT - 503 Integral Orifice

FT - 502 Magnetic Flowmeter

FT - 501 Coriolis Flowmeter

flowmeter

 

Flowmeter

   

(EMF)

   

(Mass)

 

Input

                       

Flowrate, V 1

10

10

  • 15 15

  • 10 10

  • 10 15

  • 15 15

  • 10 15

(L/min)

Volume, V (L)

Constant

50

50

 
  • 50 50

   
  • 50 50

  • 50 50

 
  • 50 50

 
  • 50 50

 

fill 50L, t (min)

Time taken to

5.27

 
  • 5.20 5.20

3.48

3.48

   
  • 5.22 3.42

3.44

 
  • 5.20 5.18

   
  • 3.42 3.40

Measured

                       

Flowrate, V 2 =

V/t (L/min)

9.49

  • 9.62 9.62

14.37

14.37

  • 9.58 14.6

14.53

  • 9.62 9.65

  • 14.6 14.7

Accuracy (%) =

           

(V 2 /V 1 ) * 100%

95.52

95.79

95.97

97.18

96.34

97.75

Table 5.1: Data Collected for Three Different Types of Flowmeters

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ii) Graph

95 98 96 97.5 96.5 95.5 97 Accuracy (%) 20 10 15 0 5
95
98
96
97.5
96.5
95.5
97
Accuracy (%)
20
10
15
0
5

Accuracy vs Flow Rate

  • Magnetic Flowmeter

  • Coriolis Flowmeter

Flow Rate (L/min)

  • Orifice Flowmeter

Graph 5.1: Graph of Accuracy vs Flow Rate

6.0 DISCUSSIONS

The purpose of this experiment is to introduce various types of flowmeters commonly found in industrial applications, to understand the principles of flow measurements and accuracies of each flowmeter and to familiarize methods of flow measurement of an incompressible liquid. Flowmeter is an instrument used to measure the amount of liquid, gas or vapor that passes through them. In some flow meter the flow is measured as the amount of fluid passing through the flow meter during a time period (such as 100 liters per minute) whereas other flow meters measure the totalized amount of fluid that has passed through the flow meter (such as 100 liters). Various types of flowmeters have different working principles and yield different accuracies in measurement.

In this experiment, 3 types of flowmeters: integral orifice flowmeter, magnetic flowmeter (EMF) and Coriolis flowmeter (mass) were used to compare their working principles and accuracies. The accuracy of the flowmeter was determined by observing the time required for the calibration tank to be filled with 50 liters of water. The flow rate of each flowmeter was set at 10L/min and 15L/min subsequently.

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i) Integral Orifice Flowmeter vs Calibration Tank

From graph 5.1, we can see that the integral orifice has the lowest accuracy at both flowrates 10L/min (95.52%) and 15L/min (95.79%) as compared to magnetic flowmeter and Coriolis flowmeter. This result obeys the theoretical assumption in which orifice flowmeter has low accuracy at low flow rates. Integral orifice flowmeter works on the basis of differential pressure. With an orifice plate, the fluid flow is measured through the difference in pressure from the upstream side to the downstream side of a partially obstructed pipe. The plate obstructing the flow offers a precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the flowing fluid to constrict. Orifice flow meter uses Bernoulli’s principle to calculate the flow velocity by measuring the differential pressure. Therefore, when the flow rate increases from 10L/min to 15L/min, the accuracy of orifice flowmeters increases because the differential pressure increases which fits its working principle.

The advantages of orifice flowmeter are that it can be easily installed between flanges, its fabrication is simple and inexpensive and there is no limitations on the materials of construction, line size and flow rate. Its disadvantages include high permanent pressure loss & hence high energy consumption to overcome pressure loss and it is impractical for systems with low static pressure.

ii) Magnetic Flowmeter vs Calibration Tank

From graph 5.1, magnetic flowmeter is more accurate than integral orifice flowmeter and less accurate than Coriolis flowmeter at both flow rates 10L/min (95.97%) and 15L/min

(97.18%). Magnetic flowmeter works on Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction. When a

conductive fluid moves in a magnetic field, a voltage is generated between two electrodes at right angles to the fluid velocity and field orientation. The flow tube has a fixed area & field intensity so the developed voltage is linearly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. Typical accuracy of a magnetic flowmeter is 0.5% of measured value from 0.3 ft per sec to 33 ft. per sec (0.1 to 10 m per sec) velocity. The accuracy of the magnetic flowmeter can be considered as high. In industry, normally the accuracy of the magnetic flowmeter is about 1% indicated flow, higher than the integral orifice. Error such as inconstant input flow rate when conducting this experiment might cause the accuracy of the flow meters to deviate from the theoretical.

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Also, when the flow rate increases, the accuracy of the magnetic flowmeter increases. In magnetic flowmeter, at very low flows, the pipe is not fully filled and some error readings will be obtained. Thus, the flow rate will influence the accuracy of the flowmeter. Advantages of magnetic flowmeter include that its flow rate is unaffected by fluid density, consistency, viscosity, turbulence, or piping configuration, it is highly accurate due to absence of moving parts/ external sensing lines and there is no pressure drop involved. The disadvantages are that it is costly in relative to other flow meter types and it cannot be used for gas flow measurements.

iii) Coriolis Flowmeter vs Calibration Tank

From graph 5.1, we can see that Coriolis flowmeter has the highest accuracies among

all the flowmeters which are 96.34% at 10L/min and 97.75% at 15L/min. Coriolis flowmeter’s

high accuracy is due to its working principle which is direct mass measurement that is not

sensitive to changes in pressure, temperature, viscosity and density. With the ability to measure liquids, slurries and gases, Coriolis flowmeters are universal meters. Coriolis Mass Flowmeter uses the Coriolis Effectto measure the amount of mass moving through the

element. The fluid to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in an angular harmonic oscillation. Due to the Coriolis forces, the tubes will deform and an additional vibration component will be added to the oscillation. This additional component causes a phase shift on some places of the tubes which can be measured with sensors. The Coriolis flow meters are in general very accurate, better than +/-0.1% with a turndown rate more than 100:1. The Coriolis meter can also be used to measure the fluids density. Coriolis

flowmeter’s usage in oil & gas industry and plant processing industry is increasing rapidly as

many products are sold by weight rather than by volume, and in these cases it is often desirable to measure mass flow. Chemical reactions are often based on mass rather than

volume, so mass flow measurement is also often required in the chemical industry which makes Coriolis flowmeter a better choice of selection.

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ERRORS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Error: Initial flow rate keeps fluctuating and could not be kept at constant level. Recommendation: Consider using an electronic calibrator to get a more accurate reading of the initial flow rate.

Error: Manual reading and calibration caused error in the value and results obtained.

Recommendation: Repeat the experiment to get a better average value of the results. Error: Eyes are not at the same level as the scale of the tank is placed high up. Recommendation: Stand on a sturdy surface to get the eyes the same level as the scale or opt for using a digital water level measurer.

7.0 CONCLUSION

As a summary, the accuracy of the flowmeters was determined by observing the

time required for the calibration tank to be filled with 50 liters of water. The flow rate of each flowmeter was set at 10L/min and 15L/min subsequently. In terms of working

principles, integral orifice flowmeter uses Bernoulli’s principle to calculate the flow velocity

by measuring the differential pressure in the fluid. For magnetic flowmeter, it uses on

Faraday’s Law of magnetic induction. As for Coriolis flowmeter, it uses the “Coriolis Effect”

to measure the amount of mass moving through the element. In terms of the accuracy of the three flowmeters that were used in the experiment, Coriolis flowmeter is the most accurate of them all as it gives the highest percentage of accuracy in the graphs (96.4% & 97.75%). Meanwhile, the integral orifice flowmeter has the least accuracies (95.52% & 95.79%) and magnetic flowmeter’s accuracies (95.97% & 97.18%) comes between the two aforementioned flowmeters. For all three types of flowmeters, the accuracy increases when flow rate increases. This is because for orifice flowmeter, the higher the flow rate, the higher the differential pressure, the more accurate its reading will be. For magnetic flowmeter, the higher the flow rate, more space in the pipe is filled thus yield a more accurate result. For Coriolis flowmeter, the higher the flow rate, the more the mass passing

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through the element, resulting more Coriolis Effect and thus a more accurate result. All in all, the objectives of this experiment are achieved.

8.0 REFERENCES

Boyes, W. (2009). Back to the Basics: Magnetic Flowmeters. Control. Retrieved 21 July 2016, from http://www.controlglobal.com/articles/2009/flowmeters0904/

Piping Engineering. (n.d.). Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques. Retrieved

The Engineering Toolbox. (n.d.). Types of Fluid Flow Meters. Retrieved 23 July 2016, from

Yoder, J. (2011). Coriolis Effect Flow Meters…All You Need to Know. Flow Control. Retrieved

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9.0 APPENDIX

9.0 APPENDIX Figure 1: The three types of flowmeters used Figure 2: The calibration tank 12

Figure 1: The three types of flowmeters used

9.0 APPENDIX Figure 1: The three types of flowmeters used Figure 2: The calibration tank 12

Figure 2: The calibration tank

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Figure 3: Main control panel of the equipment used 13 | P a g e

Figure 3: Main control panel of the equipment used

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