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Francis Turbines

Noelle Fillo, Kimberly Fridsma, Callen


Hecker
History

Developed by James B. Francis in


Lowell, Massachusetts
Founded ASCE
Locks and Canals company
1848
The first Francis turbine was
housed in the Pawtucket
Gatehouse in Lowell, MA.
He based his designs off of other
turbines that were designed around
that time. Pawtucket Gatehouse
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/22/1/012020/pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_turbine
History

Design based off of Benoit Foureyrons outward-


flow turbine and Jean-Victor Poncelets inward-
flow turbine.
Can be used in a variety of hydraulic heads and
flow levels
Francis Turbines are a reaction turbine
First hydraulic turbine with radial inflow

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_turbine, http://turbinegenerator.org/hydro/hydropower-types/francis-turbine,
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/fluid-mechanics-hydraulics/27407-hydraulic-turbines-francis-turbine/,
History

Many different design changes


over the years from 1848 to
1920.
First stock turbine
Newer designs included
adjustable guide vanes

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/22/1/012020/pdf
Elevation and Plan View of a Francis turbine

http://hopshop.net/tours/electric-
utility/images/francis-turbine.jpg
http://www.bflhydro.com/img/img-modal-francis.jpg
The Physics of a Francis Turbine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BCiFeykRzo
Physics Cont.

Water flows through spiral


casing, runners, guide
vanes and exits out turbine
eye
Pressure differences
caused by blade shape
allow for rotation and
draws water towards
center
Guide vane angles are
manipulated to optimize
flow
CFD images showing high velocities near
eye and blade edges

http://www.cfdsupport.com/water-turbine-cfd- http://www.e3k.com/images/CFDfrancis02.png
manual/francis-turbine-cfd-openfoam-rotor-
results-velocity-1.png
Preventing Cavitation

Pressure differences caused by flow create


vortices that damage surfaces
Indicated by a popping noise
Static pressure must not go below vapor
pressure
Flow separation at turbine exit must be
avoided to avoid draft tube damage
Must control for:
Pressure head
Flow rate
Exit Pressure
Advantages of Francis Turbines

Francis turbines work best for medium to


high range heads
Easily controlled operating head
Francis turbines operate over the largest
range for both flow and head parameters
Large range in size to meet different
power requirements
Range from 0.25 MW to 1000 MW
High efficiency
Generally around 94%
Operative ranges of different turbines

http://www.gunt.
de/networks/gunt/sites/s1/mmcontent/produktbilder/07036531/Datenblatt/07036531%202.
pdf
Advantages

Francis turbines are mixed flow designs


Francis turbines have the highest
maximum power for turbines
Francis vs. Pelton
Smaller and more economical than a
Pelton wheel capable of the same
power generation
More resistant to wear than the
Pelton wheel
Francis turbines have higher levels
http://www.gunt.
of efficiency de/networks/gunt/sites/s1/mmcontent/produktbilder/07036531/Datenblatt/07036531%202.
pdf
Disadvantages

Unclean water can cause rapid wear in


Francis turbines
Cavitation is always a possibility Effects of cavitation on runner
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/25019/1/chap6.htm
Runner erosion
Losses in efficiency
Difficult to maintain and clean
Low acceptance of head variation
Constant adjustment of guide vanes and
runners
Francis turbines are generally limited to
large hydroelectric systems

Possible cavitation areas on the runner


http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:741702/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Disadvantages

Francis turbine efficiency significantly


decreases with turbine flow rates below
40%
Decreased flow also greatly increases
cavitation risk
Water hammer effect can cause harmful http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/01-02/RE_transmission/index.htm

effects
Occurs when runners are forced from high
speed to stopping
Build up of overpressures can cause
catastrophic results

http://www.plumbingmart.com/water-hammer-information.html
Calculations/Relevant Equations

Blade Velocity Specific Speed

Guide vane angle

Power Generated
Example

A Francis turbine is to be operated at a speed of 600 rpm and with a discharge of


4.0 m3/s. If r1 = 0.60 m, 1 = 110, and the blade height B is 10 cm, what should
be the guide vane angle 1 for a nonseparating flow condition at the runner
entrance?
Case Study I- Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay

Located on the Parana River between


Brazil and Paraguay
One of the Seven Wonders of the Modern
World
Second largest hydroelectric power plant
87.8 TWh generated in 2014
118m of hydraulic head
20 Francis turbines
700 MW each
16 m diameter
Average reservoir capacity
19x109 m3

http://www.solar.coppe.ufrj.br/itaipu.html
Case Study II- Guri Hydroelectric Power
Plant in Orinoco, Venezuela

On the Caroni River in Necuima


Canyon in Orioco, Venezuela
Installed capacity of 10,200 MW
and provides 12,900 GW/h to the
country
Ten 730MW Francis Turbines
Third largest power plant in the
world

http://www.power-technology.com/projects/gurihydroelectric/, http://www.industcards.com/hydro-venezuela.htm,
Case Study III- Vertical Twin Turbines in
Australian Irrigation Dams

Used in Wyangala, Copeton and


Burrendong irrigation dams
Smaller turbines, but useful for
privately developed hydro schemes
Desirable when head is too high for
a Kaplan turbine
Ideal when:
13 MW
45 m head
High efficiency and low prices
http://www.bryanleyland.co.
nz/uploads/2/9/7/1/29710909/twinfrancisturbines
.pdf
Fish-Friendly Francis Turbine Design

Do not allow cavitation to occur


Direct migratory fish away from
turbines
Low number of blades with thick
edges
Wide wicket gate-runner gaps,
Wicket gates aligned with stay vanes
Smooth surfaces provided
Use advanced control system and
monitor speeds
Minimize pressure changes
experienced by fish
http://www1.eere.energy. http://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.
gov/wind/pdfs/doewater-13741. gov/images/hydropower/newandoldturbinedesign_102313.gif
pdf
Conclusions

Francis turbines are one of the


most widely used turbines of our
time
Extremely high efficiency at
specific flows
Come in many sizes and are very
versatile
Large range of power outputs
Wanted when dealing with
relatively medium head and high
flows
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/0-sfeSq1IWs/maxresdefault.jpg