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Qatar
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Qatar(/ktr/,[9] i /ktr/,/ktr/or i /ktr/[10]


StateofQatar
Arabic:Qatar[qtr]localvernacularpronunciation:
[tr]),[11][12]officiallytheStateofQatar(Arabic:
(Arabic)
DawlatQatar),isasovereigncountrylocatedinWesternAsia, DawlatQatar
occupyingthesmallQatarPeninsulaonthenortheasterncoastof
theArabianPeninsula.ItssolelandborderiswithSaudiArabia
tothesouth,withtherestofitsterritorysurroundedbythe
PersianGulf.AnarmofthePersianGulfseparatesQatarfrom
thenearbyislandcountryofBahrain.
Flag Emblem
FollowingOttomanrule,QatarbecameaBritishprotectoratein
theearly20thcenturyuntilgainingindependencein1971.Qatar Anthem:
hasbeenruledbytheHouseofThanisincetheearly19th AsSalamalAmiri (transliteration)
AmiriSalute
century.SheikhJassimbinMohammedAlThaniwasthe MENU
0:00
founderoftheStateofQatar.Qatarisahereditarymonarchyand
itsheadofstateisEmirSheikhTamimbinHamadAlThani.
Whetheritshouldberegardedasaconstitutional[13][14]oran
absolutemonarchy[15][16][17][18]isamatterofopinion.In2003,
theconstitutionwasoverwhelminglyapprovedinareferendum,
withalmost98%infavour.[19][20]Inearly2017,Qatar'stotal
populationwas2.6million:313,000Qataricitizensand2.3
millionexpatriates.[21]

Qatarisahighincomeeconomy,backedbytheworld'sthird
largestnaturalgasreservesandoilreserves.[22]Thecountryhas
thehighestpercapitaincomeintheworld.Qatarisclassifiedby
theUNasacountryofveryhighhumandevelopmentandisthe
mostadvancedArabstateforhumandevelopment.[23]Qatarisa LocationandextentofQatar(darkgreen)ontheArabian
significantpowerintheArabworld,supportingseveralrebel Peninsula.
groupsduringtheArabSpringbothfinanciallyandthroughits Capital Doha
globallyexpandingmediagroup,AlJazeeraMedia andlargestcity 2518N5131E
Network.[24][25][26]Foritssize,Qatarwieldsdisproportionate
Officiallanguages Arabic
influenceintheworld,andhasbeenidentifiedasamiddle
Ethnicgroups 25.0%Indian
power.[27][28]Qatarwillhostthe2022FIFAWorldCup, 12.1%Qatari
(2010[1])
becomingthefirstArabcountrytodoso.[29] 10.7%
Bangladeshi
In2017,SaudiArabia,Bahrain,theUnitedArabEmiratesand 5.6%SriLankan
Egypt,amongotherGulfstates,cutoffdiplomaticrelationswith 4.8%Pakistani
52.5%Other
Qatarandlabeledthecountryaterroriststate,causingthe2017
Qatardiplomaticcrisis. Religion Islam
Demonym Qatari
Government Unitaryconstitutional
Contents monarchy
Emir TamimbinHamadAl
1 Etymology Thani
2 History DeputyEmir AbdullahbinHamad
2.1 Antiquity binKhalifaAlThani
2.2 EarlyandlateIslamicperiod(6611783) PrimeMinister AbdullahbinNasserbin
2.3 BahrainiandSaudirule(17831868) KhalifaAlThani
2.4 Ottomanrule(18711915) Legislature ConsultativeAssembly
2.5 Britishrule(19161971)
2.6 Independenceandaftermath(1971present) Establishment
3 Politics QatarNationalDay 18December1878
3.1 Sharialaw Declared
3.2 Humanrights independence 1September1971
3.3 Foreignrelations Independencefrom
theUnitedKingdom 3September1971
3.4 Military
4 Administrativedivisions Area
5 Geography Total 11,586km2

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5.1 Biodiversityandenvironment (4,473sqmi)(164th)


5.2 Climate Water(%) 0.8
6 Economy
Population
6.1 Energy 2016estimate
7 Demographics 2,675,522[a][2](142nd)
7.1 Religion 2010census 1,699,435[3](148th)
7.2 Languages Density 176/km2(455.8/sqmi)
8 Culture (76th)
8.1 Artsandmuseums
GDP(PPP) 2017estimate
8.2 Media
Total $353.143billion[4]
8.3 Music
8.4 Sport (49th)
9 Education Percapita $145,894[4](1st)
10 Healthcare GDP(nominal) 2015estimate
11 Seealso Total $185.395billion[4]
12 References
Percapita $68,940[5](4th)
13 Externallinks
Gini(2007) 41.1[6]
medium
Etymology HDI(2014) 0.850[7]
veryhigh32nd
PlinytheElder,aRomanwriter,documentedtheearliest
Currency Riyal(QAR)
accountpertainingtotheinhabitantsofthePeninsulaaroundthe
midfirstcenturyAD,referringtothemastheCatharrei,a Timezone AST(UTC+3)
designationwhichmayhavederivedfromthenameofa Drivesonthe
[30][31]
right[8]
prominentlocalsettlement. Acenturylater,Ptolemy
producedthefirstknownmaptodepictthepeninsula,referring Callingcode +974
toitasCatara.[31][32]Themapalsoreferencedatownnamed ISO3166code QA
"Cadara"totheeastofthepeninsula.[33]Theterm'Catara'(or, InternetTLD .qa
alternatively,Cataraei)[34]wasexclusivelyuseduntilthe18th .
century,afterwhich'Katara'emergedasthemostcommonly
recognisedspelling.[33]Eventually,themodernderivativeQatarwasadoptedasthecountry'sname.[33]

InStandardArabic,thenameispronounced[qtr],whileinthelocaldialectitis[itar].[11]

History
Antiquity

HumanhabitationofQatardatesbackto50,000yearsago.[35]Settlements
andtoolsdatingbacktotheStoneAgehavebeenunearthedinthe
peninsula.[35]MesopotamianartefactsoriginatingfromtheUbaidperiod
(ca.65003800BC)havebeendiscoveredinabandonedcoastal
settlements.[36]AlDa'asa,asettlementlocatedonthewesterncoastof
Qatar,isthemostimportantUbaidsiteinthecountryandisbelievedto
haveaccommodatedasmallseasonalencampment.[37][38]

KassiteBabylonianmaterialdatingbacktothesecondmillenniumBC
foundinAlKhorIslandsatteststotraderelationsbetweentheinhabitants DotcarvingsatJebelJassassiyeh,
ofQatarandtheKassitesinmoderndayBahrain.[39]Amongthefindings datingtoc.4000BC.

were3,000,000crushedsnailshellsandKassitepotsherds.[37]Ithasbeen
suggestedthatQataristheearliestknownsiteofshellfishdyeproduction,owingtoaKassitepurpledyeindustry
whichexistedonthecoast.[36][40]

In224AD,theSasanianEmpiregainedcontrolovertheterritoriessurroundingthePersianGulf.[41]Qatarplayeda
roleinthecommercialactivityoftheSasanids,contributingatleasttwocommodities:preciouspearlsandpurple
dye.[42]UndertheSasanidreign,manyoftheinhabitantsinEasternArabiawereintroducedtoChristianity
followingtheeastwarddispersalofthereligionbyMesopotamianChristians.[43]Monasterieswereconstructedand
furthersettlementswerefoundedduringthisera.[44][45]DuringthelatterpartoftheChristianera,Qatarcomprised
aregionknownas'BethQatraye'(Syriacfor"regionoftheQataris").[46]TheregionwasnotlimitedtoQatarit
alsoincludedBahrain,TaroutIsland,AlKhatt,andAlHasa.[47]

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In628,MuhammadsentaMuslimenvoytoarulerinEasternArabianamedMunziribnSawaAlTamimiand
requestedthatheandhissubjectsacceptIslam.Munzirobligedhisrequest,andaccordingly,mostoftheArab
tribesintheregionconvertedtoIslam.[48]AftertheadoptionofIslam,theArabsledtheMuslimconquestofPersia
whichresultedinthefalloftheSasanianEmpire.[49]

EarlyandlateIslamicperiod(6611783)

Qatarwasdescribedasafamoushorseandcamelbreedingcentreduring
theUmayyadperiod.[50]Inthe8thcentury,itstartedbenefitingfromits
commerciallystrategicpositioninthePersianGulfandwentontobecome
acentreofpearltrading.[51][52]

SubstantialdevelopmentinthepearlingindustryaroundtheQatari
PeninsulaoccurredduringtheAbbasidera.[50]ShipsvoyagingfromBasra
toIndiaandChinawouldmakestopsinQatar'sportsduringthisperiod.
AbbasidCaliphateatitsgreatest
Chineseporcelain,WestAfricancoinsandartefactsfromThailandhave
extent,c.850.
beendiscoveredinQatar.[49]Archaeologicalremainsfromthe9thcentury
suggestthatQatar'sinhabitantsusedgreaterwealthtoconstructhigher
qualityhomesandpublicbuildings.Over100stonebuilthouses,twomosques,andanAbbasidfortwere
constructedinMurwabduringthisperiod.[53][54]However,whenthecaliphate'sprosperitydeclinedinIraq,sotoo
diditinQatar.[55]Qatarismentionedin13thcenturyMuslimscholarYaqutalHamawi'sbook,Mu'jamAlBuldan,
whichalludestotheQataris'finestripedwovencloaksandtheirskillsinimprovementandfinishingofspears.[56]

MuchofEasternArabiawascontrolledbytheUsfuridsin1253,butcontroloftheregionwasseizedbytheprince
ofOrmusin1320.[57]Qatar'spearlsprovidedthekingdomwithoneofitsmainsourcesofincome.[58]In1515,
ManuelIofPortugalvassalisedtheKingdomofOrmus.PortugalwentontoseizeasignificantportionofEastern
Arabiain1521.[58][59]In1550,theinhabitantsofAlHasavoluntarilysubmittedtotheruleoftheOttomans,
preferringthemtothePortuguese.[60]Havingretainedanegligiblemilitarypresenceinthearea,theOttomanswere
expelledbytheBaniKhalidtribein1670.[61]

BahrainiandSaudirule(17831868)

In1766,theUtubtribeofAlKhalifamigratedfromKuwaittoZubarahin
Qatar.[62][63]Bythetimeoftheirarrival,theBaniKhalidexercisedweak
authorityoverthepeninsula,notwithholdingthatthelargestvillagewas
ruledbyadistantkinoftheBaniKhalid.[64]In1783,QatarbasedBani
UtbahclansandalliedArabtribesinvadedandannexedBahrainfromthe
Persians.TheAlKhalifaimposedtheirauthorityoverBahrainand
extendedtheirareaofjurisdictiontoQatar.[62]

FollowingtheswearinginofSaudibnAbdalAzizascrownprinceofthe AmapofEastArabiain1794.
Wahhabiin1788,hemovedtoexpandhisempireeastwardtowardsthe
PersianGulfandQatar.AfterdefeatingtheBaniKhalidin1795,the
Wahhabiwereattackedontwofronts.TheOttomansandEgyptians
assaultedthewesternfront,whiletheAlKhalifainBahrainandtheOmanis
launchedanattackagainsttheeasternfront.[65][66]Uponbeingmadeaware
ofadvancementsbytheEgyptiansonthewesternfrontierin1811,the
WahhabiamirreducedhisgarrisonsinBahrainandZubarahinordertore
positionhistroops.SaidbinSultanofMuscatcapitalisedonthis
opportunityandraidedtheWahhabigarrisonsontheeasterncoast,setting
firetothefortinZubarah.TheAlKhalifawereeffectivelyreturnedto
powerthereafter.[66] Apartiallyrestoredsectionofthe
ruinedtownofZubarah.
Aspunishmentforpiracy,anEastIndiaCompanyvesselbombardedDoha
in1821,destroyingthetownandforcinghundredsofresidentstoflee.In
1825,theHouseofThaniwasestablishedwithSheikhMohammedbinThaniasthefirstleader.[67]

AlthoughQatarhadthelegalstatusofadependency,therewasapopularsentimentofresentmentagainsttheAl
Khalifa.In1867,theAlKhalifa,alongwiththerulerofAbuDhabi,sentamassivenavalforcetoAlWakrahinan
efforttocrushtheQatarirebels.ThisresultedinthemaritimeQatariBahrainiWarof18671868,inwhich
BahrainiandAbuDhabiforcessackedandlootedDohaandAlWakrah.[68]However,theBahrainihostilitieswere
inviolationofthe1820AngloBahrainiTreaty.Thejointincursion,inadditiontotheQataricounterattack,

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promptedBritishpoliticalagentLewisPellytoimposeasettlementin1868.HismissiontoBahrainandQatarand
theresultingpeacetreatyweremilestonesbecausetheyimplicitlyrecognisedthedistinctnessofQatarfrom
BahrainandexplicitlyacknowledgedthepositionofMohammedbinThani.InadditiontocensuringBahrainforits
breachofagreement,theBritishprotectorateaskedtonegotiatewitharepresentativefromQatar,arolewhich
MohammedbinThaniwasselectedtofulfil.Theresultsofthenegotiationsleftthenationwithanewfoundsense
ofpoliticalidentity,althoughitdidnotgainanofficialstandingasaprotectorateuntil1916.

Ottomanrule(18711915)

Undermilitaryandpolitical
pressurefromthegovernorofthe
OttomanVilayetofBaghdad,
MidhatPasha,therulingAlThani
tribesubmittedtoOttomanrulein
1871.[69]TheOttomangovernment
imposedreformist(Tanzimat)
OldcityofDoha,January1904. measuresconcerningtaxationand
landregistrationtofullyintegrate
theseareasintotheempire.[69]Despitethedisapprovaloflocaltribes,Al
ThanicontinuedsupportingOttomanrule.However,QatariOttoman
relationssoonstagnated,andin1882theysufferedfurthersetbackswhen
theOttomansrefusedtoaidAlThaniinhisexpeditionofAbuDhabi
occupiedAlKhor.Inaddition,theOttomanssupportedtheOttomansubject
MohammedbinAbdulWahabwhoattemptedtosupplantAlThanias
kaymakamofQatarin1888.[70]ThiseventuallyledAlThanitorebel
againsttheOttomans,whomhebelievedwereseekingtousurpcontrolof
thepeninsula.Heresignedaskaymakamandstoppedpayingtaxesin
August1892.[71] Qatarinan1891AdolfStielermap

InFebruary1893,MehmedHafizPashaarrivedinQatarintheinterestsof
seekingunpaidtaxesandaccostingJassimbinMohammed'soppositiontoproposedOttomanadministrative
reforms.Fearingthathewouldfacedeathorimprisonment,JassimretreatedtoAlWajbah(10mileswestof
Doha),accompaniedbyseveraltribemembers.Mehmed'sdemandthatJassimdisbandhistroopsandpledgehis
loyaltytotheOttomanswasmetwithrefusal.InMarch,MehmedimprisonedJassim'sbrotherand13prominent
QataritriballeadersontheOttomancorvetteMerrikhaspunishmentforhisinsubordination.AfterMehmed
declinedanoffertoreleasethecaptivesforafeeof10,000liras,heorderedacolumnofapproximately200troops
toadvancetowardsJassim'sAlWajbahFortunderthecommandofYusufEffendi,thussignallingthestartofthe
BattleofAlWajbah.[49]

Effendi'stroopscameunderheavygunfirebyasizabletroopofQatariinfantryandcavalryshortlyafterarrivingto
AlWajbah.TheyretreatedtoShebakafortress,wheretheywereagainforcedtodrawbackfromaQatariincursion.
AftertheywithdrewtoAlBiddafortress,Jassim'sadvancingcolumnbesiegedthefortress,resultinginthe
Ottomans'concessionofdefeatandagreementtorelinquishtheircaptivesinreturnforthesafepassageofMehmed
Pasha'scavalrytoHofufbyland.[72]AlthoughQatardidnotgainfullindependencefromtheOttomanEmpire,the
resultofthebattleforcedatreatythatwouldlaterformthebasisofQatar'semergingasanautonomouscountry
withintheempire.[73]

Britishrule(19161971)

TheOttomanEmpirefellintodisorderafterlosingbattlesindifferentfronts
intheMiddleEasterntheatreofWorldWarI.QatartookpartintheArab
revoltagainsttheOttomans.TherevoltwassuccessfulandOttomanrulein
thecountryfurtherdeclined.TheUnitedKingdomandtheOttomanEmpire
accordedtheirrecognitiontoSheikhAbdullahbinJassimAlThaniandhis
successors'righttoruleoverthewholeoftheQatariPeninsula.The
OttomansrenouncedalltheirrightstoQatarand,followingtheoutbreakof
theFirstWorldWar,AbdullahbinJassimAlThani(whowasproBritish)
ZubarahFortbuiltin1938. forcedthemtoabandonDohain1915.[74]

AsaresultofthepartitioningoftheOttomanEmpire,Qatarbecamea
Britishprotectorateon3November1916.Onthatday,theUnitedKingdomsignedatreatywithSheikhAbdullah
binJassimAlThanitobringQatarunderitsTrucialSystemofAdministration.WhileAbdullahagreednottoenter
intoanyrelationswithanyotherpowerwithoutpriorconsentoftheBritishgovernment,theBritishguaranteedthe

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protectionofQatarfromallaggressionbysea.[74]On5May1935,AbdullahsignedanothertreatywiththeBritish
governmentwhichgrantedQatarprotectionagainstinternalandexternalthreats.[74]Oilreserveswerefirst
discoveredin1939.However,exploitationwasdelayedbyWorldWarII.

ThesphereofinfluenceoftheBritishEmpirestarteddiminishingafterWorldWarII,particularlyafterthe
IndependenceofIndiaandPakistanin1947.Inthe1950s,oilbeganreplacingpearlingandfishingasQatar'smain
sourcesofrevenue.OilearningsbegantofundtheexpansionandmodernisationofQatar'sinfrastructure.Pressure
foraBritishwithdrawalfromtheArabemiratesinthePersianGulfincreasedduringthe1950s.WhenBritain
officiallyannouncedin1968thatitwouldpoliticallydisengagefromthePersianGulfinthreeyears'time,Qatar
joinedBahrainandsevenotherTrucialStatesinafederation.Regionaldisputes,however,quicklycompelledQatar
toresignanddeclareindependencefromthecoalitionwhichwouldeventuallyevolveintotheUnitedArab
Emirates.

Independenceandaftermath(1971present)

TheStateofQatarenteredintoageneralmaritimetrucewiththeUnited
Kingdomin1868.AGeneralTreatywasconcludedbetweenthetwoon3
November1916.TheGeneralTreatyreservedforeignaffairsanddefenceto
theUnitedKingdombutallowedinternalautonomy.On3September1971,
those"specialtreatyarrangements"thatwere"inconsistentwithfull
internationalresponsibilityasasovereignandindependentstate"were
terminated.[75]Thiswasdoneunderanagreementreachedbetweenthe
RulerofQatarandtheGovernmentoftheUnitedKingdom.[76][75]
Traditionaldhowsinfrontofthe
WestBayskylineasseenfromthe In1991,QatarplayedasignificantroleintheGulfWar,particularlyduring
DohaCorniche. theBattleofKhafjiinwhichQataritanksrolledthroughthestreetsofthe
townandprovidedfiresupportforSaudiArabianNationalGuardunitsthat
wereengagingIraqiArmytroops.Qatarallowedcoalitiontroopsfrom
CanadatousethecountryasanairbasetolaunchaircraftonCAPdutyandalsopermittedairforcesfromthe
UnitedStatesandFrancetooperateinitsterritories.[35]

In1995,EmirHamadbinKhalifaAlThaniseizedcontrolofthecountryfromhisfatherKhalifabinHamadAl
Thani,withthesupportofthearmedforcesandcabinet,aswellasneighbouringstates[77]andFrance.[78]Under
EmirHamad,Qatarhasexperiencedamoderatedegreeofliberalisation,includingthelaunchoftheAlJazeera
televisionstation(1996),theendorsementofwomen'ssuffrageorrighttovoteinmunicipalelections(1999),
draftingitsfirstwrittenconstitution(2005)andinaugurationofaRomanCatholicchurch(2008).In2010,Qatar
wontherightstohostthe2022FIFAWorldCup,makingitthefirstcountryintheMiddleEasttobeselectedto
hostthetournament.TheEmirannouncedQatar'splanstoholditsfirstnationallegislativeelectionsin2013.They
werescheduledtobeheldinthesecondhalfof2013,butwerepostponedinJune2013andmaybedelayeduntil
2019.

In2003,QatarservedastheUSCentralCommandheadquartersandoneofthemainlaunchingsitesofthe
invasionofIraq.[79]InMarch2005,asuicidebombingkilledaBritishteacherattheDohaPlayersTheatre,
shockingthecountry,whichhadnotpreviouslyexperiencedactsofterrorism.Thebombingwascarriedoutby
OmarAhmedAbdullahAli,anEgyptianresidentinQatarwhohadsuspectedtiestoAlQaedaintheArabian
Peninsula.[80][81]In2011,QatarjoinedNATOoperationsinLibyaandreportedlyarmedLibyanopposition
groups.[82]ItisalsocurrentlyamajorfunderofweaponsforrebelgroupsintheSyriancivilwar.[83]Qataris
pursuinganAfghanpeacedealandinJanuary2012theAfghanTalibansaidtheyweresettingupapoliticaloffice
inQatartofacilitatetalks.

InJune2013,SheikhTamimbinHamadAlThanibecametheEmirofQatarafterhisfatherhandedoverpowerin
atelevisedspeech.[84]SheikhTamimhasprioritisedimprovingthedomesticwelfareofcitizens,whichincludes
establishingadvancedhealthcareandeducationsystems,andexpandingthecountry'sinfrastructureinpreparation
forthehostingofthe2022WorldCup.[85]

QatarparticipatedintheSaudiArabianledinterventioninYemenagainsttheHouthisandforcesloyaltoformer
PresidentAliAbdullahSaleh,whowasdeposedinthe2011ArabSpringuprisings.[86]

InJune2017,Egypt,SaudiArabia,UnitedArabEmirates,Bahrain,YemenandLibyacutoffdiplomaticrelations
withQatar,citingthecountry'ssupportofgroupstheyconsideredtobeextremist.[87]

Politics

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Qatariseitheraconstitutional[13][14]oranabsolutemonarchy[16][18]ruled
bytheAlThanifamily.[88][89]TheAlThanidynastyhasbeenrulingQatar
sincethefamilyhousewasestablishedin1825.[1]In2003,Qataradopteda
constitutionthatprovidedforthedirectelectionof30ofthe45membersof
theLegislativeCouncil.[1][90][91]Theconstitutionwasoverwhelmingly
approvedinareferendum,withalmost98%infavour.[19][20]

TheeighthEmirofQatarisTamimbinHamadAlThani,whosefather
EmirTamimbinHamadAlThani
HamadbinKhalifaAlThanihandedpowertohimon25June2013.[92]The
withU.S.PresidentDonaldTrumpin
supremechancellorhastheexclusivepowertoappointandremovethe
May2017
primeministerandcabinetministerswho,together,constitutetheCouncil
ofMinisters,whichisthesupremeexecutiveauthorityinthecountry.[93]
TheCouncilofMinistersalsoinitiateslegislation.LawsanddecreesproposedbytheCouncilofMinistersare
referredtotheAdvisoryCouncil(MajilisAlShura)fordiscussionafterwhichtheyaresubmittedtotheEmirfor
ratification.[93]AConsultativeAssemblyhaslimitedlegislativeauthoritytodraftandapprovelaws,buttheEmir
hasfinalsayonallmatters.[1]ThecurrentCounciliscomposedentirelyofmembersappointedbytheEmir,[1]as
nolegislativeelectionshavebeenheldsince1970whentherewerepartialelectionstothebody.[1]Legislative
electionshavebeenpostponeduntilatleast2019.[94]

Qatarilawdoesnotpermittheestablishmentofpoliticalbodiesortradeunions.[95]

Sharialaw

AccordingtoQatar'sConstitution,SharialawisthemainsourceofQatarilegislation.[96][97]Inpractice,Qatar's
legalsystemisamixtureofcivillawandSharialaw.[98][99]Sharialawisappliedtofamilylaw,inheritance,and
severalcriminalacts(includingadultery,robberyandmurder).Insomecases,Shariabasedfamilycourtstreata
female'stestimonyasbeingworthhalfthatofaman.[100]Codifiedfamilylawwasintroducedin2006.Islamic
polygynyispermitted.[78]

JudicialcorporalpunishmentiscommoninQatarduetotheHanbaliinterpretationofShariaLaw.Floggingis
employedasapunishmentforalcoholconsumptionorillicitsexualrelations.[101]Article88ofQatar'scriminal
codedeclaresthatthepenaltyforadulteryis100lashes,[102]andin2006,aFilipinowomanreceivedthat
punishment.[102]In2010,atleast18people(mostlyforeignnationals)weresentencedtoreceivebetween40and
100lashesforoffencesinvolving"illicitsexualrelations"oralcoholconsumption.[103]In2011,atleast21people
(mostlyforeignnationals)weresentencedtobetween30and100lashesforthesamereasons,[104]andin2012,six
expatriatesweresentencedtoeither40or100lashes.[101]OnlyMuslimsconsideredmedicallyfitareliabletohave
suchsentencescarriedout.Itisunknownifthesentenceswereimplemented.[105]InApril2013,aMuslim
expatriatewassentencedto40lashesforalcoholconsumption,[106][107][108]andinJune2014,aMuslimexpatriate
wassentencedto40lashesforconsumingalcoholanddrivingundertheinfluence.[109]Stoningisalegal
punishmentinQatar,[110]andapostasyandhomosexualityarecrimespunishablebythedeathpenalty.[111][112]
Blasphemycanresultinuptosevenyearsinprison,whileproselytisingcanincura10yearsentence.[111]
Homosexualityisacrimepunishablebythedeathpenalty.

AlcoholconsumptionispartiallylegalinQatarsomefivestarluxuryhotelsareallowedtosellalcoholtotheir
nonMuslimcustomers.[113][114]Muslimsarenotallowedtoconsumealcohol,andthosecaughtconsumingitare
liabletofloggingordeportation.NonMuslimexpatriatescanobtainapermittopurchasealcoholforpersonal
consumption.TheQatarDistributionCompany(asubsidiaryofQatarAirways)ispermittedtoimportalcoholand
porkitoperatestheoneandonlyliquorstoreinthecountry,whichalsosellsporktoholdersofliquor
licences.[115][116]Qatariofficialshavealsoindicatedawillingnesstoallowalcoholin"fanzones"atthe2022FIFA
WorldCup.[117]

Until2011,restaurantsonthePearlQatar(amanmadeislandnearDoha)wereallowedtoservealcoholic
drinks.[113][114]InDecemberofthatyear,however,restaurantsthereweretoldtostopsellingliquor.[113][118]No
explanationwasgivenfortheban,[113][114]butitwasspeculatedthatthegovernmentwantedtoprojectamore
piousimageinadvanceofthecountry'sfirstelectionofaroyaladvisorybody,andtherewererumoursofa
financialdisputebetweenthegovernmentandtheresort'sdevelopers.[118]

In2014,amodestycampaignwaslaunchedtoremindtouristsofthecountry'srestrictivedresscode.[119]Female
touristswereadvisednottowearleggings,miniskirts,sleevelessdresses,orshortortightclothinginpublic.Men
werewarnedagainstwearingonlyshortsandsinglets.[120]
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Humanrights

AccordingtotheU.S.StateDepartment,expatriateworkersfromnationsthroughoutAsiaandpartsofAfrica
voluntarilymigratetoQataraslowskilledlabourersordomesticservants,butsomesubsequentlyfaceconditions
indicativeofinvoluntaryservitude.Someofthemorecommonlabourrightsviolationsincludebeatings,
withholdingofpayment,chargingworkersforbenefitsforwhichtheemployerisresponsible,restrictionson
freedomofmovement(suchastheconfiscationofpassports,traveldocuments,orexitpermits),arbitrary
detention,threatsoflegalaction,andsexualassault.[121]ManymigrantworkersarrivingforworkinQatarhave
paidexorbitantfeestorecruitersintheirhomecountries.[121]

Asof2014,certainprovisionsoftheQatariCriminalCodeallowspunishmentssuchasfloggingandstoningtobe
imposedascriminalsanctions.TheUNCommitteeAgainstTorturefoundthatthesepracticesconstitutedabreach
oftheobligationsimposedbytheUNConventionAgainstTorture.[122][123]Qatarretainsthedeathpenalty,mainly
forthreatsagainstnationalsecurity.Useofthedeathpenaltyisrareandnostateexecutionshavetakenplacein
Qatarsince2003.[124]InQatar,homosexualactsareillegalandcanbepunishedbydeath.[125]

UndertheprovisionsofQatar'ssponsorshiplaw,sponsorshavetheunilateralpowertocancelworkers'residency
permits,denyworkers'abilitytochangeemployers,reportaworkeras"absconded"topoliceauthorities,anddeny
permissiontoleavethecountry.[121]Asaresult,sponsorsmayrestrictworkers'movementsandworkersmaybe
afraidtoreportabusesorclaimtheirrights.[121]AccordingtotheITUC,thevisasponsorshipsystemallowsthe
exactionofforcedlabourbymakingitdifficultforamigrantworkertoleaveanabusiveemployerortravel
overseaswithoutpermission.[126]Qataralsodoesnotmaintainwagestandardsforitsimmigrantlabourers.Qatar
commissionedinternationallawfirmDLAPipertoproduceareportinvestigatingtheimmigrantlaboursystem.In
May2014DLAPiperreleasedover60recommendationsforreformingthekafalasystemincludingtheabolitionof
exitvisasandtheintroductionofaminimumwagewhichQatarhaspledgedtoimplement.[127]

InMay2012,Qatariofficialsdeclaredtheirintentiontoallowtheestablishmentofanindependenttradeunion.[128]
Qataralsoannounceditwillscrapitssponsorsystemforforeignlabour,whichrequiresthatallforeignworkersbe
sponsoredbylocalemployers.[128]Additionalchangestolabourlawsincludeaprovisionguaranteeingthatall
workers'salariesarepaiddirectlyintotheirbankaccountsandnewrestrictionsonworkingoutdoorsinthehottest
hoursduringthesummer.[129]Newdraftlegislationannouncedinearly2015mandatesthatcompaniesthatfailto
payworkers'wagesontimecouldtemporarilylosetheirabilitytohiremoreemployees.[130]

InOctober2015Qatar'sEmirsignedintolawnewreformstothecountry'ssponsorshipsystem,withthenewlaw
takingeffectwithinoneyear.[131]Criticsclaimthatthechangescouldfailtoaddresssomelabourrights
issues.[132][133][134]

Thecountryenfranchisedwomenatthesametimeasmeninconnectionwiththe1999electionsforaCentral
MunicipalCouncil.[90][135]TheseelectionsthefirsteverinQatarweredeliberatelyheldon8March1999,
InternationalWomen'sDay.[90]

Foreignrelations

Asasmallcountrywithlargerneighbours,Qatarseekstoprojectinfluence
andprotectitsstateandrulingdynasty.[136]ThehistoryofQatar'salliances
providesinsightintothebasisoftheirpolicy.Between1760and1971,
Qatarsoughtformalprotectionfromthehightransitorypowersofthe
Ottomans,British,theAlKhalifa'sfromBahrain,theArabians,andthe
WahhabisfromSaudiArabia.[137]Qatar'srisinginternationalprofileand
activeroleininternationalaffairshasledsomeanalyststoidentifyitasa
middlepower.QatarwasanearlymemberofOPECandafounding
memberoftheGulfCooperationCouncil(GCC).Itisamemberofthe FormerEmirHamadbinKhalifaAl
ArabLeague.ThecountryhasnotacceptedcompulsoryInternationalCourt ThaniandU.S.SecretaryofState
ofJusticejurisdiction.[1] JohnKerryin2013.

Qataralsohasbilateralrelationshipswithavarietyofforeignpowers.Qatar
hoststheAlUdeidAirBase,ajointU.S.Britishbase,whichactsasthehubforallAmericanandBritishair
operationsinthePersianGulf.[138]IthasallowedAmericanandBritishforcestouseanairbasetosendsuppliesto
IraqandAfghanistan.[139]Despitehostingthisstrategicmilitaryinstallation,QatarisnotalwaysastrongWestern
ally.QatarhasallowedtheAfghanTalibantosetupapoliticalofficeinsidethecountryandhasclosetiestoIran,
includingasharednaturalgasfield.[140]AccordingtoleakeddocumentspublishedinTheNewYorkTimes,Qatar's

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recordofcounterterrorismeffortswasthe"worstintheregion".[141]ThecablesuggestedthatQatar'ssecurity
servicewas"hesitanttoactagainstknownterroristsoutofconcernforappearingtobealignedwiththeU.S.and
provokingreprisals".[141]

QatarhasmixedrelationswithitsneighboursinthePersianGulfregion.Qatarsignedadefencecooperation
agreementwithIran,[142]withwhomitsharesthelargestsinglenonassociatedgasfieldintheworld.Itwasthe
secondnation,thefirstbeingFrance,tohavepubliclyannounceditsrecognitionoftheLibyanopposition's
NationalTransitionalCouncilasthelegitimategovernmentofLibyaamidstthe2011Libyancivilwar.[143]

In2014,Qatar'srelationswithBahrain,SaudiArabia,andtheUnitedArab
EmiratescametoaboilingpointoverQatar'ssupportfortheMuslim
Brotherhood[77]andextremistgroupsinSyria.[144]Thisculminatedinthe
threeaforementionedcountrieswithdrawingtheirambassadorsfromQatar
inMarch2014.[145]Whentheambassadorswithdrew,theGCCwas
reportedlyonthevergeofacrisislinkedtotheemergenceofdistinct
politicalblocswithconflictinginterests.SaudiArabia,theUAEand
BahrainwereengagedinapoliticalstrugglewithQatar,whileOmanand
Qatar'sflaginLibyaaftertheLibyan KuwaitrepresentanonalignedblocwithintheGCC.[145]Relations
CivilWarQatarplayedaninfluential betweenthecountriesimprovedaftertheGulfCooperationCouncil(GCC)
roleduringtheArabSpring. announcedBahrain,SaudiArabia,andtheUAEreturnedtheirdiplomatsto
Qatar.[146]IslamHassan,aresearcherinPersianGulfStudiesatQatar
University,claimsthat,withtheresolutionoftheGCCcrisis,Qatarreachedanewlevelofpoliticalmaturity.He
goesontoassertthatQatarmanagedtobringanendtothecrisiswithoutchanginganyofitsforeignpolicy
principlesorabandoningitsallies.[145]

Inrecentyears,QatarhasbeenusingIslamistmilitantsinanumberof
countriesincludingEgypt,Syria,Libya,SomaliaandMalitofurtherits
foreignpolicy.CourtingIslamistsfromtheMuslimBrotherhoodtoSalafist
groupshasservedasapoweramplifierforthecountry,asitbelievessince
thebeginningoftheArabSpringthatthesegroupsrepresentedthewaveof
thefuture.[141][136][148]DavidCohen,theUnderSecretaryforterrorismand
financialintelligenceattheU.S.Treasury,saidthatQatarisa"permissive
jurisdictionforterroristfinancing."[149]Thereisevidencethatthesegroups AccordingtotheAlJazeeraAmerica,
supportedbyQatarincludethehardlineIslamicmilitantgroupsactivein "Numerousreportssuggestthatthe
northernSyria.[141]Asof2015,Qatar,SaudiArabiaandTurkeyareopenly Saudiledcoalitionagainstopposition
groupsinYemenhasindiscriminately
backingtheArmyofConquest,[150][151]anumbrellagroupofanti
attackedciviliansandusedcluster
governmentforcesfightingintheSyrianCivilWarthatreportedlyincludes
bombsincivilianpopulatedareas,in
analQaedalinkedalNusraFrontandanotherSalaficoalitionknownas
violationofinternationallaw."[147]
AhrarashSham.[149][152]

QatarsupportedthedemocraticallyelectedPresidentMohamedMorsiwithdiplomaticsupportandthestateowned
AlJazeeranetworkbeforehewasdeposedinamilitarycoup.[153][154]QatarofferedEgypta$7.5billionloan
duringtheyearhewasinpower.[155]

Qatar'salignmentwithHamas,firstreportedinearly2012,[156]hasdrawncriticismfromIsrael,theUnitedStates,
EgyptandSaudiArabia,"whoaccuseQatarofunderminingregionalstabilitybysupportingHamas."[157]
However,theForeignMinisterofQatarhasdeniedsupportingHamas,stating"WedonotsupportHamasbutwe
supportthePalestinians."[158]Followingapeaceagreement,Qatarpledged$1billioninhumanitarianaidto
Gaza.[159]

Qatarhashostedacademic,religious,political,andeconomicconferences.The11thannualDohaForumrecently
broughtinkeythinkers,professionalsofvariousbackgrounds,andpoliticalfiguresfromallovertheworldto
discussdemocracy,mediaandinformationtechnology,freetrade,andwatersecurityissues.Inaddition,theforum
hasfeaturedtheMiddleEastEconomicFutureconferencesince2006.[160]Inmorerecenttimes,Qatarhashosted
peacetalksbetweenrivalfactionsacrosstheglobe.NotableamongtheseincludetheDarfurAgreement.TheDoha
DeclarationisthebasisofthepeaceprocessinDarfurandithasachievedsignificantgainsonthegroundforthe
Africanregion.Notableachievementsincludedtherestorationofsecurityandstability,progressmadein
constructionandreconstructionprocesses,returnofdisplacedresidentsandunitingofDarfurpeopletoface
challengesandpushforwardthepeaceprocess.[161]Qatardonated88.5millioninfundstofinancerecoveryand
reconstructioninDarfur.[162]

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InJune2017,SaudiArabia,theUAE,Bahrain,EgyptandYemenbrokediplomatictieswithQatar,accusingQatar
ofsupportingIslamistextremismandterrorism,[163]escalatingadisputeoverQatarssupportoftheMuslim
Brotherhood,theworldsoldestIslamistmovement.[164]SaudiArabiaexplainedthemovetobeanecessary
measureinprotectingthekingdom'ssecurity.Qataritroopswerealsoremovedfromthemilitarycoalitionin
Yemen.EgyptcloseditsairspaceandseaportstoallQataritransportation.[164][165]

Military

TheQatarArmedForcesarethemilitaryforcesofQatar.Thecountry
maintainsamodestmilitaryforceofapproximately11,800men,including
anarmy(8,500),navy(1,800)andairforce(1,500).Qatar'sdefence
expendituresaccountedforapproximately4.2%ofgrossnationalproduct
in1993.QatarhasrecentlysigneddefencepactswiththeUnitedStatesand
UnitedKingdom,aswellaswithFranceearlierin1994.Qatarplaysan
activeroleinthecollectivedefenceeffortsoftheGulfCooperation
CounciltheotherfivemembersareSaudiArabia,Kuwait,Bahrain,the
UAE,andOman.ThepresenceofalargeQatariAirBase,operatedbythe Qatar'sDassaultMirage2000flying
UnitedStatesandseveralotherUNnations,providesaguaranteedsource overLibya.
ofdefenceandnationalsecurity.In2008QatarspentUS$2.355billionon
militaryexpenditures,2.3%ofthegrossdomesticproduct.[166]Qatari
specialforceshavebeentrainedbyFranceandotherWesterncountries,andarebelievedtopossessconsiderable
skill.[167]TheyalsohelpedtheLibyanrebelsduringthe2011BattleofTripoli.[167]

TheStockholmInternationalPeaceResearchInstitute(SIPRI)foundthatin201014Qatarwasthe46thlargest
armsimporterintheworld.However,SIPRIwrites,Qatar'splanstotransformandsignificantlyenlargeitsarmed
forceshaveaccelerated.Ordersin2013for62tanksand24selfpropelledgunsfromGermanywerefollowedin
2014byanumberofothercontracts,including24combathelicoptersand3AEWaircraftfromtheUSA,and2
tankeraircraftfromSpain.[168]

Qatar'smilitaryparticipatedintheSaudiArabianledinterventioninYemenagainsttheShiaHouthis.In2015,Al
JazeeraAmericareported:"NumerousreportssuggestthattheSaudiledcoalitionagainstoppositiongroupsin
Yemenhasindiscriminatelyattackedciviliansandusedclusterbombsincivilianpopulatedareas,inviolationof
internationallaw."[169]Manycivilianshavebeenkilledandthelargepartsoftheinfrastructureinthisregionisnow
destroyed.[170]HospitalshavealsobeenbombedbytheSaudisandthoseoperatingwiththem.[171][172]

Administrativedivisions
Since2004,Qatarhasbeendividedintosevenmunicipalities(Arabic:
baladiyah).[173]

1.MadinatashShamal
2.AlKhor
3.UmmSalal
4.AlDaayen
5.AlRayyan
6.Doha
7.AlWakrah

Forstatisticalpurposes,themunicipalitiesarefurthersubdividedinto
98zones(asof2010),[174]whichareinturnsubdividedinto
blocks.[175] MunicipalitiesofQatarsince2004

Geography
TheQataripeninsula160kilometres(100mi)
protrudesintothePersianGulfnorthofSaudi
Arabia.Itliesbetweenlatitudes24and27N,
andlongitudes50and52E.Mostofthe
countryconsistsofalow,barrenplain,covered
withsand.TothesoutheastliestheKhoralAdaid
("InlandSea"),anareaofrollingsanddunes
surroundinganinletofthePersianGulf.There
DesertCoast DesertlandscapeinQatar
aremildwintersandveryhot,humidsummers.

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ThehighestpointinQatarisQuraynAbualBawlat103metres(338ft)[1]intheJebelDukhantothewest,arange
oflowlimestoneoutcroppingsrunningnorthsouthfromZikritthroughUmmBabtothesouthernborder.The
JebelDukhanareaalsocontainsQatar'smainonshoreoildeposits,whilethenaturalgasfieldslieoffshore,tothe
northwestofthepeninsula.

Biodiversityandenvironment

QatarsignedtheRioConventiononBiologicalDiversityon11June1992,
andbecameapartytotheconventionon21August1996.[176]Ithas
subsequentlyproducedaNationalBiodiversityStrategyandActionPlan,
whichwasreceivedbytheconventionon18May2005.[177]Atotalof142
fungalspecieshavebeenrecordedfromQatar.[178]Abookrecently
producedbytheMinistryofEnvironmentdocumentsthelizardsknownor
believedtooccurinQatar,basedonsurveysconductedbyaninternational
teamofscientistsandothercollaborators.[179]

QatariOstriches Fortwodecades,Qatarhashadthehighestpercapitacarbondioxide
emissionsintheworld,at49.1metrictonsperpersonin2008.[180]Qataris
arealsosomeofthehighestconsumersofwaterpercapitaperday,usingaround400litres.[181]

In2008QatarlauncheditsNationalVision2030whichhighlightsenvironmentaldevelopmentasoneofthefour
maingoalsforQataroverthenexttwodecades.TheNationalVisionpledgestodevelopsustainablealternativesto
oilbasedenergytopreservethelocalandglobalenvironment.[182]

Climate

ClimatedataforQatar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
AveragehighC 22 23 27 33 39 42 42 42 39 35 30 25 33.3
(F) (72) (73) (81) (91) (102) (108) (108) (108) (102) (95) (86) (77) (91.9)
14 15 17 21 27 29 31 31 29 25 21 16 23
AveragelowC(F)
(57) (59) (63) (70) (81) (84) (88) (88) (84) (77) (70) (61) (73.5)
Average
12.7 17.8 15.2 7.6 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 12.7 71
precipitationmm
(0.5) (0.701) (0.598) (0.299) (0.098) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0.098) (0.5) (2.794)
(inches)
Source:http://us.worldweatheronline.com/dohaweatheraverages/addawhah/qa.aspx

Economy
Beforethediscoveryofoil,the
economyoftheQatariregion
focusedonfishingandpearl
hunting.Reportpreparedbylocal
governorsofOttomanEmpirein
1892statesthattotalincomefrom
pearlhuntingin1892is2,450,000
kran.[68]Aftertheintroductionof
CommercialdistrictinDoha.
theJapaneseculturedpearlontothe
worldmarketinthe1920sand
1930s,Qatar'spearlingindustry GraphicaldepictionofQatar's
productexportsin28colorcoded
crashed.OilwasdiscoveredinQatarin1940,inDukhanField.[183]The
categories(2011).
discoverytransformedthestate'seconomy.Now,thecountryhasahigh
standardoflivingforitslegalcitizens.Withnoincometax,Qatar(along
withBahrain)isoneofthecountrieswiththelowesttaxratesintheworld.TheunemploymentrateinJune2013
was0.1%.[184]CorporatelawmandatesthatQatarinationalsmusthold51%ofanyventureintheEmirate.[78]

Asof2016,QatarhasthefourthhighestGDPpercapitaintheworld,accordingtotheInternationalMonetary
Fund[5]Itreliesheavilyonforeignlabourtogrowitseconomy,totheextentthatmigrantworkerscompose86%of
thepopulationand94%oftheworkforce.[185][186]QatarhasbeencriticisedbytheInternationalTradeUnion
Confederation.[187]TheeconomicgrowthofQatarhasbeenalmostexclusivelybasedonitspetroleumandnatural
gasindustries,whichbeganin1940.[188]Qataristheleadingexporterofliquefiednaturalgas.[167]In2012,itwas

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estimatedthatQatarwouldinvestover$120billionintheenergysectorinthenexttenyears.[189]Thecountryisa
memberstateofOrganizationofPetroleumExportingCountries(OPEC),havingjoinedtheorganisationin
1961.[190]

In2012,Qatarretaineditstitleofrichestcountryintheworld(accordingtopercapitaincome)forthethirdtimein
arow,havingfirstovertakenLuxembourgin2010.AccordingtothestudypublishedbytheWashingtonbased
InstituteofInternationalFinance,Qatar'spercapitaGDPatpurchasingpowerparity(PPP)was$106,000
(QR387,000)in2012,helpingthecountryretainitsrankingastheworld'swealthiestnation.Luxembourgcamea
distantsecondwithnearly$80,000andSingaporethirdwithpercapitaincomeofabout$61,000.Theresearchput
Qatar'sGDPat$182bnin2012andsaidithadclimbedtoanalltimehighduetosoaringgasexportsandhighoil
prices.Itspopulationstoodat1.8millionin2012.ThesamestudypublishedthatQatarInvestmentAuthority
(QIA),withassetsof$115bn,wasranked12thamongtherichestsovereignwealthfundsintheworld.[191]

Establishedin2005,QatarInvestmentAuthorityisthecountry'ssovereignwealthfund,specialisinginforeign
investment.[192]Duetobillionsofdollarsinsurplusesfromtheoilandgasindustry,theQatarigovernmenthas
directedinvestmentsintoUnitedStates,Europe,andAsiaPacific.Asof2013,theholdingswerevaluedat$100
billioninassets.QatarHoldingistheinternationalinvestmentarmofQIA.Since2009,QatarHoldinghasreceived
$3040bnayearfromthestate.Asof2014,ithasinvestmentsaroundtheworldinValentino,Siemens,Printemps,
Harrods,TheShard,BarclaysBank,HeathrowAirport,ParisSaintGermainF.C.,VolkswagenGroup,RoyalDutch
Shell,BankofAmerica,Tiffany,AgriculturalBankofChina,Sainsbury's,BlackBerry,[193]andSantander
Brasil.[194][195]

Thecountryisfreefromtaxes,however,authoritieshaveannouncedplanstolevytaxesonjunkfoodandluxury
itemsinthecomingyears.Thetaxeswouldbeimplementedongoodsthatharmthehumanbodyforexamplefast
food,tobaccoproducts,andsoftdrinks.Therolloutoftheseinitialtaxesisbelievedtobeduetothefallinoil
pricesandadeficitthatthecountryfacedintheyear2016.Additionally,thecountryhasseenjobcutsintheyear
2016fromitspetroleumcompaniesandothersectorsinthegovernment.[196][197]

Energy

Asof2012,Qatarhasprovenoilreservesof15billionbarrelsandgas
fieldsthataccountformorethan13%oftheglobalresource.Asaresult,it
isthericheststatepercapitaintheworld.Noneofits2millionresidents
livebelowthepovertylineandlessthan1%areunemployed.[198]

Qatar'seconomywasinadownturnfrom1982to1989.OPECquotason
crudeoilproduction,thelowerpriceforoil,andthegenerallyunpromising
outlookoninternationalmarketsreducedoilearnings.Inturn,theQatari
government'sspendingplanshadtobecuttomatchlowerincome.The
resultingrecessionarylocalbusinessclimatecausedmanyfirmstolayoff
QatarAirwaysAirbusA380,Qatar
expatriatestaff.Withtheeconomyrecoveringinthe1990s,expatriate
Airways,oneoftheworld'slargest
populations,particularlyfromEgyptandSouthAsia,havegrownagain.
airlines,linksover150international
destinationsfromitsbaseinDoha. Oilproductionwillnotlongremainatpeaklevelsof500,000barrels
(80,000m)perday,asoilfieldsareprojectedtobemostlydepletedby
2023.However,largenaturalgasreserveshavebeenlocatedoffQatar'snortheastcoast.Qatar'sprovedreservesof
gasarethethirdlargestintheworld,exceeding250trillioncubicfeet(7,000km).Theeconomywasboostedin
1991bycompletionofthe$1.5billionPhaseIofNorthFieldgasdevelopment.In1996,theQatargasproject
beganexportingliquefiednaturalgas(LNG)toJapan.FurtherphasesofNorthFieldgasdevelopmentcosting
billionsofdollarsareinvariousstagesofplanninganddevelopment.

Qatar'sheavyindustrialprojects,allbasedinUmmSaid,includearefinerywitha50,000barrels(8,000m)per
daycapacity,afertiliserplantforureaandammonia,asteelplant,andapetrochemicalplant.Alltheseindustries
usegasforfuel.MostarejointventuresbetweenEuropeanandJapanesefirmsandthestateownedQatarGeneral
PetroleumCorporation(QGPC).TheUSisthemajorequipmentsupplierforQatar'soilandgasindustry,andUS
companiesareplayingamajorroleinNorthFieldgasdevelopment.[198]

Qatar'sNationalVision2030hasmadeinvestmentinrenewableresourcesamajorgoalforthecountryoverthe
nexttwodecades.[182]Qatarpursuesavigorousprogrammeof"Qatarisation",underwhichalljointventure
industriesandgovernmentdepartmentsstrivetomoveQatarinationalsintopositionsofgreaterauthority.Growing
numbersofforeigneducatedQataris,includingmanyeducatedintheUS,arereturninghometoassumekey
positionsformerlyoccupiedbyexpatriates.Tocontroltheinfluxofexpatriateworkers,Qatarhastightenedthe
administrationofitsforeignmanpowerprogrammesoverthepastseveralyears.Securityistheprincipalbasisfor
Qatar'sstrictentryandimmigrationrulesandregulations.[198]

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Demographics

SkylineofDoha

ThenumberofpeopleinQatarfluctuatesconsiderablydependingontheseason,sincethecountryreliesheavilyon
migrantlabour.Inearly2017,Qatar'stotalpopulationwas2.6million,ofwhich313,000wereQataricitizens
(12%)and2.3millionwereexpatriates.[21]NonArabforeignersmakeupthevastmajorityofQatar'spopulation
Indiansarethelargestcommunity,numbering650,000in2017,[21]followedby350,000Nepalis,280,000
Bangladeshis,260,000Filipinos,200,000Egyptians,145,000SriLankansand125,000Pakistanisamongmany
othernationalities(http://priyadsouza.com/populationofqatarbynationalityin2017/).[21]

Qatar'sfirstdemographicrecordsdatebackto1892,andwereconductedbyOttomangovernorsintheregion.
Basedonthiscensus,whichincludesonlytheresidentsincities,thetotalpopulationin1892was9,830.[68]

The2010censusrecordedthetotalpopulationat1,699,435.[3]InJanuary2013,the Populations
QatarStatisticsAuthorityestimatedthecountry'spopulationat1,903,447,ofwhich
Year Pop. %
1,405,164weremalesand498,283females.[200]Atthetimeofthefirstcensus,heldin
1904 27,000
1970,thepopulationwas111,133.[199]Thepopulationhastripledinthedecadeto 1970 111,133 +311.6%
2011,upfromjustover600,000peoplein2001,leavingQatarinationalsaslessthan 1986 369,079 +232.1%
15%ofthetotalpopulation.[201]Theinfluxofmalelabourershasskewedthegender 1997 522,023 +41.4%
balance,andwomenarenowjustonequarterofthepopulation. 2004 744,029 +42.5%
2010 1,699,435 +128.4%
ProjectionsreleasedbyQatarStatisticalAuthorityindicatesthatthetotalpopulationof
2013 1,903,447 +12.0%
Qatarcouldreach2.8millionby2020.Qatar'sNationalDevelopmentStrategy(2011
16)hadestimatedthatthecountry'spopulationwouldreach1.78min2013,1.81min 2016 2,545,000 +33.7%
Source:QatarStatistics
2014,1.84min2015and1.86min2016theyearlygrowthratebeingmerely2.1%.
Authority(19042004)[199]
Butthecountry'spopulationhassoaredto1.83millionbytheendof2012,showing
2010Census[3]2013
7.5%growthoverthepreviousyear.[203]Qatar'stotalpopulationhitarecordhighof
est.[200][201]2016[202]
2.46millioninNovember2015,anincreaseof8.5%fromthepreviousyear,far
exceedingofficialprojections.[204]

Religion

IslamisQatar'spredominantreligionandenjoysofficialstatus.[207]Most
QataricitizensbelongtotheSalafiMuslimmovementofSunniIslam,
about20%ofMuslimsinQatarfollowShiaIslamwithotherMuslimssects
beingverysmallinnumber.[208][209][210][211]Qataris67.7%Muslim,13.8%
Christian,13.8%Hinduand3.1%areBuddhistotherreligionsand
religiouslyunaffiliatedpeopleaccountedfortheremaining1.6%.[212]
SharialawisthemainsourceofQatarilegislationaccordingtoQatar's
Constitution.[96][97]
MosqueinQatar
TheChristianpopulationiscomposedalmostentirelyofforeigners.Since
2008,Christianshavebeenallowedtobuildchurchesongrounddonatedby
thegovernment,[213]thoughforeignmissionaryactivityisofficiallydiscouraged.[214]Activechurchesincludethe
MarThomaChurch,MalankaraOrthodoxSyrianChurch,theRomanCatholicChurchofOurLadyoftheRosary
andtheAnglicanChurchoftheEpiphany.[215][216][217]TherearealsotwoMormonwards.[215][216][217]

Languages

ArabicistheofficiallanguageofQatar,withQatariArabicthelocaldialect.QatariSignLanguageisthelanguage
ofthedeafcommunity.Englishiscommonlyusedasasecondlanguage,[218]andarisinglinguafranca,especially
incommerce,totheextentthatstepsarebeingtakentotrytopreserveArabicfromEnglish'sencroachment.[219]

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EnglishisparticularlyusefulforcommunicationwithQatar'slargeexpatriate
community.Reflectingthemulticulturalmakeupofthecountry,manyother
languagesarealsospoken,includingBaluchi,Hindi,Malayalam,Urdu,
Pashto,Tamil,Telugu,Nepali,Sinhalese,Bengali,andTagalog,Bahasa
Indonesia.[220]

In2012,QatarjoinedtheinternationalFrenchspeakingorganisationofLa
Francophonie(OIF)asanewassociatemember.However,inDecember2013,
theFrenchdailyLeMonderevealedthatQatar,whichhasveryfewnative
Frenchspeakers,hadnotyetpaidanycontributiontotheOIF,[221]whilethe
outgoingAdministratoroftheOIFcomplainedin2015thatQatarhadnotkept
anyofthepromisesitmadewhenitjoinedtheorganisationandhadneverpaid
itsannualmembershipfees.[222] ReligioninQatar(2010)[205][206]

Islam(67.7%)
Culture Christianity(13.8%)
Hinduism(13.8%)
Qatar'scultureissimilartoothercountriesinEasternArabia,being
significantlyinfluencedbyIslam.QatarNationalDay,hostedannuallyon18 Buddhism(3.1%)
December,hashadanimportantroleindevelopingasenseofnational Others(0.7%)
identity.[223]ItisobservedinremembranceofJassimbinMohammedAl Unaffiliated(0.9%)
Thani'ssuccessiontothethroneandhissubsequentunificationofthecountry's
varioustribes.[224][225]Since1July2008,HamadBinAbdulazizAlKawari
hasbeentheMinisterforCulture,ArtsandHeritageofQatar.

Artsandmuseums

SeveralseniormembersofQatar'srulingAlThanifamilyarenoted
collectorsofIslamicandcontemporaryart.

TheMuseumofIslamicArt,openedin2008,isregardedasoneofthebest
museumsintheregion.[226]This,andseveralotherQatarimuseums,like
theArabMuseumofModernArt,fallsundertheQatarMuseumsAuthority
(QMA)whichisledbySheikhaAlMayassabintHamadbinKhalifaAl
MuseumofIslamicArt,Doha
Thani,thesisteroftherulingEmiroftheStateofQatar,andtheprominent
collectorandartpatronSheikhHassanbinMohammedAlThani.[227]The
QMAalsosponsorsartisticeventsabroad,suchasmajorexhibitionsbyTakahashiMurakamiinVersailles(2010)
andDamienHirstinLondon(2012).

Qataristheworld'sbiggestbuyerintheartmarketbyvalue.[228]TheQatariculturalsectorisbeingdevelopedto
enablethecountrytoreachworldrecognitiontocontributetothedevelopmentofacountrythatcomesmainly
fromitsresourcesfromthegasindustry.[229]

Media

Qatar'smediawasclassifiedas"notfree"inthe2014FreedomofthePress
reportbyFreedomHouse.[230]TVbroadcastinginQatarwasstartedin
1970.[231]AlJazeeraisamaintelevisionnetworkheadquarteredinDoha,
Qatar.AlJazeerainitiallylaunchedin1996asanArabicnewsandcurrent
affairssatelliteTVchannelofthesamename,buthassinceexpandedintoa
globalnetworkofseveralspecialityTVchannelsknowncollectivelyasthe
AlJazeeraMediaNetwork.

Ithasbeenreportedthatjournalistspracticeselfcensorship,particularlyin
regardstothegovernmentandrulingfamilyofQatar.[232]Criticismofthe ThenewsdeskofAlJazeeraEnglish,
government,Emirandrulingfamilyinthemediaisillegal.Accordingto aQatarinewschannel
article46ofthepresslaw"TheEmirofthestateofQatarshallnotbe
criticisedandnostatementcanbeattributedtohimunlessunderawritten
permissionfromthemanagerofhisoffice."[233]JournalistsarealsosubjecttoprosecutionforinsultingIslam.[230]

In2014,aCybercrimePreventionLawwaspassed.Thelawissaidtorestrictpressfreedom,andcarriesprison
sentencesandfinesforbroadreasonssuchasjeopardisinglocalpeaceorpublishingfalsenews.[234]TheGulf
CenterforHumanRightshasstatedthatthelawisathreattofreedomofspeechandhascalledforcertainarticles
ofthelawtoberevoked.[235]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar 13/24
6/7/2017 QatarWikipedia

Pressmediahasundergoneexpansioninrecentyears.TherearecurrentlysevennewspapersincirculationinQatar,
withfourbeingpublishedinArabicandthreebeingpublishedinEnglish.[236]Therearealsonewspapersfrom
India,NepalandSriLankawitheditionsprintedfromQatar.

Inregardstotelecommunicationinfrastructure,QataristhehighestrankedMiddleEasterncountryintheWorld
EconomicForum'sNetworkReadinessIndex(NRI)anindicatorfordeterminingthedevelopmentlevelofa
country'sinformationandcommunicationtechnologies.Qatarrankednumber23overallinthe2014NRIranking,
unchangedfrom2013.[237]

Music

ThemusicofQatarisbasedonBedouinpoetry,songanddance.TraditionaldancesinDohaareperformedon
FridayafternoonsonesuchdanceistheArdah,astylisedmartialdanceperformedbytworowsofdancerswho
areaccompaniedbyanarrayofpercussioninstruments,includingalras(alargedrumwhoseleatherisheatedby
anopenfire),tambourinesandcymbalswithsmalldrums.[238]Otherpercussioninstrumentsusedinfolkmusic
includegalahs(atallclayjar)andtindrinkingcupsknownastusortasat,usuallyusedinconjunctionwithatabl,
alongitudinaldrumbeatenwithastick.[239]Stringinstruments,suchastheoudandrebaba,arealsocommonly
used.[238]

Sport

AssociationfootballisthemostpopularsportinQatar,bothintermsofplayers
andspectators.[240]TheQatarnationalunder20teamfinishedrunnersupto
WestGermanyinthe1981FIFAWorldYouthChampionshipaftera40defeat
inthefinal.InJanuary2011,theAsianFootballConfederation'sfifteenthAsian
CupwasheldinQatar.ItwasthesecondtimeQatarhadhostedthetournament,
withtheotherinstancebeingthe1988edition.[241]
2015LadiesTourofQatar
On2December2010,Qatarwontheirbidtohostthe2022FIFAWorldCup,
despiteneverpreviouslyqualifyingfortheFIFAWorldCupFinals.[242]Local
organisersareplanningtobuild9newstadiumsandexpand3existingstadiumsforthisevent.Qatar'swinningbid
forthe2022WorldCupwasgreetedenthusiasticallyinthePersianGulfregionasitwasthefirsttimeacountryin
theMiddleEasthadbeenselectedtohostthetournament.However,thebidhasbeenembroiledinmuch
controversy,includingallegationsofbriberyandinterferenceintheinvestigationoftheallegedbribery.European
footballassociationshavealsoobjectedtothe2022WorldCupbeingheldinQatarforavarietyofreasons,from
theimpactofwarmtemperaturesonplayers'fitness,tothedisruptionitmightcauseinEuropeandomesticleague
calendarsshouldtheeventberescheduledtotakeplaceduringwinter.[243][244]InMay2014,Qatarifootballofficial
MohammedbinHammamwasaccusedofmakingpaymentstotalling3mtoofficialsinreturnfortheirsupportfor
theQatarbid.[245]However,aFIFAinquiryintothebiddingprocessinNovember2014clearedQatarofany
wrongdoing.[246]

TheGuardian,aBritishnationaldailynewspaper,producedashortdocumentarynamed"Abuseandexploitation
ofmigrantworkerspreparingemiratefor2022".[247]A2014investigationbyTheGuardianreportsthatmigrant
workerswhohavebeenconstructingluxuriousofficesfortheorganisersofthe2022WorldCuphavenotbeenpaid
inoverayear,andarenow"workingillegallyfromcockroachinfestedlodgings."[248]For2014,Nepalesemigrants
involvedinconstructinginfrastructureforthe2022WorldCupdiedatarateofoneeverytwodays.[249]TheQatar
2022organisingcommitteehaverespondedtovariousallegationsbyclaimingthathostingtheWorldCupinQatar
wouldactasa"catalystforchange"intheregion.[250]

Thoughfootballisthemostpopularsport,otherteamsportshaveexperiencedconsiderablesuccessatseniorlevel.
In2015,thenationalhandballteamemergedasrunnersuptoFranceintheWorldMen'sHandballChampionship
ashosts,howeverthetournamentwasmarredbynumerouscontroversiesregardingthehostnationandits
team.[251]Further,in2014,Qatarwontheworldchampionshipinmen's3x3basketball.[252]

KhalifaInternationalTennisandSquashComplexinDohahostedtheWTATourChampionshipsinwomen's
tennisbetween2008and2010.DohaholdstheWTAPremiertournamentQatarLadiesOpenannually.Since2002,
QatarhashostedtheannualTourofQatar,acyclingraceinsixstages.EveryFebruary,ridersareracingonthe
roadsacrossQatar'sflatlandforsixdays.Eachstagecoversadistanceofmorethan100km,thoughthetimetrial
usuallyisashorterdistance.TourofQatarisorganisedbytheQatarCyclingFederationforprofessionalridersin
thecategoryofEliteMen.[253]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar 14/24
6/7/2017 QatarWikipedia

TheQatarArmySkydivingTeamhasseveraldifferentskydivingdisciplinesplacingamongthetopnationsinthe
world.TheQatarNationalParachuteteamperformsannuallyduringQatar'sNationalDayandatotherlarge
events,suchasthe2015WorldHandballChampionship.[254]DohafourtimeswasthehostoftheofficialFIVB
VolleyballMen'sClubWorldChampionshipandthreetimeshostFIVBVolleyballWomen'sClubWorld
Championship.DohaonetimeHostAsianVolleyballChampionship.[255]

Education
QatarhiredtheRANDCorporationtoreformitsK12education
system.[167]ThroughQatarFoundation,thecountryhasbuiltEducation
City,acampuswhichhostslocalbranchesoftheWeillCornellMedical
College,CarnegieMellonSchoolofComputerScience,Georgetown
UniversitySchoolofForeignService,Northwestern'sMedillSchoolof
Journalism,TexasA&M'sSchoolofEngineering,andotherWestern
institutions.[167]
QatarUniversity,mainarea
TheilliteracyrateinQatarwas3.1%formalesand4.2%forfemalesin
2012,thelowestintheArabspeakingworld,but86thintheworld.[256]
Citizensarerequiredtoattendgovernmentprovidededucationfrom
kindergartenthroughhighschool.[257]QatarUniversity,foundedin1973,is
thecountry'soldestandlargestinstitutionofhighereducation.[258][259]

InNovember2002,emirHamadbinKhalifaAlThanicreatedTheSupreme
EducationCouncil.[260]TheCouncildirectsandcontrolseducationforall
agesfromthepreschoollevelthroughtheuniversitylevel,includingthe
"EducationforaNewEra"initiativewhichwasestablishedtotryto
positionQatarasaleaderineducationreform.[261][262]Accordingtothe QatarUniversity,eastview
WebometricsRankingofWorldUniversities,thetoprankinguniversitiesin
thecountryareQatarUniversity(1,881stworldwide),TexasA&M
UniversityatQatar(3,905th)andWeillCornellMedicalCollegeinQatar
(6,855th).[263]

In2008,QatarestablishedtheQatarScience&TechnologyParkin
EducationCitytolinkthoseuniversitieswithindustry.EducationCityis
alsohometoafullyaccreditedinternationalBaccalaureateschool,Qatar
Academy.Inaddition,twoCanadianinstitutions,theCollegeoftheNorth
Atlantic(headquartersinNewfoundlandandLabrador)andtheUniversity
ofCalgary,haveinauguratedcampusesinDoha.Otherforprofit
universitieshavealsoestablishedcampusesinthecity.[264]In2009,under UNESCOInstituteforStatistics
thepatronageofH.H.SheikhaMozahAlMissned,theWorldInnovation LiteracyRateQatarpopulationplus
SummitforEducation(WISE)wasestablishedwiththeaimof 1519852015
transformingeducationthroughinnovation.

In2012,Qatarwasrankedthirdfromthebottomofthe65OECDcountriesparticipatinginthePISAtestofmaths,
readingandskillsfor15and16yearolds,comparabletoColombiaorAlbania,despitehavingthehighestper
capitaincomeintheworld.[265][266]Aspartofitsnationaldevelopmentstrategy,Qatarhasoutlineda10year
strategicplantoimprovethelevelofeducation.[267]Furthermore,thegovernmenthaslaunchededucational
outreachprograms,suchasAlBairaq.AlBairaqwaslaunchedin2010aimstoprovidehighschoolstudentswith
anopportunitytoexperiencearesearchenvironmentintheCenterforAdvancedMaterialsinQatarUniversity.The
programencompassestheSTEMfieldsandlanguages.[268]

Healthcare
Seealso
ListofQatarrelatedtopics
OutlineofQatar
Qatar'sKafalasystemlawsregardingforeignworkersinQatar
Qataricuisine

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Externallinks
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WikimediaAtlasofQatar
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fromInternationalFutures.
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6/7/2017 QatarWikipedia

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Categories: Qatar ArabianPeninsula Arabicspeakingcountriesandterritories Emirates


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