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A

Major Project Report


On
Utilisation of Construction & Demolition Waste

Submitted for
In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In
Civil engineering
By
Mohammed Ahmed (A12415813001)
Rishabh Kapoor(A12415813014)

Under the guidance of


Mr.Ujjwal Bhardwaj

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
AMITY UNIVERSITY
NOIDA(U.P.)

1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A work without the blessing and the guidance of elder is always half done and unsatisfactory.
The task of completing the project needs cooperation and guidance of technical persons in the
field.

My abundant and most sincere thanks to my Faculty guide MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ SIR
for providing me with the necessary facilities to carry out the project successfully.

MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ SIR who have not only readily accepted to be a supporter but
also sincerely helped me the most and saw that the project was completed. I would thank
Almighty lord without whose grace and blessings I would not have been able to complete my
project.

2
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mohammed Ahmed (A12415813001), Rishabh


Kapoor(A12415813014), student of 4th year have accomplished their minor project under my
guidance .1 hereby certify their work to the best of my knowledge. All of the student's
findings are their original work.

MR. UJJWAL BHARDWAJ

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Department of Civil Engineering

ASE, Noida

3
ABSTRACT

This review paper collates and compiles the available published literature on reuse and
recycle of construction and demolition waste materials. Construction and demolition waste is
generated whenever any construction/demolition activity takes place such as residential
buildings, roads, bridges, flyover, subway, remodelling etc. The production of construction
materials involves utilization of natural resources. Added to this, various toxic substances are
emitted into the atmosphere during the manufacturing process of construction materials.
Rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to generation of these wastes, and are being
dumped in open and low- lying areas. These activities pose serious problems to human beings
and the environment. Recycling construction and demolition materials can be a best
alternative to open dumping and also in conservation of the natural resources.

4
Figure Description Page No:
Numbers

4.1 Collection of Waste 23 LIST


4.2 Aggregate 24 OF
4.3 Los Angeles Apparatus 26
4.4 Types of Slump 29
4.5 Slump Test 32
4.6 Compaction Factor Test 35
4.7 USPV Test 43
4.8 Compression Test 51
4.9 Preparation of Bricks for Test 56
4.10 Compression Test on Bricks 56
4.11
Table Efflorescence of Description
Bricks Page No:58

Number
5.1 Management of Waste 59

3.1 Waste from Demolition Sites 23


32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Source 23
Separation FIGURES

4.1 Waste Materials from Demolition Sites 23


4.2 Aggregate 24
4.3 M35 Mix 27
4.4 Slump Values 31
4.5 Values for Workability 34 LIST OF
4.6 Concrete Quality 38 TABLES
4.7 Recommended Values 39
4.8 Test Results 42
4.9 Observation for Fresh Aggregate Concrete 46 INDEX
4.10 Observation for Waste Aggregate Concrete 47
4.11 CHAPTER
Strength TOPICS 49 PAGE NO:
4.12 Strength at 7&28 Days 49
4.13 Observation
l. Table
INTRODUCTION 53 1
4.14 Sizes of Bricks 54
4.15 Class1.1
Designation
GENERAL 54 1

1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF C&D WASTE 2


MATERIALS

6.1 Mix 1.3


Design
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 78 3
WASTEMANAGEMENT BACKGROUND

1.4 SCENARIO IN INDIA AND OTHER 4


COUNTRIES

1.5 ANALYSIS OF WASTE MATERIALS 6

1.6 TESTS TO BE PERFORMED ON THE 6


MATERIALS

5
1.7 COMPARISON BETWEEN FRESH 7
MATERIAL AND WASTE MATERIAL

2. LITERATURE REVIEW 9-12

3. RECYCLING OF C&D WASTE 13-19

3.1 INTRODUCTION 13

3.2 NECESSITY OF RECYCLING DEMOLITION 13


WASTE

4. METHODOLOGY 20-58

4.1 PRE-DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES 20

4.2 MATERIALS FROM C&D WASTE 22

4.3 COLLECTION OF MATERIALS & THEIR 23


SEPARATION

5. MANAGEMENT OF C&D WASTE 59-76


ASSESSMENT

6. RECYLING RATE 77-80


ESTIMATE&COST/BENEFIT ASSESSMENT

7. BENEFITS AND FUTURE SCOPE 81-86

8. CONCLUSION 87

REFERENCES 88

6
CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION
1.1) General
With the rapid economic growth after development and redevelopment projects in the
country and subsequent increase in the urbanization in the cities has made construction
sector to increase drastically, but also environmental impacts from construction and
demolition (C & D) waste are increasingly becoming a major issue in urban solid waste
management.
Environmental issues such as increase in the flood levels due to the illegal dumping of
construction and demolition waste into the rivers, resource depletion, shortage of landfill
and illegal dumping on hill slopes are evident in the metro cities.
For the purpose of management of C&D Wastes in India, Construction and demolition
waste has been defined as 'waste which arises from construction, renovation and
demolition activities. Also, included within the definition are surplus and damaged
products and materials arising in the course of construction work or used temporarily
during the course of on-site activities.
Due to the increase in the economic growth after development and redevelopment projects
in the country and subsequent increase in the urbanization in the cities has made
construction sector to increase drastically, but also environmental impacts from
construction and demolition waste are increasingly becoming a major issue in urban solid
waste management.
The primary method is adopted in waste handling is carried through by interviewing
professionals like project managers, architects, civil engineers, contractors and
government officials like city engineers, solid waste management officials.
Secondary information is gathered by compiled data from secondary source like various
research papers, various international journals, various international reports on
construction and demolition waste management. And also, proceedings of waste
management organizations and also some reports of surveys did by various agencies and
institution. Some information is collected thorough waste management and national
authoritys websites in construction waste and demolition management.

1.2) Classification of C&D waste materials

The various streams of wastes to be considered will include;

Excavated material

Concrete

Tiles, brick, ceramics, asphalt concrete,

Plaster,
Glass,

Metal and steel,

Plastics,

Wood, asphalt, and

Concrete rubbles, etc.

1.3) Construction and Demolition Waste Management Background


The purpose of these Guidelines is to promote an integrated approach to construction and
demolition (C&D) waste management, throughout the duration of a project. They are
designed to promote sustainable development, environmental protection and optimum use
of resources. The Guidelines provide guidance on the preparation of Detailed Project
report on Construction and Demolition Waste management.
Management Plans for certain classes of project, which exceed specified threshold limits.
The requirement for such Plans extends equally to both public and private sector
developments. They provide clients, developers, designers, practitioners, contractors, sub-
contractors and competent authorities with an agreed basis for determining the adequacy
of C&D Waste Management Plans.
Construction and demolition waste is defined as waste which arises from construction,
renovation and demolition activities etc. Also, included within the definition are surplus
and damaged products and materials arising in the course of construction work or used
temporarily during the course of on-site activities.
Landfill has been the traditional disposal mechanism for C&D waste, but in accordance
with the waste management hierarchy and having regard to the resource value of the
discarded materials and the current exhaustive pressures on landfill space, recycling must
take over as the main management route for this waste stream. The recycling of C&D
waste has been recommended in all of the Regional Waste Management Plans, which the
local authorities are now implementing, with many setting a target of about 80% recycling
of C&D waste. Further it is likely that there could be remarkable increase in the quantity
of C&D due to increased infrastructure and housing development and improved reporting.

This latest estimate is based on compilations of local authority collection permit reports.
In relation to C&D waste which excludes soil and stones, it is estimated that only 69%
undergoes recovery/disposal.
There is every need for an Agency to carry out detailed research accurately assess
construction and demolition. Prudent and proper management of this waste stream will be
required in order to significantly improve the recycling rates of core construction and
demolition waste materials other than soil and stones.
This pattern of higher C&D waste arising is reflected throughout the world. The recycling
of C&D waste is essential in order to reduce our dependency on finite natural resources
such as geological and energy reserves. While recycling of such material has the added
benefit of controlling the extent of waste disposal and reducing overall transportation
costs, prevention is the most desirable approach to waste management, since the
elimination of waste removes the. need for subsequent handling, transportation and
treatment of discarded materials.
While good progress has been made in pursuit of the Government targets for the recycling
of construction and demolition waste, progress has been largely achieved through the use
of C&D waste for engineering works at landfill sites and in land reclamation activities.
The performance achieved in the prevention of waste on site developments as well as the
preparation and use of suitable C&D waste derived aggregates in construction works has
been limited to date. Many permitted facilities are conditioned to accept only soil and
stones in the land reclamation activity and it is essential to ensure that other categories of
C&D waste materials which are unsuitable for the purposes of land reclamation are not
deposited at these sites in contravention of permit conditions. Furthermore, it should be an
objective to ensure that the resource of C&D waste is employed in the most beneficial
manner practicable through optimal reuse and recycling activities. Construction projects,
even with good prevention practices, will generate significant quantities of waste on a
once-off basis. The identification and provision of facilities for the reception of such waste
raisings should be integrated into the project planning and design processes. The
preparation of a Project C&D Waste Management Plan should begin in the early stages of
project development to facilitate suitable arrangements for the proper and orderly
management of the wastes and surpluses that are liable to arise in the course of the
development works.

1.4) C&D scenario in India and other countries

IN INDIA

Presence of waste and other inert material (e.g. drain silt, dust and grit from road
sweeping) is significant.

About a third of the total municipal solid waste generated.

C&D waste needs to be focused upon in view of


(i) The potential to save natural resources (stone, river sand, soil etc.) and energy,
(ii) Its bulk which is carried over long distances for just dumping,
(iii) Its occupying significant space at landfill sites and

(iv)Its presence spoils processing of bio-degradable as well recyclable waste.


C&D waste has potential use after processing and grading.
Utilization of C&D waste is quite common in industrialized countries but in India so far,
no organized effort has been made.
In Other Countries

Selected international experience has been outlined here which have relevance for the
Indian situation:

Scotland - About 63% was recycled in 2000, remaining37% being disposed in landfill and
exempt sites.
The Government is working out specifications and code of practice.
Attempts are being made for establishing links with the planning system, computerizing
transfer note system to facilitate data analysis and facilitating dialogue between agencies
for adoption of secondary aggregates by consultants and contractors.

Denmark - According to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA), in 2003,


30% of the total waste generated was C&D waste.
According to DEPA around 70-75% waste is generated from demolition activity, 2025%
from renovation and the remaining 5-10% from new building developments.
Because of constraints of landfill site, recycling is a key issue for the country. Statutory
orders, action plan and voluntary agreement shave been carried out, e.g., reuse of asphalt
(1985), sorting of C&D waste (1995) etc.

Netherlands - More than 40 million C&D waste is being generated of which 80% is brick
and concrete.
A number of initiatives taken since1993, such as prevention of waste, stimulate recycling,
promoting building material which have a longer life, products which can be easily
disassembled, separation at source and prohibition of C&D waste at landfills.

Factors which led to high recycling rates are:

o Separation at source

o Good market for recycled products

o Ban on landfills

o Guidelines for using C&D waste in place of fresh aggregates


USA -C&D waste accounts for about 22% of the total waste generated in the USA Reuse
and recycling of C&D waste is one component of a larger holistic practice called
sustainable or green building practice.
Green building construction practices may include Salvaging dimensional lumber, using
reclaimed aggregates from crushed concrete, grinding dry wall scraps for use as soil
amendmentatthe site. Promoting 'deconstruction' in place of 'demolition'. Deconstruction
means planned breaking of a building with reuse being the main motive.

Japan - Much of the R&D in Japan is focused on materials which can withstand
earthquake and prefabrication.
85 million tons of C&D waste was generated in 2000, of which 95% of concrete was
crushed and reused as roadbed and backfilling material, 98% of asphalt + concrete and
35% sludge was recycled.

Singapore - C&D waste sis separately collected and recycled. A private company
(Sembwaste) has built an automated facility with 3,00,000 ton per annum capacity.

Hong Kong - Concrete bricks and paving blocks have been successfully produced,
impregnation of photo catalyst for controlling Nix in ambient air.

1.5) Analysis of waste materials

Waste materials are taken separately and their analysis has been done of some factors
and their use, how they can be recycled and reused. Common Waste materials that are
taken into considerations are: -

Concrete- In concrete we have to take aggregate as a main part and rest is separated by
some means for other uses.
Bricks- Different sizes of bricks are found are demolition of buildings and they are
separated and reused, like fresh bricks are cleaned and reused after operation of some
tests on them. Half and quarter bricks are taken for other uses like landfills. Wood-Wood
is also a material which can be reused as in new construction big logs are used after
demolition these big parts are broken and these small parts are reused by application of
nails and screws.
Asphalt-Asphalt from concrete asphalt can be separated by heating, aggregates and
asphalt can be separated and used.
Reinforcement-Bend reinforcement bars can be reused.
They can be straightened by some action of force and then they can be used at the places
where low strength is required.
Plastics-Plastics can also be reused.

1.6) Tests to be performed on the materials

TESTS ON CONCRETE:
I. Slump Cone Test-Slump cone test is performed on the fresh concrete to check
the workability of the concrete.
II. Compaction Factor Test-Compaction Factor Test is also performed on the fresh
concrete to test the workability of concrete.

III. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test(USPV)-This test is performed on concrete blocks, it


is a non-destructive test which is used to check the quality of concrete.

IV. Compression Test-This test is performed on concrete blocks by Compressive


Testing Machine(CTM) to check the strength of concrete.

TESTS ON BRICKS:

I. Compression Test-This test is performed on the bricks which are reused to check
the strength of bricks.

II. Efflorescence Test-To check the efflorescent (migration of salt to the surface of
porous material where it forms coating) on the brick, it is for the aesthetic or
appearance of the buildings.

1.7) Comparison between fresh material and waste material


Comparison of various things like strength, workability, quality etc. of materials is very
important when we reuse and recycle the materials. New materials and materials obtained
from waste have different properties as well as different strength and quality as well.
As we know that new materials have high quality, high strength but we have to compare
how much there is decrease in strength and quality of the material which is obtained from
the waste.
Like for concrete first we take concrete block or section which is already used than from
that we will separate the materials which are of our use in which main and important
material is aggregate. Then we sieve the aggregate by sieves of
10mm,12.5mm,16mm,20mm and separate them and we make concrete from that
aggregate then perform several tests on that concrete. On the other hand, we will take
fresh aggregate than make a mix design of same grade as used earlier, then we perform
several tests which are performed earlier and then check it. Calculate how much
difference is obtained and then we give our analysis on that.
Same is for brick we take fresh and used brick separately and then perform tests and
check their strengths and then use according to the requirements.
These materials are also economically compare that how much difference is in the cost. It
is also checked that use of materials obtained from the waste is economical or not, it is
also analysed by their comparison.

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Asian institute of technology, Thailand had conducted a survey in various Asian countries
and published report onreduce, reuse and recycle (3r) practices in construction and
demolition waste management in Asia in May 2013. The study included the countries like
Bhutan, Japan, Hong Kong SAR, PR Chin, Thailand and others including India.The study
reveals the current status on C & D waste management in terms of Technologies relative to
3R and Information base regarding C & D waste is poor in India, whereas reusing facilities
and recycling facilities have moderateexistence and management practices, technologies,
stakeholder's participation in C & D Management is relatively low and the status of
sorting/.segregation, storage and monitoring facilities is unknown.

Presently, C & D waste generation in India accounts upto 23.75 million tons annually and
these figures arelikely todouble fold upto 2016. C&D waste and specifically concrete has
been seen as a resource in developed countries.Sadhan Ghosh, president of the
International Society of Waste Management, India reports that estimated waste generation
during construction is 40 to 60 Kg. per sq. m. Similarly, waste generation during
renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 kg/sq.m.
The highest contribution to waste generation is due to demolition of buildings.Demolition
of Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings, on an average generates 500 & 300 kg/ sq.m. of
waste respectively.

In India nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled,
while the remainder ismostly landfilled. At present, private contractors remove this waste
to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an un-
authorized manner along roads or other public land. The common practice for large
Construction and Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, results into the
traffic congestion.
Although, the responsibility of removing the waste is primarily of the builder or theowner,
it is usually assigned to the demolition contractor. Items, that cannot be re-used, are
disposed off tolandfill site. Disposalof C & D wasteinto Municipal Solid Wasteland filling
site degrades the quality of bio-degradable waste for treatments such as compostingor
energy recovery.

To address the problem of waste management in the country the Ministry of Environment
and forests, Governmentof India constituted a committee toevolve a road map for the
management of waste in India and to suggest a policy and strategy for achieving the same.
The scopeof the committee was toexamine theexisting administrative and regulatory
mechanism in waste management. Working Groups appointed by this committee interacted
with various stakeholders strategy for waste management. The Committee has made
number of recommendations for C & D management.
Recycling of waste from Construction Industry is carried out in U.K, France, Denmark,
Germany, U.S.A, Japan, etc. The proportion of different constituents varies from country
to country depending upon the material used for construction and the building technology.
The salient features of recycling operations in different countries can be summarized as
follows:

The Regulatory framework in Denmark has significantly helped it to improve recycling of


waste from Construction Industry. Before demolition of the building, the owner of the
structure has to apply for permission by filling in detailed form in which he has to identify
each constituent and estimate the quantity likely to arise. Simultaneously, he has to define
the disposal strategy. He has to also identify the waste carrier and environmental problems
anticipated during waste disposal along with methodology to control it. After demolition
takes place, different materials have to be transported separately. Otherwise it attracts a
price penalty or even refusal for movement of material. The disposal of waste to landfill is
taxed at high rates, while there is no tax on material sent to recycling. Netherlands has
developed specifications covering recycled material to be used as aggregate in concrete.
Dutch Government has imposed stiff charge on disposal of waste to landfill sites. This
charge has risen by seven times since1988.The technology adopted in Denmark is simple
and labour intensive, while the plants in Germany incorporate number of machines.

Anantha Rama V, Lokeshwari M (2012) Waste materials are common problem in


modern living. Waste accumulates from number of sources including domestic, industrial,
commercial, construction and demolition activity. A significant portion of municipality
waste is construction related. Proper management of construction and demolition waste is
important or else it will get mixed with municipal waste.

This type of mixing leads to cutting off the recycling options for C and D waste and also
reduces the efficiency of further municipal waste processing. Land disposal of C and D
waste presents a threat of ground water contamination because of trace amount of
hazardous constituents, which are some times encountered. In this article possibilities of C
and D waste recycling options are discussed, which includes recycling of concrete
aggregate; their properties and constrains in reusing of C and D waste concrete. This also
highlights the possible use of recycled aggregate in which further research is necessary.

Job Thomas, Wilson P. M. (2013) The management of construction waste is important


today. The scarcity in the availability of aggregate for the production of concrete is one of
the important problems facing by the construction industry. Appropriate use of the
construction waste is a solution to the fast degradation of virgin raw materials in the
construction industry. This paper enlightens the importance of reduce, reuse and recycle
(3R) concept for managing the construction waste in India.

Mansi Jain (2013) The excessive wastage of materials, improper management on site and
low awareness of the need for waste reduction are common in the local construction sites
in India. Today, in most European countries, it is economically feasible to recycle up to 80
90% of the total amount of construction waste and most demolition and recycling
technologies are generally easy to implement and control (Lauritzen, 1998). Considering
enormous increase in amount of waste generation owing to the growth in construction
industry can lead to wastage of materials which has its economic value.Currently,
existence of regional and national policies, laws and regulations governing reuse and
recycle principles for C & D waste is minimal in India. Thus the paper aims to focus on
the economic feasibility of waste minimisation of construction waste materials in terms of
cost savings in India.
Hariprasad N, V, Dayananda H. S (2014) This review paper collates and compiles the
available published literature on reuse and recycle of construction and demolition waste
materials. Construction and demolition waste is generated whenever any
construction/demolition activity takes place such as residential buildings, roads, bridges,
flyover, subway, remodeling etc. The production of construction materials involves
utilization of natural resources. Added to this, various toxic substances are emitted into
the atmosphere during the manufacturing process of construction materials. Rapid
industrialization and urbanization has led to generation of these wastes, and are being
dumped in open and low-lying areas.
These activities pose serious problems to human beings and the environment. Recycling
construction and demolition materials can be a best alternative to open dumping and also
in conservation of the natural resources.
Harish. P. Gayakwad, Neha. B. Sasane (2015) The construction industry has , gained
very fast growth in recent decades due to the increase in the population, increase in the IT
sector and increase in the industrialization and also introduction of new infrastructure
projects resulted in the increase of construction industry drastically. Due to which the
demand for construction materials is huge for the construction activities which results in
the generation of huge amount of construction waste. Construction material wastage
resulted in the huge financial setbacks to builders, contractors, regionals authorities and
also to the country. The production of waste due to the demolition of structures is more
than the wastage which occurs during construction of structures, so there is need of
management of Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes, as distinct from Municipal
Solid wastes, is a relatively new subject in India [l] . To begin with the issue there is no
proper estimate regarding the quantity of waste occurs in India [l]. The primary reason is
being in disciplinary and less focused in this issue. In this problem there is absence of
regulatory framework and strict enforcement. Specific recommendations has made in this
paper to overcome the loop holes in the issue. In this paper current global status of
construction and demolition waste management is overviewed and also the sustainable
waste management hierarchy is studied so to overcome the waste problem.

Hemalatha B.R, Nagendra Prasad(2008) Construction and demolition ( C and D)


waste is defined as the solid waste generatedby the construction, remodeling,
renovation, repair, alteration or demolition of residential, commercial, government or
institutional buildings, industrial, commercial facilities andinfrastructures such as
roads, bridges, dams, tunnels, railways and airports. Constructionand demolition waste
is considered as high volume, low risk. It is commonly understoodthat this waste can
be considered a resource, either for reuse in its original form or forrecycling or energy
recovery. Because of increasing waste production and public concernsabout the
environment, it is desirable to recycle materials from building demolition. If
suitablyselected, ground, cleaned and sievedin appropriate industrial crushing plants,
these materialscan be profitably used in concrete. Despite this, most Construction and
Demolition wasteends up in landfills. This paper highlights the composition of
Construction and Demolitionwaste, the need for its recycling and options that can be
implemented for its efficient use in the field of concrete technology in general.

Nuria Calvo, Laura Varela-Candamio(2014) According to the recent Spanish


legislation, the amount of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste (C&D
waste) by weight must be reduced by at least 70% by 2020. However, the current
behavior of the stakeholders involved in the waste management process make this goal
difficult to achieve. In order to boost changes in their strategies, we firstly describe an
Environmental Management System (EMS) based on regulation measures and
economic incentives which incorporate universities as a key new actor in order to
create a 3Rs model (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in the C&D waste management with
costs savings. The target areas are focused mainly on producer responsibility,
promotion of low-waste building technologies and creation of green jobs to fulfill three
main objectives: valorization of inert wastes, elimination of illegal landfills and
stimulation of demand for recycled C&D wastes. To achieve this latter goal, we have
also designed a simulation modelusing the Systems Dynamic methodologyto
assess the potential impact of two policies (incentives and tax penalties) in order to
evaluate how the government can influence the behavior of the firms in the recycling
system of C&D waste aggregates. This paper finds a broader understanding of the
socioeconomic implications of waste management over time and the positive effects of
these policies in the recycled aggregates market in order to achieve the goal of 30%
C&D waste aggregates in 12 years or less.

Snehal Anilkumar Kumbhar(2014) As we are living in 21st century, newTechnologiesare


being invented in almost every sector to make human life fast and easier. Beside this we
are still finding the solutions to problems related to our environment, energy and natural
resources.Construction industry produces large amount of waste throughout the year.
Most of the time construction and demolition waste ends up in landfills disturbing
environmental, economical and social life cycle. Construction and demolition waste is the
waste materials that are produced in the process of construction, renovation or demolition
of residential or nonresidential structures. Components of construction and demolition
waste typically include concrete, asphalt, wood, metals, gypsum wallboard, roofing,
paper, plastic, drywall and glass.
Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; and can be
considered as one of the solution to solve construction and demolition waste problem.
Sustainable development in construction will help a lot to reduce the problems related to
environment and natural resources as construction industry is a major user of world's
resources. Sustainable design, proper use and reuse of the resources/construction
materialswill make construction industry more economical andgreen.

Concrete is the second most consumed material after water, so recycling of concrete can
save construction costs also it will help to keep environment healthy. Concrete collected
from sites is put through crushing machine, usually uncontaminated concrete i.e. free
from wood, plastic, paper and other unwanted materials. Metals such as rebar are removed
with the help of magnets and other sorting devices. In many countries like Japan, United
States, United Kingdom various recycling techniques are being used and returning good
results. Process of recycling construction and demolitin waste includes storage, sorting,
collection, transportation, recycling and disposing. Recycling methods used in japan are
heating and rubbing methods.

Recycling of Construction and demolition waste has many benefits such as reduction in
transportation cost, it keeps environment clean and reduces natural resource exploitation.
To promote recycling andreuse of waste, awareness about its effects and benefits should
be communicated with people, contractors, engineers and architects. More numbers of
recycling plants should be installed and allowing the use of recycled aggregate instead of
natural aggregate for some purpose.

CHAPTER-3
RECYCLING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES
3.1) Introduction
Architects, engineers, specification writers, and contractors have an interest in and
understand the goals of job site recycling of Demolition waste but are not familiar with its
practicalities. Without this familiarity, it's difficult to piece together how recycling works
into overall project management, or to counter the concerns of those who object to job site
recycling on the basis of cost, complexity, unreliability, or other factors. This chapter is
intended to provide the information to understand and address those objections, and lay
the foundation for successful recycling from any new construction, renovation or
demolition project.

3.2) Necessity of Recycling Demolition Waste


"Sustainable building" has become a global catchphrase. In architects' offices and on
construction sites around the world there is increasing emphasis on reducing the
environmental impacts of renovation and new construction. C&D recycling is among the
most visible commitments a developer can make to sustainable building, visible to every
worker on the site and to every passer-by. In providing materials to local vendors and
processors, job site recycling creates employment and economic activity that help sustain
local economies. And perhaps most important, on a lifecycle basis, recycling produces
usable materials at much less environmental cost than materials from primary sources.
That is, in addition to conserving raw materials, recycling conserves energy and water,
and reduces the production of greenhouse emissions and other pollutants.
Job site, recycling is one of the most significant commitments that can be made to
sustainable building. So for many reasons - environmental, economic, practical and
environmental compliance - job site recycling is, and should be, at the centre of
sustainable building. Further, recycling is only one of several ways to conserve resources
and materials in construction and renovation. For every material that can be re-used in a
job, recycling isn't even necessary. This is true for source reduction using less material in
the first place, using less packaging, or using materials more efficiently (thereby
eliminating waste). And finally, use recycled or recycled content products. Recycling falls
apart if there are no markets for the materials that are diverted from the waste stream and
the best way to assure strong markets is to specify the use of recycled products wherever
possible.

Basics of Construction and Demolition Recycling


The reasons to recycle construction and demolition (C&D) wastes are simple but
compelling:

1. Construction and demolition wastes are one of the largest waste streams in the
country.

2. Almost all job site wastes are recyclable.

3. It costs less - usually much less - to recycle job site wastes than to throw them away.
Almost all Job Site Wastes Are Recyclable. This waste stream is also very large. Waste
that's generated during construction of a new building is more than that produced by
occupants of that building during one to two years of occupancy. There is hardly a single
waste material from a job site that cannot be recycled: Some of the waste materials from
demolition site that can be recycled are as follows.

Table3.1(Waste materials from demolition site)

Architectural salvage Non-Ferrous Metals Land clearing residuals


Doors and door frames Wiring conduit Trees, stumps, blush
Windows and frames Plumbing (pipes, fixtures) Soil
Millwork HVAC (ductwork, Motors) Ferrous Metals
Furniture and Asphalt Structural steel
Furnishings
Aggregate Steel framing members
Office furniture
Partition systems Concrete (with & without Porcelain fixtures
rebar)
Brick Ceiling tiles
Medical lab equipment
Concrete block Gypsum Wallboard
Reception casual furniture
Wood Roofing
Lockers athletic equipment
Dimensional lumber Shingles
Carpeting
Broadloom Panels (plywood, OSB, Commercial membrane
NIDF)
Carpet tiles Engineered beams (glu-lam, etc.) Wood. metal, slate
In total, from almost any job site, 90% to 95% of all waste materials can be recycled.
There are some materials that aren't on this list, because markets remain undeveloped or
contamination makes them difficult to recycle - for example, fibreglass and foam insulation.
painted or papered gypsum wallboard. And some renovation or demolition job sites contain
hazardous or special waste materials that need to be managed as such (lead-painted wood or
plaster, asbestos floor tiles or siding). In almost all cases, the cost of recycling is lower than
the cost of throwing materials away. However, day in and day out, for the architect, owner,
and contractor, recycling makes economic sense. This is a critical point. If recycling costs
more than disposal, then there will always be a very good reason NOT to recycle. But if
recycling is cost-competitive or less expensive than disposal, then recycling should be
considered as part of every job. In the worst case, the cost to recycle is not much more than
half the cost of disposal. When you sum these costs across almost any construction project,
the savings often amount to tens of Lakhs of Rupees. Even if materials cannot be separated
for recycling, recycling still costs no more than disposal.
A rough comparison of cost for recycling of mixed debris and the cost of disposal reveals
that there is great advantage, on the side of recycling. 75% to 90% of the mixed debris gets
sorted out, recovered, and used again. The economic benefits of recycling are highest if
waste materials can be separated from each other and recycled individually. This is called
"Source separation." Source separation means separating different recyclable materials at the
job site. That is, workers keep metals separate from wood and wood separate from concrete,
and so on, and place each material into a different container. These containers are then
transported to different markets. Commingled recycling is the alternative to source
separation. Commingled recycling means placing all recyclable materials into a single
container, which is then transported to a processing facility, where different materials are
separated by hand or by automated equipment. Source separation and commingled recycling
have distinct advantages and disadvantages.
Table3. 2(Advantages and Disadvantages of Source Separation Vs Commingled Recycling)

Recycling Method Advantages Disadvantages

Higher recycling rates Multiple containers at site.

Lower recycling rates Workers must separate the


materials.
Source Separation
Often working at site is
safer Complex logistics.

More information to Manage

Commingled Recycling Only one or two containers Lower recycling rates.


at site.
Higher recycling costs
No need of workers at site.

Easier logistics.

Less information to manage

The biggest trade-off between source separation and commingled recycling is complexity vs.
economics.
Source separation is more complex because workers must separate waste materials before
they throw them away, there are more containers on site, and there are more markets and
haulers to work with and keep track of.
But in most cases, source separation is economically more advantageous than commingled
recycling:

Source separation produces materials that are ready to go directly to market; there is no
need to pay a processor to sort materials.

Source separated materials are generally of higher quality, with fewer contaminants, so
they're worth more in recycling markets.

There are some jobs where commingled recycling is the only option possible, because of
site limitations, job size, or schedule. In these cases, the goal is to identify the commingled
processor who can achieve the best combination of price and recycling rate. But where it's
feasible, source separation should be considered the best recycling option.
The basics of source separation are easy: each recyclable material should be segregated as
it is generated, and placed in the appropriate container. A few additional rules make source
separation work smoothly:
Keep as few containers as possible on site at any time. Containers take up space, and
having too many containers increases the possibility of confusion and contamination. In
general, aim to have one container on site for mixed debris, and one or two additional
containers for the specific wastes generated during each phase of the job.
Match containers to the material. A wood container, for example, will typically hold 30 or
40 cubic yards. But scrap metal from wiring and plumbing may need only a 2or 4-yard
container. For something like concrete, you may have a lot of material, but container size
may be limited by the weight that can be hauled over the road. Site layout and access also
play a role in container selection. Place containers close to work locations. An advantage of
source separation is that it doesn't rely on one big central container for all wastes. Smaller
containers can often be placed close to the work. Also look for opportunities to use
intermediate containers like hampers or rolling hoppers that can be placed right next to the
work, and then wheeled to a larger waste container at the end of the shift. Again, there may
be surprising savings in labour and convenience.
What makes source separation work is the fact that it's matched to the phase of the job. You
only have on site the containers needed at a particular time for the specific wastes being
generated. You collect, haul, and market these materials. When the job moves on, you
recycle different materials, in different containers, and generally to different markets. It
takes a little energy and thought to do this, but in most cases the financial savings and the
advantage in recycling rates are more than worth it.
Good planning is the single most important part of construction waste management. Like
anything else in construction, recycling is straightforward if you have a good blueprint,
but becomes much more difficult and expensive if it's an add-on. Good planning allows
you to identify all recyclable materials and know how you're going to manage them before
the job starts. Good planning addresses how each waste material will be handled, what
containers will be used and when they'll be on site, and where each material will be
marketed. Good planning allows you to assess the costs and benefits of recycling and
decide which materials to source separate, which to recycle as commingled debris, and
which to discard as trash. Good planning covers communications, training, and
troubleshooting, and lays out tracking and reporting procedures for documentation. The
Waste Management Plan is the document that lays out the start-to- finish strategy for job
site recycling. It is prepared directly from the drawings and specifications for the job, and
a good plan will closely follow these documents.

The Waste Management Plan should


Estimate types and quantities of wastes generated during each phase of the Job;
Identify how each waste will be managed and marketed;
Provide an estimate of the overall job recycling rate;
Lay out plans for training, meetings, and other communications related to job-site
waste management;
Provide troubleshooting instructions and contact information.

All of this can (and should) be done before you break ground, so that recycling is
incorporated seamlessly into overall performance of the job. It's best if the Management
Plan is written and signed off on by all parties (owner, architect, and contractor) a month
or more before ground breaking or the first day of demolition.

Demolition and Renovation


Demolition and renovation projects are different from new construction, and often need
some extra planning. For example, compared to new construction, demolition and
renovation projects often involve

Much larger quantities of waste (often the entire building);

Many high-value wastes, for example, furniture and furnishings, architectural salvage
and valuable commodities such as nonferrous metals;

Wastes that are difficult to separate and recycle (like painted gypsum wallboard,
insulation, and shingles), and wastes that may be contaminated with hazardous
materials.

Automated demolition equipment like cranes and grapples, which don't lend
themselves to the separation of one material from another.

Tight and inflexible schedules; project value is in the new construction, while
demolition is perceived simply as a cost, with the goal to finish as quickly and
cheaply as possible.

In addition, some amount of recycling is already ingrained in the demolition industry.


Demolition contractors have been segregating wastes for many years, either to capture
revenue (e.g., wiring, structural steel), or to reduce disposal costs (e.g., concrete, brick).
This is both good and bad. It's good because demolition contractors are already aware of
and practice some recycling. It can be bad when a demolition contractor thinks he knows
all there is to know about recycling, and balks at suggestions to go beyond customary
procedures. Contractors who are generating revenues from recycling may also be reluctant
to relinquish this income, as they may if a Waste Management Plan clearly identifies these
materials and revenue streams. Given these considerations, an on-site audit before work
begins is a critical part of recycling from demolition or renovation. This is not necessary in
new construction, where recycling can be planned entirely from drawings and
specifications. A team that includes the architect, contractor, and recycler should get on site
to confirm what materials will be removed and how they will be handled (hand
disassembly, removal by crane, etc.). Often it will be good to bring along a salvage
specialist, who can identify opportunities to remove architectural materials such as
flooring, doors and windows. High-value commodities like wiring, nonferrous metals,
suspended ceilings and the like should also be catalogued, and plans made for their
recovery separate from other wastes. The on-site audit also provides an opportunity to
identify and resolve any conflicts between recycling and operations - and more specifically,
any potential conflicts between the owner, architect, and contractor, whose goals and
priorities at this stage may not be completely in alignment.
CHAPTER-4

METHODOLOGY

4.1) Pre-Demolition Activities

Complete Site Check for Hazardous Materials


Obtain proper permits and approvals Materials found after demolition begins can slow or
completely halt demolition work while removal takes place. Hazards may include; lead
based paint, asbestos, PCB light ballasts, mercury in switch gears and thermostats, oil tanks,
contaminated soils, etc. Offering a single source solution Robinette has an environmental
division that can address these issues prior to the onset of demolition activities.
Project permits can be complex including local, state and EPA oversight. General building
permits may allow for demolition without additional demolition permits. EPA and local
Government permits should have a mandatory 10-day notification period. You cannot start a
total building/structural removal job without waiting 10 days from initial notification! The
contractor should have a strong working relationship with these authorities and should be
able to obtain permits with a minimum of delay.

Things to do before Demolition Begins


Demolition and construction site preparation, are critical elements of any successful project.
Unexpected delays and costs associated with encountering unexpected factors can be
critical. Uncovering hazardous materials or utility obstructions can risk project timelines
and overall success. Surprises can also mean the difference between project profit and loss.
With any demolition project, there are many issues to resolve before demolition can actually
begin. Robinette, with more than thirty years of demolition management, understands what
needs to be done and does it. We will work with your project team to pre-plan actions
necessary to eliminate problems.
Explore asset and resource recovery of items normally left for demolition disposal. Prepare
a clear and complete scope of work and discuss it in detail with the demolition contractor
prior to starting work. Ensure that you receive guaranteed legal disposal of all demolition
materials. Mark, cut and cap all utilities communication lines to demolition area this action
can result in double savings by reducing the cost of demolition service and bringing in cash
for salvaged items. There are many companies that will pay you to remove your unwanted
items but who don't do demolition work. This is an excellent way to productively fill a ten-
day waiting period in total or structural demolition. Coordination and communication
between your demolition contractor and with his on-site supervisor is critical. We
recommend that a final review of the project plan be completed on the first day of the job.
Demand that your demolition contractor work in coordination with local landfills or
recycling centres to dispose of onsite materials properly. Verify that your contractor
complies with mandated resource recovery provisions for disposed project materials.
Failure to adequately prepare at this stage can slow or halt demolition and can result in
damage to existing property and service disruptions. It is critical to notify all utility
companies. Our field personnel work closely with on-site management to ensure that
existing utilities remain operational and free of damage.
Insist that the demolition contractor you hire has a comprehensive safety program in place
and uses it!
Many contractors have beautiful manuals but provide little or no training to their employees.
While the services of a safe company can be slightly more expensive on the surface, the
potential costs to you from even one incident, or work stoppage far outweighs this apparent
expense.
Project coordination, communication, and planning will ensure success. The contractor
should have the experience, resources and partnerships in place to provide an effective
demolition solution. Offering the close single source coordination of four operating
divisions, he should allow you to hold one organization responsible. Our commitment to
success eliminates the finger pointing so often encountered with competitors.
4.2) Materials from C&D waste
Waste is generated at different stages of construction process. Waste during construction
activity relates to excessive cement mix or concrete left after work is over, rejection/
demolition caused due to change in design a wrong workmanship etc.
Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 to 60 Kg. per sq. m. Similarly, waste
generation during renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 kg/sq.
The highest contribution to waste generation is due to demolition of buildings. Demolition of
Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings, on an average generates 500 & 300 kg/ sq.m. of waste
respectively.
Concrete appears in two forms in the waste. Structural elements of building have reinforced
concrete, while foundations have mass non-reinforced concrete. Excavations produce topsoil,
clay, sand, and gravel. This may be either re-used as filler at the same site after completion of
excavation work or moved to another site.
Large quantum of bricks and masonry arise as waste during demolition. These are generally
mixed with cement, mortar or lime. Stone arises during excavations or by demolition of old
buildings.
Metal waste is generated during demolition in the form of pipes, conduits, and light sheet
material used in ventilation system, wires, and sanitary fittings and as reinforcement in the
concrete. Metals are recovered and recycled by re-melting. Timber recovered in good
condition from beams, window frames, doors, partitions and other fittings is reused. However,
wood used in construction is often treated with chemicals to prevent Termite infestation and
warrants special care during disposal. Other problems associated to wood waste are inclusion
of jointing, nails, screws and fixings.
Bituminous material arises from Road planning, water proofing compounds, Breaking and
digging of Roads for services and utilities. Other miscellaneous materials that arise as waste
include glass, plastic material, paper, etc.
The total quantum of waste from construction industry is estimated to be12 to 14.7 million tons
per annum. Quantity of different constituents of waste that arise from Construction Industry in
India are estimated as follows:
Table4. I (Waste Materials obtained from demolition sites)

Constituent Quantity generated in million tons


p.a.(range)

Soil, Sand and Gravel 4.20-5.14

Bricks and Masonry 3.6-4.4

Concrete 2.4-3.67

Metals 0.60-0.73

Bitumen 0.25-0.30

Wood 0.25-0.30

Others 0.10-0.15

4.3) Collection of Materials and their Separation


CONCRETE:
First, we collect concrete boulders from demolition site and transport them to the site
where concrete is broken by some mechanical means to break into small parts, from
which Aggregate are obtained and waste is rust.
We collect about 200 kg waste of concrete, this is just as a waste material and other
materials are taken separately.

AGGREGATE:
We collect fresh aggregate in which two sizes are there:

10 mm size aggregate

20 mm size aggregate

Then we obtained aggregate from the concrete waste which is broken in Los
Angeles Apparatus, then that mixture is sieved by 10 mm and 20 mm sieve
From 200 kg of concrete we obtained about 31 kg of aggregate.
Concrete is broken by Los Angeles Apparatus in which these concrete boulders are put
inside Los Angeles Apparatus along with 10 iron balls and machine is started for a
particular period of time.

Fresh Aggregate Aggregate obtained from waste concrete


10mm(kg) 20mm(kg) 10mm(kg) 20mm(kg)

15 17 13.43 16.95

Table4. 2(Aggregates)

CEMENT:
We bought a 50-kg bag of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) for the use of making
concrete from fresh aggregate as well as aggregate obtained from waste concrete.

SAND:
We bought around 100 kg of sand or fine aggregate for the mix design.

BRICKS:
Bricks are also collected for testing in which we will check old bricks and new bricks
strengths and their efflorescence,3 new bricks and 3 old bricks are collected for the tests.

PLASTICIZERS
Plasticizers or water reducers, and superplasticizer or high range water reducers, are
chemical admixtures that can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability.
Unless the mix is "starved" of water, the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to
the amount of water added or water-cement (w/c) ratio.
In the situation such as in concrete pumping, ready-made concrete industry, tremie

concreting, concreting in deep beams etc., high degree of workability in grading or use of
high percentage can be increased by the improvement in grading or use of high
percentage of fine aggregates or increasing cement content or others but it is very
difficult to apply in the field. Extra water can be used to increase workability but it
causes harm to the strength and durability of concrete. Hence, nowadays, it is very
popular to use admixtures named plasticizers and super-plasticizers (available in various
brand names) to reduce water requirement and to make concrete strong and workable.
Plasticizers are the organic or combination of organic and inorganic substances which
reduces water content for certain degree of workability, when added in mix. The basic
products consisting plasticizers are anionic surfactants (such as lignosulphonates, salts of
sulphonates hydrocarbon) nonionic surfactants (such as polyglycol esters, hydroxylated
carboxylic acid products) and others such as carbohydrates, etc. among them calcium,
sodium and ammonium lignosulphonates are commonly used. Plasticizers are mixed
from 0.1% to 0.4% by weight of cement used and it reduces 5% to 15% of water with the
increment of workability from 3 to 8cm slump. In the mix, the cement grains absorb the
plasticizers molecules and results change in the surface charge of the same sign which
causes repulsive forces and makes the dispersion which increases plasticity and
workability. Some plasticizer also entrails the air but a good plasticizer is that which
entrains air less than 2% only. The plasticizers are available in market in various brands
with specifications for composition, dosages etc.
However, the super-plasticizers are the improvement of plasticizers. It increases
workability at same water cement ratio (w/c) and decreases w/c ratio at the same
workability level. The fluidizing property remains longer due to the retarding property on
cement hydration. Hence it is possible to obtain so called "flowing concrete" or "self
levelling concrete", which is pumpable or requires very little effort in the compaction. In
the concrete with super-plasticizer segregation and bleeding are nearly absent. In other
words, use of super-plasticizers reduces much more segregations and bleedings than any
normal plasticizers. Hence, super-plasticizers are most effective mix ingredient for
concrete. The super-plasticizers are normally grouped as sulphonated melamine,
Naphthalene sulphonate, modified sulphonates and others. The super-plasticizers are also
available in market in various brands with specifications for composition, dosages etc.

Types of Admixtures

Chemical admixtures - Accelerators, Retarders, Water-reducing agents, Super


plasticizers, Air entraining agents etc.(pce) polycarboxylate plasticizers
Mineral admixtures - Fly-ash, Blast-furnace slag, Silica fume and Rice husk Ash etc.
4.4) Tests performed on various materials
CONCRETE
LOS ANGELES APPARATUS:
With the help of this apparatus we broke the concrete boulders and small parts and then sieve
the aggregates, in our project this apparatus is just used for the breaking of concrete to obtain
aggregates of different on which we have to perform several tests.
Los Angeles Apparatus consists following parameters:
Apparatus:

i. Los Angeles Machine: It consists of a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both the ends with
an internal diameter of 700 mm and length 500 mm and capable of rotating about its
horizontal axis. A removable steel shaft projecting radially 88 mm into cylinder and
extending full length (i.e.500 mm) is mounted firmly on the interior of cylinder. The shelf
is placed at a distance1250 mm minimum from the opening in the direction of rotation.

ii. Abrasive charge: Cast iron or steel balls, approximately 48mm in diameter and each
weighing between 390 to 445g; six to twelve balls are required.

iii. Sieve: 1.70, 2.36,4.75,6.3,10,12.5,20,25,40,50,63,80 mm IS Sieves.

iv. Balance of capacity 5kg or 10kg

v. Drying oven

vi. Miscellaneous like tray

Theory-
The aggregate used in surface course of the highway pavements are subjected to wearing due to
movement of traffic. When vehicles move on the road, the soil particles present between the
pneumatic tyres and road surface cause abrasion of road aggregates. The steel reamed wheels of
animal driven vehicles also cause considerable abrasion of the road surface. Therefore, the road
aggregates should be hard enough to resist abrasion. Resistance to abrasion of aggregate is
determined in laboratory by Los Angeles test machine. The principle of Los Angeles abrasion
test is to produce abrasive action by use of standard steel balls which when mixed with
aggregates and rotated in a drum for specific number of revolutions also causes impact on
aggregates. The percentage wear of the aggregates due to rubbing with steel balls is determined
and is known as Los Angeles Abrasion Value.
MIX DESIGN: M35
RATIO: -1:1.6:2.907
Table4.3(M35 Mix)

Sand(kg) Cement(kg) Aggregate{20mm} Aggregate{10mm} Water


(kg) (kg) (kg)

16.86 11.34 16.60 13.5 6.5

SLUMP CONE TEST


Definition

Slump is a measurement of concrete's workability, or fluidity.

It's an indirect measurement of concrete consistency or stiffness.

A slump test is a method used to determine the consistency of concrete. The consistency, or
stiffness, indicates how much water has been used in the mix. The stiffness of the concrete
mix should be matched to the requirements for the finished product quality.

Concrete Slump Test


The concrete slump test is used for the measurement of a property of fresh concrete. The
test is an empirical test that measures the workability of fresh concrete. More specifically. it
measures consistency between batches. The test is popular due to the simplicity of apparatus
used and simple procedure.

Principle
The slump test result is a measure of the behaviour of a compacted inverted cone of
concrete under the action of gravity. It measures the consistency or the wetness of concrete.

Apparatus

Slump cone,

Scale for measurement,

Temping rod (steel)


Procedure

1. The mould for the slump test is a frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The
base is 200 mm (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm
(4 in).

2. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete in
three layers, whose workability is to be tested.

3. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel rod,
rounded at the end.

4. When the mould is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off
(levelled with mould top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of the
temping rod.

5. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so that it
could not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by means of
handles or foot - rests brazed to the mould.

6. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is levelled, the cone is slowly
and carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump.

7. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called slump.

8. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and the
temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the area of
slumped concrete.

9. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mould is noted with scare. (Usually
measured to the nearest 5 mm.
Precautions
In order to reduce the influence on slump of the variation in the surface friction, the inside
of the mould and its base should be moistened at the beginning of every test, and prior to
lifting of the mould the area immediately around the base of the cone should be cleaned
from concrete which may have dropped accidentally.

Types of Slump
The slumped concrete takes various shapes, and according to the profile of slumped
concrete, the slump is termed as;

1. Collapse Slump

2. Shear Slump

3. True Slump

Figure4.4(Types of Slumps)

1.1.1 Collapse Slump


In a collapse slump the concrete collapses completely. A collapse slump will generally mean
that the mix is too wet or that it is a high workability mix, for which slump test is not
appropriate.

1.1.2 Shear Slump

In a shear slump the top portion of the concrete shears off and slips sideways. Or If one-half
of the cone slides down an inclined plane, the slump is said to be a shear slump.

1. If a shear or collapse slump is achieved, a fresh sample should be taken and the test is
repeated.
2. If the shear slump persists, as may the case with harsh mixes, this is an indication of
lack of cohesion of the mix.

1.1.3 True Slump

In a true slump the concrete simply subsides, keeping more or less to shape

1. This is the only slump which is used in various tests.

2. Mixes of stiff consistence have a Zero slump, so that in the rather dry range no
variation can be detected between mixes of different workability.

However, in a lean mix with a tendency to harshness, a true slump can easily change to the
shear slump type or even to collapse, and widely different values of slump can be obtained
in different samples from the same mix; thus, the slump test is unreliable for lean mixes.

Applications of Slump Test

1. The slump test is used to ensure uniformity for different batches of similar concrete
under field conditions and to ascertain the effects of plasticizers on their
introduction.

2. This test is very useful on site as a check on the day-to-day or hour- to-hour
variation in the materials being fed into the mixer. An increase in slump may mean,
for instance, that the moisture content of aggregate has unexpectedly increases.

3. Other cause would be a change in the grading of the aggregate, such as a deficiency
of sand.

4. Too high or too, low a slump gives immediate warning and enables the mixer
operator to remedy the situation.

5. This application of slump test as well as its simplicity, is responsible for its
widespread use.

Tabled 4.4(Slump Values)


Degree of Slump Compacting Use for which concrete is suitable
Factor
workability
Mm In

Very low 0-25 0-1 0.78 Very dry mixes; used in road making.
Roads vibrated by power operated
machines.

Low 25-50 1-2 0.85 Low workability mixes; used for


foundations with light reinforcement.
Roads vibrated by hand operated
Machines.

Medium 50-100 2-4 0.92 Medium workability mixes; manually


compacted flat slabs using crushed
aggregates. Normal reinforced
concrete manually compacted and
heavily reinforced sections with
vibrations.

High 100- 4-7 0.95 High workability concrete; for


175 sections with congested
reinforcement. Not normally suitable
for vibration

RESULTS:
Slump for fresh aggregate concrete = 68mm
Slump for concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete = 51mm

Comparison
Slump (mm)

fresh aggregate concrete

waste aggregate concrete

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

COMPACTION FACTOR TEST


COMPACTING FACTOR
Compacting factor of flesh concrete is done to determine the workability of fresh concrete
by compacting factor test as per IS: 1199 -- 1959. The apparatus used is Compacting factor
apparatus.
Apparatus
Compaction factor apparatus' trowels, hand scoop (15.2 cm long), a rod of steel or other
suitable material (1.6 cm diameter, 61 cm long rounded at one end ) and a balance.
Procedure

i. The sample of concrete is placed in the upper hopper up to the brim.

ii. The trap-door is opened so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper.

iii. The trap-door of the lower hopper is opened and the concrete is allowed to fall into
the cylinder.

iv. The excess concrete remaining above the top level of the cylinder is then cut of with
the help of plane blades.
v. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed. This is known as weight of partially
compacted concrete.

vi. The cylinder is filled with a fresh sample of concrete and vibrated to obtain full
compaction. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed again. This weight is known as
the weight of fully compacted concrete.

Observations
For Fresh Concrete:
Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete = 12.39kg
Weight of Fully Compacted Concrete = 13.7kg
Weight of Empty Cylinder =12.76kg
For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete:
Weight of Partially Compacted Concrete = 12.17kg
Weight of Fully Compacted Concrete =13.9kg
Weight of Empty Cylinder = 12.76kg

Calculation
Compacting factor = (Weight of partially compacted concrete)/(Weight of fully compacted
concrete)

For Fresh Concrete = 12.39/13.70 =0.94


For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete 12.17/13.90 = 0.87

Recommended Values Of Workability For Various Placing Conditions

Table4. 5(Values for Workability)

Conditions Degree Values of Workability

Concreting of shallow sections with Very low 20 - 10 seconds Vee-Bee time or 0.75
vibrations to 0.80 compacting factor

Concreting of lightly reinforced Low 10 - 5 seconds Vee-Bee time or


0.80 to 0.85 compacting factor
sections with vibrations
5-2 seconds Vee-Bee time or 0.85 to
Concreting of lightly reinforced
0.92 compacting factor or 25 - 75 mm
sections without vibrations or heavily
Medium slumps for 20 mm aggregates
reinforced sections with Vibrations

Concreting of heavily reinforced High Above 0.92 compacting factor or 75


sections without vibrations 125 mm slump for 20 mm aggregates.

Result:
For Fresh Concrete = 0.94
For concrete mix of aggregate obtained from waste concrete = 0.87

Comparison

Compaction Factor

Concrete Cube Preparation

Preparation of mix- First we prepare mix for both types of aggregate fresh and
aggregate obtained from waste concrete. We design a mix ofM35 Grade
(1:1.6:2.907). Mix it in mixer accordingly.
Perform test- perform slump cone test and compaction test to check the
workability of concrete, both the concretes are taken separately.

Put the mixed concrete in the moulds then vibrate them on the vibrator so that
concrete settles properly in the mould so lack chances of defects on the cube.

After 24 hours open the moulds of concrete and put them in the curing tank at
1000 C cure them for 24 hours.

1hen take them out from the curing tank and weight them separately and then
perform the desired tests on the concrete blocks.
Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity (USPV) Test
Ultrasonic test on concrete is a recognized non-destructive test to assess the homogeneity and
integrity of concrete. With this ultrasonic test on concrete, following can be assessed:

1. Qualitative assessment of strength of concrete, its gradation in different locations of


structural members and plotting the same.

2. Any discontinuity in cross section like cracks, cover delamination etc.

3. Depth of surface cracks.

This test essentially consists of measuring travel time, T of ultrasonic pulse of 50 to 54 kHz,
produced by an electro-acoustical transducer, held in contact with surface of the concrete member
under test and receiving the same by a similar transducer in contact with the surface at the other
end. With the path length L, (i.e. the distance between the two probes) and time of travel T, the
(V=LID is calculated (fig.2). Higher the elastic modulus, density and integrity of the concrete,
higher is the pulse velocity. The ultrasonic pulse velocity depends on the density and elastic
properties of the material being tested.
Though pulse velocity is related with crushing strength of concrete, yet no statistical correlation
can be applied.

The pulse velocity in concrete may be influenced by:

a. Path length

b. Lateral dimension of the specimen tested

c. Presence of reinforcement steel

d. Moisture content of the concrete

The influence of path length will be negligible provided it is not less than 100mm when 20mm
size aggregate is used or less than 150mm for 40mm size aggregate. Pulse velocity will not be
influenced by the shape of the specimen, provided its least lateral dimension (i.e. its dimension
measured at right angles to the pulse path) is not less than the wavelength of the pulse
vibrations. For pulse of 50Hz frequency, this corresponds to a least lateral dimension of about
80mm. the velocity of pulses in steel bar is generally higher than they are in concrete. For this
reason pulse velocity measurements made in the vicinity of reinforcing steel may high and not
representative the concrete, influence of the reinforcement is generally small if the bars runs in
a direction at right angles to the pulse path and the quantity of steel is small in relation to the
path length. The moisture content of the concrete can have a small but significant influence on
the pulse velocity. In general, the velocity is increased with increased moisture content, the
influence being more marked for lower quality concrete.
Measurement of pulse velocities at points on a regular grid on the surface of a concrete structure
provides a reliable method of assessing the homogeneity of the concrete. The size of the grid
chosen will depend on the size of the structure and the amount of variability encountered.
Table 1:-General Guidelines for Concrete Quality based on UPV
Table 1 shows the guidelines for qualitative assessment of concrete based on UPV test results. To
make a more realistic assessment of the condition of surface of a structural member, the pulse
velocity can be combined with rebound number. Table 2 shows the guidelines for identification of
corrosion prone locations by combining the results of pulse velocity and rebound number.

Table4. 6(Concrete Quality)

PULSE VELOCITY CONCRETE QUALITY

km/s Very good to excellent

3.5 -4.0 km/s Good to very good, slight porosity


may exist

3.0-3.5 Satisfactory but loss of integrity is


suspected

<3.0 km/s Poor and loss of integrity exist.

Identification of Corrosion Prone Location based on Pulse Velocity and Hammer Readings
Table4. 7(Recommended Values)
No. Test Results Interpretations

I High UPV values, high rebound Not corrosion prone


number

2 Medium range UPV values, low Surface delamination, low quality of


rebound numbers surface concrete, corrosion prone

3 Low UPV. high rebound numbers Not corrosion prone, however to be


Confirmed by chemical tests,
carbonation, pH

4 Low UPV, low rebound numbers Corrosion prone, requires chemical and
electrochemical tests.

Detection of Defects
When ultrasonic pulse travelling through concrete meets a concrete-air interface, there is a
negligible transmission of energy across this interface so that any air filled crack or void lying
directly between the transducers will obstruct the direct beam of ultrasonic when the void has a
projected area larger than the area of transducer faces. The first pulse to arrive at the receiving
transducer will have been directed around the periphery of the defect and the time will be
longer than in similar concrete with no defect.

Estimating the depth of cracks


An estimate of the depth of a crack visible at the surface can be obtained by the transit times
across the crack for two different arrangements of the transducers placed on the surface. One
suitable arrangement is one in which the transmitting and receiving transducers are placed on
opposite sides of the crack and distant from it. Two values of X are chosen, one being twice that
of the other, and the transmit times corresponding to these are measured. An equation may be
derived by assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the concrete surface and that
the concrete in the vicinity of the crack is of reasonably uniform quality. It is important that the
distance X be measured accurately and that very good coupling is developed between the
transducers and the concrete surface. The method is valid provided the crack is not filled with
water.

This test is done as per IS: 13311(Part I)-1992


Procedure for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity.
i. Preparing for use: Before switching on the 'V' meter, the transducers should be connected
to the sockets marked ''TRAN" and" REC".

The 'V' meter may be operated with either:

a. The internal battery,

b. An external battery or

c. The A.C line.

ii. Set reference: A reference bar is provided to check the instrument zero. The pulse time
for the bar is engraved on it. Apply a smear of grease to the transducer faces before
placing it on the opposite ends of the bar. Adjust the 'SET REF' control until the reference
bar transit time is obtained on the instrument read-out.

iii. Range selection: For maximum accuracy, it is recommended that the 0.1 microsecond
range be selected for path length up to 400mm.

iv. Pulse velocity: Having determined the most suitable test points on the material to be
tested, make careful measurement of the path length 'L'. Apply couplant to the surfaces of
the transducers and press it hard onto the surface of the material. Do not move the
transducers while reading is being taken, as this can generate noise signals and errors in
measurements. Continue holding the transducers onto the surface of the material until a
consistent reading appears on the display, which is the time in microsecond for the
ultrasonic pulse to travel the distance 'L'. The mean value of the display readings should
be taken when the unit digit hunts between two values.

v. Pulse velocity=(Path length/Travel time) : Separation of transducer leads:


It is advisable to prevent the two transducer leads from coming into close contact with
each other when the transit time measurements are being taken. If this is not done, the
receiver lead might pick-up unwanted signals from the transmitter lead and this would
result in an incorrect display of the transit time.
Table4. 8(Test Results)

Fresh Aggregate Concrete Waste Aggregate Concrete

Path Travel Pulse Path Travel Pulse


Length(mm)
Time Velocity Length(mm) Time Velocity

150 33.9 4.42 150 34.5 4.34

150 33.7 4.45 150 33 4.50

150 32.5 4.60 150 36 4.10

Pulse velocity

4.31

4.49

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST

Compressive strength of concrete:


Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the utmost important which gives an idea about
all the characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether Concreting has been
done properly or not.
For cube test two types of specimens either cubes of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm or 10cm X 10 cm x
10 cm depending upon the size of aggregate are used. For most of the works cubical moulds of
size 15 cm x 15cm x 15 cm are commonly used.
This concrete is poured in the mould and tempered properly so as not to have any voids. After 24
hours these moulds are removed and test specimens are put in water for curing. The top surface of
these specimen should be made even and smooth. This is done by putting cement paste and
spreading smoothly on whole area of specimen. These specimens are tested by compression
testing machine after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied gradually at the rate
of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the Specimens fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen
gives the compressive strength of concrete.

Apparatus
Compression testing machine

Preparation of cube specimens


The proportion and material for making these test specimens are from the same concrete used in
the field.

Specimen
6 cubes of 15 cm size Mix. M15 or above

Mixing
Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer

Hand mixing

i. Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the
mixture is thoroughly blended and is of uniform colour

ii. Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate
is uniformly distributed throughout the batch

iii. Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired
consistency

Sampling

i. Clean the mounds and apply oil

ii. Fill the concrete in the moulds in layers approximately 5cm thick
iii. Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel bar
16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)

iv. Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel

Curing

The test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period the specimens are
marked

and removed from the moulds and kept submerged in clear fresh water until taken out prior to
test.

Precautions

The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at 27+-
20C

Procedure

I. Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess water
from the surface.

II. Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m

III. Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine

IV. Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.

V. Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.

VI. Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.
Note
Minimum three specimens should be tested at each selected age. If strength of any specimen
varies by more than 15 per cent of average strength, results of such specimen should be rejected.
Average of their specimens gives the crushing strength of concrete. The strength requirements of
concrete.

Observations

Fresh Aggregate Concrete

Sr. No. Load(K Size( Compressive Strength Compressive Strength


(7Days) (N/mm2) (28 Days)(N/mm2)
N) m)

1 50 22 34.5 53.15

2 35 225 24.79 38.15

3 37 225 26.1 40.15

4 43 225 30 46.15

5 34 225 24.15 37.15

6 35 225 24,80 38.15

Table4.9(Observations for Fresh Aggregate Concrete)

For Waste Aggregate concrete

Sr. No. Load(KN) Size(m) Compressive Strength Compressive Strength


(7Days) (N/mm2) (28 Days)(N/mm2)

1 39 225 27.40 42.15

2 40 225 28 43.15

3 39 225 27.40 42.15


4 38 225 26.75 41.15

5 36 225 25.45 39.15

6 37 225 26.10 40.15

Table4.10(Observations for Waste Aggregate Concrete


CALCULATIONS

For Fresh aggregate concrete


Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm
Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen) =225cm2
Characteristic compressive strength(fck)at 7 days = 27.40N/mm2
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Similar calculation should be done for 28-day compressive strength
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2) =42.15N/mm2

For Waste Aggregate concrete


Size of the cube =15cm x15cm x15cm
Area of the specimen (calculated from the mean size of the specimen)=225cm2
Characteristic compressive strength(fck)at 7 days =26.85 N/mm2
Expected maximum load =fck x area x f.s
Similar calculation should be done for 28-day compressive strength
Compressive strength = (Load in N/ Area in mm2) =41.32N/mm2

Report

a. Identification mark

b. Date of test

c. Age of specimen

d. Curing conditions, including date of manufacture of specimen

e. Appearance of fractured faces of concrete and the type of fracture if they are unusual

Result

For Fresh Aggregate Concrete


Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = 27.40N/ mm2 (at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =42.15 N/mm2 (at 28 days)

For Waste Aggregate concrete


Average compressive strength of the concrete cube = 26.85N/ mm2 (at 7 days)
Average compressive strength of the concrete cube =41.32N/mm2 (at 28 days)
Percentage strength of concrete at various ages:
The strength of concrete increases with age. Table shows the strength of concrete at
different ages in comparison with the strength at 28 days after casting.
Table4.11(Strength)

Age Strength per cent

1 day 16%

3 days 40%

7 days 65%

14 days 90%

28 days 99%

Table4. 12(Strength at Days and 28 Days)

Grade of Minimum compressive Specified characteristic compressive


Concret strength N/mm2 at 7 days strength (N/mm2) at 28 days
e

M15 10 15

M20 13.5 20

M25 17 25

M30 20 30

MSS 23.5 35

M40 27 40

M45 30 45

Comparison

Compressive Strength achieved after 7 days


Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

Compressive Strength achieved after 28 days

Compressive Strength(N/mm2)

BRICKS
Compressive Strength Test

Aim
To determine the compressive strength of bricks.
Apparatus
Compression testing machine, the compression plate of which shall have ball seating in
the form of portion of a sphere center of which coincides with the center of the plate.

Specimens
Three numbers of whole bricks from sample collected should be taken. the dimensions
should be measured to the nearest 1mm.

Sampling
Remove unevenness observed the bed faces to provide two smooth parallel faces by
grinding. Immerse in water at room temperature for 24 hours. Remove the specimen and
drain out any surplus moisture at room temperature. Fill the frog and all voids in the bed
faces flush with cement mortar (l cement, l clean coarse sand of grade 3mm and down).
Store it under the damp jute bags for 24 hours filled by immersion in clean water for 3
days. Remove and wipe out any traces of moisture.

Procedure

I. Place the specimen with flat face s horizontal and mortar filled face facing
upwards between plates of the testing machine.

II. Apply load axially at a uniform rate of 14 N/mm 2 (140kg/cm2) per minute till
failure occurs and note maximum load at failure.

III. The load at failure is maximum load at which the specimen fails to produce any
further increase in the indicator reading on the testing machine.

Observations

Table 4.13(Observation Table)


Sr. No. Compressive Strength Compressive
(N/mm2) Strength(N/mm2)
New Brick Old Brick

1 13 18

2 12 17

3 13 15

Calculation

Compressive strength = Maximum load at failure (N) / Average area of bed face (mm2)

The average of result shall be reported.

Result
For New Brick
Average compressive strength of the given bricks =12.67N/mm2

For Old and Used Bricks


Average compressive strength of the given bricks =16.67N/mm2

IS SPECICATIONS
Speciation of Common Clay Building Bricks
Dimensions: The standard size of clay bricks shall be as follows
Table4. 14(Sizes of Bricks)

Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm)

190 90 90

190 90 40

Classification: The common burnt clay shall be classified on the basis of average
compressive strength as given in table.

Table4. 15(Class Designation)

Class Designation Average compressive


strength

Not less than Less than


(N/mm2) (N/mm2)

350 35 40
300 30 35
250 25 30
200 20 25
175 17.5 20
150 15 17.5
125 12.5 15
100 10 12.5
75 7.5 10
50 5 7.5
35 3.5 5
Comparison
Compressive Strength

EFFLORESCENCE
OF BRICKS
Objective
For determination of efflorescence of bricks

Reference Standards
IS: 3495 Part(3)-1992

Equipment & Apparatus


Oven (3000c)

Procedure

1. A shallow flat bottom dish containing sufficient distilled water to completely saturate
the specimens is used for the test. The ends of the bricks are placed in the dish, the
depth of immersion in water being 25 mm.

2. The whole arrangement is placed in a warm (between 20 0C and 300C) well ventilated
room until all the water in the dish is absorbed by the specimens and the surplus water
evaporates.

3. The dish containing the brick is covered with a suitable glass cylinder so that
excessive evaporation from the dish may not occur.
4. When the water has been absorbed and brick appears to be dry, a similar quantity of
water is placed in the dish and it is allowed to evaporate as before. Examine the bricks
for efflorescence after the second evaporation and the results are reported.

Reports

The liability to efflorescence shall be reported as 'Nil', 'Slight', 'Moderate', 'Heavy' or


'Serious' in accordance with the following definitions
(a) Nil: When there is no perceptible deposit of efflorescence
(b) Slight: When not more than 10 percent of the exposed area of brick is covered with a
thin deposit of salts
(c) Moderate: When there is a heavier deposit than under 'Slight' and covering up to 50
percent of the exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or
flaking of the surface.
(d) Heavy: When there is a heavy deposit of salts covering 50 percent or more of the
exposed area of the brick surface but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the
surface.
(e) Serious: When there is a heavy deposit of salts accompanied by powdering and/or
flaking of the exposed surfaces.

Safety & Precautions


Use hand gloves while removing containers from oven after switching off the oven.
Thoroughly clean & dry the container before testing. Use apron & safety shoes at the
time of testing.

CHAPTER-5

Management of C&D Waste Materials


Reduce

Reuse

Recycle

Landfill

Figure5.1(Management of C&D Waste)

RECYCLING OF C&D
C and D waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the proper
storage, collection and transportation, recovery and recycling, processing, reusing and
disposal of C and D wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of
human health, economic, engineering, aesthetics and other environmental
considerations. The management approaches are different from one country to another,
as are the levels of environmental protection Most of the C and D management systems
reviewed on the following basis: C and D waste management includes following steps:

C & D WASTE MANAGEMNET MODEl

Storage and Segregation


C and D wastes are best stored at source i.e. at the point of generation. If
they are scattered around or thrown on the road, they not only cause
obstruction to traffic but also add to the work load of the local body.
Segregation at source is most efficient in terms of energy utilization.

Collection and Transportation


If the C and D debris is stored in skips, then skip lifters fitted with hydraulic
hoist system should be used for efficient and prompt removal. In case,
trailers are used, then tractors may remove these. For handling very large
volumes, front-end loaders in combination with sturdy tipper trucks may be
used so that the time taken for loading and unloading is kept to the
minimum.

Recycling and Reuse


C and D waste is bulky and heavy and is mostly unsuitable for the disposal
by incineration/ composting. The growing population and requirement of
land for other uses has reduced the availability of land for waste disposal.
Reutilization or recycling is an important strategy for management of such
waste. Apart from mounting problems of waste management, other reasons
which support adoption of reuse/recycling strategy are reduce dextraction of
raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits and reduced
environmental impact. Above all, the fast depleting reserves of conventional
natural aggregate has necessitated the use of recycling reuse technology, in
order to be able to conserve the conventional natural aggregate for other
important works.
In the present context of increasing waste production and growing public awareness of
environmental problems, recycled materials from demolished concrete or masonry can
be profitably used in different ways within the building industry. The study survey
indicates the major components of the C and D waste stream are excavation material,
concrete, bricks and tiles, wood and metal.

Disposal
Being predominantly inert in nature, C and D waste does not create chemical or Bio-
chemical pollution. Hence maximum effort should make to reuse and recycle them as
explained above. The material can be used for filling/levelling of low-lying areas. In the
industrialized countries, special landfills are sometimes created for - inert waste, which
are normally located in abandoned mines and quarries.

Management of Materials
Aggregates
The term "aggregate" is used broadly by the construction industry to refer to natural
mineral. materials used for various types of construction. Robinson, Menzie& Hyun
(2004) describe the term aggregate as "an industrial commodity term for sand, gravel,
and crushed rock materials, in their natural or processed state, that are used to provide
bulk, strength, and wear resistance in construction applications" (Barkdale, 2000, as
cited in Robinson, Menzie& Hyun, 2004, p. 276) In the U.S., aggregates are primarily
used in the production of Portland cement concrete, asphalt pavement, and as structural
fill in the construction and maintenance of roads and buildings (Tepordei, 1999). In
Europe, the word "aggregate" is also used to describe recycled concrete, bricks and
ceramics which are often crushed and used as fill for civil engineering projects. More
recently, these recycled aggregates have begun to be used in Europe for the production
of new concrete (Weil, Jeske & Schebek, 2006).
Aggregates often represent a large proportion of a region's C&D waste stream due to
their weight and predominance in modern construction techniques. If used asphalt
pavement torn up during the repaving of roads is included, the total volume of waste
aggregates produced is much larger. While individual houses are often constructed of
wood in Canada and other northern regions such as Scandinavia, house foundations,
larger public buildings and transportation infrastructure are often constructed using
aggregates. In other parts of Europe and North America, aggregates are more commonly
used for all types of construction and represent an even higher proportion of total C&D
waste produced. For example, a Spanish national plan for C&D waste from 2001
demonstrates that aggregates made up 75% of Spain's C&D waste at the time (Merino
et al., 2010).
Aggregates have often been targeted by recycling strategies due to their abundance in
C&D waste streams. In Europe and North America, recycled aggregates have most
commonly been used as loose fill in the construction of roads and other infrastructure.
Recently, however, there has been increased interest in substituting recycled aggregates
for natural aggregates in concrete production (Weil et al., 2006). In Germany, research
into this possibility has been prompted by concerns over ground water contamination
from recycled aggregates used as fill. However, using recycled aggregates in the
production of new cement can also reduce the use of primary mineral resources by more
than 40% (Weil et al., 2006).
An important question that must be asked when conducting research on using recycled
aggregates in new concrete is whether the concrete produced will have the same
strength and durability as concrete made with natural aggregates. Many construction
materials are made using a particular specification which is adhered to in order to ensure
that the manufactured product will perform optimally. The use of recycled materials
often requires an alteration in the manufacturing process which in turn requires the
development of a new specification (or "spec"). While research in Germany has
demonstrated that certain types of concrete can be reliably produced using recycled
aggregates, Weil et al. (2006) describe several conditions that must be adhered to in
order for the process to be successful. For instance, the authors state that recycled
aggregates from civil engineering projects must not be used for structural engineering
applications as they can contain chloride which can affect the durability of structural
concrete. Weil et al. (2006) also note that increased amounts of binding material such as
cement, fly ash, or concrete plasticizers must often be used due to the rougher surface
and more angular shape of recycled aggregates. If cement is chosen, the total energy
consumed and air emissions produced in the manufacture of concrete can be close to
40% higher than that of concrete with primary aggregates. However, if fly ash or
concrete plasticizers are used to prevent an increased use of cement, total energy use
and air emissions can remain very similar to that of traditional concrete (Weil et al.,
2006). It appears that only recycled concrete and brick can be used in the production of
new concrete and these aggregates must be carefully sorted from other materials in
order to ensure that they are free of contaminants. Weil et al. (2006) state that current
technologies for the sorting of C&D waste are unable to separate different aggregate
types and that pending the development of new waste sorting technology, aggregate
sorting must take place at the demolition site through selective demolition or
deconstruction procedures.

Current Practices in HRM:


While recycled aggregates are used as loose fill at the Otter Lake Landfill in HRM and
other landfills in Nova Scotia, they are not often used for other applications in the
province. (A. Way, personal communication, August 24, 2011; Dillon Consulting Ltd,
2006). It appears that the major obstacles to recycling a greater percentage of aggregate
waste in Nova Scotia are the abundant sources of aggregates in the province and
inexpensive transportation costs (Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006).
Asphalt Shingles
Due to their prevalent use as a roofing material in North America, asphalt shingles are a
significant waste stream in both the United States and Canada. It is estimated that up to
1.25 million tonnes of asphalt shingle waste is currently produced in Canada each year,
primarily from reroofing projects (Hannah, 2010). Fortunately, within Canada and the
United States there is growing interest in recycling asphalt shingles in order to reuse the
asphalt cement and mineral aggregate they contain for the production of hot-mix asphalt
(HMA) pavement. The recent rise in cost of petroleum products has made virgin asphalt
cement increasingly expensive and research has confirmed that used asphalt shingles
can be incorporated into the production of I-IMA pavement. This decreases the cost of
asphalt paving and makes use of a significant waste stream (Krivit, 2007).
According to Owens Corning Fiberglass Technology Inc. (2000), standard asphalt
shingles are currently made up of the following materials. Limestone or fly ash is used
as a coating filler and constitutes 32 42% of the product. Granules, which are small,
painted pieces of rock or coal slag normally make up 28 42% of the product. Asphalt
cement constitutes 16 25% while "back dust" made from limestone or silica sand is
usually 3 -- 6%. The base of the shingle is 2 15% Of the total and is normally made
from fiberglass, paper or cotton rags. Finally, adhesives make up 0.2 2% of the
shingle.
Asphalt shingle recycling has benefited from more than 25 years of research and
development (Krivit, 2007). The majority of this research has focused on the recycling
of asphalt shingle scrap from the manufacturing process. Recycled asphalt shingle
(RAS) scrap produced from manufacturing has enjoyed greater acceptance from
government regulators and engineers for the creation of construction materials
specifications than used "tear-off' shingles from roofing projects (Krivit, 2007). This
may well be because manufacturing shingle scrap is more uniform, has fewer
contaminants and consists of essentially unused materials. However, overburdened
landfills and rising petroleum prices are increasing the attractiveness of using tear off
RAS for road construction applications including HMA.
Specifications for the production of HMA are influenced by climate and traffic
conditions and therefore vary by region (Krivit, 2007). Due to this variation,
"departments of transportation [in the United States] have opted to independently test
the effect that adding RAS has on pavement performance"(Krivit, 2007, p. 28). Tests
of HMA mixes in the United States have found that incorporating up to 5% RAS in
hot-mix asphalt does not degrade the performance of the asphalt. In fact it can create
certain advantages such as increased resistance to rutting if the paper backing is
included (Hanson, Foo & Lynn, 1997). However, the use of RAS at a higher
Percentage can affect' the asphalt's performance since the asphalt cement found in
shingles is harder than that used for asphalt pavement. This problem may be resolved
by using a softer grade of virgin asphalt cement in the hot-mix. Several recent research
projects have focused on solving this issue (Krivit, 2007). In the Halifax Regional
Municipality of Nova Scotia, Halifax C&D Recycling has developed a process for
separating paper shingle backing from the other ingredients which has allowed them to
offer two different products from RAS. The paper backing is sold to a local cement
kiln for use as a fuel while the granules and asphalt cement are used in HMA
applications. RDM Recycling also collects asphalt shingles for recycling. The shingles
are sent to Halifax for processing. It appears that this procedure of separating asphalt
shingles into two different products is unique in North America. Halifax C&D
recycling sells RAS without the paper backing to Ocean Contractors Ltd. for use in
PIMA. Ocean Contractors Ltd. currently uses less than 2.5% RAS in its hot-mix
asphalt, or approximately 200 to 400 tons of RAS per year (E. Henneberry, personal
communication, June16, 2011).
In North America, energy recovery is the only other current high value recycling
option for manufacturer or tear-off shingle scrap. Within Canada, cement kilns often
utilize shingles for this purpose. Asphalt shingle scrap diverted for fuel might need less
sorting than shingle scrap used for HMA since higher rates of contamination could
possibly be supported in this context. Krivit (2007) writes that cement kilns can also
make use of the inorganic components of the asphalt shingles used for fuel including
the surface granules, mineral filler aggregates, fiberglass, talc dust and any nails
remaining in the shingles. According to Krivit (2007), these components can provide
ingredients useful to the cement making process including calcium, magnesium,
limestone, dolomite and silica as well as aluminium and iron from metal
contamination. The value of the inorganic fraction as a mineral supplement, the
organic fraction as a fuel source and the avoided landfill costs can together assign a
relatively high value to RAS used for this purpose. In Europe, RAS is also being used
for energy production. While this practice has seen limited development in the United
States, it is currently unusual in North America (Krivit, 2007).
There are several additional uses for RAS in road construction besides HMA. While the
value of RAS is often lower for these applications, there is the potential to use higher
quantities of the material. Higher percentages of RAS have been used successfully in
lightweight pavements for low volume applications such as driveways and parking lots
(Krivit, 2007). The blending ratios used for these pavements have typically consisted of
between 25% and 50% RAS (Krivit, 2007). Recycled asphalt shingles have also been
used successfully as a component of road base fill. While much less controlled research
has been done on using RAS as part of an asphalt road base, the practice has been
used successfully by contractors in Maine and Minnesota (Krivit, 2007). In the United
States, RAS is generally permitted in a road base as long as the total bitumen content
stays below levels specified by each state. A Canadian study on the use of RAS in road
bases found that RAS levels of 5% increased the stability of many aggregate mixtures
without compromising precipitation drainage 2008). RAS has also shown promise
when added to gravel aggregates for the maintenance of rural roads. Multiple tests in
the US have demonstrated that the addition of RAS can minimize dust and vehicle
noise, prevent gravel from falling into drainage ditches and increase the life of the road
surface while reducing maintenance needs (Krivit,2007).
The use of RAS for road patching has proven to offer several advantages over
traditional materials and has been used for several years in parts of the United States
(Krivit, 2007). RAS is being used for the production of road patching products that can
be applied cold, or "cold patches". According to Krivit (2007), Home Depot offers
cold patch product' in the US containing RAS. Many of the reported advantages of cold
patches made with RAS are due to the paper or fiberglass fibers from the shingle
backing. These advantages include a longer life than traditional patch materials, a
lighter weight and less "clumping" during storage. It is alSo reported that these cold
patches areeasier to apply since a hole can simply be filled one inch over grade and
compacted by vehicular traffic (Krivit, 2007).

Current practices in HRM:


Within the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia, asphalt shingles that arrive
at C&D processing centres are sorted from other materials and collected at Halifax
C&D Recycling where the paper backing is removed from the asphalt covered
aggregate through a unique processing method. The paper backing is sold to Lefarge
for use in their cement kiln in Nova Scotia while the asphalt and aggregate are reused
by Ocean Contractors Limited in the production of new asphalt pavement.
Wood
Clean and contaminated wood normally constitutes a large percentage of the total
C&D waste produced in North America (Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006; Recycling
Council of Ontario, 2006). As such, it is often an area of focus in C&D waste
diversion strategies. When examining wood waste, it is important to distinguish
between clean and contaminated wood. The term "clean wood" refers to sawn
lumber to which glues, resins, plastics or other materials have not been added.
"Contaminated wood", also known as "dirty wood", includes engineered wood
products to which glues and resins have been added as well as wood products with
paints or stains applied to them. Examples of engineered wood include plywood,
particle board and laminated wood products. Certain additives such as
formaldehyde-based resins and lead paints are highly toxic and their presence can
limit the options available for recycling contaminated wood.
Treated wood products also make up a significant percentage of contaminated wood
waste. Treated wood is normally infused with metals or chemicals to preserve the
wood against mould and rot. The infused metals and chemicals in treated wood
make it often unsuitable for recycling or reuse in other applications. Coal tar
creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are the most commonly used wood
preservatives in North America. Coal tar creosote is a distillate derived from coal tar
which .is created from the combustion of bituminous coal. Creosote treated wood is
primarily used for civil infrastructure such as wharves and bridges while CCA
treated wood is used most frequently for insect and rot resistance in buildings. The
preservative CCA is composed of copper, chromium and arsenic. While CCA and
creosote treated, timbers have traditionally been disposed of in landfills, the metals
and chemicals they contain can contaminate groundwater supplies. There is
currently much research being done to develop a viable process for removing the
toxins from this wood in order to allow for safe disposal or recycling of the
materials to take place. For example, low-temperature pyrolysis has been used
successfully in a semi industrial scale prototype in France (Helsen,Van den Bulck &
Hery, 1998).
Opportunities for Reuse:
Wood is a versatile material and can often be reused in new building projects if the
dimensions of the timber are appropriate (Winkler, 2010). Framing lumber is often the
most easily reused since the dimensions of this timber have changed little over the
past century (Winkler, 2010). Timber of this sort that has remained dry and
undamaged can be reused again for the same purpose. Heavy timbers are often
especially valuable due to their aesthetic appeal and the work of carefully
disassembling them is usually well rewarded. Solid board sheathing is reused less
frequently due to the current preference for plywood or oriented strandboard siding
which can be installed more quickly. Lastly, architectural woodwork is often valued
for its character and beauty making it a prime candidate for salvage and reuse. The
value of such woodwork is heightened by the cost of reproducing it today, which is
often prohibitive. Therefore, the cost of salvaging architectural woodwork is one of
the easiest to justify during the demolition process. This is also true of well-
constructed interior woodwork such as cabinetry and doors.
Energy Generation and Recovery:
The use of clean waste wood as a fuel source for heat or electricity production is a
well established practice in many countries including Canada, The United States and
Australia (Warnkin, 2004). As the price of fossil fuels has risen, the cost
competitiveness of wood has increased and a demand for clean C&D waste wood as a
fuel source has arisen. Contaminated wood, however, is used less frequently or in
smaller quantities due to widespread concern over its potential. to produce air
contaminants. Soiled wood is also of concern to fuel purchasers since dirt and grit can
cause slagging in furnaces (Warnkin, 2004). In many regions, selling waste wood for
fuel can be more economically viable than producing mulch or compost because of the
additional processing expenses involved with the latter products. In Sydney, Australia
and Halifax, Nova Scotia, waste wood used for fuel is tested to ensure that
contaminant levels are kept at required levels (Warnkin, 2004; D. Chassie personal
communication, June 29, 2011).
Mulch and Compost
Much research has been done on using waste wood from construction and demolition
projects as a mulch or ingredient in compost mixes (McMahon et al.2008). The
primary concern with these applications is the degree to which the wood used is
contaminated with toxins, plastic or metal. Due to this concern, it seems that the use
of contaminated wood for the production of mulch or compost has been largely
limited to pilot studies (McMahon et al., 2008, Biocycie, 2007). The use of clean
waste wood for mulch production is common across North America, although
construction and demolition waste appears to be a less common source than land
clearing, landscaping and manufacturing (Townsend, Solo-Gabriele
Tlaymatv&St00k, 2003). However, tests of mulch products have indicated that
despite producers' demand for clean wood, significant percentages of contaminated
wood end up in mulch products. This has been attributed to a low awareness of the
adverse health and environmental effects of using contaminated wood for mulch as
well as difficulties with identifying contaminated and treated wood (Townsend et al.
2003).
Recent research has demonstrated that the composting process can assist with the
degradation of heavy metals and pesticides found in treated wood products. Barker
and Bryson (2002) found that composting may also convert metallic pollutants into
less bioavailable species and concluded that composting has the potential to remediate
contaminated materials. McMahon et al. (2008) tested the ability of a contained
composting process to reduce toxins in contaminated wood products in the U.K. The
toxins consisted of isococyanates and phenolorurea formaldehydes used as synthetic
binding agents. McMahon et al. (2008) identified significant reductions in toxicity
levels during a 14 week composting process.
Other Recycling Options:
There are several other value-added uses for clean waste wood that have been
developed to some extent. A significant demand for wood flour is emerging in parts
of the United States. This is due to the use of wood flour as an inexpensive filler in
woodfiber plastic composite lumber, a product whose popularity is 'increasing.
However, the production of wood flour requires a very clean wood supply and
engineered wood products cannot be used for this purpose. In addition, certain tree
species can be unsuitable for the production of wood flour for composite lumber
(Buehlmann, 2002).
Current Practices in HRM:
In the Halifax Regional Municipality of Nova Scotia, Halifax C&D Recycling
mixes clean and contaminated waste wood together to be sold as fuel. This is
possible since the Nova Scotia Department of Environment allows a contamination
rate in the fuel mix of up to 10% (D. Chassie personal communication, June 29,
2011). RDM Recycling currently recycles clean wood as fuel and grinds
contaminated and treated wood for use as a landfill cover (A. Way, personal
communication, August 24, 2011). RDM may send a larger percentage of its
contaminated wood to the otter Lake landfill for use as landfill cover in order to
meet the landfill's demand since both facilities are operated by Dexter Construction
Company Ltd.
Gypsum Board
Along with aggregates and wood, gypsum board constitutes a significant percentage of
C&D waste in North America. In the United States, the National Association of Home
Builders Research Centre has estimated that gypsum waste makes up 27% of all
residential construction waste (Recycling Council of Ontario, 2005). In addition, the
Waste& Resources Action Program (WRAP, n.d.) estimates that 15% of Canada's
yearly production of gypsum board is disposed of as manufacturer and construction
waste. Gypsum board has traditionally been disposed of in landfills in Canada.
However, it has been found that under certain conditions, gypsum board co-disposed
with biodegradable waste can produce hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) as well as
sulphide leachates (WRAP, n.d.). Hydrogen sulphide gas is flammable and toxic to
humans. In British Columbia, limiting gypsum board to 5% of mixed waste was found
to be ineffective in preventing the production of hydrogen sulphide gas which led to a
ban in 1984 on the landfilling of gypsum board within the Greater Vancouver Regional
District. This ban encouraged Canadian companies such as New West Gypsum
Recycling Inc. to develop efficient processes for recycling gypsum (WRAP, n.d.).
Within the last decade, it has become common for gypsum board to be segregated
from organic waste when deposited at landfills in Europe in order to prevent the
production of hydrogen sulphide gas (WRAP, 2006).
During the past three decades, several important uses have been identified for recycled
gypsum. In many regions, the largest demand for recycled gypsum has been created
through its reuse in the production of new gypsum board (James,Pell,Sweeney,&St
John-Cox, 2006). This demand can vary though depending on the percentage of
recycled gypsum manufacturers are willing to incorporate into new products and the
price of virgin gypsum in each region. The integration of at least 20% recycled
gypsum into new gypsum board is common in British Columbia, Ontario and
Denmark, with percentages as high as 40% tested successfully (WRAP, 2006). In
contrast, the Yoshino Gypsum Company in Japan limits the use of recycled gypsum to
10% in new products (Saotome, 2007).
Recycled gypsum is also used successfully as a substitute for virgin gypsum in cement
production (D. Chassie, personal communication, June 29, 2011). Finally, there is
some demand for recycled gypsum as a soil additive in agriculture and composting
operations. However, land applications create a smaller demand for recycled gypsum
than cement and gypsum board production.
This literature review identified several circumstances that encourage gypsum board
recycling within a region. WRAP (2006) indicates that ensuring landfill fees are
significantly higher than recycling fees can help guarantee recyclers a steady supply of
waste material. In North America, where tipping fees themselves have rarely been
designed to encourage recycling, the regions best suited for gypsum recycling have
been those with significant construction activity and a lack of local gypsum
(WRAP, n.d.). The high demand for new gypsum board and subsequent large amounts
of construction waste combined with a premium price on virgin gypsum in these
regions offers several advantages to gypsum recycling operations.
In order to recycle gypsum board, the gypsum must be separated from the paper
facing; various processes have been developed by recyclers to accomplish this
(WRAP, n.d.). This separation process is particularly important when using recycled
gypsum for cement production, as the paper content must normally be kept below 1%
in this case (D. Chassie, personal communication, June 29, 2011).

Current Practices in HRM:


Gypsum board that is brought to C&D processing centres as separated material or that
is easily recoverable from mixed loads is processed by Halifax C&D Recycling to
remove contaminants and the paper backing from the gypsum. There are currently two
companies interested in buying recycled gypsum in Atlantic Canada: Certain Teed in
New Brunswick which manufactures Gypsum Board and Lafarge Canada
Incorporated, which uses the material during the production of new cement at its plant
in Brookfield, Nova Scotia. Certain Teed requires that the recycled gypsum it
purchases is completely free of screws and nails while Lafarge has a stricter tolerance
on paper contamination.
Metals
Post-consumer metals have some of the highest values of recycled building product
and the Canadian metal recycling industry is well established across the country
(Fothergill, 2004). Because of this, Canadian contractors and recycling centres rarely
have a problem finding buyers for well sorted metal waste. Nonferrous metals such as
copper and aluminium are particularly valuable and buyers often provide containers
and hauling free of charge for these materials. Metal waste from construction projects
is usually quite limited due to the high cost of metal products. Common sources of
nonferrous metal construction waste include copper pipe cut-offs, aluminium gutter
and flashing trimmings and electric cable cut-offs (Winkler, 2010). Structural steel
sections are usually created to architectural design specifications in order to minimize
waste. Because of this, ferrous metal construction waste usually accumulates through
cut-offs from steel studs, rebar, strapping and other framing pieces (Winkler, 2010).

Current Practices in HRM:


It appears that all metal C&D waste sent to C&D processing centres is being recycled
within the Halifax Regional Municipality. The value of this material has contributed to
the development of a robust recycling industry across North America which facilitates
recycling processes. At RDM Recycling for example, even small pieces of metal are
sorted from mixed C&D waste by hand or with magnets. The damage that metal
pieces can do to processing machinery is an added incentive for thorough sorting at
this facility (A. Way, personal communication, August, 24,2011).

Glass
While glass has been used in windows for centuries, it is now commonly used to
construct exterior wall panels, tiles and photovoltaic panels as well. This
diversification of glass building materials has greatly increased the percentage of
glass used in commercial buildings in particular. It appears that glass waste from
construction projects is limited since glass windows, tiles and panelling are
available in a variety of sizes. Glass is often a small percentage of current
demolition waste as well since it was only frequently used in windows, mirrors and
insulation products in older structures. While window glass represents the largest
percentage of demolition glass waste, there is currently little demand for single-
pane windows since they do not insulate as well as newer designs. It is unclear
whether the difficulty in separating window materials discourages recycling of
these products as well. Glass block salvaged from deconstruction activities is
reused in HRM and elsewhere (R. Rhyno, personal communication, August 23,
2011).
Large demands for recycled glass are being created through its use as a substitute for
sand in cement production and as a replacement for gravel in hot-mix asphalt where it
can make up 40% of the aggregate mix. Recycled glass is used to a lesser extent for
water filtration systems, as a replacement for sand on golf courses and playing fields,
in the production of fibreglass insulation and as a fluxing agent in the manufacture of
tile and brick. More valuable uses of recycled glass are also being developed. In the
United States, Vetrazzo Inc. produces glass composite counter tops made with up to
100% recycled glass (Winkler, 2010).
Current Practices in HRM:
Unsorted glass waste is currently being used in the creation of daily landfill cover at
the recycling centres in HRM. Halifax C&D Recycling will recycle glass waste such
as street light covers and window glass if it arrives sorted. The C&D glass
waste is used to manufacture a certified aggregate used in septic systems (D. Chassie,
personal communication, September 9, 2011).
Plastics
Although plastics typically represent just 1% of total construction and demolition
waste, their environmental impact can be significant once they are disposed of
(Assessing the Potential of Plastics Recycling in the Construction and Demolition
Activities (APPRICOD), 2004). Plastics can take centuries to biodegrade, and the
chemicals contained within them are serious threats to air and water quality when
plastic waste is incinerated or landfilled. In addition, the use of plastics in the
construction industry continues to increase.
While a wide variety of plastics are manufactured worldwide, polyvinyl chloride
(PVC) is the most commonly used plastic in the construction industry today.
According to APPRICOD (2004), PVC accounted for 47% of all plastics used in the
construction industry in Western Europe in 2002. PVC is now commonly used for
manufacturing pipes and ducts, door and window frames and vinyl flooring
(APPRICOD, 2004). High density and low density polyethylene are used as well for
the production of plastic piping. The plastics EPS (expanded polystyrene), XPS
(extruded polystyrene) and PU (polyurethane) are also frequently used to manufacture
insulation materials and made up of the construction industry's plastics consumption in
Western Europe in 2002 (APPRICOD, 2004). In Canada strategies for recycling
plastic waste are only beginning to be developed. The Canadian Plastics Industry
Association (CPIA) has begun pilot projects to collect plastic pipe cut-offs in Ontario
and Alberta (M. Axemith, personal communication, August 22, 2011). CPIA has also
produced several reports on best practices for recovering and recycling vinyl siding
during demolition projects. In Ontario, several recycling companies are currently
collecting vinyl from construction projects and vinyl manufacturing facilities. As well,
the company Simplas has facilities in Edmonton, AB and Mississauga, ON which
accept PVC and polyethylene pipe cutoffs and vinyl siding from construction and
demolition sites for recycling. Simplas claims to be the only Canadian company
recycling plastic piping from construction and demolition is dropped off at Simplas
free of charge or collected for the company in separate bins at landfills. It appears that
C&D plastic waste recycling is not yet common outside of Alberta and Ontario.
Current Practices in HRM:
There are no recycling processes currently in place for recycling plastic C&D waste
in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipality's distance from plastic
manufacturers may be a constraint to the development of a plastics recycling
industry as recycled plastic would need to be transported long distances. As well, it
appears that used vinyl siding must remain clean and uncontaminated in order to be
recycled (Dillon Consulting Ltd, 2006). In this case, traditional demolition practices
would be a constraint to the recycling of vinyl siding and selective demolition would
be required.

Carpeting / Ceiling- tiles/ Insulation


There are several building materials which despite their smaller
volume are important to consider when examining C&D waste
diversion. The most significant of these is carpeting, which makes
up approximately 4% of Nova Scotia's C&D waste (Dillon Consulting
Ltd, 2006). Although carpet recycling efforts have been increasing
in the United Kingdom and the United States over the past decade,
Canada has only recently taken steps to promote carpet recycling
with the establishment of the Canadian Carpet Recovery Effort
(CCRE) in 2010. In a similar manner to the Carpet America
Recovery Effort (CARE), CCRE seeks to facilitate industry led and
market driven solutions for the diversion of post-consumer carpet
from landfills and the advancement of secondary markets using
recycled content (CCRE, 2010. slide 8). There are currently several
diversion opportunities for recycled carpets. Clean carpets in good
condition can often be reused if care is taken with their removal.
Depending on the carpet type and its condition, processing of post-
consumer carpeting can produce components for new carpeting or
carpet padding or plastic resins for the production of other recycled
products. Alternatively, post-consumer carpeting can be used as a
fuel source for industrial processes such as cement making (Bro-Tex
Inc., n. Ceiling tiles are another building product for which recycling
procedures have recently been developed. In the United States,
Armstrong World Industries (Armstrong) was the first company in
North America to begin an extensive ceiling tile recycling program
in 1999 to provide a supply of recycled material for their new
ceiling tile products. Since then, they have recycled over 50,000
tonnes of ceiling tiles. Armstrong currently collects used ceiling
tiles in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario,
grinds them into powder, and incorporates the recycled mineral
fibre into the production of new Ceiling tiles. It appears that closed-
loop recycling of ceiling tiles has not yet been developed in Canada
(Recycling Council of Ontario, 2005). In Nova Scotia, Thermo-Cell
Industries Limited has suggested that certain types of ceiling tile
could be ground and used as blown-in insulation (B. Kenney,
personal communication, August 25, 2011).
A final subject which is worth our attention is insulation materials. Currently,
several different types of insulation material are commonly used. The most
frequently used products are polystyrene board, fiberglass and paper cellulose. Paper
cellulose insulation is often itself a recycled product with approximately 80% being
made from recycled newspaper (Winkler, 2010). According to Winkler (2010), old
cellulose insulation can be incorporated into new insulation. This practice, however,
does not appear to be widespread, perhaps due to the length of time needed to
extract old cellulose insulation from wall cavities.
While the process of recycling fiberglass batts into fiberglass board products has
been developed, it is not currently economically feasible. Therefore, while fiberglass
batts are occasionally salvaged for reuse, most are currently sent to the landfill in
North America (Winkler, 2010). Armstrong World Industries, however, does accept
commercial fiberglass batting that does not have a paper cover for recycling. They
also accept acoustical insulation. panels for recycling if they meet certain conditions.
For further information on Armstrong's conditions for accepting materials for
recycling, please call their recycling centre at 1877-276-7876.
Polystyrene boards (often known as Styrofoam) are becoming more as an insulation

material for exterior walls. Recycling opportunities for this material are unfortunately
very limited at the moment. Rastra Inc. (www.rastrmcom) is the only company in
North America currently accepting used polystyrene boards for recycling.
Thecompany has manufacturing plants in Columbus, Ohio, and Albuquerque, New
Mexico, and uses the recycled material for manufacturing insulated concrete form
products (Winkler, 2010).
Current Practices in HRM:
Carpet recycling within the Halifax Regional Municipality is conducted on a limited
basis by InterfaceFLOR, an international manufacturer of carpet floor tiles based in
Georgia, United States. InterfaceFLOR currently recycles commercial carpeting, but is
unable to recycle household carpeting since it lacks central collection depots to
stockpile this product (J. MacNeill, personal communication, August 25, 2011). A
general constraint on carpet recycling is the additional cost of packing the carpet for
shipment to an InterfaceFLOR recycling facility. The current cost of recycling
carpeting in HRM is approximately $.25-.50 per square foot if new InterfaceFLOR
carpet tiles are installed, although the price can be higher if carpeting is removed
inefficiently (J. MacNeill, personal communication, August 25, 2011).
Ceiling tiles and fiberglass insulation are not currently collected on a large scale for
recycling in HRM. The reuse of these materials does occasionally occur, however, if
they remain in good condition during renovations or deconstruction.
CHAPTER-6

RECYCLING RATE ESTIMATE & COST BENEFIT ASSESSMENT


This calculation encapsulates your estimates of the total quantities of materials recycled and the
total disposed. The recycling rate is simply the total quantity recycled divided by the sum of the
quantity recycled plus the quantity thrown away. When the plan is first developed, this will be
an estimate, used to forecast an ultimate recycling rate and to assess changes in waste
management procedures that will affect this rate. As the project moves along, it becomes a
living record used to track progress toward recycling goals. If the rate runs below projections,
use the results documented in the plan to find out why, and (particularly if you need a
certification) use the plan to evaluate alternatives to increase the rate.
As noted elsewhere, it's a rare project where recycling is undertaken for strictly environmental
reasons. Recycling needs to be justified financially, as well as environmentally. This section of
the plan - typically a worksheet - is where you make this justification. As you develop the plan
and identify markets, you'll be able to estimate recycling costs, material by material, for
transportation (including containers) and management. You should simultaneously estimate the
cost to dispose of materials as wastes (transportation plus tipping fee), so that you can compare
the cost of recycling versus disposal. Once again, these are estimates that should be updated
with real information as the project moves ahead, so you can compare actual against budgeted
waste management costs, and keep a running track of the savings for recycling compared to
disposal. This is another good morale builder for workers on site, as well as a nice Good News
item for contractor management, architect, and owner.
Rate Analysis for fresh concrete cubes and cutes made of waste aggregate concrete
Cement Bag opc (50kg) =300Rs;6Rs/kg
Aggregate 20mm =40Rs/feet
Aggregate 10mm =38Rs/feet
Sand 33Rs/feet

Now for Fresh Aggregate Concrete


Mix Design M35
It requires;
Table6.1(M35 Mix Design)
Sand(kg) Cement(kg) Aggregate {20mm} (kg) Aggregate{10mm} (kg) Water (kg)

16.86 11.34 16.60 13.5 6.5

Cement = 11.34kg (6) =68Rs


Aggregate 20 mm; 1.2(40) =48Rs
Aggregate 10 mm; 1.1(38) = 42Rs
Sand;1.2(33) =40Rs
Total Cost in making 6 Concrete Cubes= Cost of cement + aggregate
20mm+aggregate10mm+Sand+water
Total Cost=200Rs

From Waste Concrete Aggregates are obtained; for this cost analysis we doesn't have cost of
aggregates, overall cost of obtaining aggregates from the waste concrete is considered.
Cost of obtaining aggregates from waste concrete will be approximately Rs87 in which we
consider:

Transportation of waste from demolished site to the desired site where recycling has been
done.

Labour required for the operation.

Machinery and electricity/fuel cost for separating aggregate from the waste concrete.

All other rates are same as above used for fresh concrete
Total cost for 6 cubes is approximately 197Rs
For 6 cubes, we have a difference of 3 rupees which is a good result for big structures.

Comparison of cost of 6 concrete cubes:

Price(Rs)

BRICKS
As we know that new brick will cost us about 5Rs/brick. In which strength
is also less than old bricks because old bricks are burnt in coal which gives
good strength to thebricks.
So old bricks can also be a good, bricks are separated in different size which consists
of;
Full Brick
Half Brick
Quarter Brick
Full bricks can be cleaned by labour
used for landfills and pavements.
Cleaning of I brick costs less than I rupee which is very good for the reuse.
CHAPTER-7

BENEFITS AND FUTURE SCOPE

BENEFITS:
Recycling and reuse of buildings and materials can yield significant economic and
environmental benefits. Reuse promotes historic preservation, conserves both energy and
resources, and contributes to the local economy. Building-related activities (demolition,
remodelling and tenant improvement, new construction and land clearing) generate
construction, remodelling and demolition (CR&D) waste. Slightly more than half of the
CR&D material generated in Portland is disposed in the landfill. This means that more than 25
percent of Portland's landfill space is construction and demolition debris. Half of this amount
could have been reused or recycled.

Environmental Benefits
Reducing Energy Use and Contribution to Climate Change

Keeping waste material out of the landfill reduces greenhouse gases that contribute to
climate change.

Diverting materials from the landfill puts less pressure on the need to extract and process
raw materials for building or other uses, thereby saving energy and reducing carbon
emissions.

Processing waste material into new products (i.e., recycling) uses significantly less
energy than processing raw materials into new products.

Preserving Embodied Energy

Reusing buildings or materials helps preserve embodied energy --- the energy associated with
the materials of a building throughout its life this includes energy consumed to extract raw
materials; process the materials; transport the materials to a job site; and ultimately dispose of
the materials.

Future scope:
In India, nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled, while
the remainder is mostly landfilled. In India, it's common practice for large Construction and
Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, resulting in traffic congestion. C&D
waste from individual households finds its way into nearby municipal bins and waste storage
depots making the municipal waste heavy, and degrading its quality for treatments such as
composting or energy recovery. The Indian construction industry is highly labour intensive and
has accounted for approximately 50% of the country's capital outlay in successive Five Year
Plans, and projected investment continues to show a growing trend. Out of 48 million tonnes
of solid waste generated in India, C&D waste makes up 25% annually. Rapid economic
growth leading to urbanisation and industrialisation is generating waste, which is adversely
affecting the environment. The percentage of India's population living in cities and urban areas
increased from 14% at the time of independence to 27.8%. Projections for building material
requirement by the housing sector indicate a shortage of aggregates to the extent of about
55,000 million m3. An additional 750 million m3 of aggregates would be required to achieve
the targets of the road sector. There is also a huge demand for aggregates in the housing and
road sectors, but there is a significant gap in demand and supply. Estimated waste generation
during construction is 40 kg per m2 to 60 kg per m2. Similarly, waste generation during
renovation and repair work is estimated to be 40 kg per m2 to 50 kg per m2. The highest
contribution to waste generation comes from the demolition of buildings. Demolition of pucca
(permanent) and semi-pucca buildings, on average generates between 300kg per m2 and 500
kg per m2 of waste, respectively. The presence of C&D waste and other inert matters makes
up almost one third of the total MSW on an average, but so far no notable development has
taken place for using this in an organised manner. At present, private contractors remove this
waste to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an
unauthorised manner along roads or other public land.
The fine dust like material (fines) from C&D waste is not currently being used and is thus
wasted. In more than 95% cases wastes such as bricks, metal, wood, plastics and glass have
some market value and there are contractors who focus solely on dealing in C&D wastes. The
use of these materials requires them to be sorted and separated, and is dependent on their
condition, although the majority of this material is durable and therefore has a high potential
for reuse. It would, however, be desirable to have quality standards for the recycled materials.
An investigation revealed that total waste from India's construction industry could reach 12-14
mt per year. ln view of the significant role of recycled construction material in the
development of urban infrastructure, the Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment
Council (TIFAC) has conducted a techno-market survey on 'Utilisation of Waste from
Construction Industry', targeting the house building and road construction industries. The total
quantum of waste from the construction industry is estimated to be between 12 million to 14.7
million tonnes per annum, out of which seven to eight million tonnes are concrete and brick
waste. According to the surveys findings 70% of the respondents said they were "not aware
of the recycling techniques" as the reason for not recycling C&D waste, while the remaining
30% have indicated that they are not even aware of recycling possibilities. Furthermore, the
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and other codal provisions do not provide specifications for
the use of recycled products in construction activities.
In July this year, in West Bengal, a consultative committee comprising top level municipal
management and experts from the Centre for Quality Management System and Mechanical
Engineering of Jadavpur University and government departments was formed to address
solid waste management issues, including C&D Wastes.
Construction waste in Delhi Gurgaon Municipal Corporation near Delhi is planning a C&D
waste recycling plant on five acres of land. There is considerable construction activity taking
place in Gurgaon, but no place to dump the C&D wastes. The fast pace of the construction
and renovation work will continue for at least the next five years. Hence, there is need for a
C&D waste processor. With the three existing landfill sites having exhausted their capacity
some time ago, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has given the go-ahead for the
establishment of a sanitary landfill facility at Narela-Bawana in northwest Delhi. The Rs 700
million ($15.5 million) integrated solid waste management facility is being developed to
meet Delhi's garbage disposal needs for the next 20 years. The site is being developed as the
first engineered landfill site in the city and is spread over 150 acres. Approximately 50 acres
will be kept aside for disposing of C&D wastes. The landfill site will take care of refuse from
Rohini and Civil Lines zones, and has an initial capacity to handle1000 tonnes per day, and is
planned to expand to handle 4000 tonnes per day. Around 6500 tonnes per day of MSW is
generated in Delhi. The Narela-Bawana landfill site has been notified under Master Plan
2021. In addition, the MCD has also carried out a feasibility study on use of C&D waste in
road and embankment construction.
Recycled roads in Kolkata as in many other countries, in Kolkata the recycling of bituminous
material is carried out using hot or cold mixing techniques either on site, or at a central
asphalt mixing plant. It offers benefits including reduced use of asphalt, energy savings and a
reduction in aggregate requirements. Cold in-situ recycling is done by pulverising chunks of
road material to in cement, bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and compacting. This
recycling process is best suited to roads with light traffic. For hot in-situ recycling, the upper
layer of the road is pre-heated and the asphalt is loosened by milling devices. It is mixed
together with a recycling agent and the mixture is spread along the road and compacted. Both
practices are widespread in Kolkata.
Legislation
In India there has yet to be a concerted effort to waste management. There are however some
initiatives in the issue in isolation, or in tandem with the existing (Management and Handling)
Rules, 2000. One example of this is the state of Maharashtra, which has taken a pioneering
step to include a separate collection and disposal of debris and bulk waste in its Action Plan.
Under the plan each city is required to have a mechanism for the collection and disposal of
waste and construction debris from bulk producers. The Municipal Corporation of Greater
Mumbai has enacted the "Construction, Demolition and De-Silting Waste (Management and
Disposal) Rules".
Waste recycling plans should be developed for construction and demolition projects, prior to
beginning construction activity. The plans should identify the wastes that will be generated
and designate handling, recycling and disposal methods A minimum of of the total site area
should be allocated for storage and pretreatment of the waste. storage area should be covered
and the pollutants from the waste should not affect the surrounding. Demolition contractors
specialise in planned deconstruction that enables the recovery of good material for re-use to be
maximised. Recovery rates vary from 25% in old buildings to as high as 75% in new
buildings. The demolition of old buildings usually generates wastes such as brick, wood and
steel. In India most of the old buildings are mainly made up of good quality bricks. The
foundation of the old buildings is of load bearing type where a huge number of bricks were
used. When an old building is demolished, almost all the materials are sold at reasonable price.
Table1 shows the quantity and make up of waste per annum in India.
Analysis shows that reuse of construction waste can reduce the cost of low budget houses by
approximately 30% to 35% without compromising the durability of the structure.

Conclusion
Legislation needs to specifically address C&D waste management. In addition, the awareness
level and availability of technology for C&D waste re-use and recycling needs to be improved
to make a sustainable change in India. Quality standards for the recycled or re-used products
need to be developed and monitored by Bureau of Indian Standards.

Not much effort has been made in this sector and data on generation and characteristics is
scarcely available. There should be a proper institutional mechanism to take care of the
collection, transportation, intermediate storage (if necessary), utilisation and disposal of
C&D wastes. Appropriate rules should be framed and implemented. Separation of C&D
waste should be promoted at source and private enterprise can ' be gainfully employed for
the collection and transportation of the waste. Public-private-partnership schemes may be a
possible mechanism of implementation of C&D waste management in India.

CHAPTER-8

CONCLUSION

To optimize proper functioning and formulation of a project, C & D Waste Management Plan
must start at the earliest possible stage of the project. The management of construction and
demolition waste should be given due consideration throughout the duration of a project in
order to promote an integrated approach. The waste management system should be planned
and implemented which is holistic, integrated and sustainable. The plan should also target for
waste diversion and recycling through implementation of new policies, information
technologies, awareness and waste management facilities. Waste minimization, reuse and
recycling should be managed project wise by nominated C & D waste manager. It is necessary
to have more accurate and detailed data on C & D waste generation. Reduce, Reuse and
Recycle [3R's] should be adopted to minimize C & D waste highly useful in handling of
construction and demolition waste.
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