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Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005

Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005

The Hgngur High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Central-Iceland. Surface Exploration


and Drilling of the First Borehole: Lithology, Alteration and Geological Setting.

Sigurdur S. Jonsson1, Asgrimur Gudmundsson1 and Bjarni Palsson2


1
Iceland GeoSurvey, Grensasvegur 9, IS-108 Reykjavik, 2Landsvirkjun, Haleitisbraut 68, IS-103 Reykjavik.
ssjo@isor.is, asg@isor.is, bjarnip@lv.is

Keywords: Iceland, Hgngur, Syri-Hganga, high- m. From 1900 m basaltic intrusives prevail with 100 m thick
temperature area, geothermal exploration, borehole geology, acid intrusion at the very bottom. The hydrothermal
alteration, resistivity survey. alteration shows a progressive increase in alteration from
smectite-zeolite zone near surface succeeded by a chlorite-
ABSTRACT epidote zone below 580 meters depth. A preliminary com-
parison with measured temperatures indicates equilibrium.
The Hgngur high-temperature area in Central-Iceland is
considered to represent one of the larger geothermal areas in
Iceland. The area is being explored by Landsvirkjun (The 1. INTRODUCTION
National Power Company of Iceland). Surface exploration The center for hydro-electric power production in Iceland is
started with reconnaissance geological mapping and the Thjrs-Tungna area west and southwest of Vatnajkull
mapping of geothermal manifestations in 1995 in association glacier. The hydro power plants are owned and operated by
with plans to construct a hydro dam in the area and partially Landsvirkjun. In recent decades large reservoirs have been
submerging the thermal area. Acid volcanics suggested the build, collecting melt-water from western part of
presence of a central volcano, and a semi-circular alignment Vatnajkull glacier and the southern part of Hofsjkull
of the acid eruptives imply the possibility of an underlying glacier, controlling and leveling the flow to the power
caldera. TEM resistivity survey in the area showed a large stations. Plans to build a reservoir in the Hgngur area
(20-40 km2) geothermal anomaly indicating a subsurface initiated the geological and geothermal exploration program
high-temperature anomaly. Sampling of gas and fluid from described in this paper. The initial plan was to dam the
geothermal manifestations indicated subsurface temperatures Kaldakvsl glacial river, filling the depression north and west
up to 290C. The first exploration borehole was sited in the of the Svedjuhraun lava field, eventually creating the
central part of the resistivity anomaly. The well has a 9 " mentioned reservoir Hgnguln (Fig. 1). Geothermal mani-
(244,5 mm) production casing down to 800 m and a produc- festations would be submerged and an effort was put in
tion part drilled down to 2360 m. The stratigraphy shows mapping and investigating the properties and extent of the
basaltic extrusives and thick acidic units in the upper 700 m poorly known geothermal area.
and basaltic hyaloclastite and lava formations down to 1900

Figure 1: Location of the Hgngur high-temperature area and simplified geological map. Resistivity anomaly (from
Karlsdottir, 2000) in the Hgngur area at 0 m a.s.l. Isopaths in m.
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Jonsson, Gudmundsson and Palsson

Preliminary investigations on the dam site were published in the east is the Grimsvtn central volcano, also in
1994 (Verkfristofa Sigurar Thoroddsen) and reports on Vatnajkull. Recent investigations support the idea of
preliminary geological research followed (Kaldal & Vil- Hgngur being an individual central volcano (Haukur
mundardottir 1995, Gudmundsson 1995). A report on the Jhannesson, pers. comm.).
extent of the geothermal manifestations was published in
1996 by Fridleifsson et. al. and samples of run-off water, All exposed volcanic formations in the area have a normal
steam and gas was collected and analyzed. Landsvirkjun was magnetization and thus younger than 700.000 years (Piper,
granted a permission for damming of the river Kaldakvsl by 1979). The rhyolites in Sydri-Hganga and Nyrdri Hganga
The Environment and Food Agency on several conditions, are surrounded by younger basaltic formations (200-300 ky)
one being large-scale mapping of the distribution of the (Vilmundardottir & Kaldal 1995) and is thought to be 300-
naturally occurring geothermal activity. A map in 1:2000 500 ky. Interglacial lava flows are conspicuous in the area
scale was published in 1997 by Fridleifsson & Vikingsson. and two successions are especially notable; the Krosshnka-
Geothermal exploration of the Hgngur area was elevated tholeiite (~200 ky) and the Hgngu-tholeiite and Hgngu-
to the next stage when the Landsvirkjun applied for porphyritic basalt (~100 ky) (Vilmundardottir & Kaldal,
exploration license and subsequently submitted a detailed 1995). Extrusive volcanic activity seems to have been
exploration plan to the Environment and Food Agency in dormant for the last 100 ky in the Hgngur central volcano.
2002, including plans to drill two exploration wells in the In the vicinity of the Hgngur area and somewhat within
area. The well-sites were located and preparations for the the defined area, younger volcanics have been described
drilling operation were launched in mid-summer 2003. (sub-glacial hyaloclastites <10 ky) but on the basis of their
Drilling of well HG-01 commenced in late July same year composition in can be concluded that they owe their origin
and the well was completed in early September. Since to the Bardarbunga central volcano. Furthermore there is no
completion, samples of gases and fluid have been collected, evidence of Holocene volcanic activity within the Hgngur
temperature and pressure have been monitored during the area. Porphyritic Holocene lava flows (Svedjuhraun lava
wells warming up. After discharge, deliverability has been field and Hgnguhraun lava field (Fig. 1) in the area are
monitored continiously and samples taken to estimate from the Bardarbunga central volcano east of Hgngur.
properties and quality of the wells fluid.
The Hgngur high-temperature area stands out and is in
This paper describes the first assumptions for the size and many ways quite unique compared with other high-
potency evaluations for the Hgngur high temperature area, temperature areas in Iceland. It is almost entirely buried in
settings, previous research and propagation of the areas glacio-fluvial sediments, supposedly filling an old lake
exploration. Results from geological mapping and drilling of basin. Any direct connection with recent volcanic or tectonic
the exporation well HG-01 are used to establish a conceptual activity is lacking.
model of the high-temperature area. Geological and minera-
logical information are used to evaluate the concordance and The rhyolite domes Sydri-Hganga and Nyrdri-Haganga
equilibrium between temperatures indicated by alteration with smaller unnamed rhyolite domes (see Fig. 1) are lined
minerals and measured values. on a semi-circumferential line in the western part of the area.
The domes are probably intrusive and it is attempting to
conclude that their formation is in relation with subsidence
1.1 Location
and eventually a caldera formation in later stages of
The research area is within the central volcanic zone in evolution and development of the central volcano.
Iceland, a few kilometres of the western edge of Vatnajkull
glacier as shown in Fig. 1. Belonging to the central-
2.2 Mapping of geothermal surface manifestations
highlands, at an elevation of about 800 m a.s.l., the area is
far from habitation and very remote. Access to the area is First attempt to map the distribution of geothermal surface
provided from the Sprengisandur highland road, and a manifestations was carried out by a team of scientists from
mountaion track heading towards Vonarskard. A new 10 km Orkustofnun in 1995. Three individual clusters of steam and
track had to bu built to the HG-01 and HG-02 drill-site. mud pools were the only surface manifestations noted. One
small cluster emerges in the fluvial sediments north of the
Svedjuhraun Holocene lava field (Fig. 1) comprising two
2. PREVIOUS RESEARCH AND ASSUMPTIONS
patches (d=10-20 m) with steam and mud pools. A similar
2.1 Geological settings cluster was evidently buried by the (~2000 years BP)
General geological investigations have been sporadic and Svedjuhraun lava field, but the thermal flux has managed to
scarce in the study area, between the glaciers Vatnajkull diffuse through the lava succession and thermal alteration,
and Hofsjkull. Rather little is known about the Hgngur mineral encrustations and steam outflow is noted in the near
high-temperature area except being confined to the northern centre of the Svedjuhraun lava tongue. The largest cluster in
margin of the Eastern Volcanic Zone with abundance of the fluvial sediments west of Svedjuhraun is comprised of
exposed Pleistocene and Holocene volcanics. On a published about five patches of steam vents and mud pools, fringed by
geological map of Central Iceland, general age-relations and hydrothermal alteration minerals and encrustations. The size
lithological classification of the larger units are shown of the largest patch is about 50 by 200 m. In the first
(Jhannesson & Saemundsson 1989). Naming and definition expedition a preliminary mapping was carried out and an
of relations of adjacent central volcanos is vague in the light attempt was made, on the grounds of the distribution of the
of the scarce investigations. It is presumed that the thermal manifestations, to estimate the extent and size of the
Hgngur area is an independent central volcano high-temperature area. Fridleifsson et. al. (1996) estimate
(Jhannesson et. al. 2003) but it has also been suggested that the size of the geothermal area to be at least 10 km2 and
the Hgngur area is in direct relation and a part of an possibly 40 km2 as indicated in Fig. 1 with lines, showing
elongated central volcano from Tungnafellsjkull (including the minimum and maximum extent of the system.
Vonarskard) from the northeast, extending southwards to the
Hgngur area (Fridleifsson et. al., 1996). Sub-parallel to the In the following year, the three areas where mapped (Frid-
Tungnafellsjkull-Hgngur system to the east, is the leifsson and Vikingsson, 1997) with sub-centimetre pre-
Brdarbunga central volcano in Vatnajkull, and further to cision GPS and a map was produced. Upon completion, the
dam near Sydri-Hganga was closed in 1999 and the
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Jonsson, Gudmundsson and Palsson

reservoir filled and the clusters of thermal activity were Arnorsson, 1995). Several chemical gas thermometers were
submerged. The patch in the centre of the Svedjuhraun lava applied to the samples from the Hgngur high temperature
flow is still visible even though the thermal spot underneath area and the results are shown in Table 1.
the lava flow is submerged by elevated ground water level in
the lava. 2.5 Proposition of an exploration well
In order to get a fuller and better understanding of the inner
2.3 TEM-resistivity survey structure of the Hgngur high temperature area a drilling of
In order to establish a fuller knowledge of the internal a full scale exploration well was proposed. In light of the
structure of the Hgngur high-temperature area a transient existing knowledge a site for the well was selected on the
electromagnetic (TEM) resistivity survey was conducted in northern flank of the Svedjuhraun lava flow, close to the
April 1998 to get reliable data on the size and thermal centre of the resistivity anomaly (see Fig. 1). In 2002 a
conditions of the geothermal system. The results of the TEM permission from the Environment and Food Agency and
survey were reassuring and revealed a high-resistivity core local authorities was granted and logistical planning,
of about 28 km2 at about 1000 m depth. Including the low building of roads and bridging the glacial river Kaldakvsl
resistivity cap surrounding the high-resistivity core the size followed. Landsvirkjun signed a contract with Iceland
or the confinement of the high-temperature area is in the Drilling Corp. for drilling and completion of the well.
vicinity of 50 km2, equivalent to the resistivity depicted at Iceland GeoSurvey (ISOR) was awarded a contract for
the same level in the Krafla high-temperature area in scientific consulting of the drilling operation and VGK was
Northern Iceland (Karlsdottir, 2000). In Fig. 1 the resistivity awarded contract for drilling engineering consulting.
anomaly at 0 m above sea level is shown with the low Drilling of shallow wells to acquire water for circulation and
resistivity cap and high resistivity core marked seperately. cooling started in June 2003, and a drill-rig was erected on
Exploration well HG-01 is located in the near centre of the the well site.
high-resistivity core.
3. DRILLING OF WELL HG-01
Table 1. Results of gas chemical thermometers 3.1 Selection of drill site
application on samples from the Hgngur high
The aim of drilling the exploration well HG-01 was to
temperature area (from Fridleifsson et. al. 1996).
acquire information on the properties of the deep-seated
Sample Location CO2 H2 S H2 CO2/H2 H2S/H2 Average geothermal system in Hgngur. Valuable information
(C) (C) (C) (C) (C) (C)
would be gathered regarding the geological structure and
95-0127 Hgngur 281 293 288 292 283 287 5 lithology, state of alteration, permeability, temperature,
95-0128 Hagngur 286 297 294 298 291 293 5 pressure and chemical composition of the systems
95-0129 Hagngur 303 311 298 295 286 299 5 geothermal fluid. The drill pad was placed on the northern
95-0130 Hagngur 282 297 287 290 277 287 6 flank of the Svedjuhraun lava field which extends to the
95-0133 Hgngur 310 299 294 288 290 296 7 centre of the resistivity anomaly (Fig. 1), and is close to the
95-0135 Vonarskard 284 324 311 321 299 308 17 main geothermal surface manifestations.

3.2 Well design


Prior to the drilling nothing was known about the physical
2.4 Chemical composition of water and steam conditions of the area. Well HG-01 was the first well drilled
In 1995 samples of steam and water were collected for in the area and all safety measures were made as if the well
chemical analysis, five samples from steam vents, two were over-pressurized. Two shallow reconnaissance wells
spring-water samples and one sample form the glacial river were drilled on the main wells drill pad prior to the pre-
Kaldakvsl (Fridleifsson, et. al. 1996). For comparison of drilling and cementing of casing in the primary section of
chemical composition of the steam one sample was collected the drilling operation.
from a steam-vent in the Vonarskar high temperature area
northeast of Hgngur high temperature area. The gas- 3.2.1 Casing program
fraction in the steam is comparable to other high-
Prior to primary section a 24 conductor casing was
temperature areas. Gas-ratios differ from other areas with
cemented to 3 m depth.
methane and nitrogen being exceptionally high and
considerably higher than in the Vonarskard area. With Primary section (small rig). 18 surface casing cemented
respect to hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide, the Hgngur form surface to ~100 m.
samples are much lower than Vonarskar. Another notable
distinguishing feature is the unusually high concentration of First section (large rig): 13 anchor casing cemented from
mercury in the steam samples from the Hgngur field. A surface to ~300 m.
difference by an order of magnitude is observed when
compared to the Vonarskard area. Measured values of other Second section (large rig): 9 production casing cemented
chemicals were comparable and similar to values in other from surface to ~800 m.
high temperature areas in Iceland analysis (Fridleifsson, et.
al. 1996). The three water samples were congruous, while Third section (large rig): 7 perforated liner hanging from
one sample showed increased silica due to mixing of thermal end of production casing to near bottom.
run-off water (Fridleifsson, et. al. 1996).

2.4.1 Chemical thermometers


Temperature in geothermal reservoirs can be calculated from
the composition and concentration of gas collected from
steam vents (see Arnorsson & Gunnlaugsson, 1985) and
from the chemical composition of geothermal water (see

3
Jonsson, Gudmundsson and Palsson

with the well design. The well was logged by an on-site


geologist and drilling depth of each section was determined
by the geologist on the grounds of the prevailing temperature
recorded by different alteration minerals. Thus the
production-casing section depth of the well (803 m) is
determined by the appearance of epidote, where a
temperature of 230-240C can be anticipated.

sG/SSJo
22-08-2003
Hgngur
Days
Drilling progress of well HG-01
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44
0
Installation of rig, cementing of 18 5/8" surface casing.

Drilling with 17 1/2" bit


Wire-line logs, casing run.
Cementing and Cement Bond Logging.

500 Drilling with 12 1/4" bit

Well depth (m)


Wire-line logs, casing run,
cementing and Cement Bond Logging

1000

Casing depth: Drilling with 8 1/2" bit


Surface casing: 107 m
Anchor casing: 308 m
Production casing: 803 m
Production section: 2360 m

1500

Figure 2. Design of well HG-01. POOH, bit change

3.3 Drilling progress 2000


Drilling progress

The primary section of well HG-01 was drilled with a small


Wire-line logging, stimulation, step-testing
rig using a 21 bit, down to about 110 metres. The well was and completion of well with liner
drilled using compressed air and foam, and later with drill
mud and rotary drilling and tricone bit as large aquifers were
inhibiting the use of air-hammer. Followed was running of a 2500
18 casing and cementing with a heat-resistant cement. 12. g 16. g 20. g 24. g 28. g 1. sept 5. sept 9. sept 13. sept 17. sept

The completion of the primary section took about 21 days,


and the small rig was disassembled and a larger rig
assembled and erected on the well. Setup and installation of Figure 3: Diagram showing the progress and major
the large rig took about 7 days, and drilling of the first events in the drilling of well HG-01.
section succeeded.
4. GEOLOGY
The first section, using conventional rotary drilling, was
drilled with a 17 tri-cone TC tipped bit, using water- 4.1 Lithology
based benthonite drill mud as circulation fluid. The casing Samples of drill cuttings were collected at two metres
depth was 308 metres. The well was circulated with water, intervals and analyzed by the on-site geologist. Good quality
string was pulled out and 13 casing was run and samples were gathered from the entire well. Rock-types of
cemented. Completion of the first section took 6 days and each sample were identified with the aid of a stereoscopic
after assembly of BOP the drilling continued with a 12 binoculars and an attempt was made to distinguish the mode
TC tipped tri-cone bit and a PDM motor. Water-based of occurrence (extrusive, intrusive, sedimentary). Age
benthonite mud was again used for circulation and no relations of individual units thought to be intrusive, were
circulation losses were encountered. The wells second established on the basis of the stage of hydrothermal
section reached final depth of 803 m after 3 days of drilling. alteration and general properties, including grain size, and
Following circulation with water for cleaning and cooling, presence of vesicles in the rock. It must be emphasized that
and running of a 9 casing and cementing, the well-head rock and mineral identification is preliminary and further
was fitted with valve and prepared for drilling of the studies await, i.e. X-ray identification of minerals, including
production (third) section. Drilling proceeded on the 23rd day clay, thin-section studies and correlation with geophysical
with a PDM motor and an 8 TC-tipped bit using water as logs. Alteration minerals were identified and paragenetic
circulation fluid. The drilling of the well ended on the 31st sequences were recorded. First occurrence of significant
day at the depth of 2360 metres. The well was circulated secondary minerals was particularly observed.
clean and the drill string was pulled out. A string of drill
pipes with uni-directional valve was run in and later used in A simplified lithological log is presented in Fig. 4. The
attempts to open fractures or aquifers using repeated cooling uppermost 330 metres are predominated with intercalated
and heating. After pulling out the drill-pipe string the well tuffacious hyaloclastites and interglacial lava successions
was wire-line logged and finally a perforated liner was but intrusives are barely notable. From 330 metres depth and
installed. The completion of the well took roughly 40 days down to about 760 m depth a thick acidic (rhyolite?)
as depicted in Fig. 3. The drilling was in good accordance formation is very conspicuous, intersected by a roughly 100

4
Jonsson, Gudmundsson and Palsson

metres thick coarse-grained basaltic layer. It is not certain heulandite (210 m) and stilbite at 260 m depth indicating a
weather this thick basaltic formation is intrusive or a thick temperature below 100C. Crystalline quartz is first noted
layer of lava, resulting from a ponding inside a caldera. A near the upper boundaries of the acidic intrusion at 330
fairly homogeneous hyaloclastite formation, mostly of metres depth and the temperature assumed to be near 180C.
highly altered tuffs, underlies the acidic intrusion and With increased depth, formation temperature is elevated.
reaches a depth of about 940 m. From that point a fairly Epidote is first noted at 560 m at the upper boundaries of the
uniform succession of basaltic extrusive and intrusive basaltic layer intersecting the acidic intrusion from 330-760
formations reaches a depth of about 2200 metres, where an m. Formation temperature exceeding 240C is established at
acid intrusions extends to down to the bottom of the well, the production casing shoe and slightly further below, other
intersected by a 60 m thick gabbroic intrusion. temperature indicating minerals appear. Wollastonite is
found at 814 m, prehnite at 880 m and well defined fibres of
The rocks below 940 m are probably formed in the early amphibole (actinolite?) appear first at 862 metres. Formation
stages of the central volcanos development, in aerial temperature is estimated to be slightly below boiling curve
effusive eruptions. The hyaloclastites above 940 m are temperature as calcite seems to be sporadically present to the
formed in sub-aerial eruptions during glaciations and lava very bottom of the well.
successions intercalated with the hyaloclastites are formed in
interglacial periods. In later stages of a central volcanos 4.3 Temperature and mineral equilibrium
evolution acid volcanism is prominent, often followed by
caldera collapse. On Fig. 5 proposed formation temperature, indicated by first
appearance of certain alteration minerals, is plotted with
boiling curve and two temperature logs, measured with
mechanical thermometers. First temperature measurement
was done four weeks after completion of the well. The
temperature profile is distorted near the most active aquifers,
near and below 800 metres, where the well is colder. As
depth increases temperature is gradually increasing. About
eight weeks after completion of the well another temperature
log was produced and shows significant heating of the well.
Faster heating is observed in the part just below 800 metres
than near the bottom.

Looking at the formation temperature as indicated by the


alteration minerals confirms the conditions present, being
mostly confined inside the boundaries of the boiling curve.
Hence, an explanation is given of notable deposition of
calcite. As the system re-heats and stabilises further, ridding
itself of the kink caused by drilling and circulating effect, the
temperature could become uniformly increasing towards the
bottom.

5. CONCLUSIONS.
The well drilled in the Hgngur high-temperature field is
promising but more wells are needed for prediction of the
fields capabilities. When temperature data are viewed, the
conclusion can be drawn that the field seems to be in
acceptable equilibrium at the bottom of the well, but
measured temperature is slightly less just below 850 metres
(Fig. 5). This pattern is probably due to the cooling of the
wells immediate vicinity through a fairly large aquifer,
during drilling and later stimulation, and the formations
slow respond time to regain its former temperature
equilibrium.

A structural outline of the Hgngur central volcano has


been suggested by Haukur Jhannesson (pers. comm.) and
the semi-circular alignment of the acidic formations to the
west are thought to represent a caldera rim. The eastern
boundaries of the caldera rim are probably buried by the
Figure 4: Simplified lithology in well HG-01 with productive central volcano Brdarbunga east of Hgngur,
occurrence and distribution of alteration minerals from in western Vatnajkull. Lithological data from well HG-01
analysis of drill cuttings. support the caldera hypothesis with thick acidic formations
and coarse grained basaltic formation, even thought to be a
4.2 Alteration ponding formation inside the caldera.
No particular alteration is noted in the uppermost 100 metres Drilling of the research well HG-01 has conclusively
and the rocks appear fresh and practically unaltered. First confirmed the presence and potency of the large high-
signs of secondary mineralization are thin crusts of calcite temperature field indicated by surface manifestations and
and chalcedony, lining small vugs in perlitic glass-grains in geophysical surveys. Future exploration includes drilling of
a tuffacious hyaloclastite formation at 120 m. Then well HG-02, planned in 2006 and detailes study of samples
following is the appearance of low-temperature zeolites, from HG-01.
chabazite at 130 m, analsime (132 m), scolecite (170 m),
5
Jonsson, Gudmundsson and Palsson

7. REFERENCES
Arnorsson S. 1995: Practical uses of chemical geothermo-
meters (in Icelandic) Eyjar eldhafi. Gott ml hf.
Reykjavk 1998. pp 241-267.
Arnorsson S. & Gunnlaugsson E. 1985: New gas
geothermometers for geothermal exploration.
Calibration and application. Geoc. Cosmoch. Acta. Vol.
49, pp. 1307-1325.
Fridleifsson G., Olafsson M., & Bjarnsson J.O. 1996.
Geothermal activity in Kldukvslarbotnar (In
Icelandic). Orkustofnun, OS-96014/JHD-04, 32 p.
Fridleifsson G. & Vikingsson S. 1997: Hgngur-reservoir.
Mapping of geothermal surface manifestations in
Kldukvslarbotnar (In Icelandic). Orkustofnun OS-
97061, 19 p.
Gumundsson A. 1995: Hgngur-reservoir. Location of
dam in Kaldakvsl by Sydri-Hganga. Bedrock and
regolith. Geological observations, 1995 (in Icelandic).
Jarfristofan efh.
Jhannesson H. & Saemundsson K. 2003. Active central
volcanoes in Iceland (In Icelandic). Unpublished map.
Iceland GeoSurvey, 2003.
Jhannesson H. & Saemundsson K. 1989: Geological map
of Iceland 1:500 000. Bedrock map. Nttrufri-
stofnun slands & Landmlingar slands. 1. ed.
Figure 5: Proposed formation temperature indicated by Karlsdottir, R. 2000: The high-temperature area in
alteration minerals, with boiling curve and two measured Kldukvislarbotnar. TEM-survey in 1998 (in
temperature logs from HG-01. Icelandic). Orkustofnun OS-2000/060, 60 p.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Piper, J.D.A., 1979: Outline volcanic History of the region


west of Vatnajkull, Central Iceland. Journal of
The management of Landsvirkjun (the National Power
Volcanology and Geothermal research, 5:87-98.
Company) is thanked for allowing the publication of this
paper. Hjalti Franzson is thanked for his support and fruitful Verkfristofa Sigurar Thoroddsen hf. 1995: Hgngur-
discussion. Haukur Jhannesson made some unpublished reservoir. Environmental impact. First assessment (in
data available to the authors. He is sincerely thanked for his Icelandic) Landsvirkjun og VST.
contribution and valuable comments. Iceland GeoSurvey has
been very supportive in the production of this paper and Vilmundardttir E.G. & Kaldal I. 1995: Hgngur-reservoir.
given the ISOR authors the opportunity to work on this Geological investigations in the summer of 1995 (in
project. For that we thank cordially. Icelandic). Orkustofnun. OS 95059/VOD-09-B, 9 p.