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Coring Operations

The EXLOG Series of Petroleum Geology and


Engineering Handbooks
Coring Operations
Procedures for Sampling and
Analysis of
Bottombole and Sidewall Cores

Written and compiled by


EXLOG staff

Edited by Alun Whittaker

"
~

D. Reidel Publishing Company


A Member of the Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
Dqrdrecht/Boston/Lancaster

International Human Resources Development Corporation Boston


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR FIGURES

The following figures are reprinted by permission of the Petroleum Extension Service, The
University of Texas at Austin, in cooperation with the International Association of Drilling
Contractors:

Figures 1-2, 1-3, 1-6, 1-9 are from Lessons in Well Servicing and Workover, Lesson 2:
Petroleum Geology and Reservoirs. Copyright 1975 by the University of Texas at
Austin.

1985 by EXLOG . All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or
reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission of the publisher ex-
cept in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For infor-
mation address: IHRDC, Publishers, 137 Newbury Street, Boston, MA 02116.
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1985

Ubrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Main entry under title:

Coring operations.

(The EXLOG series of petroleum, geology, and engineering handbooks)


Includes index.

1. Core drilling. 2. Drill core analysis. 3. Oil well logging.

I. Whittaker, Alun. II. EXLOG (Firm) III. Series.


TN871.2.c647 1985 622'.1828 85-2289
ISBN-13: 978-94-010-8863-3 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-5357-4
DOl: 10.1 007/978-94-009-5357-4
[90-277-1980-2 D. Reidel]

Published by D. Reidel Publishing Company


P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Holland in copublication with IHRDC

Sold and distributed in North America by IHRDC

In all other countries, sold and distributed by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Holland

'EXLOG is a registered service mark of Exploration Logging Inc., a Baker Drilling Equipment Company.
CONTENTS
List of Illustrations ix
Preface xiii
1. INTRODUCTION
GENERAL 1
QUANTITATIVE CORE ANALYSIS 1
QUALITATIVE CORE EVELUATION 1
THE ROLE OF THE LOGGING GEOLOGIST 2
Core Retrieval 2
Core Sampling 2
Core Description 2
Core Packing and Shipping 2
Core Analysis 3
RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS 3
POROSITY 3
PERMEABILITY 4
SATURATION 5
RESERVOIR GEOLOGY 5
DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS 12
PHASE RELATIONSHIPS 14
CORE CHARACTERISnCS 17
POROSITY 17
Measurement 17
Limitations 20
PERMEABILITY 22
Measurement 22
Limitations 24
SATURATION 28
Measurement 28
Limitation 30

2. CORING PROCEDURES
GENERAL 33
BOTTOMHOLE CORING 33
CONVENTIONAL CORING 33
The Core Bit 34
The Core Barrel 36
The Outer Barrel 36
The Inner Barrel 37
Coring 37
RETRIEVABLE CORE BARRELS 39
Wireline 39
Reverse Circulation 41
RUBBER SLEEVE CORE BARREL 41
ORIENTED CORE BARREL 42
PRESSURE CORE BARREL 43
vi

CORE EJECTOR BIT 45


SIDEWALL CORING 46
WIRELINE CORE GUN 46
WIRELINE CORE SLICER 49
ROTARY SIDEWALL CORER 49

3. RETRIEVAL AND SAMPLING OF CORES


GENERAL 51
CONVENTIONAL CORES 51
LONG-TERM PLANNING 51
PICKING A CORE POINT 53
SET-UP TO CORE 54
LOGGING THE CORE 54
Depth and Footage 55
Low Weight-on-bit 55
Gradual Changes in Weight-on-bit 55
Lost core 55
Rate of Penetration 56
Gas Evaluation 56
Oil Evaluation 58
Cuttings Lithology 59
MUD TESTS 59
Salinity 59
Nitrate Ion 60
PREPARATION FOR CORE RETRIEVAL 62
Work Area 62
Rig Floor 63
REMOVING CORE FROM THE BARREL 64
RETRIEVING THE CORE 65
BOXING THE CORE 66
SAMPLING FOR CORE ANALYSIS 70
Sample Selection 71
Sample Preservation 72
GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION 73
Macroscopic Examination 73
Microscopic Examination 74
Hydrocarbon Evaluation 75
SPECIAL SAMPLES 76
Core Slabbing 76
Thin Sections 77
Acetate Peels 78
SHIPPING THE CORE 79
RETRIEVABLE BARREL CORES 83
LOGGING 83
SAMPLING 83
RUBBER SLEEVED CORES 83
LOGGING 83
SAMPLING 83
ORIENTED CORES 84
vii

PRESSURED CORES 84
LOGGING 84
RECOVERY 84
EJECTOR CORES 85
SIDEWALL CST CORES 85
GUN SET-UP 85
Hole Size 85
Formation Hardness 86
Misftres and Lost Bullets 86
EXTRACTION 86
CORE EVALUATION 87
Recovery 87
Lithology 88
Hydrocarbons 88
Core Analysis 88
Logging 89
SIDEWALL CORE SLICES 89
ROTARY SIDEWALL CORES 90

4. CORE ANALYSIS METHODS


PRINCIPLES 91
POROSITY
PERMEABILITY 94
SATURATION 97
Retort Procedure 97
Extraction Distillation Procedure99
SAMPLE PREPARATION 101
SATURATION SAMPLE 101
PERMEABILITY SAMPLE 101
POROSITY SAMPLE 101
SAMPLE EXTRACTION AND DRYING 102
Solvent Extraction 102
Drying 103
SEALING THE PERMEABILITY SAMPLE IN WAX 104
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE 104
PREPARATION 104
Long-Term 104
Short-Term 107
EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION 108
Saturation Stills 108
Porometer 110
Mercury Level Check 110
Air Removal 110
Calibration 111
Permeameter 112
Solid Plug Calibration Test 113
Flow comparison Test 114
CORE ANALYSIS TEST 116
Optional Total Porosity Test 148
viii

Oil Gravity Tests 148


Water Salinity Tests 152
CORE ANALYSIS CALCULATIONS 154
Effective Porosity 154
Permeability 156
Saturations 158
Alternate Methods 160
The Oil Correction 160
The Pore Volume Calculation 161
Total Porosity 161
PRESENTATION OF CORE ANALYSIS DATA 162
SIDEWALL CORE ANALYSIS 164
CORE DESCRIPTION 164
CORE ANALYSIS 166
Sample Preparation 166
Porosity and Permeability 166
Saturation 167
CARE OF THE CORE ANALYSIS KIT 167
CLEANUP AND STORAGE 167
TEAR OUT AND SHIPPING 168

Index 171
ILLUSTRATIONS
1-1 Absolute Porosity, Effective Porosity and Permeability 4
1-2 Cubic and Rhombohedral Packing 5
1-3 Pore Size Modification in Sandstones 6
1-4 Porosity Reduction with Compaction and Cementation 7
1-5 Pore Size Reduction with Solution and Recrystallization 7
1-6 Typical Porosity Decrease with Depth 7
1-7 Carbonate Porosity Types 9
1-8 Carbonate Porosity Types and Scale 10
1-9 Porosity Modification in Carbonates 10
1-10 Carbonate Interparticle and Intraparticle Porosity Types 11
1-11 Relative Permeability and Productivity 12
1-12 Idealized Reservoir Composition 13
1-13 Idealized Reservoir Productivity 14
1-14 Phase Distribution for Single Pure Hydrocarbons 15
1-15 Phase Distribution in a Two-Component Hydrocarbon Mixture 16
1-16 Ruska Porometer 18
1-17 Glass Volumeter for Determination of Absolute Porosity 20
1-18 Flushing of a Permeable Formation while Coring 21
1-19 Ruska Permeameter 23
1-20 Permeability Variation within a Core Sample 25
1-21 Comparison of Theoretical and Actual Flow Conditions 27
1-22 Saturation Still 29
1-23 Fluid Recovery, Water-Based Drilling Fluid without Flushing 30
1-24 Fluid Recovery, Water-Based Drilling Fluid with Flushing 31
1-25 Fluid Recovery, Oil-Based Drilling Fluid 31
2-1 Conventional Core Barrel 34
2-2 Core Bits 35
2-3 Operation of a Conventional Core Barrel 36
2-4 Wireline-Retrievable Core Barrels 40
2-5 Rubber Sleeve Core Barrel 41
2-6 Pressure Core Barrel 44
2-7 Core Ejector Bit and Crusher Sub 46
2-8 Sidewall Core (CST) Gun and Recovery Sequence 47
2-9 Wireline Core Slicer 48
3-1 Supplies Required for Coring Operations 52
3-2 Correlation of Drilling Exponents with a Sonic Log 53
3-3 Core Log Prior to Recovery 56
3-4 Core Log Completed After Recovery 57
3-5 Oil and Gas Relogged from Rat-Hole 58
x

3-6 Labeling and Stacking of Catching Set 63


3-7 Removing Core from the Barrel 65
3-8 Sequential Core Processing by Two Geologists 67
3-9 Core Box Numbering 68
3-10 Labeling of Core Orientation, Fit and Rubble 69
3-11 Core Recovery Tally Sheet 70
3-12 Core Description Log 74
3-13 Core Slabber 76
3-14 Visual Examination of Etched Slab 77
3-15 Thin Section Preparation 78
3-16a Substitution Codes: Encoding 80
3-16b Substitution Codes: Decoding 81
3-17 Report of Core Processing and Shipping Details 82
3-18 Selection of Correct Bullet Fasteners for In-Gauge Hole and Overgauge Hole 86
3-19 Removal of Sidewall Cores 87
3-20 Sidewall Core Report 88
3-21 Sidewall Cores on the Formation Evaluation Log 89
3-22 Core Slices on the Formation Evaluation Log 90
4-1 Ruska porometer 91
4-2 Ruska Permeameter 94
4-3 Permeameter Core Holder 95
4-4 Saturation Still Retort 98
4-5 Saturation Still Calibration Graph 99
4-6 Extraction-Distillation Apparatus 100
4-7 Solvent Extraction 103
4-8 Core Analysis Procedures 105
4-9 Plug in Stills 108
4-10 Install Collecting Tubes 109
4-11 Calibrate Porometer with Calibration Plugs III
4-12 Porometer Calibration Plot 112
4-13 Permeameter Solid Plug Calibration 113
4-14 Permeameter Outflow Rate Graph (Example Only) 114
4-15 Gas Viscosity Graph 115
4-16 Line Up Samples in Order, Left to Right 116
4-17 Number Samples and Record Depths 117
4-18 Break Out Two-Inch Piece from Center of Sample 118
4-19 Shape Porosity Sample 118
4-20 Weigh Porosity Sample 119
4-21 Record Depth, Weight and Lithology 119
4-22 Weigh Saturation Sample 120
4-23 Load Retort 12 1
4-24 Clean Up Work Area 121
4-25 Load Retorts into Stills 122
4-26 Turn Water On 123
4-27 Set Timer 123
4-28 Plot Water Calibration Graph 124
4-29 Reading Collection Tubes 125
4-30 Cut Permeability Sample Plugs 126
4-31 Cutting Plug 127
4-32 Preparing Sample Plug 127
4-33 Number Sample Plugs 128
4-34 Measure Plugs and Record Length and Diameter 129
4-35 Weigh Porosity Sample and Record Dry Weight 132
4-36 Line Up Samples in Order 132
4-37 Open Porometer 133
4-38 Insert Porosity Sample 133
4-39 Record Bulk Volume 134
4-40 Close Needle Valve Finger Tight 135
4-41 Back-Off Pressure 136
4-42 Keep O-Ring, Seal and Mercury Surface Clean 137
4-43 Remove Collecting Tubes and Record Recovered Water and Oil 138
4-44 Separate Oil for Gravity Test 139
4-45 Remove Retorts 139
4-46 Line Up Permeability Plugs in Order 140
4-47 Insert Plugs into Sleeves 141
4-48 Pour Wax into Sleeves 141
4-49 Mark Sample Number on Wax 142
4-50 Insert Sample in Core Holder 142
4-51 Mount Core Holder and Tighten 143
4-52 Adjust Airflow 144
4-53 Read Flowmeter 144
4-54 Record Permeameter Readings 145
4-55 Remove Core Holder and Insert Next Sample 146
4-56 Clean Retorts when Cool 147
4-57 Clean Collecting Tubes 147
4-58 Total Porosity Worksheet 149
4-59 Oil Drop Gravity Test 150
4-60 Porometer Calibration 154
4-61 Effective Porosity Worksheet 155
4-62 Permeameter Outflow Graph (Example Only)
4-63 Permeability Worksheet 157
4-64 Gas Temperature Viscosity Plot 157
4-65 Gravity Correction Plot 158
4-66 Saturation Worksheet 159
4-67 Volume Correction Plot 159
4~68 Total Porosity Worksheet 161
4-69 Core Analysis Log 163
4-70 Break Core Laterally 164
4-71 Split Shorter Piece Longitudinally 164
PREFACE
This coring operations reference handbook is intended as a practical guide for the logging
geologist to procedures, activities, and responsibilities required when bottomhole or
sidewall coring is performed at the wellsite. Not all of the operations described are common
practice in all logging units; however, familiarity with them is a necessary part of general ex-
ploration knowledge and professionalism.
Chapter 1 discusses the concepts of porosity, permeability, and saturation, how these
properties are determined in core analysis, and their significance in controlling rest:rvoir
performance. Chapter 2 deals with the various techniques used in coring. Chapter 3 ex-
plains the routine role of the logging geologist in core retrieval, sampling, and qualitative
evaluation. Chapter 4 details operating procedures for quantitative wellsite core analysis
equipment.
1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

1.2 QUANTITATIVE CORE ANALYSIS

The primary purpose of coring is to obtain rock samples of a sufficient size to obtain
estimates of critical reservoir properties. Core analysis provides direct measurements
of:

Porosity -- the volume of void space contained in a unit volume of rock

Permeability -- the degree and quality of connection of void spaces which allow
fluid flow through the rock

Saturation -- the relative composition of fluid phases filling the void spaces in the
rock (the three principle phases are oil, gas and water)

Unlike wireline log and drillstem test analyses which may also give estimates of these
properties, core analysis involves making direct measurements upon a known discrete
rock sample. Results are therefore more reliable because there are fewer interpretive
assu mpt ions.

Conversely, the process of obtaining the sample (coring, core retrieval, shipping to the
laboratory, and sample preparation) causes changes to the physical properties to be
measured. Changes in temperature and pressure, and thermal and physical shock may
substantially affect porosity, permeability and saturation. Additionally, where substan-
tial secondary porosity exists in the reservoi r, whether on a large scale or through uneven
distribution, the size of the core sample may be insufficient to represent it. The reser-
voir properties determined for the core sample, though accurate, may not he directly
relatable to whole formation in situ.

Core analysis does not replace the indirect wireline log and DST analyses, but combines
with them in developing a complete picture of the reservoir and its productivity.

1.3 QUALITATIVE CORE EVALUATION

Normally of second priority in a decision to cut a core, but of prime importance to the
geologist, is the value of a core in providing subsurface stratigraphic information. By
their size, known vertical orientation and freedom from contamination and mixing, cores
provide reliable observations of

The physical character of formation boundaries


Large-scale sedimentary structures of depositional and en'virorimental significance
. Undisturbed and unworked paleontological and palynogical samples
Uncontaminated geochemical samples for mineralogy and organic g.eochemistry
2

Sometimes the requirement for geological evidence may be the overriding factor in the
decision to cut a core. For example, on a rank wildcat well with little or no correlative
data, it is often necessary to cut a bottomhole core for geological confirmation before
making a decision to abandon the well.

1.4 THE ROLE OF THE LOGGING GEOLOGIST

The logging geologist can make a major contribution to the success of a coring opera-
tion. By his efforts in performing and supervising core retrieval, sampling, packing and
shipping he may contribute to the eventual quantity and quality of data obtained. Para-
graphs 1.5 through 1.9 briefly describe the activities of the logging geologist in coring
operations which will be covered in the later sections of this manual.

1.5 Core Retrieval

The logging geologist is normally in charge of retrieving a conventional core from the
core barrel. like any other rig floor operation, this must be achieved with the utmost
speed and efficiency. You can ensure this by careful and timely preparation.

On the other hand, core retrieval must not be excessively hurried. The object is to
retrieve the whole core with minimum breakage and with pieces in the correct order and
orientation. You should also make note of the occurrence and location on the core of
transient phenomena, like bleeding oil or gas bubbling which may have ceased to occur by
the time the core is moved to the logging unit for detailed inspection.

1.6 Core Sampling

Parts of the core will need to be removed and sealed for later quantitative core analy-
sis. This should be done as quickly as possibly after retrieval to preserve contained
flu ids.

When removing core analysis samples, remember the requirement to preserve the integ-
rity of the core. Avoid breaking the core whenever possible and note the location, length
and orientation of pieces removed.

1.7 Core Description

A full description of all geological and hydrocarbon aspects of the core should be pre-
pared for attachment at the bottom of the Formation Evaluation log. You will be seeing
the core in its freshest state. Details visible at this time may be lost or obscured due to
physical damage or drying-out during shipping.

1.8 Core Packing and Shipping

The packing and labeling of the core itself, core analysis samples and the core boxes or
contain~rs will contribute to the value of the material when received at the laboratory.
Maintaining core integrity and minimizing damage are again the prime requisites.
3

1.9 Core Analysis

Normally, cores will be shipped from the drilling rig, by the fastest means, to a labora-
tory for core analysis to be performed. In remote locations, long-time delay and the risk
of core damage or loss makes this impractical. In order for reliable results to be avail-
able in ti me to make drilling or completion decisions, core analysis must be performed at
the wells ite.

Logging companies can provide portable core analysis kits containing equipment and
supplies to perform core analysis in the logging unit. This manual discusses the proce-
dures for operation of this equipment, the calculations and log formats required in pre-
senting the results of core analysis.

Core analysis equipment requires a degree of skill in operation somewhat greater than
that required for most logging unit equipment. To aid in developing this skill, the core
analysis section of this manual is formatted in a step-by-step 'cookbook' fashion with
numerous illustrations. This is not intended to insult the intelligence of the graduate
logging geologist, but to simplify the various stages of an otherwise complex procedure.

1.10 RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS

The objective of core analysis is to help reconstruct the l'1ost accurate picture possible
of the reservoir and its productive potential. By subjecting representative samples from
a conventional COre or from sidewall cores to the tests described in this manual, it is
possible to measure some of the physical properties of the reservoir rock and its con-
tained fluids.

Routine core analysis includes the determination of porosity, air permeability and fluid
saturation. Core water salinity and resistivity as well as oil gravity and fluorescence
may also be determined. rhe three major physical properties measured in core analysis
tests are

it poros ity
it permeability
it 5atu ra t ion

1.11 POROSITY

The porosity of a rock Can be defined as the percentage of the total bulk volume of the
rock occupied by pore spaces, that is, the portion of the bulk volume not occupied by
solid material.

The absolute porosity includes all of the pore spaces, channels and openings of any size,
shape or degree of continuity. In the vast majority of sedimentary rocks, a portion of the
pore space is isolated -- it is not interconnected with other pore spaces and does not
contribute to the productive capacity of the reservoir. The effective porosity includes
only the pore spaces that are interconnected and through which fluid can flow.
4

1.12 PERM EABILITY

The ease with which a particular fluid can flow through the interconnected pore spaces
of a rock denotes the degree of permeability to the fluid.

The unit of measurement of permeability, the darcy, was devised in 1856 by Henry
d'Arcy, a French engineer. A rock has a permeability of one darcy (1d) when 1 cubic
centimeter of fluid of 1-centipoise viscosity flows between the opposite faces of a 1-
centi meter cube of the rock in 1 second under a pressure differential of 1 atmosphere.
(Water at 68 F has a viscosity of 1-centipoise.)

Because most reservoir rocks have average permeabilities considerably less than 1 darcy,
the usual measurement is millidarcies (md, thousandths of a darcy). Permeability of a
highly porous, well-sorted sand varies from 475 md for a coarse-grained sand to about 50
md for a very fine-grained sand. Permeability may decrease to about 10 md for a poorly-
sorted sand.

Figure 1-1 illustrates the relationship between absolute porosity, effective porosity and
permeability.

lOW TORTUOSITY HIGH TORTUOSITY

z
o
;::
o
-<
Q.
:i
o
o
~
o...J
EFFECTIVE POROSITY =
ABSOLUTE POROSITY EFFECTIVE POROSITY=ABSOLUTE POROSITY
GOOD PERMEABiliTY REDUCED PERMEABiliTY

z
o
;::
o
-<
Q.
::!
o
o
o
w
<I)
<
~ EFFECTIVE POROSITY: ABSOLUTE POROSITY EFFECTIVE POROSITY < ABSOLUTE POROSITY
~ REDUCED ABSOLUTE POROSITY REDUCED ABSOLUTE POROSITY.
REDUCED PERMEABILITY REDUCED EFFECTIVE POROSITY
REDUCED PERMEABILITY

Figure 1-1. Absolute Porosity, Effective Porosity and Permeability


5

1.13 SATURATION

The term 'saturation' refers to the percentage of the rock pore space that is filled with
each of the three fluids -- oil, water and gas. The total of the three will always be one
hundred percent, as there is no such thing as empty porosity.

As the core will have undergone changes (such as flushing) while being drilled and will
have been subjected to temperature and pressure changes en route to the surface, the
saturations measured in the laboratory will probably be quite different to the saturations
present in the reservoir itself. In order to fully appreciate the test results of core analy-
sis, a brief description of petroleum reservoirs is included here.

1.14 RESERVOIR GEOLOGY

A petroleum reservoir is a rock capable of containing gas, oil or water, or any combina-
tion thereof. To be commercially productive, it must have sufficient thickness, areal
extent and pore space to contain an appreciable volume of hydrocarhons, and must yield
its contained fluids at a satisfactory rate when penetrated by a wellbore. The most
common reservoir rocks are sandstones and carbonates.

The porosity characteristic of a rock may be primary, such as the intergranular porosity
of sandstone, or it may be secondary, due to chemical or physical changes such as
dolomitization, solution channels or fracturing. Porosity may be reduced by compaction
and cementation. The pore space distribution of a reservoi r rock is the result of numer-
ous natural processes.

CUBIC RHOMBOHEDRAL

, ..
-~~
~,o.
~

Figure 1-2. Cubic and Rhombohedral Packing

In sandstones, porosity is controlled primarily by sorting, cementing, clay content, and


packing. Porosity will be at a maximum when grains are spherical and all of one size, but
becomes progressively less as the grains become more angular and less well sorted,
because angular grains pack together more closely. Figure 1-2 shows two ways in which
6

spherical grains can be packed. The one on the left is open cubic packing and would have
a porosity of about 48 percent. The close rhombohedral packing on the right has a poros-
ity of about 26 percent because the grains are packed into a smaller space. Artifically-
mixed clean sand has measured porosities of about 43 percent when well sorted, almost
irrespective of grain size, decreasing to about 25 percent for poorly sorted medium- to
coarse-grained sands. Very fine-grained sands still have more than 30 percent porosity.
Figure 1-3 summarizes diagrammatically some of the processes controlling pore size
distribution in sandstones, and Figures 1-4 and 1-5 detail diagrammatically the reduction
in porosity due to compaction and cementation.

,0'" FINE ALL GRADIlTlONS OF COARSE "0


".:- WELL SORTED SIZE AND SORTINGS WELL SORTED "'..,
~",,,, SAND '\. POSSI8L E / SAND <'' ' '
c,<'; "- / '01-
"- /

""
/

Figure 1-3. Pore Size Modification in Sandstones

Compaction caused by weight of the overburden packs the sand grains closer together,
and at greater depths may even crush or fracture the grains. The result is smaller pores
and therefore lower porosity -- but more importantly, a much lower permeability. Thus a
sandstone reservoir which is capable of producing petroleum at 10,000 feet may be too
impermeable at 20,000 feet to be economicalily productive. Cementation, which will fill
part or all of the pore space, also tends to increase with depth. Figure 1-6 shows the
effect of compaction on a poorly sorted sandstone from Ventura, California. The silhou-
ettes are based on photomicrographs but are easier to see in black and white, as shown.
Note how the pore space diminishes from surface conditions through the zones to the
Miocene. There is still quite a bit of porosity in the Miocene, but the permeability has
dec reased great Iy.
7

SEABED

z
2
I-
U

'"
0.
:I!
o
u
WELL CEMENTED
o
z
'"
...~
OJ
o

ORTHO OUARTZITE "


3;
'"w'"
a:
u
j!;

OUARTZITE

Figure 1-4. Porosity Reduction with Compaction and Cementation

SECONDARY
CRYSTALLIZATION

6'"

Figure 1-5. Pore Size Keduction with Figure 1-6. Typical Porosity
Solution and Recrystallization Decrease with Depth
8

The orientation of mineral grains within the rock itself is important as it determines the
shape and orientation of pore spaces, that is, the pore geomet ry of the rock. In the case
of well-rounded grain sands, or in the case of rapid deposition where no orientation has
been established, permeability may be approximately equal in all directions. At the
other extreme, minerals having platy, elongated or needle-like grains are deposited in a
position of greatest stability; this would normally be parallel to the bedding planes. As a
result, permeability is found to be greater and more uniform in di rections parallel to the
bedding. Except in the case of a very clean, well-rounded-graine sandstone, variations in
permeability will be evident when measured in different directions. In the core analysis
test described later in this manual, permeahility is always measured in a direction paral-
lel to the planes of deposition, where recognizable. Where bedding planes are not dis-
cernible, permeability is determined in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the core.
Since most exploration wells are approximately vertical, this is assumed to be horizontal
permeability.

Permeabilities vary not only in different directions but may vary greatly in the same
direction at different localities in the rock formation. It is not uncommon to find vary-
ing permeabilities in the same di rection, even in adjacent core samples. Erratic deposi-
tional processes can result in the occurrence of localized lenses of so-called 'loose' or
'tight' sands within a formation of otherwise uniform permeability. Permeability may
also vary laterally within a field -- very permeable sands occurring in one portion of the
field, grading to tight sands in another portion.

The factors which affect porosity and permeability in limestones and dolomites are
different from those of sandstones. Due to their susceptibility to post-depositional
change, the carbonates are very different from sandstones and shales -- particularly
when changed from calcium carbonate to the calcium magnesium carbonate form
(dolomite) by dolomitization. In carbonates the porosity, permeability, and pore space
distributions are related to both the depositional envi ronment of the sediment and the
changes that have taken place after deposition (Figures 1-7 and 1-8). Figure 1-9 is a
diagram illustrating the evolution of some dolomite textures and pore types. The original
sediments ranging from lime lTIud to lime sand are depicted in the central column.
Diagenetic (or later) processes will change porosity and pore size distribution, as shown
to the right and left. Note that lime mud is preferentially dolomitized. The other part-
icles may then be dissolved, leaving pores or larger holes that mayor may not be inter-
connected. This is shown to the left of the center in the figure. To the right, note the
good porosity and permeability in the open network of dolomite crystals.

This illustrates two basic types of carbonate porosity (also shown in detail in Figures 1-8
and 1-10): interparticle or lntercrystaiiine between grains or crystals, and intraparticle
due to particle solution; there may b'i combinations of the two. Referring again to
Figure 1-9, going more to the left, it can be seen that cementation and infilling have
taken place, destroying most, if not all, of the porosity. When volume reduction occurs
due to recrystallization, irregular voids called vugs are formed (vuggy porosity).

Permeability in all lithologies is controlled by the size of the pore throats, such as the
passages between the much larger pores and vugs. Consequent Iy, a highly porous rock
may have little or no permeability if these interconnections are very small or absent. On
the other hand, some very-fine-grained carbonate rocks have an extensive network of
interconnected pore space with enough permeability to yield economic volumes of oil.
Intercrystalline pores tend to be interconnected, and rocks with high intercrystalline
porosity ar~ normally permeable as found in many highly productive dolomite reservoi r
rocks.
9

MEAN SEA LEVEL


- -- - <ol'I~"'\IC
_--_ - ~OG~

~
.. [;,:.: .~ '. e:;. BURROWING
I~\~b.fl
, .1 , ''''_.
.. :. BORING
~ CAVERN

a
',' ~ '
," ..... :.'

..
~ D
INTRAPARTICLE SHRINKAGE VUG
~ " .: '~
'.' t.~ ; .

[t~~{) SHELTER INTERPARTICLE


~ CHANNEL

III GROWTH
FRAMEWORK
~ FENESTRAL
~ FRACTURE

~:"'~
"\:';! :".::.':
. MOLDIC
IKm INTERCRYST AL
~ BRECCIA

WATER TABLE

Figure 1-7. Carbonate Porosity Types


10

FORMATION

CORE

CUTTING , /n-_ _ ~

,,-

IW VISlaLE~/
POROSITY
I

/ I',
I
I I
1
', ~~~~,
I 1 ,
I I '
I I "
I 1 ,
11 " ,

"
INTRAPARTICLE

INTERPARTICLE

S.E. MICROGRAPH

Figure 1-8. Carbonate Porosity Types and Scale

CAOwTH 01" 001.0"'1" [ ""011.1.85


SOLuftOH 01 A(I,.IC T L.IIIoIU10H[

'(J 0
o ,

f'ATCHV 001.0M1'( CfIIOWTt4


SOlutION Of AC1,.4Cl t..1IIIItsTOH[

Figure 1-9. Porosity Modification in Carbonates


11

OOLITES PELLETS

Figure 1-10. Carbonate Interparticle and Intraparticle Porosity Types

Carbonates can be extensively fractured. In this situation, even without porosity and
permeability in the main body of the formation, economic amounts of oil can exist in the
fractures if the source and other conditions of accumulation are present.

The permeability of a formation is a function of the pore pattern and of the size, shape
and distribution of the small pore channels which connect the larger pores, vugs, frac-
tures, etc. The larger and more numerous the pores and channels, the greater the perm-
eability. The size of the connecting channels is important, as small channels restrict
flow due to greater frictional losses. Also, the rate of discharge through a cross-section
of formation will depend on the nature of the fluid(s) -- in particular, viscosity and the
pressure differential. As was seen in Figure 1-1, permeability is not necessarily directly
related to effective porosity, although the size, shape and continuity of the pores affect
the value of both. In reservoirs of commercial importance, permeabilities can vary from
less than 1 to 20,000 mi IIidarcies or more, though the majority ranges between 20 and
2000 millidarcies.

In a potential reservoir where a mixture of fluids is present (water and/or oil and/or gas),
the reservoir will have less effective perMeability to each fluid than it would to an
individual fluid if it were present alone. Some attempt to reconstruct the character of
the fluids in place is necessary in estimating the nature of the eventual production from
the reservoi r.

Relative permeability can be defined as the effective permeability of a reservoir to a


fluid when one or more other fluids are present. The effective permeability to each
phase will be a function of the number of phases present, the proportion of pore volume
occupied by each phase, the chemical composition and physical properties of each phase,
and the degree of continuity of each phase (Figure 1-11). It is therefore important to
understand how fluids are distributed in a reservoi r, and also the phases (liquid or gas) in
which each exists under the prevailing conditions of temperature and pressure within the
reservoir rock.
12

FORMATION FLOW DIRECTION BOREHOLE


EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY
TO GAS DECREASES

I
GAS

OIL & GAS

OIL

I
OIL

OIL
EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY
TO OIl. DECREASES
OIL

OIL
I
OIL

WATER
1
EFFECTIVE PERMEABILITY
TO WATER DECREASES

Figure 1-11. Relative Permeability and Productivity

1.15 DISTRIBUTION OF flUIDS

Figure 1-12 shows an idealized petroleum reservoir. The fluids are distributed by gravity
segregation; water occurs in the lower portion of the structure, gas in the top, and oil is
intermediate between the two. Although gravity plays an important role in det .e rmining
the d istribution of fluids, other factors have an appreciable influence, especially in the
13

distribution of the liquid and gas phases. In actual reservoirs, water is nearly always
present within the oil zone as a thin film on the sand grain surfaces and occupying the
finer capillary pores. This water is known as connate water -- originally present in the
reservoir before the migration and accumulation of oil. The amount may vary from a
small percentage in some reservoirs to more than 50 percent in others. If consideration
is given to the interfacial and displacement forces active at the time the oil first mi-
grated into the reservoi r, it would be expected that the oil displaced only that water
present in the larger pore spaces. The surface tension of the water prevents oil from
displacing the surface film of water on the grain surfaces and the water present in the
capillary-size pores.

> NTlCLINAL ~/// " / / '/~!!/./~ ~~!!..


/ RESERVOIR / ' ~ GAS CAP , / . / . // / / / /
/ STRUCTURE GAS ONLY PRODv..CEO)~ / / / / /%
~/ / / / / GA-S- OIL -TRANSITION zONE - ; / / ::;.."7
~ (GAS AND OIL PRODUCED) ~ ~;~

'/" / OIL ZONE ~~


:- / (OIL ONLY PRODUCED) ~

~ !'?: LEVEL ABOVE WHICH ALL % OIL


.
CJ)

<!>

%' .- --- ----------------------- '.;


/::. y __ ~RODUCTION IS HYDROCARBON ~ o
w
>
.J
o
// OIL-WATER TRANSITION ZONE CJ)
/' (OIL AND WATER PRODUCED) / o
~ /
/ ------- --------- - --------------_. ~
/ (WATER ONLY PRODUCED)
A------------------------------4"
WATER ZONE WATER
(WATER ONLY PRODUCED)

Olio SWI 1 oOlio


WATER SATURATION (SW)

Figure 1-12. Idealized Reservoir Composition

Fluid properties such as (1) the interfacial tension between reservoir oil and connate
water and (2) the density difference between these fluids are factors which, together
with the rock properties, determine the initial static fluid distribution in a reservoi rand
hence the thickness of the transition zone.

In the reservoir, water occupies the smallest pores and the corners and crevices of the
larger pores, while the hydrocarbons occupy the center of the larger pores. The amount
of interstitial or connate water saturation depends on the pore geometry (and indirectly,
the permeability), the height above free water level (if present), and the properties of
the fluids. In going onward from a water-oil contact in a formation of uniform permea-
bility, the oil saturations increase rapidly, the water saturations decrease correspond-
ingly through a transition zone, and the connate water reaches a near-minimum value
(termed the irreducible water saturation). Oil alone will be produced from this zone. In
a homogeneous formation of moderate to high permeability, the transition zone is ordin-
arily quite short, that is, up to several feet in thickness. In uniform but low-permeability
forrn.ation, the transition zone is larger.
14

If the permeability is very irregular and there are streaks of abnormally low permeability
interspersed in permeable formation, the effective length of the transition zone may be
increased. A low-gravity or high-viscosity oil tends to produce the same result as an
erratic permeability distribution, since the viscosity condition magnifies the importance
of the zones of lower permeability and higher water content. If the reservoir oil is
unusually heavy (approaching the density of water), another factor comes into play, as a
small density difference in itself tends to create a long transition zone.

Figure 1-13 illustrates the type of fluid that would be produced from each of the zones in
ou r idea Ii zed reservoi r.

GAS

OIL
Oil lONE

OIL I WATER CONTACT

OIL - WATER TRANSITION

WATER lONE WATER

0% 50"" 100""

Figure 1-13. Idealized Reservoi r Productivity

1.16 PHASE RELATIONSHIPS

Other important factors when considering the fluids in place in a reservoir are the pres-
sure and temperature differences between the reservoir itself and the surface -- and in
particular, the phase relationships between the gas and liquid states at varying tempera-
tures and pressures. Gas which is detected from the mudstream and isolated as originat-
ing from the formation need not be present in the formation as free gas.

In Figure 1-14, segregation between liquid and vapor is shown for two single pure hydro-
carbons under varying conditions of temperature and pressure. For each hydrocarbon
there is a fixed relationship between temperature, pressure and phase. These are un-
changeable and may be determined both empirically and by derivation from the Gas
Laws. Examination of the 'Vapor Pressure Curves' for the pure hydrocarbons shows that,
at any fixed temperature below the Critical Temperature (Tc, a constant for any pure
substance), application of pressure to the gas results in liquification. Conversely, reduc-
tion in pressure results in evaporation. Alternatively, at any fixed pressure below the
Critical Pressure (Pc, the pressure of the saturated vapor of a substance at its Critical
Temperature), increasing temperature results in evaporation, decreasing the temperature
15

in liquification. Above the Critical Point defined by Tc and Pc, changes in temperature
and pressure do not affect the state of the substance which may be considered to be in a
single, indeterminate phase. This phase may be referred to as a super-heated liquid or a
super-saturated vapor.

OIR 4

Figure 1-14. Phase Distribution for Single Pure Hydrocarbons

The importance of this to reservoir evaluation is shown in Figure 1-14 by the points
which indicate surface conditions and those from four typical reservoirs. As the hydro-
carbon travels from the reservoir to surface, it undergoes changes in temperature and
pressure, with possible accompanying change in phase. The light hydrocarbon can be
present in a liquid phase in Reservoi r 1 but may evaporate and be detected as a gas at
the surface. Conversely, the heavy hydrocarbon will be present as a gas in Reservoir 4
but will condense to a liquid at the surface. The other examples in the illustration show
other possible changes or retentions of state. The importance of these facts in the
interpretation of gas shows and of the core analysis test results is more than simply that,
a gaseous hydrocarbon in place may be evaluated as a liquid at surface. (It is, after all,
at surface that the hydrocarbons will eventually be produced and processed. The reser-
voir engineer is quite able to extrapolate from surface-to-reservoir conditions and com-
positions.) The important factor is that the physical properties of the liquid and gaseous
phases are markedly different. Thus, factors such as viscosity and the reservoir's perme-
ability to a particular hydrocarbon, -- in sum, its mobility in the reservoir -- are depen-
dent on the phase in which the hydrocarbon is present. Thus, two reservoirs containing
similar fluids may show markedly different production rates or types due to variation in
reservoi r temperature and pressure.
16

This is a simplification indicating the different behavior of two pure hydrocarbons when
liberated from various reservoi r conditions and released at surface. A reservoi r fluid will
never be entirely a pure, single hydrocarbon (although, of course, non-associated gas
which may consist of 90 percent or more of methane is close to this). Most reservoir
fluids will be complex mixtures of varying composition. In such a mixture the tempera-
ture-versus-pressure relationship is also complex (Figure 1-15).

Instead of a single curve indicating the division of the liquid and gaseous states, there are
two curves, known as the bubble-point and the dew-point curves, meeting at the critical
point. Above the bubble-point curve, the mixture will exist only as a liquid. Below the
dew-point curve, only gas will be present. Between the curves, mixtures of liquid and gas
will be present together, the composition of each phase being a function of the tempera-
ture, pressure and the net composition of the total fluid.

CRITICAL POINT
FOR MIXTURE

t
LIQUID/GAS
I
Y

GAS

TEMPERATURE ~

Figure 1-15. Phase Distribution in a Two-Component Hydrocarbon Mixture

It is also worth noting that the bubble-point/dew-point curves of a two-coMponent Mix-


ture will be enclosed by (but not coincide with) the vapor pressure curves of the two pure
components. Therefore, a two-component mixture, at a given temperature and with
falling pressure, will remain totally liquid to a pressure below that at which the pure,
lighter component would become a gas. Further decline in pressure would lead to the
bubble-point below which the mixture would have a declining liquid phase and an increas-
ing gaseous phase, until the dew-point were reached at which the mixture would be
totally gaseous. This would occur at a pressure higher than that at which the pure,
heavier component would become enti rely gas.
17

From the above, it can be seen that the quantity of gas and oil present in a reservoir
under prevailing conditions is a function of temperature, pressure, the number and
amount of hydrocarbon species present, and the physical properties of each species. This
is further complicated by the presence of water as both a liquid and vapor phase and by
the limited though significant mutual solubilities of water and hydrocarbons.

1.17 CORE CHARACTERISTICS

Core analysis involves the measurement of porosity, permeability and saturations of


samples taken along the length of a core. When performed carefully, upon good samples,
these analyses can produce a reliable representation of these characteristics through the
whole core.

Regardless of the care and reliability of analyses, however, the results obtained can only
provide a partial indication of the characteristics of the reservoi r in situ. This is in part
due to the complexity and heterogeneity of the reservoi r as a whole, as described in
Paragraphs 1.10 through 1.16. It also results from the predictable but non-quantifiable
changes undergone by the core in the process of cutting and retrieval to surface.

In Paragraphs 1.18 through 1.26, we discuss the actual methods used ill core analysis and
the way in which their results are comparable to in situ reservoir characteristics. Spe-
cific operating and analytical procedures are discussed in Section 4.

1.18 POROSITY

1.19 Measurement

The standard instrument for measurement of porosity is the Ruska Porometer (Figure
1-16). It consists of

A Pycnometer -- a container of precisely known internal volume

A Mercury Pump -- with which precisely measured volumes of mercury (a relatively


incompressible fluid) may be introduced into the pycnometer

Vernier Scales and Pressure Gauges -- used to determine the pumped volumes

The porometer is used to accurately determine the volume of samples of core, normally
one inch diameter cylindrical samples known as plugs. A plug is first washed with solvent
and dried to remove all reservoir fluids. It is then placed in the pycnometer. Mercury is
pumped into the pycnometer to a constant pressure. The difference in volume of mer-
cury that can be pumped into the pycnometer empty and when it contains the core plug is
equal to the volume of the plug.
18

v (1-1 )
c

where

vc == volume of core plug, cc

V volume of mercury pumped into empty pycnometer, cc


m1
V == volume of mercury pumped into pycnometer with plug, cc
m2

If pumping continues, the volume of air trapped within the connected pore space of the
plug will compress. Using Boyle's Law, which relates pressure and volume, it is possible
to determine the volume of trapped air from the increase in pressure in the pycnometer
as a measured extra volume of mercury is pumped in. Thus

(1-2)

(1-3)

where

Vg == grain volume of pore plug, cc

Vpe effective pore volume of core plug, cc

CPe == effective porosity of core plug, fractional (0-1.0)

PYCHOa.tEUR lID

Figure 1-16. Ruska Porometer


19

Since sealed, unconnected voids in the plug will remain isolated from the external im-
posed pressure, they will be unaffected and undetected by this measurement. The result,
therefore, is Effective Porosity, the connected void space in the rock.

Combining the porometer results with other measurements can give estimates of Abso-
lute Porosity, the total void space in the rock. For example, if the rock is relatively
clean and consists of a single rrtineral of known density, the mass of the plug can be de-
termined by weighing.

(1-4)

(1-5)

where

Mc = mass of core plug, gm

Pb = bulk density of rock, gm/cc

Pm = matrix density of rock mineral, gm/cc

Pf = fluid density of pore fluid, gm/cc

<t>a = absolute porosity of core plug, fractional (0-1.0)

If the fluid density, air at atmospheric pressure, is assumed to be zero, this simplifies to

(1-6)
20

A more accurate estimate, especially when the rock consists of mixed lithologies of
varying density, is to determine rock grain volume. This is done by crushing the plug to
individual grains and determining the volume of grains using a glass volumeter (Figure
1-17).

= Vc - Vg (1-7)
cf>a Vc

where

Vc = volume of core plug (from porometer), cc

Vg grain volume of core plug (from volumeter), cc

-
GRAIN VOLUME

-r--
OF CORE PLUG

:'----IF
- -'""1 - - - - - --

>-
-
l -- ]

~.t.i
~'::"A

FLUID FLUID PLUS


CRUSHED CORE PLUG

Figure 1-17. Glass Volumeter for Determination of Absolute Porosity

1.20 Limitations

Porosity determination on a 1-inch diameter plug may only be representative of porosity


types, the size and distribution of which are adequately represented in so small a sample
(that is, primary, matrix-controlled porosity). In clastic rocks this may be the most
21

important and volumetrically significant porosity. In carbonates, secondary porosity,


fractures and diagenetic solution features may be volumetrically predominant. In such
cases, the size or distribution of such porosity may be on so large a scale that a core plug
or even a whole core cannot represent it. Alternatively, organic porosity may be on so
small a scale that even pulverized rock contains some porosity (see Figure 1-8).

Where porosity size and distribution are of a scale that may be represented in a core plug
(for example, intergranular porosity in a fine-grained sandstone), reasonable porosity
estimates are possible. Even so, the porosity estimate from the core plug will reflect
both the true in-situ rock porosity and the results of porosity-modifying mechanisms
occuring during the cutting and retrieval of the core. These are of two types:

Porosity reduction by clay hydration


Porosity enhancement by microcrack formation

During drilling, a permeable formation ahead of the drill bit is extensively flushed with
mud filtrate. In coring, with substantially lower rates of penetration, the duration and
hence extent of this flushing are much greater. We see this effect reflected in ditch gas
reading during coring operations. Even when accounting for the lower rate of penetra-
tion and smaller volume of cut formation, ditch gas readings when coring are lower than
expected (see Figure 1-18).

Figure 1-18. Flushing of a Permeable Formation while Coring


22

In addition to sweeping fluids from the core, flushing brings mud filtrate into contact
with clays dispersed with the formation porosity. Hydration and expansion of these clays
may result in an overall, absolute porosity reduction. Where expansion occurs in restric-
tions and pore throats, the result may be in reduction permeability or, in the extreme,
closure of the pore throat, rendering the porosity ineffective. Although later drying of
the core sample may reverse some of these effects, it is likely that some permanent
change will occur in either absolute porosity, effective porosity or both. The signifi-
cance of these changes will depend upon the original porosity and the quantity, type and
distribution of clay in the rock.

When a core is cut in a well-indurated rock it is common, on recovery, to discover major


subvertical joint-like cracks in the core. The orientation of these cracks shows no rela-
tionship to that of other rock features or texture. Examination of crack surfaces shows
no evidence of movement, fluid flow, secondary deposition or healing. The cracks are,
therefore, interpreted to be newly formed as a result of stress relief in retrieval of the
core and not a true feature of the formation. Obtaining core plugs for porosity determ-
ination can be difficult. Plugs may break or contain cracks leading to falsely high porosi-
ties.

Recent evidence from comparison of analyses from conventional and pressurized cores
(see Section 2) indicates that the core cracking phenomenon is not limited to well-
indurated rocks. Strickland et al (SPE 8303, 1979) reported extensive cracking on a
microscopic scale in low porosity sandstones. The microcracks usually consisted of the
rupturing of grain boundary cementing material and the production of cracks in shale
intercalations in a horizontal (bedding) plane. Cracks across quartz grains were isolated
except in the vicinity of major cracking as described above. The cracks were interpreted
as resulting from stress relief and from mechanical stresses during the cutting, retrieving
and handling of the core. Thermal contraction in retrieval to surface was considered to
be a minor contribution to cracking.

The contribution of microcracking to Absolute Porosity may be very small. The total
microcrack porosity is probably less than one half of one percent. On the other hand, the
microcracks which form at previously sealed grain boundaries and in clay pore fill may
contribute to a large relative increase in Effective Porosity and Permeability (see Para-
graph 1.23).

1.21 PERM EABILITY

1.22 Measurement

Henry O'Arcy, for whom the unit of permeability is named (see Paragraph 1.12), proposed
a series of equations defining various modes of fluid flow through porous media. One of
these, assuming horizontal, linear flow, is used in core analysis:

KA D. P
Q = (1-8)
11 L

_ Q 11 L (1-9)
K-~
23

where

Q = flowrate, cc/sec

A = cross sectional area of flowpath, cm 2

= pressure differential across flowpath, atm

L = length of flowpath, cm

]..I = fluid viscosity, cps

K permeability, darcies

The standard instrument for measurement of permeability is the Ruska Permeameter


(Figure 1-19). It consists of

A sample holder, in which air flows through a cylindrical core plug


Thermometer
Air flowmeters
Air pressure gauge

A core plug is solvent-washed and dried to remove reservoir fluids. Its length (L) and
diameter are measured and the cross-sectional area (A) calculated. The plug is then
sealed in the sample holder and air is forced through it at a measured pressure (t;P) and
flowrate (Q). The temperature of the ai r is measured and used to calculate its viscos-
ity (]..I). Substituting these known and calculated values into equation (1-9) allows air
permeability of the rock to be calculated.

SAMPLE
HOLDER

Figure 1-19. Ruska Permeameter


24

1.23 Limitations

All of the limitations of core analysis porosity estimates (Paragraph 1.20) apply to an
even greater extent to permeability estimates. Factors of scale and porosity modifying
mechanisms will affect permeability as explained, but to an extent many times that of
the magnitude of the porosity change.

Although many factors control the relationship between porosity and permeability, it can
be generalized in the form

K = Aecj> - B (1-10)

where

K = permeability

cj> = porosity

A, B = constants

From this equation, it can be seen that only a small change in porosity will produce a
much greater change in permeability. For example, the minute increase in porosity
introduced by microcracking may result in large increases in measured permeability.
Strickland's observations show that most of the induced porosity is associated with
microcracks aligned in a horizontal plane. This is the di rection in which core plugs for
permeability measurements are normally cut (see Paragraph 4.9).

Another factor which influences the reliability with which permeability estimates may be
applied in deducing reservoi r performance is the way in which permeability variations
within a sample affect the measured permeability of the whole sample.

Figure 1-20 illustrates two core plugs in which variations in porosity and permeability are
represented by division in two halves, longitudinally and laterally. In either case, the
porometer-measured porosity for the whole plug would be a simple average of the
volumes of porosity present in the plug:

Whole Plug cj> = !4 cj>1 + ~ cj>2 ]


(1-11 )
m LA

<Pm = 20% + 5% = 12.5%


2

The reliability of this estimate depends upon how well the sample provided by the core
and plug represents the whole formation.
25

0) LONGITUDINAL VARIATION

~1 = 20%
K1 = 500 md
Al2

b) LATERAL VARIAT ION

Figure 1-20. Permeability Variation within a Core Sample

Permeameter-measured permeabilities would be different for the two plugs. In case A,


the longitudinal variation, the upper and lower halves have different permeabilities and
would sustain different ai r flowrates under the applied differential pressure. Total
flowrate through the whole core would be the sum of these two:

0= +
1 2

K1 ~
2
t, P
K2 ~
2
t, P
= +
Jl l Jl l

(K1 + K2 ) ~ t, P
2
= (1-12)
Jl l

Substituting this flowrate into equation (1-9) we may determine the measured permeabil-
ity.

Whole Plug Kr.l = ~ ~ ~ (1-9)


26

(K1 + K2 ) ~b. P
2 jJ L
= jJ [
AD (1-13)

(K1 + K 2 )
2

500 + 20
Km =
2
= 260 rrd

The measured permeability is the average of the two halves.

In case B, the lateral variation, the two halves of the plug must maintain the same air
flow but would require different pressure differentials to do so. The total pressure
differential would be the sum of these two:

b. P = b. P + b. P
1 2

L L
Q jJ- Q jJ-
2 2
= + ---
AK1 AK2

1 1 (1-14)
+
~ K2

Substituting this pressure differential into equation (1-9) we fTlay determine the measured
permeabi Ii ty:

Q jJ L
Whole Plug Km = 'A""TP (1-9)

Q jJ L (1-15 )
= Q jJ L
A * 2A
2
=
[_1 + _1 ]
K1 K2
2
--=-------::-
1 1
= 38 rrd
[500 + 21)]
27

The measured permeability is more strongly influenced by the lower permeability frac-
tion. This is true even if only a small portion of the plug has the lower permeability. If,
in this example, the lower porosity and permeability portion occupied only one tenth of
the length of the core, the measured porosity of the whole core would be 17 percent,
while the measured permeability would be 147 md.

Depending upon size and orientation, low permeability inclusions in a core plug may
drastically reduce the measured permeability. Such inclusions may result from clay
swelling or mud solids invasion. They may represent natural inhomogeneity in the forrna-
ti on.

Care in selecting clean, undamaged, and homogeneous samples for permeability mea-
surements is essential. Even then, the measured permeability for the plug can be only a
gross estimator of flow behavior in the formation as a whole.

Finally, there are theoretical considerations which affect the reliability of permeability
estimates. The d'Arcy equation, equation (1-9), requires certain physical conditions in
order to hold true. These conditions are only partially met in the permeameter measure-
ment. Flow in the formation occurs under conditions which differ not only from the
theoretical condition but also from those in the permeameter. Figure 1-21 gives a com-
parison of the three sets of conditions.

COMPARISON OF THEORETICAL AND ACTUAL FLOW CONDITIONS

Theoretical Ruska
(dArcy) Permeameter Reservoir

Linear Flow True Radial Flow

Possibly Horizontal
Horizontal Flow Vertical Flow and Vertical Components

Laminar Flow Laminar Flow I

Incompressible Fluid Compressible Compressible

Approximately True
Isothermal Conditions Approximately True in Short Term

Possib Iy Discont inuous


Steady State Flow Approximately True Flow

Medium is totally Approximately True Medium wi" be satu-


saturated with a rated with multiple
single constant flowing phases, discon-
viscosity fluid tinuous and immobile
phases of varying viscosity

Figure 1-21. Comparison of Theoretical and Actual Flow Conditions


28

The Ruska Perrneameter measures the absolute permeability

of a small rock sample


in only one orientation
to air
in linear steady-state flow
under conditions which approximate to the ideal

These factors must be considered in the evaluation and use of permeability estimates.

1.24 SATURATION

1.25 Measurement

The standard instrument for determining saturations is the Saturation Still (Figure
1-22). It operates in a similar manner to the Mud Engineer's Mud Still. A weighed
sample of fresh core fragments is heated in a sealed retort. Evolved vapors are con-
densed in a water cooled condenser and collected as oil and water in a calibrated collec-
tion tube. Using the known porosity of the rock, from the porometer test, it is possible
to calculate the saturations of oil and water in the sample:

IV
s
vps = V * W (1-16)
P
P

where

pore volume of the saturation sample, cc

Vp = pore volume of the porosity sample, cc

weight of the saturation sample, gm

IN weight of the porosity sample (before fluid extraction and drying), gm


P

V
w (1-17)
S
w V
ps

(1-13)
29

where

Sw = water saturation, fractional (0-1.0)

So = oil saturation, fractional (0-1.0)

V# = recovered volume of water, cc

Vo = recovered volume of oil, cc

RETORTS --=~-::::::--;;;

CaNOE N S ER S _..-::=::;:::::--:;eil

COOLING
WATER

CALIBRATED
COLLECTING TUBES

Figure 1-22. SatlHation Still


30

1.26 Limitations

Saturation determinations may be marginally affected by the porosity-modifying


mechanisms discussed above. The most important effect on measured saturations is the
mobility of the fluids themselves. During drilling, mud filtrate is flushed into the forma-
tion ahead of the core bit, expelling much of the original formation fluid. During re-
covery to surface, and at .surface, reduction in pressure and temperature results in exso-
lution of dissolved gas from the water and oil phases, and shrinkage (or volume reduction)
in those phases. Expansion of evolved gas results in a volume increase in that phase and
some expulsion of oil and water and further reduction in volume in those phases.

Figures 1-23, -24 and -25 are representations of the types of modification of reservoir
fluid saturations, in place, after cutting and after retrieval. Notice that oil-based drill-
ing fluids (Figure 1-25), which are commonly less invading than water-based fluids
(Figure 1-24), cause much less modification as the core is cut. In both cases, the major
modifiers are the exsolution and expansion of gas.

CONOE:NSA TION

.,w
o 8HRINKAOE

" aA' EXPUI.SION

! GAS

GAS CAP

OH. ZONE

WATER ZONE

Figure 1-23. Fluid Recovery, Water-Based


Drilling Fluid without Flushing

The coring procedure will alter to some degree the fluid content of the core. Where the
borehole pressure exceeds formation pressure and there is permeaoility, the mud filtrate
will displace the formation fluid in the core sample by an al'lount depending on the
degree of overbalance and the effective porosity and permeability of the reservoir rock.
The flushing of a permeable core during cutting occurs even with low-water-Ioss muds
since filter cake is not allowed to build up on the fresh surfaces continually exposed by
the bit. A flushed core will therefore show less oil and gas, and more water saturation,
than an unflushed core.
31

w
U
~
=
I-
<
;:

,,
w
="'w ,,
u =
0

:!:
=
~
,, SHRINKAGE
EXPULSION

"

040

OAg, CAP

WATER ZONE

Figure 1-24. Fluid Recovery, Water-Based Drilling Fluid with Flushing

w "'
a: w
o a: ,,
,
SHRINKAGE
" a:
< EXPUI.SION
! m

'.~~~~~~~~~~
EXPULS ION

Q4S

~----------.-~~,
011.1 CAP "

", ,
"~~~~~--~~~--~
O IL ZONE
""

WATER ZONE

Figure 1-25. Fluid Recovery, Oil-Based Drilling Fluid


32

The viscosity, compressibility, and pressure potential of the reservoir fluids and the
relative permeability of the formation to mud filtrate will also affect the degree of
flushing in the core. Extensive flushing occurs in gaseous or condensate zones due to
these fluids having low viscosities and high compressibilities. On the other hand, low-
gravity viscous oil reservoirs will be less susceptible to flushing. The degree of flushing
will be less in a larger diameter core where there is low vertical permeability and where
the rate of penetration is high.

A certain stratigraphic condition can also affect the degree of flushing when combined
with a relatively fast rate of penetration. A sand directly under an impermeable horizon
will be protected from flushing until actually penetrated by the bit. A sample taken
directly under such a barrier will be relatively unflushed and will contain higher oil
saturation and lower water saturation than a sample taken two or more feet below the
barrier. It is also significant that, in water-productive sands which do contain some oil,
there will usually be an accumulation of oil directly under an impermeable barrier.
Coupled with a lesser degree of flushing, a fairly high residual oil saturation and low
water saturation will result. Also significant is the fact that, in permeable oil sand,
usually the top foot or two of each core is flushed to a lower oi I saturation and higher
water saturation than the rest of the core because mud is usually circulated above the
core to obtain 'bottoms up' before dropping the ball and commencing coring.

As the partially or completely flushed core is recovered to surface, its pressure and
temperature are reduced to atmospheric conditions. The gas dissolved in the oil and
water expands and subjects the core to a solution-gas drive. The expulsion of liquids
continues as the core nears the surface until the relative permeability to gas within the
core approaches 100 percent. No further expulsion occurs at this point, but evolution of
gas and possibly some retrograde condensation may occur, depending on the composition
of the reservoir fluids.

The amount of expulsion of fluids due to pressure reduction is generally governed by


permeability, viscosity and compressibility of reservoir fluids and original fluid satura-
tion, and is di rectly affected by the amount of free or dissolved gas that was initially
present and the speed of pulling the core. The loss of fluids from a core sample by the
expansion of gas has a pronounced influence on the ultimate saturation of the core. The
action is similar to that occurring in fluid expulsion from a reservoir by gas expansion
except that, in this case, the pressure differential is greater and the loss of fluids is
correspondingly greater. Cores taken from deep sands experience more pressure reduc-
tion than cores from shallow sands, thus effecting a more complete expulsion. Loss of
fluids by this cause can be reduced to a negligible amount through the use of pressure
core barrels (see Section 2).

From the foregoing it can be seen that the fluid saturations measured at the surface will
be markedly different to those actually in place in the reservoi r. But from the informa-
tion gained through the core analysis tests, gas evaluation while drilling, wireline logs
and drillstem tests, together with an understanding of the processes at work, a reason-
ably accurate picture of the reservoir and its contained fluids can be formulated.
2
CORING PROCEDURES

2.1 GENERAL

Several different methods and tools are available for obtaining core sar.lples. The deci-
sion on which to use is made by the Oil Company engineers and geologists on the basis of
a number of criteria. The most important of these are

What types of data are required?


Over what depth interval is data required?

On the basis of these criteria, a decision will be r.lade as to which of the two basic meth-
ods of coring to adopt

Bottomhole Coring
Sidewall Coring

Bottomhole coring obtains large diameter (3 to 5 inches) and length (30 to 90 feet) cores
of relatively undisturbed formation. However, hottomhole coring proceeds much less
rapidly than conventional drilling and involves expensive diamond bits and core barrels.
Rig time and tool rental costs make bottomhole coring an expensive operation. The
decision to core must be made prior to entering the zone of interest. Therefore, an
erroneous depth correlation may result in unnecessary coring of overlying formations.

Sidewall coring obtains small (1 inch by 2- or 3-inches) cores of intact though generally
contaminated or damaged formation. They are cut from the borehole wall after drilling,
using a tool run on a wireline. Sidewall cores may therefore be obtained quickly and
relatively cheaply over extensive depth ranges. Selection of sidewall core points is made
after drilling and logging the well, eliminating the need for unnecessary cores.

On review of data range, required sample quality and cost factors, a method of coring is
selected. Variations of the two basic methods are then selected in consideration of
drilling requirements and formation characteristics.

2.2 BOTTOM HOLE CORING

As the name implies, this involves the cutting of a core at the bottom of the hole. In
most cases it involves the drilling of hole with a hollow bit, allowing a solid cylinder of
uncut formation to enter an inner retainer or core barrel which may later be retrieved to
surface. (There is one exception to this, discussed in Paragraph 2.15.)

2.3 CONVENTIONAL CORING

The drilling assembly for conventional bottomhole coring consists of two parts: the core
head or bit and the core barrel or retainer. Figure 2-1 shows the complete assembly and
34

its components. Above the coring assembly a conventional bottomhole assembly of dri II
collars and stabilizers is run.

DIAMOND BIT CORE BARREL

CIRCULATING PORTS _-:-:,,-.;m

CHECK VALVE

RABBIT

CORE BIT

Figure 2-1. Conventional Core Barrel

2.4 The Core Bit

Core bits are simi lar to conventional dri II bits in design and function. Unlike dri II bits,
however, they do not cut a complete cylinder of formation. Instead, they are designed to
cut "an annular ring or kerf of formation, leaving a solid cylinder of uncut formation to
pass through the center of the bit into the core barrel above.
35

Like drill bits, core bits are available in various mechanical designs. Drag-type and
rotary cutter-type core bits are available and are used in coring soft to medium forma-
tions. However, diamond core bits which offer long life and the ability to cut a range of
formation types have become the predominant type of core bit in use (see Figure 2-2).

A) DRAG CORE BIT


B) ROTARY CUTTER CORE BIT

C) DIAMOND CORE BIT

Figure 2-2. Core Bits

The diamond core bit differs from the diamond drill bit in having two circulation sys-
tems. When first run into the hole, circulation of drilling fluid passes through the center
of the bit in the conventional manner. When coring, fluid May be diverted through dis-
charge ports in the face of the bit (see Paragraph 2.7).

Because of the high cost and comparatively small use of diamond core bits, a drilling
operation is rarely equipped with a supply in all types and sizes. ComMonly only two
types, unconsolidated/soft and medium-medium hard formation bits, and one size, the
smallest expected hole size, are kept available.

Another reason for keeping only one size of core bit on hand is the strong relationship
between the success rate in core recovery and the ratio of the size of core to the size of
the hole. The larger the kerf, the more likely the core will be damaged by vibration and
mud circulation erosion, and therefore the poorer the likely recovery.

To ensure good recovery it is necessary to either have available a range of core barrels
to give large core-to-hole size ratios for all hole sizes or to cboose a single core size and
limit the range of bit sizes with which it is used. Economy and standardization dictate
the latter solution, and most drilling operations have core bits and core barrels of only a
sincgle size, Most commonly an 8-1/2-inch bit which cuts a 3-1/2-inch core. If it is de-
cided to core in a larger size hole, a small size bit is used, leaving an undersize hole (a
'rat hole') which must later be reamed.
36

Diamond and conventional core bits are easily damaged by junk or shocks. Operating
procedures like those for a diamond bit should be used. The hole must be free of junk.
Running in the hole should be done slowly to avoid damaging or plugging the bit by hitting
a bridge or dogleg. Initial weight-on-bit and rotary speed should be very low and in-
creased slowly up to the operating levels which should then be held constant. Pump
pressure and flowrate should be held low to prevent the bit from being pumped off-
bottom and bounced.

2.5 The Core Barrel

A conventional core barrel (Figure 2-1) consists of two parts: an inner and an outer
barrel.

2.6 The Outer Barrel provides strength to the complete assembly and connection to the
rotating drillstring. It is normally thirty feet long but up to three sections may be joined,
allowing up to ninety feet of core to be cut.

At its lower end the outer barrel is attached to the core bit and at its upper end to the
bottomhole assembly. Attachment to the BHA is via a safety joint which allows the
drillstring to be backed-off and removed, should the core barrel become stuck in the
hole.

Two bit-size stabilizers are attached to the body of each section of outer barrel. These
are essential in maintaining a straight hole while coring. Due to the generally lower
weight-on-bit used in coring, there is a tendency for drillstring 'wobble' which may
result in tilting or even bending of the core barrel. This will cause the core to jam,
preventing further coring and possibly permanently damage the core barrel. The extra
stabilization prevents this.

A) RUNNING INTO THE HOLE 8) CIACUl.ATJNO ON BOTTOM C) CORINO

CHECK
Vo\l.VE
OPEN

Figure 2-3. Operation of a Conventional Core Barrel


37

2.7 The Inner Barrel is a much thinner walled tube, the purpose which is to hold the
core for retrieval to surface. Like the outer barrel it can consist of up to three, 30-ft-
long sections. Inside diameter, and hence core size, ranges from three to five inches
with 3-1/2 inches being the most common. It is attached to the outer barrel by a ball
bearing swivel allowing rotation but not vertical movement. Thus the inner barrel is
carried in and out of the hole supported by the outer barrel but is free to remain station-
ary relative to the formation while the outer barrel and core bit rotate.

At the upper end of the inner barrel is a check valve and circulation ports. When the
valve is open, fluid flow through the drillstring passes through the inner barrel and the
center of the core bit (see Figure 2-3a and b). When the valve is closed, by dropping a
steel ball down through the string, mudflow is diverted out through the circulation ports
between the inner and outer barrel and through the discharge ports in the bit face (Figure
2-3c). Drilling fluid displaced from the inner barrel as the core enters is free to pass
upward through the check valve.

At the lower end of the inner barrel is the core catcher. This is a spring-loaded latch or
a set of small slips which prevents the core from sliding out of the barrel when the
drillstring is lifted. Inside the inner barrel is the rabbit. This is a metal plug free to
move through the inner barrel with a close fit to the inside diameter. A hole through its
center allows fluid to escape. As coring progresses and core enters the inner barrel, the
core pushes the rabbit upward, wiping the barrel inside surface and removing the debris
which may cause the core to jam (Figure 2-3). When the core is removed frolll the inner
barrel at surface, by removing the core catcher and allowing it to slide out, the rabbit
follows the core out of the barrel removing all fragments. Free movement of the rabbit
through the inner barrel at surface also provides a check that the barrel has not been
bent or distorted.

2.8 Coring

After the inner and outer core barrels and the core bit have been assembled, they are run
into the hole as described above. Pup joints of drillpipe are added to the drillstring so
that, when the core bit reaches bottom, the kelly can be attached with as much kelly-
up as possible. This allows the maximum length of core to be cut before a connection is
requi red.

When the bit is a short distance above bottom, the kelly is attached and circulation begun
through the inner barrel. Pump pressure is carefully monitored. Abnormally high pump
pressure indicates that there may be debris in the barrel or core catcher which must be
pumped clear before coring can commence. When pump pressure is stable the circulation
is halted, the kelly broken-off, and a steel ball dropped into the drillstring. The kelly is
reconnected, and circulation continued until a rise in pump pressure indicates that the
ball has seated in the check valve and flow is being diverted through the circulating port
between the inner and outer barrels and out of the discharge ports in the bit face. Pump
pressure is again monitored to check that the discharge ports and the bit face are clear
of debris. Coring then begins.

Drilling parameters (weight-on-bit, rotary speed, pump pressure and flowrate) are moni-
tored and maintained as constant as possible. Any changes are made slowly and care-
fully. Sudden changes in drilling parameters may damage the core bit or cause the core
to "break. Broken core fragments may lodge in the core catcher, jamming it and bringing
coring to a halt. Core jamming occurs most commonly in brittle or fractured formations
and when connections are made. At a connection, the core is broken while lifting the
st ring.
38

When coring it is important to maintain optimum drilling parameters and rate of penetra-
tion. In addition to economic and bit wear considerations, there is also an effect on the
success in core recovery. If excess weight-on-bit or rotary speed is applied in an attempt
to increase rate of penetration, the core may be broken or burned. On the other hand, if,
rate of penetration is low, the time between the core being cut and its entering the inner
barrel will be long. During this period it is subject to washing by the circulating drilling
fluid. The core may be fragmented by this or may have its diameter reduced so that it
cannot be securely held by the core catcher. The distance between the core bit and the
core catcher can be varied to help alleviate this problem. For unconsolidated forma-
tions, which are most susceptible to washing, the core catcher is set as close as possible
to the core bit. In harder formations, less affected by washing but more likely to break,
the distance is increased to reduce the risk of broken fragments under the bit being
thrown up and jamming the core catcher.

Sudden increases in pump pressure may indicate the bit is plugged. This may be cured by
lifting the bit off-bottom and continuing to circulate. If not, the bit must be pulled since
further coring would cause it to become overheated and damaged.

When the core barrel is filled, or jammed, rate of penetration rapidly decreases. The bit
is allowed to drill-off the weight-on-bit at a slightly increased rotary speed. This ensures
a clean cut at the bottom of the core. The bit is slowly picked up off-bottom with circu-
lation continuing.

When picking up off-bottom, either with a full core barrel or in order to make a connec-
tion, the brake is operated gently and the weight indicator carefully watched. If the core
catcher operates correctly, an overpull will be observed first. When the core breaks,
weight will fall back to normal. Overpull should not be allowed to exceed 30,000 Ib
above string weight or the maximum rating of the safety joint (whichever is least) as this
may damage the core barrel or cause the string to back-off from it. If the core cannot
be broken, the brake is set with 20,000 to 30,000 Ibs overpull, and the core is rocked with
small forward and back movements of the rotary table until the core breaks.

The core catcher should latch and break the core at bottom. However, some slippage or
delay in latching may result in the loss of a small section of the bottom of the core. If
this occurs, the string should be picked up at least 20 feet off-bottom and then lowered
slowly back to bottom with the weight indicator being carefully monitored. When ap-
proximately 500 Ibs of weight is seen, the rotary is turned slowly and intermittently. The
barrel should slide slowly over the core with further increase in weight-on-bit. When the
core fragment is safely in the barrel, pickup can be attempted again or, if after a con-
nection, coring can recommence. If the core fragment cannot be guided into the barrel
or if it cannot be held on a second attempt, it is likely that the fragment has fallen to
the side of the hole or has fractured into small pieces. In either case, it should be
abandoned. Further attempts at retrieval may jar and damage the bit or overwork the
core catcher, causing further core to be lost from the barrel.

Although the core catcher normally works reliably, there is a possibility, especially with
broken or unconsolidated cores, that ci rculation, shock or vibration may loosen the core
and cause it to fall from the barrel. It is therefore common practice to pullout of the
hole carefully without circulating bottoms-up. Pipe is pulled slowly and stands broken-
out wi'th a spinning chain on the upper connection rather than by turning the string in the
rotary table. Particular care is taken pulling out of the reduced diameter rat-hole, as
the large diameter outer barrel and stabilizers can, if moved too quickly, produce suffi-
cient swab pressure reduction to literally suck the core out of the barrel.
39

At surface, the outer barrel is hung in the slips. The inner barrel is lifted out of it. With
the inner barrel hanging vertically in the derrick, the core catcher is removed and the
core allowed to slide out. If the core is seriously jammed, if it is suspected to contain
hydrogen sulfide, or if the formation is so unconsolidated that falling from the barrel is
likely to disrupt the core, the inner barrel may be laid down on the catwalk and the core
pumped out of the barrel by attaching a high-pressure air, water or mud line at the upper
end. Retrieval of cores at surface is discussed in much greater detail in Section 3.

When failure in pick-up or poor recovery of a well-consolidated core suggests that core
pieces have been left on bottom, great care should be taken on the next core bit run to
avoid bit damage or jamming the core catcher. Washing over the core fragment as
described above should first be attempted. If this is not successful, recoring over the
fragments should be achieved slowly with low, steady weight-on-bit until the previous
total depth is reached. If the formation is particularly hard and brittle it may be desi r-
able to run a drill bit and junk sub to clean out the hole bottom before taking subsequent
cores.

2.9 R ETRI EVABl E COR E BA R R ElS

Retrievable, or retractable, core barrels are similar in design and operation to conven-
tional core barrels. They have the added feature that the inner barrel can be run-in and
pulled-out of the drillstring without tripping. Thus, when the inner barrel is filled, it can
be removed and replaced in order to allow continuous coring over long intervals.

In order to be retrievable, the inner barrel must be slim enougl, to pass through the tool
joints of the drillstring. The cores obtained are, therefore, smaller than cores from an
equivalent sized conventional core barrel, commonly two to three inches in diameter.
This also results in a larger kerf and less successful recovery rates (see Paragraph 2.4).

Since continuous coring is rarely performed in petroleum exploration and since core size
and recovery are important for core analysis, retrievable core barrels are not often
seen. Their use is most common when the purpose of the core is geological rather than
petrophysical (for example in mineral exploration). They are also widely used in deep
ocean exploration programs where the lack of a marine riser prevents cutting recovery
and makes tripping and hole reentry difficult.

Several types of retrievable core barrel are available, but they can be classified on the
basis of the two methods of retrieval.

2.10 Wireline

There are two types of wireline retrievable core barrels. In both, the inner barrel may be
retrieved with an overshot run on a wireline. A new inner barrel may then be run in and
located in the outer barrel.

The most common type is shown in Figure 2-4a. The retrievable inner barrel is in all
ways similar to that of a conventional core barrel except for the retriever connection at
its iJpper end.
40

INNER BARREL
RETR IEVER
CONNECTION'

OUTER SARREl

ROTATINO
INNER
BARAEL.
UATIOMARY
INNER
BARREL

L.OAOINQ
SPRINQ

CORE B1T

CAl

Figure 2-4. Wireline-Retrievable Core Barrels

The second type of wireline retrievable core barrel is unlike the previous cases in that
the inner barrel, when installed, is locked to the outer barrel and rotates with it (Figure
2-4b). Below the core catcher is a small core bit which protrudes through and a few
inches ahead of the main core bit. The inner barrel is spring loaded so that, should a hard
formation be encountered which may damage the small bit, it is pushed back inside the
protection of the main bit.

The advantage of this tool is that, on each run, part of the cutting structure is replaced
to maj ntain good coring rates. The small core bit cuts a very small kerf, giving a large
core-to-hole-size ratio and better core recovery. The main core bit following behind
acts as a reamer opening the hole to full guage.
41

2.11 Reverse Ci rculation

This is similar to the conventional core barrel but the inner barrel is not mechanically
attached to the outer barrel. It is held in place by centralizers and pump pressure. When
the core barrel is full, the hole is reverse ci rculated and the complete inner barrel is
pumped up to surface through the drillstring.

2.12 RUBBE R Sl EEVE COR E BAR R El

When coring unconsolidated lithologies, it is common to obtain relatively good recovery


to surface but for the core to suffer serious damage or disruption during removal from
the barrel and later handling. The rubber sleeve core barrel offers a solution to this
problem by enclosing the core in a shrink-fit rubber tube as it enters the inner barrel.
The complete core enclosed in the tube can be removed from the barrel without disrup-
tion and cut into convenient length for core analysis. For later visual inspection of the
core, it can be artificially consolidated by freezing or by injecting a plastic gel

... 1 AUN 1'+10 hilt "ou CI INO COlliE


C"'CQL ... 'lPIil IEGIolENJ

Figure 2-5. Rubber Sleeve Core Barrel

The rubber sleeve core barrel consists of four concentric tubes -- the outer, intermediate
and inner barrels and the stripper tube (Figure 2-5a). When running into the hole and
circulating mud, flow is through the stripper tube and central orifice of the core bit.
42

Before coring commences, a dart-shaped release plug is dropped. This seals the top of
the stripper tube diverting mudflow through ci rculation ports, between the intermediate
and outer barrels and through the bit face discharge ports. The plug also releases the
stripper tube latch so that when weight is applied the expansion joint closes (Figure
2-5b). A ratchet spring grips the stripper tube so that when the expansion joint closes it
slides down over the stripper tube, but when the joint opens it grips and lifts the stripper
tube.

Circulation and rotation begin as normal but no weight is applied to the bit (beyond that
required to close the expansion joint). Force on the bit is supplied by the hydraulic
impact of drilling fluid passing through nozzles in the nozzle plate (Figure 2-5a). The
number and sizes of nozzles can be selected to give appropriate force for the formation
to be drilled.

As coring progresses, core enters the barrel, the lower part of the barrel moves down-
wards and the expansion joint progressively opens. Opening the expansion joint pulls the
stripper tube up through the barrel which pulls rubber tube into the barrel around the
core as it enters.

After coring two feet, the expansion joint will be fully open and coring will stop (Figure
2-5c). Weight is applied to reclose the expansion joint, pushing it further down over the
stripper tube, and another 2-ft segment is cored. Coring continues in 2-ft segments until
the barrel is full. Ci rculation is then stopped and the core recovered normally to sur-
face.

2.13 ORIENTED CORE BARREL

One of the geological advantages of cores over cutting samples is that large-scale sedi-
mentary and diagenetic structures may be identified. The dip of beds, fractures and
other sedimentary or diagenetic structures in the core may be recognized and estimated.

In a conventional core barrel, such estimates are possible with an accuracy controlled by
the inclination of the cored hole. For example, if a structure has a dip of 30 relative to
the core and the borehole has an inclination of 3, then the true dip of the structure may
be between 27 and 33. Since the horizontal orientation of the barrel is unknown, strike
directions and true dips cannot be estimated. Even relative strike directions and true
dips of structures in different parts of the core may not be known if the core is broken
between those points. Rotation of the inner barrel when off-bottom and rotation of the
core during retrieval prevents accurate orientation of the broken core pieces unless
perfect fit at the broken ends can be made.

Some types of core barrels are capable of being field-modified to allow horizontal and
vertical orientation of the core as it is cut. This involves installing a multishot survey
tool in a nonmagnetic drill collar immediately above the core barrel. The survey tool is
fixed to the inner barrel, allowing it to remain stationary with the barrel when coring or
move with it if rotation occurs off-bottom. Continuous records of the hole inclination,
azimuth and tool face (orientation of the inner barrel) are made while coring.

Orientation of the core within the barrel and after recovery is made by an 'orienting
shoe' attached to the core catcher at the lower end of the inner barrel. The orienting
shoe contains three knives which scribe reference grooves on the core as it enters the
inner barrel.
43

Combining the timed multishot survey measurements, rate of penetration and core
orientation marks, it is possible to accurately orient the whole core length and provide
accurate dip and strike of structures within the core. Core orientation also allows the
preparation of oriented samples for core analysis and for mineralogical and rock mechan-
ical investigation.

2.14 PRESSURE CORE BARREL

As discussed in Paragraphs 1.17 through 1.26, the major changes in core properties from
those in-situ occur during recovery to surface. Decline in confining pressure and, to a
lesser extent, temperature result in the relief of rock stresses and the modification of
absolute and effective porosity and permeability. The exsolution and expansion of gas
substantially modify the relative saturations of reservoir fluids.

In the past such limitations were accepted, and the combination of core analysis with
wireline and DST data was used to produce acceptable estimates of reservoir character-
istics and performance. In recent years, with increased drilling of deeper, less porous
reservoirs and emphasis on reservoir stimulation, secondary and tertiary production, a
greater need has arisen for accurate knowledge of porosity, permeability and saturations
in situ. The pressure core barrel and associated pressure coring techniques have been
developed to obtain cores .vhich, as closely as possible, retain a composition and proper-
ties representative of the reservoir when recovered to surface.

The pressure core barrel is similar to a conventional core barrel but has an upper O-ring
pressure seal and lower ball valve pressure seal allowing the complete inner barrel to be
enclosed within the lower part of the outer barrel and maintained at formation pressure
during recovery (see Figure 2-6). To compensate for pressure changes due to cooling in
retrieval, pressure-regulated nitrogen is allowed to enter the barrel from a nitrogen
reservoi r.

The pressure core barrel uses a conventional diamond or synthetic 'stratapax' core bit.
Up to nine feet of 2-1/2-inch diameter core may be cut in a single coring operation. The
smaller-than-normal core size is offset by the considerably better core quality.

Although the pressure core barrel reduces the modifying effects of core recovery, the
core is still subject to the lesser but significant effect of flushing during drilling. There
is an attempt to reduce flushing of the core to a minimum by careful control of mud
density, fluid loss and flowrate. This involves the Logging Geologist or GEM DAS Opera-
tor in providing reliable estimates of Formation Balance Gradient and in running Nitrate
Ion or other tracer tests.

The pressure core barrel is made up on surface as shown in Figure 2-6a. The pressure
regulator is set to the estimated formation pressure and the nitrogen reservoir is charged
to approximately twice this pressure. The complete assembly is then leak-tested by
immersion in water for thirty minutes. When confirmed pressure-tight, the core barrel is
made up in the drillstring and run to bottom normally. To avoid swab or surge damage to
the pressure seals, a pressure core barrel is always run with a core bit which is smaller
than,the current open hole diameter.


GEMDAS is an Exlog registered service mark, standing for Geological and Engineering
Monitoring and Data Analysis Service.
44

BALL

CORE CATCHER

A) CORING BI PULL OUT OF HOLE

Figure 2-6. Pressure Core Barrel

On bottom, ci rculation is commenced at a high flowrate. Drilling fluid passes through


the circulation ports, between the inner and outer barrels and through the discharge ports
in the bit face. The hole is displaced with polymer stabilized drilling fluid designed to
minimize flushing. Desirable properties are

Mud density exceeds Formation Balance Gradient by the minimum acceptable


safety margin
45

Moderate to high viscosity

Ultra-low fluid loss

High solids content of particle size sufficient to bridge minimum pore opening (one-
thi rd opening diameter or larger)

No emulsifiers, dispersants, oils or lubricants

Stabilized concentration of Nitrate Ion or Tritium Ion tracer

In addition, yield point, gel strength and surface mud treatment must be sufficient to
maintain good cuttings recovery and stable mud properties.

When circulation is stable, coring is commenced using weight-on-bit and rotary speed as
in conventional coring but very low flowrate to reduce flushing. Core enters the inner
barrel and is retained by the core catcher as normal. When the core barrel is full, circu-
lation is continued as the core barrel is pulled out of the rat hole into the full-gauge open
hole section. Circulation is then stopped and the kelly broken out. Mud samples are
taken at the suction line and the flowline. These are analyzed for tracer concentration
for comparison with later analyses of core pore waters in order to determine the degree
of mud filtrate invasion.

A 1-1j4-inch steel ball is dropped into the top of the string, the kelly is reconnected and
the ball pumped down to the core barrel. When the ball seats in the check valve, a pump
pressure surge occurs, forcing down a piston and opening the slip joint latch. The slip
joint opens, allowing the outer barrel to fall onto and seal the o-ring pressure seal,
closing off the mid-point of the outer barrel. Simultaneously, the ball valve passes down
over the core catcher and rotates through 90 to close and seal off the lower end of the
outer barrel (Figure 2-6b). Closure of the pressure seals also activates the pressure
regulator which maintains pressure in the enclosed volume by release of nitrogen from
the reservoi r at regulated pressure.

When the outer barrel has fallen and the seals have closed, the mud ports above the
check valve are opened to the annulus. Successful accomplishment of closure is there-
fore indicated by a fall in pump pressure. The pump may be stopped and the core barrel
retrieved from the hole normally.

At surface, the complete lower barrel assembly is removed and placed in dry ice for
several hours to freeze the contents. After freezing, the nitrogen pressure is released
and the inner barrel removed. The inner barrel and contained core is then cut into sec-
tions of a convenient size for packing, the section ends sealed and the core shipped to the
core laboratory. Procedures for handling and sampling frozen cores will be discussed
further in Section 3. Core analysis on frozen core material is rarely, if ever, performed
at the wellsite and is not covered in this manual.

2.15 CORE EJECTOR BIT

Whel) drilling with a diamond drill bit, it is commonly difficult to maintain good strati-
graphic correlation because of the poor quality of pulverized or burnt drill cuttings.
Where larger samples are required for lithological evaluation a diamond core ejector or
crusher may be used.
46

The core ejector bit is a hybrid between a regular diamond drill bit and a core bit (see
Figure 2-7a). The face of the bit has three ci rculation ports surrounding a hole through
which a small core can enter the bit. There is no internal core barrel or catcher, and,
after passing through the bit, the core is usually broken by drilling fluid turbulence or a
core crusher sub. The core crusher sub has a cam-shaped profile which impacts and
breaks the core into small recoverable fragments (Figure 2-7b).

When the bit is picked up off-bottom, core fragments may fall out of the bit and be
circulated to surface. Alternatively they will remain inside the bit being carried back to
surface and recovered when the bit is tripped. Because of the imprecise knowledge of
their depth of origin and long immersion in drilling fluid, ejected cores provide incom-
plete lithological information and are unsuitable for core analysis.

SECTION OF
CORE CRUSHER SUB

AJ CORE EJECTOR BIT BJ CORE CRUSHER SUB

Figure 2-7. Core Ejector Bit ann Crusher Sub

2.16 SIDEWAll CORING

Sidewall cores taken from the borehole wall after drilling generally produce samples of
inferior quality to bottomhole cores. They are smaller in size and contain material which
has been close to the exposed borehole wall for some time prior to the core being taken.

However, sidewall cores can commonly be obtained in less rig time and at less cost than
bottomhole coring. Sidewall core points may also be selected after the hole is drilled and
logged, reducing the risk of unnecessary coring of inappropriate zones.

2.17 WIRElINE CORE GUN

The sidewall coring gun, or Chronological Sample Taker (CST), is lowered into the hole on
a logging cable and a sample of the formation is taken at the desi red depth. This is done
by shooting a hollow 'bullet' into and pulling it out of the wall of the hole (Figure 2-8).
47

There can be twelve, twenty-four or thi rty bullets per gun. By combining guns, up to
seventy-two cores can be obtained during one run. If an electric log has been obtained
previously, a spontaneous potential (SP) or gamma ray (GR) curve run in conjection with
the samples can position the samples by di rect log correlation.

GUN IN POSITION SHOT FIRED CORE RETRIEVED

Figure 2-8. Sidewall Core (CST) Gun and Recovery Sequence


48

Sidewall cores taken with CSTs are small (1 x 2-1/2 inches), and in some cases the recov-
ered material consists largely of mud cake. Sidewall coring is usually unsuccessful in
very hard rocks. Nevertheless, cores of this type provide a means of examining the rock
in portions of the section on which information may be extremely scanty. Sidewall cores
are sometimes taken with the intention of evaluating the porosity, permeability and
saturation characteristics of the rock. However, because compaction or fracturing occur
as the bullet enters, the results are inevitably less reliable than those from a conven-
tional core.

In some cases the logging geologist may be requested to perform gas analysis on sidewall
cores. The CST gas analysis procedure is identical to that performed on gas samples
from DSTs and wi reline formation test tools except for the method of collecting the
sample.

The escape of gases when CSTs are transported to the surface and when removed from
the core chambers influences the gas reading somewhat, but with proper allowances CST
gas analysis can provide useful information. The test is conducted after the cores have
been removed from the core chambers and placed into small glass containers. The pro-
cedure is described in detail in Section 3.

Figure 2-9. Wireline Core Slicer


49

2.18 WIRELINE CORE SLICER

In well-consolidated formations, it is possible to obtain larger sidewall samples using a


diamond core slicer or Tricore tool run on a logging cable (see Figure 2-9). The tool is
run to the appropriate depth for coring and a rubber pad is activated, forcing the tool
against the borehole wall. Two diamond-edged circular saws mounted at 60 to each
other move up the tool and out into the formation, cutting a triangular section core. The
core is up to three feet long and approximately 1-1j2-inches on each side, with tapered
ends following the path of the blades out of and into the tool.

On completion of the cut, the pad is retracted and the core falls into a core catcher
below. The core catcher is divided into sections, allowing up to four cores to be caught
on a single run in the hole.

Core slices are of unsuitable shape and size for core analysis but can yield valuable
geological data. Unfortunately, unless the formation is extremely well-consolidated and
ideal borehole conditions exist, the core slicer cannot be used. Irregularity or rugosity of
the borehole wall will prevent contact, resulting in little or no blade penetration and only
a fragmentary core. Poorly consolidated or friable formation will not survive the vibra-
tion during coring and the fall into the core catcher, and only unconsolidated fragments
will be recovered.

2.19 ROTARY SIDEWAll CORER

This is an unusual variation of the retrievable core barrel. The inner barrel contains two
universal joints, allowing it to be deflected by an internal whipstock out of the side of
the outer barrel and into the formation at an angle of 20 from vertical.

Unlike a bottomhole core barrel, the outer barrel does not have a core bit attached. It is
attached to the drillstring via a swivel, allowing it to remain stationary while the string
rotates. The inner barrel has a rotary cutter head at its lower end and a splined joint at
its upper end, allowing it to rotate with the drillstring.

Coring is accomplished by hanging the drillstring in the slips with the outer barrel posi-
tioned at the depth of interest. Rotation and circulation are commenced with mud
hydraulics providing the force on bit requi red to feed the inner barrel out of the outer
barrel and into the formation. When the barrel is full, ci rculation ports are exposed and
a drop in pump pressure is seen. The inner barrel is recovered on a wireline, the outer
barrel moved to a new core depth and a new inner barrel lowered into place.

Cores of this type are only one inch in diameter and up to one foot in length. They are of
only marginally better quality than cores from a CST and require greater rig time and
cost to obtain. For this reason, rotary sidewall coring is not regularly performed.
3
RETRIEVAL AND SAMPLING
OF CORES
3.1 GENERAL

In the evaluation and analysis of cores, there is usually a division of responsibilities at or


away from the wellsite. On some occasions the logging crew may be required to recover,
evaluate the core, sample it and perform complete core analysis. In such cases it is
recommended that two logging geologists work together, dividing the various tasks
between them in order to complete the job speedily and efficiently. Since coring opera-
tions involve relatively short on-bottom intervals separated by longer-than-normal trip
times, it is possible to do this without logging geologists working for excessively long
periods or an unfair distribution of work. The Trailer Captain should organize duty and
rest periods so that extra manpower is available when required. If, in his opinion, extra
personnel or overtime credits are justified, the client's representative and local office
should be informed.

At the opposite extreme, a coring crew may be assigned to the wellsite by the client or a
service company. They may perform core analysis at the wellsite or process and sample
the core for later laboratory analysis. In these circumstances, the logging geologist is
required to be a geological observer only, and will have plenty of time available to fully
evaluate the core.

The most commonly encountered situation falls between these two. Although not re-
quired to perform core analysis, the logging geologist's responsibilities involve the re-
trieval and packing of the core and the selection and sealing of samples for later core
analysis. Depending upon the length of core recovered and the type of sampling requi red,
the workload may requi re only one logging geologist or both working together.

This section of the manual covers this latter situation. Section 4 of the manual covers
core analysis procedures. If core analysis is to be performed, the duties described in
these two sections should be divided between the logging geologists in such a way as to
allow coordination and maximum efficiency. If an oil company geologist is present at the
wellsite, he should be included in the logging crew's planning so that he plays a coord-
inated part in the effort, avoiding duplication and misunderstandings.

3.2 CONVENTIONAL CORES

3.3 LONG-TE RM PLANNING

When coring is anticipated on a well, the planning and ordering of supplies should begin as
early as possible. W here long supply lines exist, it is desi rable that necessary material,
and a reasonable excess, be at the wellsite or at a nearby supply base, at spud. Figure
3-1 shows the types of material that must be available. The coring and sampling program
for the well should indicate which of these will be necessary and what material is already
avajlable at the wellsite or locally.
52

Fi~ure 3-1. Supplies Kequired for Coring Operations

If any requirement is not well-defined, discuss it with the oi I company representatives


and obtain definite instructions. If necessary, assist them in ordering locally-unavailable
supplies. Some of the required items are in the standard unit inventory, but not in
sufficient quantity to handle extensive coring. If so, order extra supplies with an
explanation of the special requirement.
53
If the rig floor crews are unfamiliar with coring operations, it may be worthwhile to brief
them beforehand of the importance of careful handling of the core. With the permission
of the client and the rig toolpusher, the Trailer Captain should attend a rig safety
meetin6, explain why cores are to be cut, how they will be recovered and analyzed and
what part each crew member is to play in the operation. This is a good time to explain
why the core should not be washed with the water hose. Some inexperienced roughnecks
will do this, thinking they are being helpful I

As supplies arrive at the wellsite they should be inventoried and stored in a safe, dry
place. I{emember that, offshore, wood is a rare commodity and wooden core boxes will
need to be guarded. Onshore, Saran W rap and Aluminum Foil sometimes disappear on rig
barbecue night. Note any shortages in supplies and send out reminders or reorders.

3.4 PICKING A CORE POINT

The most common reason for bottomhole coring is to determine the reservoir character-
istics of a known potential reservoir. Picking a core point is therefore a matter of
normal stratigraphic correlation. The approximate depth of the top of the formation will
be known. When approaching that depth, correlation with offset logs is attempted to
pick a point as close as possible above the formation top.

The most useful tools in picking tops in this way are unsmoothed drilling exponents, such
as nx and dxc. These exponents have lithology and porosity dependent characters, minor
but distinctive variations when plotted, allowing good correlation of overlayed plots from
different wells. When plotted to a suitable scale, they also correlate well with offset
sonic logs (see Figure 3-2).

Figure 3-2. Correlation of Drilling Exponents with a Sonic Log


54

Comparison of the sonic and nx logs from Well A indicates which aspects of log character
are genuine formation effects and may be looked for as marker horizons on the nx log of
Well B. Uata variations which do not occur in both the sonic and the nx log are probably
erroneous, or system fluctuations, and cannot be expected to occur in Well B.

If drilling exponent logs are not available, correlation between rate of penetration and
sonic log is possible. Remember, when comparing rate of penetration with a sonic log
that variations due to changes in drilling parameters should be recognized and dis-
counted. This is even more important when attempting to correlate rates of penetration
directly from two different wells.

Often, drilling exponent or rate-of-penetration correlation will be inconclusive and litho-


logical, or gas data will be required to confirm a core point. This may require interrup-
tions to drilling in order to circulate returns. This is expensive in terms of rig time and
should be minimized. However, the alternatives -- lost data due to drilling beyond the
core point, or commencing coring too high -- may be even more expensive.

Coring is less commonly performed on wildcat wells, but if it is planned, the criteria for
selecting core points will be included in the logging instructions. If not, the Trailer
Captain should determine them from the client's geologists. Typical instructions may be
as follows:

1. Below 810U feet, circulate out all drilling breaks after cutting five feet.
2. If break contains oil shows, P.O.H. to core.
3. If no shows, drill ahead.
4. If break continues to a total of 15 ft, circulate returns and P.O.H. to core.

3.5 SET-UP TO CORE

Although only a limited selection of core bits and barrels will be available at the well-
Site, the drilling supervisor will, nevertheless, require geological information in deciding
the set-up of the coring assembly. Factors such as the type of core bit to use, optimum
drilling parameters, positioning of the core catcher for best recovery, the length of the
core to be attempted, bottomhole assembly design, and required mud properties must all
be considered.

The logging geologist can assist by supplying information about the hardness and abra-
siveness of the formation, the degree of consolidation, the likelihood of fractures (both
natural and induced) and the possibility of hole problems due to swelling clays or
geopressure.

3.6 lOGGING THE CORE

Coring provides the best available geological and lithological information when and if the
core is recovered. While coring, the conventional formation logging is sparse and of poor
quality. While some of this data (for example lithology) can be reconstructed from
measurements and observation of recovered core, some (for example ditch gas) cannot.
No data is available from sections of the core which are lost from the barrel. When
coring'is under way, take special care in logging to obtain all available information to
supplement that gained from the core or to replace that which may be lost with the core.
55

3.7 Oepth and Footage

It is common, on the trip-out prior to coring, to strap-out of the hole and obtain a reli-
able Total Measured Uepth for the core point. Thereafter, if all core barrels are filled
and have one hundred percent recovery of whole core (all broken ends fitting together
conclusively), the depth and footage of all subsequent cores can be reliably and consis-
tently known. Unfortunately, these ideal conditions rarely coincide and, as a result,
depth discrepancies commonly occur during coring operations. Causes of depth
discrepancies are discussed in Paragraphs 3.8 through 3.10.

3.8 low Weight-an-Bit used in coring results in a greater surface hookload and there-
fore more stretch in the drill pipe held in tension. If Measured Depth is determined from
the pipe tally, without consideration of pipe stretch, a depth error of as much as two to
three feet will result. For example, a core barrel is run to bottom and low weight-on-bit
applied. Due to pipe stretch, the Kelly is two feet higher than the driller expects from
his pipe tally. The driller may report the first two feet of penetration as reaming to bot-
tom. In fact, he is already coring. If the core barrel obtains full recovery, the error will
be found. If it does not, the error may continue and accumulate on future core runs.

3.9 Gradual Changes in Weight-an-Bit will cause equally gradual change in pipe stretch
and kelly height. A decrease in kelly height, due to increasing weight-on-bit, may be
falsely interpreted as penetration being made without kelly movement. These errors can
occur when starting and ending a core and when connections are made.

These small errors may result in inaccurate estimates of footage made by the core bit.
For example, a 30-ft-long core barrel may appear to have cut 32 ft of core.
Alternatively, it may appear to have jammed with 28 ft in the barrel, when it is in fact
full.

Again, if one hundred percent recovery of a full core barrel is made, the error may be
corrected. If not, the error can accumulate.

3.10 Lost Core from the bottom of the barrel, when making connections or when pulling
out of the hole, may subsequently be drilled up, or reenter the core barrel as whole core
or as broken fragments. The loss or gain of sections of core may be indicated on recov-
ery by the presence of adjacent pieces of core whose ends cannot be made to fit to-
gether. The actual length of core lost or gained cannot be accurately determined, and so
length of core recovery is not a reliable estimate of length of core cut.

Commonly, the depth and lengths of cores finally reported result from compromises
between the driller's figures, the logging geologist's figures and the recovered core
length. The figures are accepted as being imprecise. The logging geologist should take
the figures used by the oil company drilling supervisor on drilling reports as the correct
figure for use on all logs, reports and labeling of cores.

When a depth and footage for the core have been determined, the top and bottom of the
core are noted on the formation evaluation log wth horizontal lines crossing the core
column and penetrating the depth column by two millimeters, that is, almost, but not
quite to the center of the depth column (see Figure 3-3). After the core is recovered and
measured, the recovered, upper portion of the core interval is inked-in (see Figure 3-4).
56
SHEET NO. '5

FORMATION EVALUATION LOG

~ :::o. . 'W ~ := ~~ ..
).1. .. .. .,.. - _.'::;-' ..

' h
I
~71-1 .
.
1~~
lr; tJ
I
..l.
,
~1p:
I
\1 .H- I

I t-'t .
I
' -i . ~ .

I
. 4++
I I

I ,
;1111

Figure 3-3. Core Log Prior to Kecovery

3.11 Rate of Penetration

The imprecise in-depth measurement while coring will be reflected by equivalent


inaccuracies in rate of penetration over the interval. Rates of penetration will be erron-
eously high when weight-on-bit is being applied, and low when weight-on-bit is being
drilled off. However, for the remainder of the cored interval, when weight-on-bit is held
constant, good rate-of-penetration data may be recorded (although minor depth errors
may be included).

With relatively constant drilling parameters, minor variations in rate of penetration can
be diagnostic of hardness variations in the rock, planes of weakness and fractures. Rate
of penetration should be plotted in the smallest possible depth increments permitted by
the vertical scale of the log (Figure 3-3). At the most commonly used vertical scales,
one foot or half-meter increments are possible.

3.11 Gas Evaluation

As discussed in Section 1, the formation cut by the core bit will be extensively flushed
and will contain limited residual hydrocarbons. The reduced volume of formation cut by
the annular core bit at lower than normal rates of penetration will further reduce the
volume of gas liberated to the mudstream.
57

WELl.: B/n-O) SHEET NO. 5

FORMATION EVALUATION LOG

I~ I
~
- -
~~'~:~~:~~~~:!~&T
1111 ~T

: . .?- ~,Ir:.M. "'''c. SlI'l rT


pc "
_._'i
Jil,OI(
.>~~:~"; ~!~ c:~,: u, ..
I
I
'it
;
I
1+ p<
1rf _ ... :.i.l. ""
_.,
TR H S1. . ,"S(. If ,
-F ';;A, SISANO . sl-u.OO
SPH ,WOO " $111' . ",INt
. . ..-,eLY-St.! IIlI.,,, INf-
0 CRAN POA , ' " II'TII, H
I . _ - VIS OIL S r"l.C'" Y[L
FLOR.BRI 'L/'~ CUT
_ , FLOR, CO 011. IN IIIUO

. ,
I
,

1 ,
tl
I
1
j~
I~~ :m~~!=i=;~ ~t 11
I j
rtti ,

Figure 3-4. Core Log Completed After Recovery

Conversely, the lower-than-normal mud flowrates used when coring will increase the
volume of gas per volume of mud arriving at surface. Sufficient gas will be contained in
the drilling mud at surface for the logging of background gas and shows to be worthwhile,
although not directly comparable with shows from the previously drilled section (see
Figure 3-3).

When logging a cored interval, remember that the low flowrate through the ditch will
require adjustment of the gas trap position and elevation. Lower the level of the gas
trap and move it closer, if possible, to the flowline to obtain maximum flow-through and
extraction efficiency.

Continuous total gas and chromatograph data are logged as normal. Lower rates of
penetration should allow greater depth resolution in these. Low rates of cuttings re-
covery and pulverization by the diamond core bit will prevent cuttings gas analyses from
having any meaning, and this curve should be projected to zero, using a solid line. Re-
member that a solid line to zero indicates that no analysis was made, as opposed to no
gas in the sample.
58
WELL: .-!!DJ-O~ SHEET NO '7

FORMATION EVALUATION LOG

t.1TIOO'" Of">C,",''''f,jI
II\HORI ... "n

. ~'

Figure 3-5. Oil and Gas Relogged from Rat-Hole

Circulation after coring is kept to a minimum to prevent washing and loss of the core.
Thus, data from the lower portion of the core cannot be logged before tripping-out.
Because of the low mud flowrate and hence long lag time, this may represent several
feet of core. Because the perturbation of the mud column in tripping the large diameter
core barrel and the low liberated gas volume relative to contamination and gas produced
from the borehole wall, this gas data cannot be reliably logged after tripping back into
the hole (LAT). The data is therefore lost. The ditch gas and chromatograph plots are
projected to zero at the depth of last returns prior to tripping-out the core barrel.

If the core bit used is undersize, better gas analyses may be available from ditch and
cuttings, after coring, when the rat-hole is reamed. If the oil company geologist permits,
the gas analyses for the cored interval may be logged in pencil. When the rat-hole is
reamed, the pencil plots can be erased and new ditch gas, cuttings gas and
chromatograph logs plotted in ink. In this case, a note should be made in the Remarks
column that the gas analyses were logged when reaming (see Figure 3-5).

3.13 Oil Evaluation

Flushing and pulverization of cuttings combine to prevent reliable oil evaluation during
coring. However, because of the possibility of loss of the core, fluorescence tests on
59

cuttings and mud samples must be performed while coring. The results (natural color,
color and intensity of fluorescence, and cut if any) should be recorded on the worksheet
for later reference. An oil evaluation may be lightly pencilled on the log (see Figure 3-
3). Later, oil evaluation may be inked in, based upon these tests and from recovered core
(see Figure 3-4). Gaps in the oil evaluation, due to loss of circulation samples and core,
may be filled with data logged when reaming the rat-hole (see Figure 3-5).

3.14 Cuttings Lithology

Cuttings returns while coring will be of low quality and quantity. Nevertheless, samples
must be caught and bagged to maintain the completeness of trade sets, and as a
safeguard against lost core. A brief sample description may be noted on the worksheet
for future reference.

While coring, no lithological notations should be made on the log. After the core is
recovered, the Cutting Lithology column may be annotated as 'Poor Returns' (PR) or 'No
Keturns' (N K), as applicable. On the basis of cuttings, core, reaming and other data, the
Interpreted Lithology column may be drafted (see Figure 3-4 and 3-5). The Visual Poros-
ity ~ar Graph may also be added to the Rate of Penetration column after the inspection
of recovered core.

3.15 MUU TESTS

The drilling mud circulation system should be stabilized prior to coring. Additions and
treatments of the mud active system during coring should be limited to those necessary
to maintain stable properties. If this is done, tests can be performed which can provide
estimates of filtrate invasion of the core. Such estimates at various points in the core
may assist in evaluating core permeability and pore water salinity.

3.16 Salinity

The procedure for determining the salinity of mud filtrate is described in Appendix B of
The Field Geologist's Training Guide (Exlog, 1985). Salinity titrations should be
performed from the suction line every thirty minutes, and an average value established.
If there is wide variation about the average, individual values must be down-lagged to the
appropriate depths in the core. Otherwise, the average value may be used.

If the formation pore water salinity is known from resistivity log analysis of formation
testing, estimates of filtrate invasion at various points in the core may be made

C = C (M) + C (1 - M) (3-1 )
c m w

(3-2
(C - c )
w m
60

where

Cc = salinity of core water, ppm

Cm = salinity of mud filtrate, ppm

Cw = salinity of formation pore water, ppm

M = proportion of mud filtrate in core water, unitless (0-1.0)

(3-3)

where

= proportion of mud filtrate in core porosity, unitless (0-1.0)


sw = core analysis water saturation, unitless (0-1.0)

Note that 'I' is, determined here as a surface measurement and does not account for
water expulsion from the core during recovery to surface.

For example:

mud salinity, C m = 80,000 ppm

formation water salinity, C w = 110,000ppm

core water salinity, C c = 98,000 ppm

water saturation, Sw = 60%

M= (110,000 - 98,000) (3-2)


(110,000 - 80,000)

= 0.4 or 40%

1= 0.4 0.6 (3-3)

= 0.24 or 24%

3.17 Nitrate Ion

If a nitrate ion test kit is supplied in the logging unit it can provide a reliable estimate of
filtrate invasion even when formation water salinity is unknown.
61

The principle of the method depends upon the almost unknown occurrence of nitrates in
formation waters in rocks of sufficient age to be petroliferous. Thus, if the mud filtrate
is "spiked" with a nitrate salt in a known concentration, the measured concentration of
nitrate in water recovered from a core or formation test will be a measure of the propor-
tion of mud filtrate, of known concentration, mixed with formation water, of zero con-
centration. Analogous to equation (3-2):

(3-4)

where

Nc = nitrate ion concentration of core water, ppm

Nm = nitrate ion concentration of mud filtrate, ppm

Nw = nitrate ion concentration of formation pore water, ppm

but

Therefore:

N
c (3-5 )
M =N
m

And solving equation (3-1) for C w ' Formation Pore Water Salinity

[c-c (M)]
c m
cw = (1 - M)
(3-6)

For example

mud salinity, C m = 80,000 ppm

core water salinity, C c = 98,000 ppm

mud nitrate ion concentration, N


m = 270 ppm

core water nitrate ion concentration, Nc = 85 ppm

water saturation, Sw
= 60%
62

85 (3-5)
M= 270

= 0.375 or 37.5 %

1= 0.375 0.60 (3-3)

= 0.19 or 19 %

[98,000 - (80,000 0.375)]


(3-6)
(1 - 0.375)

= 108,800 ppm

3.18 PREPAKATON FOR CORE RETRIEVAL

As soon as the kelly is broken-off and the trip-out begun, the logging geologist must
begin preparation for retrieving the core. A catching set of core boxes must be pre-
pared, the necessary tools and materials assembled and a work area cleared and ready for
handling the core.

3.19 Work Area

Even when core analysis is not being performed, the logging unit is not a convenient
place to handle and view long sections of core. A work area should be found adjacent to
the logging unit where the whole core can be laid out, preferably at bench height, not on
the floor, with sufficient space for two or more people to work around it. Ideally, the
work area should be under cover and well-lit (cores can be pulled at night and in the rain)
and be in a Safe-Area, allowing electrical devices, such as the U.V. Light Box and Core
L) rill to be set up and used.

Available in the work area should be:

Sufficient clean core boxes for the full core barrel, plus a few spare
Labeled sample bags and envelopes
A supply of clean rags
Sufficient wrapping, sealing or canning supplies
A measuring tape
A supply of marker pens
Spare work gloves
-W orksheet or note pads
A copy of the core sampling and shipping instructions
63

3.10 Rig Floor

When the drill collars reach surface, the logging geologist should begin to assemble the
required material on the rig floor for core retrieval. These are

A catching set of core boxes


A hammer
A broom
Work gloves
A supply of clean rags
A note pad and pencil on a clipboard

The catchin~ set of core boxes are required for transport of the core from the rig floor
to the work area where the core will be cleaned and transferred to new boxes. The
catching set may then be cleaned out and reused.

The catching set consists of sufficient boxes to contain the full core barrel plus about
forty percent excess since the core will not come out of the barrel in convenient lengths
and should not be broken unnecessarily. The boxes should be clearly labeled with Top,
tlottom and Number. This will avoid errors on the possibly poorly lit rig floor (see Figure
3-6).

BOTTOM BOTTOM BOTTON aOTTO ... BOTTOM

Figure 3-6. Labeling and Stacking of Catching Set

The catching set should be stacked in appropriate order in an area of the rig floor, out of
the way of the floor crew and close to the area where core will be retrieved. A clear
area in the vicinity should be allocated for the stacking of filled core boxes. On an
offshore rig, the work area may be so far from the rig floor that a crane will be used to
move the core boxes. In this case, a pallet should be placed on the rig floor upon which
to stack the filled core boxes.
64

If the boxes are to be carried singly to the work area, finalize at this time who will be
doing that job. Remember that a GO-ft core will require approximately twenty-five
catching boxes which, when full, will weigh over 40 Ib each. This is too large a job for
the logging geologist to perform alone and would take him too much time when he should
be evaluating and sampling the core. Although assignment of tasks in core retrieval
should have been performed in crew briefings (see Paragraph 3.3), this is a good time to
finalize with the driller all details of who will be assigned to carry core boxes to the
work area. Ideally, the boxes should be moved as they become filled, keeping the core
recovery area clear and allowing the oil company geologist or the other logging geologist
to begin evaluation at the work area.

Finally, call the oil company geologist, other logging geologists or anyone else who will
be requi red when the core is removed.

3.21 REMOVING CORE fROM THE 8ARREL

When the core barrel reaches surface, the outer barrel is set in the slips. The ball is
retrieved from the check valve and a lifting sub made up on the inner barrel. The inner
barrel is then lifted from out of the outer barrel with the elevators and moved over to
the core retrieval area.

The core catcher is removed and, with the core held in place with a support pin, core
tongs are attached (see Figure 3-7a). The core tongs allow the core to be gripped so that
it can be slid out of the barrel at a controlled rate to prevent breakage. Rate of re-
trieval should be controlled so that each piece of core can be picked up, briefly inspected
and placed in the core box in the correct orientation before the next piece is allowed out
of the barrel.

If the core is jammed, light hammering with a soft metal hammer on the barrel may free
it. Excessive hammering may damage both the core and the core barrel. If hammering
cannot free the core, or if it is suspected to contain hydrogen sulfide, it must be pumped
out.

The inner barrel is laid down on the catwalk and the lifting sub removed. A rubber plug,
or core pusher, is inserted in the top of the barrel. This serves to prevent contamination
by separating the core from the pumping fluid. A pump-out connector is made up on the
inner barrel and high pressure air or water used to pump-out the core (see Figure 3-7b).

Whichever method of removal is adopted, the logging geologist's activities during core
retrieval remain the same. In either method, the rate at which core is removed from the
barrel should be governed by the rate at which the logging geologist can retrieve and box
the core (see Paragraph 3.22). Uo not allow yourself to be hurried at the risk of core
pieces being inverted or boxed out of order. In addition, two basic rules must always be
followed:

1. 00 NOT PLACE ANY PART OF YOUR BODY BELOW A HANGING CORE BAR-
REL OR IN FRONT OF A CORE SARREL THAT IS BEING PUMPELJ OUT. THIS
APPLIES EVEN WHEN THE BARtUL IS THOUGHT TO CONTAIN NO MORE
COREl
65

2. ALL PERSONNEL INVOLVED SHOULD UNDERSTANLJ THE FUNCTION OF EACH


OTHER ANI) REMAIN WlTrllN CLEAR VIEW OF EACH OTHER AT ALL TIMES.
THE DRILLER, THE PERSON OPERATING THE CORE TONGS OR PUMP-OUT
PRESSURE VALVE, AND THE LOGGING GEOLOGIST MUST BE POSITIONED SO
AS NOT TO BLOCK EACH OTHER'S VIEW OF THE CORE BARREL. ALL OTHER
PERSONNEL SHOULLJ STANI) WELL CLEAR.

1-
A) CONVENTIONAL

LIFTING SUB

B) PUMP-OUT

~ INNER BARREL

BARREl CLAMP

CORE TONGS

Figure 3-7. Removing Core from the Barrel

3.22 RETRIEVING THE CORE

As the core is removed from the barrel, draw each piece away from the barrel using the
broom. Have the floor hand operating the core tongs, or pressure valve hold back the
res t of t he core unt i I you a re ready to go on.

Holding the core carefully, to avoid crumbling unconsolidated material or accidentally


invertin6 it, wipe the core free of drilling fluid with a clean rag. Give the core a brief
visual examination. Notice any petroleum or other odors, bleeding of oil from fractures
or Intergranular porosity. Look for 'blowing' gas. This may be seen and heard as small
bubbles popping on the circumference or broken faces of the core, or if minor may be
66

felt as a prickling sensation under the fingers when the core is held. Another indication
of fluid bleeding or blowing from the core is when a piece of core remains wet even after
it has been wiped dry several times. Make brief notes on the clipboard. For example

BOX # 3 -- N EAR TOP, 0 I L B LOG FRO MHO R I Z F R A C S

Place the core piece in the correct box in the correct orientation and go on to the next.

The core will usually be broken naturally into lengths convenient for boxing. Avoid using
the hammer to break the core unless absolutely necessary. 00 not worry if long pieces
overhang the end of a box slightly, or if small pieces do not quite fill a box. This can be
adjusted later.

Core pieces should be boxed in the order they come out of the barrel. If the core is
vertically fractured, one-half of the core may come out of the barrel ahead of the
other. They should be boxed this way and adjustment to correct fit made later.

00 not allow broken core fra6ments to accumulate under the barrel. As they fall from
the barrel they should be swept up with the broom and put into the appropriate core box.

Personnel delegated to pass forward core boxes and carry away filled ones must always
stand behind you. 00 not allow them to block either your view or the driller's view of the
core barrel at any time.

When the rabbit reaches the core tongs, the core is fully retrieved. Have the catching
set of boxes moved immediately to the core work area. Remove surplus boxes out of the
way of the floor crew. Again, make stern warnings to the crew about washing the core
or even washing of the area of the rig floor while the recovered core remains exposed.
Also, warn crew members against taking souvenirsl

Ouring retrieval and removal to the work area, the oil company geologist, who may be
more interested in stratigraphy than in physical properties may want to remove pieces of
core to the logging unit for closer inspection. Try to discourage this by explaining the
importance of keeping the core in recovered order until it is measured and labeled. If
this is not successful, ask him to take and return pieces one at a time and mark the
missing piece by stuffing rags into the space in the box.

3.23 BOXING THE CORE

Processing the core in the work area is best performed by two geologists working sequen-
tially as follows (see Figure 3-8):

~eologist One -- recovers core and oversees removal to work area


Geologist Two -- reboxes and labels the core
Geologist One -- follows him, removing and processing core analysis samples
~eologist Two -- follows him, sampling and examining for geological evaluation
Geologist One -- follows him, closing the boxes and preparing the core for shipping

Given the normally slow rate of coring and tripping of core barrels, two logging geolo-
gists can work together this way without the need for excessively long work periods.
67

TOP OF
CORE

GEOLOGIST 1 t--~ RECOVERS CORE t - - - - - - - -____

IGEOLOGIST 2 ~--~--[~~~-~-~-F~~ ~~~~~~~~l-- - - --- -+ --_,,


\
\
\
I
CORE ANALYSIS SAMPLING t------t-_ /
I
I

I
,------- - ----------------------
\ r --- -- -- ------- -.
--. -L~~~O~~C~:. :V_A.:~A21~~J- - -- - - - ..

SHIPPING PREPARATION t - - - - - - - +

Figure 3-8. Sequential Core Processing by Two Geologists

At the work area, the first requirement is to transfer the core to clean core boxes,
establish the fit between pieces and measure the core.

Most oil companies require core boxes to be numbered in the order of recovery from the
barrel. Thus, box number one will contain the bottom of the core and subsequent num-
bers will contain upper parts. The core will be transferred to the clean core boxes in the
same order that it was put into the catching set (see Figure 3-9a). This convention will
be followed in the remainder of this manual.

Some European oil companies prefer the core boxes to be numbered in the reverse order,
that is, in the order that the core was cut. Thus, box number one will contain the top of
the core. The correct numbering sequence should be established before reboxing begins
(see Figure 3-9b).

130xes should be clearly labeled 'Top', 'Bottom' and box number. Box number one should
be labeled 'Bottom of Core' or 'Top of Core', as applicable. Further labeling is not
necessary until the core is measured.

Each piece of core should be taken from the catching box, wiped with a rag and obvious
feat_ures noted on a worksheet pad, for example, oil bleeding, gas blow or visible macro
structures. Then place the core piece into the new box and proceed with the next
piece. If a piece of core is too large to fit in the space avai lable in a box, start a new
68

box. Uo not break a core unless a single piece is too large to fit in a box alone. In that
case, break off sufficiently from one end to allow it to fit. Rubble and broken fragments
should be wiped dry and put in a clean sample sack. Label the sack with the well name,
core number and box number. Estimate the number of feet of core represented by the
rubble in each sack and write this on the label. Place the sample sacks in the appropriate
place in the core box.

23&8 ' 2363' :n.ao 2'341' 23 .. 15'


I I I

I
-; 1 :::::::::::::_:::::~1 -
I I I I
2361$' 236 ... 2361' 23415'
aOTTOM TOP OF
OF CORE COAE

NOR .... AL METHOD

238e' 23&3 ' 2350' 2347'


BOTTO"" BOTTOW 'SOT TOM BOTTOM
1 OF" 2 OF ... :I OF '" .. OF "

REVERSE METHOD

2348' 23151' 236t1'

23415' 23.48' 2361' 2364 '


TOP TOP TOP TOP
1 OF 4 2' OF .. 3 OF " .. OF ,

Figure 3-9. Core Box Numbering

When the box is almost full (three to six inches short of being full), rotate the core piece
and push them together to get the best possible fit. Take a black and a red marker pen
and mark two lines down the length of the core with the red pen to the left (see Figure
3-10). This ensures that core pieces can in future always be oriented.

If the core is fractured vertically, mark black and red lines on both halves of the core.
Exa~ine the quality of fit between adjacent pieces of the core. If there is no fit, mark
the two ends with double chevrons. If there is some similarity of shape but not an exact
fit, mark the two ends with single chevrons. If there is good fit, make no marks. This
69

preserves a record of core continuity if pieces are later removed or damaged in transit.
If there is no fit or poor fit, briefly examine the ends of the core to ascertain whether
this is due to solution or deposition on a natural fracture, or to some mechanical effect
such as breakage, washing or loss of the core ends. Make suitable notations on the work-
sheet.

COLLIGAN
CLEARVIEW # 1
CORE #1
BOX #1
~ POOR
1.5'

BOX #2

BOTTOM LINE
OF CORE TO THE RIGHT
BOX #1

Figure 3-10. Labeling of Core Orientation, Fit and Rubble

NOTE

Conventions for marking core orientation and fit may vary between oil
companies. The above convention is recommended in the American Asso-
ciation of Petroleum Geologists Sample Examination Manual.

With the ends of the core pieces pushed together, measure the core length in the box.
Keep a tally of these (see Figure 3-11). Move the pieces of core apart slightly and stuff
rags at the top and bottom of the box and between each piece of core. This prevents
damage to structure on the ends of the core pieces. If the core shows signs of bleeding
gas, take one small piece from the box, seal it in a zip-Iock plastic bag and return it to
the box for later gas analysis (see Paragraph 3.30). The sample should not occupy more
than 1/20 of the volume of the bag; otherwise, expanding gas will overinflate and burst
the bag. Now proceed to the next box.
70

When all of the core has been reboxed and measured, the core recovery and the interval
in each box can be calculated. Kemember that reboxing and measuring started at the
bottom of the core, but the normal assumption is that any core lost is lost from the
bottom. It is therefore impossible to determine the depth represented by the bottom of
the recovered core until the total length of core is known. Figure 3-11 is an example
worksheet for tallying and calculating core recovery and intervals.

CORE rl6
CUT,FRO":~
TO :6650'7 FT

MEASURED LENGTH Box INTERVAL


Box # EST.
CORE RUBBLE TOTAL FROY TO

J.6
~
}If
~
~
y(
}if
9 1'84 20 384 16621.81 66256
8 2'58 - 258 6628'2
7 266 - 266 6630'9
6
5
2'88
202
-
10
288
302
66338
66308
4 2'57 - 257 66394
3 245 10 345 56428
2 2'21 0'5 2'71 6645'5
1 268 - 268 6648'2

CUT RECOVERED
BOTTOM 6650'7 66482
Top 66218 66218
FOOTAGE 289 264
~, RECOVERY 91%

Figure 3-11. Core Kecovery Tally Sheet

3.24 SAMPLING FOR CORE ANALYSIS

For core analysis it is necessary to select short pieces, four to six inches long of whole
core from which core plugs will be taken.

The usefulness of data obtained from core analysis is limited by the care that goes into
the selection and preservation of samples. Therefore, proper sampling of a conventional
core is one of the most important phases of the core analysis procedure. A sufficient
number of samples must be taken so that data representative of the complete zone can
be obtained. The samples must be selected immediately after removal from the core
barrel, and they must be adequately guarded by proper preservation against alteration of
the samples or of the contained fluids. Where insufficient sampling occurs in conjunction
with a hasty lithologic description, then the net productive thickness, transition zones,
and fluid contacts cannot be definitely defined -- possibly resulting in erroneous interpre-
tations.
71

Field sampling of core should represent the best possible practices because the value of
core analysis is limited by this initial operation. The objective of a standard field core
sampling procedure is twofold:

To obtain samples which will give results representative of the formation

To obtain samples through uniform procedures so that the results will be indepen-
dent of the sampler

When the core has been retrieved, two criteria must be dealt with:

The selection of representative samples from each core

The wrapping and preserving of the core samples quickly enough to prevent loss of
fluids from within the core or the absorption of foreign fluids by the core

3.25 Sample Selection

The selection of samples is fairly simple for relatively uniform formations. However,
where a formation contains widely varying lithology and heterogeneous porosity types
(such as conglomerates, weathered cherts, vugular or fractured carbonates, and inter-
laminated shales and sands), proper selection of representative samples requires greater
care. The logging geologist should follow a fixed sampling procedure at the well loca-
tion.

Sampling frequently varies with the particular job, but the following general guides are
listed.

Ordinarly, in fairly thick homogeneous sands, one sample per foot is taken. It is
sometimes sufficient to take one sample every two feet. The interval will be
specified in the logging instructions.

The sampling intervals should be reduced if the reservoir section is nonuniform and
varies greatly over short distances in properties such as porosity, permeability and
oil content. It may be advisable to take the samples closer than one per foot to
represent the core. Remember, however, that even adjacent samples may vary
drastically in their properties.

In thick permeable zones with variable lithologic properties, obtain at least three
samples -- one each from the top, middle and bottom portions.

In horizons where alternate thin shale and sand members occur, sample every sand
member over two inches in thickness.

A reasonable approach is to select samples from the center of representative sections of


the core based on visual examination. For example, in one case a sample may be con-
sidered as representative of only three inches of core, whereas in another case a sample
may be representative of a section one foot or more in length.
72

When selecting samples, refer to the descriptive notes made in recovery and reboxing the
core, and where possible, add to them. Sections of the core from which bleeding or
blowing of fluids occured may represent good porosity and permeability. However,
remember that zones with the best permeability will have been extensively flushed by
drilling fuid and gas expansion and may be totally depleted and inert by the time they
reach surface.

Although obtaining representative samples is the prime consideration, try to minimize


breakage of the core. Wherever possible, take already broken pieces of core of approxi-
mately the correct size. This is convenient when performing wellsite core analysis, since
a large piece of core can be removed from the box, plugs taken, and it can be returned.
I'V hen selecting samples for shipping to a core laboratory, a compromise must be struck
between obtaining sufficient representative analysis samples and retaining sufficient
core for geologi ca I eva luat ion.

3.26 Sample Preservation

Technique required to preserve core samples for testing depends on the length of time
for storage or transit and the nature of the tests desi red.

Double wrapping: A suitable method for short-term preservation is to double- or


even triple-wrap the samples in aluminum foil or Saran Wrap.

Canning: This is not considered the best method because an air space remains in
the can, making it possible for pore space fluids to evaporate into it.

Wrapping and canning: This method is much better than just canning. As much air
space as possible should be eliminated by using abundant nonabsorbent material.

Freezing in dry ice: Samples preserved by this method can be kept for a long
period of time without the fluid saturations or other properties of the core being
affected, though facilities for this method are rarely present at the wellsite.

W rapping and paraffin wax coating: This is a very good method, and if the wax
coating is properly applied and protected against breakage, it will protect the core
sample for an extended time.

Plastic coating (Core lJip Gel): This method is better than coating with wax be-
cause the plastic coating is much more durable than the wax coating.

The method recommended by Exlog is a triple wrapping procedure using Saran Wrap,
Aluminum Foil and polyethylene sleeve. This method combines one of the best modes of
preservation with one of the quickest procedures. Thus, the maximum number of samples
may be sealed in the minimum time, ensuring optimum and relatively uniform sample
quality.

A selected sample of appropriate size is first double-wrapped with Saran Wrap. It is then
wrapped again with Aluminum Foil. If core analysis is to be performed at the wellsite,
the "Yrapped sample should be labeled with the footage interval and may then be returned
to its appropriate place in the core box. See Section 4 for the next stages in the proce-
dure.
73

If the samples are to be shipped to a core laboratory, further wrapping is required. The
sample is strapped once around the circumference and once longitudinally with fiberglass
tape. It is then marked with red and black lines to indicate orientation and labeled with:

Uil company name


Well name
Core number
Sample number
Sample depth interval

The whole sample is then heat-sealed in a polyethylene tube.

If the whole core is being shipped to a nearby laboratory, the sealed sample can be re-
turned to the correct location in the box.

If the sealed samples are to be shipped separately, they should be packed carefully in a
wooden or metal box with straw, rags or newspaper separating the samples. A shipping
inventory should be prepared. One copy should be enclosed with the samples, one given
to the oil company representative and one retained in the logging unit until receipt is
acknowledged by the laboratory. The inventory should contain:

Name of the laboratory and responsible personnel


Oil company, well name and location
Core number
Total number of samples
List of sample numbers and intervals
Type of analysis required
Mud type and water loss
Mud salinity and nitrate ion concentration
Name and address to whom reports are to be sent

The spaces in the core boxes from which samples have been removed should be stuffed
with rags and 'Core Analysis Sample', and the length removed written on the inside of
the box at that point.

3.27 GEOLOGICAL EVALUATION

3.28 Macroscopic Examination

Following the brief examinations made and noted during the recovery and boxing of the
core and when selecting core analysis samples, a complete macroscopic examination
should now be made. This should include:

The lithology and thickness of major lithological units


The nature and dip of lithological boundaries
The size and dip of bedding, sedimentary and diagenetic structures
Gradations within beds
.. The spacing and dip of natural fractures and partings
Surface condition of natural fracture surfaces
74

Type, amount and distribution of secondary porosity


Presence of hydrocarbon staining or odor

Make a rough sketch of the core showing lithological boundaries and major structures.

3.29 Microscopic Examination

Keeping core breaka5e to a minimum, take small chips of core at one foot intervals and
at points of special interest. Place the chips in labeled sample envelopes.

Each core chip should be given a complete microscopic examination and described ac-
cording to :

Rock type C ementat ion


Color
Matrix
Induration Microstructures
IvI ineralogy
Porosity type
G rain size
Porosity size
G rain shape Accessory mineral
Grain texture Fossils
Sorting

Combining these descriptions with the macroscopic examination, a complete core


description report can be prepared. This is drafted onto a sheet of clear vellum for later
attachment to the end of the Formation Evaluation Log (see Figure 3-12). The core
description should contain macroscopic and microscopic features. If the core has suffi-
cient visible macrostructure, a drawing of the core may be added to supplement the
description.

COAEt11 ~U-{U . U-11U.)).jl l CUI ;U ~II RI;.CDV(,R('D ]1(.1 (76~ )


Au.uc:c -fOP '1 ,.,IHR,OIICH IG : 9 UNI IS

5~~!f I~!h~' ~ ~ ~~~ ~-~~ ~!!Cfl ~ ~~ 'I ~go~ i~ ,S~ 'O~I~Aflo~~ ~~ ~ i ,let
,RACItS ofJ OIS"(II$[O ,jli.. l'cc .A S1o".l. t.. I: ' CA- l\ r.t I.. U$ILA c"
r.:~~~~~u~Y:ci~~:fj~'~~;.:tt " "" ."A C:.L'r IA=;'L AT 1 '''\.I~HI

.~~~h~'t I~ ,:~:~i~~~ ~-~~~{Ue: :7;.I['g~~~':: ' ~~~f~t~ :~ "'~:~~~ON r


' .. O~I(O "A AIN~ u. HtD C. LA.1'
..JUI!lIl;01,l .... l)f Ot S1J8tl ~HC;,"l
~~~; IH~tog~~~"'! ~,,~~~~~l ~~~Itl (~o;~t'::~:! I; ~:~~::: :;~L 10
[O'P . l""-NO AHT flHe: OISP[RSC.O ""(A . tlO VI$,IU: fOSSilS ,
1~\O[II;R ... ":-r~un.T e(lOD IlIIllflCJl AH U I..A '" R05\1 1' WITH SO"t
~~A~U~:I..L . IE.OOIHC fIlV NC "' I(O IV N -1 YU I C D T P ARTtHCS el. ...

~:t ~701~A!f~[~B.r~~ :D~=gL~oC~~~" ~~ ~~~~ Y ~n" 'I:?1 I~ Ou


~ ~~ ~~ ~i~nCt O~}~:~ ~ t 0~~: II :~u ~~~,~~~~~ti~t;;~o! ~~!~ ~ I "H e gUS
.. I A: IE. A. II- I He ~ I.UOH( sc { ", C;( I H ~l. A T P Ail T IN,. 1I0ff tY - llln . N
011. .~t.s IO U( ,.IIO W cur

C A S. AN AL T :';.CS e l/e? c1/e} c 1/c4 cl/"'4 C1/os


IIIJ/9' 50 ]00
1~30~ '
4U9l' ,
10 >"
12
j7~

19
050
77
10'IU
.190

Figure 3-11. Core lJescription Log


75

The core chips are returned to their labeled envelopes and added to the washed and dried
sample set.

3.30 Hydrocarbon Evaluation

View the complete core under ultraviolet light, and make notes of the location,
distribution, color and intensity of fluorescence.

Individual core chips should each be subjected to complete oil evaluation tests, noting

Petroleum odor
Color and distribution of oil stain
Color, intensity and distribution of fluorescence
Type and rate of cut
Color and intensity of cut fluorescence
Color of cut residue

Add this information to the core description (see Figure 3-12).

If bleeding gas samples were previously sealed (see Paragraph 3.23) they may now be
analyzed in the chromatograph.

Take a sample, note the depth and, using a hypodermic syringe, make a hole and with-
draw 10 cc of gas. Remove the syringe and seal the hole with scotch tape.

Take a plastic squeeze bottle and squeeze it to reduce its volume by about a quarter.
Inject the gas sample into the squeeze bottle while allowing the bottle to slowly expand
to its full volume. This prevents escape of gas from the bottle during injection. Seal the
top of the squeeze bottle with a cap or scotch tape.

Set up the chromatograph for a single sample, hold (BACKFLUSH disabled) and manually
inject the sample from the squeeze bottle in the same manner as a manual calibration
(see the appropriate Technical Manual for the type of chromatograph to be used). If off-
scale readings occur, adjust the ATTENUATOR settings and repeat the test.

Keturn the sample to the core box, flush out the syringe and squeeze bottle with clean
air and proceed with the next sample.

If you do not have a hypodermic syringe, the sample can be taken directly into the
squeeze bottle. Make a small hole in the plastic bag. Compress the squeeze bottle to
reduce its volume by 25;b, push its spout into the hole in the bag and allow it to expand
to full volume. Remove the squeeze bottle and seal the hole with scotch tape. Compress
the squeeze bottle to half its volume and allow it to expand to full volume. Repeat this
two more times. This should give a suitable dilution for analysis.

If you do not have a squeeze bottle, a plastic wash bottle or diswashing liquid bottle can
be substituted.

Kegardless of the sampling method used, this analysis cannot be directly related to the
quantity of gas in place. However, it does give a useful estimate of the proportion of
gases present. For this reason, the results should be reported on the Core Keport as
76

ratios, C1/C2, C1/C3, C1/IC4, C1/NC4, etc. If the unit cailbration gas does not contain
pentane, a reasonable estimate can be obtained by using the normal butane calibration
factor for a catalytic chromatograph or four-fifths (O.8x) of the calibration factor for an
F.I.D. chromatograph. Results should be added to the core description (see Figure 3-12).

3.31 SPECIAL SAM PL ES

Occasionally it may be necessary to prepare special geological samples for reflected or


transmitted light examination. These are polished slabs and thin sections respectively.

This is not a standard operation and the equipment and procedures vary. The following is
an outline for general information. Specific instructions will be given to crews required
to perform the operations.

3.32 Core Slabbing

The core slabber is a table-mounted, electrically-driven, circular saw using diamond-


tipped saw blades (see Figure 3-13). A number of models are available. When operating
them be sure to follow the manufacturers instruction manual, especially with regard to
safety. Wear safety glasses and use all machine shields as di rected.

COOLING
WATER

DIAMOND TIPPED
SAW SLADE

Figure 3-13. Core Slabber


77

Using the core slabber, the core may be cut horizontally or vertically into flat-faced
slabs suitable for examination under the microscope (see Figure 3-14). Visual examina-
tion may be enhanced by polishing the slab faces using carborundum powder on a glass
lapping plate (see Paragraph 3.33). After polishing, the surface may be etched by immer-
sion in very weak hydrochloric acid (1 %; one part 10% acid to nine parts distilled water)
for ten to fifteen seconds.

Figure 3-14. Visual Examination of Etched Slab

3.33 Thin Sections

Thin sections for examination with transmitted light using a petrological microscope can
be prepared from thin core slabs, core chips or cuttings. The sample is mounted onto a
glass slide, ground and polished to the standard petrological thickness of thirty microns
(O.03mm), although thickness is not so critical as when a polarizing stage is to be used.

Heat Canada Balsam, the standard medium, in a pan on the hot plate until it melts to a
viscous fluid. lJip a glass rod into the Canada Balsam, pick up a small amount and trans-
fer it to a glass slide. Spread the liquid to form a thin film and embed the rock sample
securely in it. Proceed to the next sample, leaving the slides for at least thirty minutes
to cool and harden.

In grinding and polishing the slide, perform every operation gently and carefullyl Even
slight shocks may result in the slide or sample being broken or the sample detached.

Attach the slide to a glass or metal rod using a small suction cup. If this is not available,
a small spot of super glue can be used. Use only enough so that the rod may later be
broken-off without breaking or marking the slide (see Figure 3-15).

Mount the rod in a retort stand and lower it until it is almost touching the grinding wheel
surface. Start the grinding wheel at a low speed and lower the slide until contact is just
made. Increase the speed of the wheel and grind the sample until contact is lost. Slow
down the wheel and lower the sample slightly. Repeat this process until a flat sample
approximately forty to fifty microns thick is obtained.
78

C 6l1D~ COVER/SliP
,

CA.A:BOAuNDUIoI
POWER SI.VRRY

Figure 3-15. Thin Section Preparation

Prepare a thick slurry of coarse carborundum powder in water on the glass lapping
plate. Apply light pressure on the slide and move it in a figure-of-eight pattern over the
plate to ensure uniform, level polishing. Periodically check the slide thickness with a
micrometer screw gauge. Be careful not to overtighten the micrometer, which can very
easily crack the slide.

As the sample is ground, change to finer grades of carborundum powder so that a final
thickness of thi rty microns (total thickness minus slide thickness) is achieved with the
finest grade of carborundum (10UU grade) and a smooth polished sample surface. Drip a
small quantity of Canada Balsam onto the sample, spread it to a thin film and attach the
glass slide cover or slip. Attach a paper label to the slide with

Well name
Sli de number
Depth
Orientation, if known
Lithology

3.34 Acetate Peels

An alternative to thin sections, though not quite so useful, is the preparation of acetate
peels. These can be produced easily and in large sections up to six inches or more. Two
methods are available: (1) using a solution of cellulose acetate, or (2) the more practical
method using a cellulose acetate film. The liquid form is made up as follows:

Parlodion 112 g
Butyl Acetate 1000 cc
Amyl Alcohol 40 cc
Xylene 40 cc
Ethyl Ether 12 cc
Castor Oil 12 cc
79

As an alternative to this rather offensive mixture, acetate films are available from 0.002
to U.02U inches in thickness. These are softened with acetone and applied directly.
Softening time varies with film thickness, and experimentation may be necessary.

Slab, polish and etch the core as described above, and then dry and leave it to cool. If
the liquid acetate is used, pour it onto the rock surface and allow it to set for 24 hours.
Alternatively, pour acetone onto the etched surface and roll a piece of acetate film,
matte side (if one exists) down across the acetone-wet area. Drive the excess acetone
away along the advancing film-rock contact, maintaining a slight bead of liquid along
the contact by tilting the rock slightly toward the direction of film advance. The film
should not be pressed down, and at least one inch of margin of film should be left un-
touched by acetone around the softened area. Another method is to bow the film into a
U shape, touch the center of the surface with the base of the U, and gradually flatten
from the center outward.

After setting (15 minutes for the film), gently peel the acetate from the rock surface,
soak it in dilute hydrochloric acid for ten minutes or as necessary to remove adhering
rock fragments, then rinse and dry. The resulting peel is mounted between glass sheets
and may be used as a photographic negative and enlarged up to x50 (or even x80 in spe-
cial cases) for grain size and textural studies.

3.35 SHIPPING THE COKE

After evaluation and sampling are complete, the core can be prepared for shipping.

Stuff more rags, as necessary, into the core boxes to prevent the core being damaged or
disoriented in shipping. Along the edge of a wooden core box or on the inside of the top
flap of a cardboard core bOX, mark depths at 1-ft intervals and mark the locations of
core analysis samples that have been removed. Include in box number one, sealed in a
plastic bag, a copy of the core analysis sample shipping inventory. Wooden boxes are
then nailed shut, cardboard boxes are stapled and wrapped with fiberglass filament
tape. If the boxes are to be exposed for some time, for example on the deck of a work-
boat, wrapping each box in plastic sheet and fiberglass filament tape is recommended.

The boxes are already labeled with box number Top and Bottom. They must also now
be labeled with an address and name of a responsible person to receive them. The boxes
should also be labeled with

Oil company name


Well name
Core number
lJepth interval in box
Total number of boxes (Box #4 is augmented to read Box #4 of 8)

Un a wooden core box this information should be on the side or the end of the box since
the lid may later be removed and discarded. However, on a tight hole, the cored inter-
val, or even the fact that coring is taking place, may be secret information. In this case,
the information may be included inside the box.
80

A better alternative is to write the information in code. A simple substitution code is


illustrated in Figure 3-16. A variation of this Ci\n be adopted for use in any 'tight-hole'
situation. Using this particular version of the code:

M acy Exploration
l30ulder Ranch No.1
CoreNo.3
9826.4 - 9880.7 feet

consisting of twenty-three boxes can be encoded

Code Number = 2 + 3 = 5: Use Code #5


Encode in 5 Digit Groups

ceDE NUMBER
""
< ...
~
<oJ
..
AT A" A J AH A" AI AE AH AS
BA BN BT BP B6 BQ BJ BQ B B
CU CA C3 CX CG CF C0 CI CL
oB o IDA o5 0 T o lOT oR oT
EV E0 EK EA E7 E7 EY EZ EC
FC F B FU F I FA F L F 3 F 4 F I
GW G2 G4 GQ GN GAG 8 GA GM
H0 HP HB HY H1 HW HA HJ HU
I X I C I L I 6 I H I R I F I S I 0
J E J 3 J V J B J U J G J K J B J N
KY KQ K5 KJ K8 K2 KP KK KV
L F L 0 L C LR LB L 8 L U L T
M2 M4 MM MZ M0 MM MZ MC L "1
M
NG NR NW N7 N2 NB N4 NL NE
0"
P H
oE
P5
0 6
P0
o COl
P K Pv
oX
P S
0 9
PI
oU
P "5
oJ
P0
Q I QS QN QS Q9 QH QB Q QW
~ R I RF RX R" RC R3 RG R9 R2
Q S 2 S 6 S 7 S 8 5 P 5 9 SL S 0 S 6
(;)
u TJ T T T E TOT 3 TNT Q T M TF
:z: Uv UP
..... U3 U GUO UL UJ UC UV
VK V7 V Y VT VW vY v" V1 VX
W4 WU W8 W1 W- WT W5 W6 W3
XL XH XF X 9 X0 XI X- X- X7
Y5 Y8 YP Y E YQ Y4 YC Y ... Y9
ZM Z v Z2 ZM ZX Z- ZH ZE Z ...
"1 N
6 "I "1 9 " U "K "1 0 "1 M "1 W
N "1 G
1 9 G 1 2 1 4 0 R K
2 7 2W 2 Q 2 - 2 ... 2Z 2W 2 2 2 Q
3 0 3 J 3 " 3 F 3 E 3 U 3 1 3 7 3 Y
4 8 4 - 4 I 4 N 4 R 4 J 4 6 4 I 4 4
5 P 5 X 5 H 5 V 5 Y 5 5 5 0 5 F 5 8
6 9 6 K 6 R 6 3 6 L 6 ... 6 I 60 6 -
7 Q 7 ... 7 1 7 ... 7 5 7 P 7 N 7X 7I
8 - 8 Y 8 - 8 G 8 I 8 E 8 S 8 3 8 H
-9 ...R 9 L
- 1
9 I
- S
9 0
- W
9 F
- S
9
- V
" 9
- 2
X 98
- G
9 R
- Z
S M 2 4 Z K 7 P 5
1 2 ... I M 6 ... Y A

Figure 3-16a. Substitution Codes: Encoding


81

Five Digit Code Groups = MACY Encoded label = O,0G(JM 7DVBI C03HI
EX PlO 2M61J IH7CM C2G1
RATIO M21Z4 MGIC7 M21l E
N SOU M F/*l l R S F/ /K Z 5 A
lDEK 3MMMM
RANCH
NO.1
COiiE
NO.3
9826
.4-98
80.7F
-T--

DC NUMBER
"" ""
""- <....u-'""
",< ",< ~<"" ""
.... < ",<"" .... <"" QC)< "" 0\<""
""~
u ""~
u ""~
u ""~
u ""~
u ""~
u ""~
U ""~
<.J

AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AG A
BD BF BH BJ BL BN BQ BJ BB
CF CI CL C0 CR CU CY CM CE
DJ DL DP DT DX D1 D5 DS DI
EK E0 ET EY E3 E8 EA EZ EN
FL FR FX F3 F7 FC FI FS FT
GN GU G1 G8 GC GJ GR G- G"
HP HX H5 HA HI HQ HZ HA H8
I R I 9 I F I 0 I X I 6 I C I F
J T JI "3 J A J K J U J 4 J B J H J 0
KV K6 KE KP K. KJ KK K1
LX L9 LI LU K "6
L LF LS LN LC
MZ M. MM MZ M MM MT MG
N1 NA NQ N4 NE NT M
N "7 NJ
o3 oE oU o9 OM oC oN "6 oP
P5 PH PY PB PS oP "7 PK P. PU

-....
(!J
z
0
0
u
Q7
R9
S.
TA
QK
RN
SG
TT
Q2
R6
S-
TB
QG
RL
SQ
TV
QY
R4
S-
TD
QB
RI
SP
TW
QT
R1
S8
TD
QB
RD
SI
TL
Q2
R9
SA
TD
0
UC UW UF UJ U3 UL U0 UH
VE VZ VJ U "5
V VP V- VU VU VK
WG W2 WN W- WV WH W2 W1 WQ
XI X5 XR XC XZ X0 X9 X7 XV
YK Y8 YV YH Y5 YV YE Y Y3
ZM Z8 ZZ ZM Z Z2 ZM ZE Z-
"1 0Q "1 AD "1 73 "1 WR "1 AH "1 D
9 "1 3V "1 P
V "1 ML
25 2G 2 21 2N 2K 2- 2 2 2R
3U 3J 3C 36 3T 3R 3F 3 8 3W
4W 4M 4G 4 . 41 4Y 4N 4 F 44
5Y 5P 5K 5P 57 55 5W 5 Q 5 .
6S 60 6 I 6B 6 64 6 W 6S
67 "2 7V 75 7N 7E 7E 7 . 7 3 7X
84 8Y 8W 8S 8 K 8 L 8 E 8 9 85
96 91 9X 9Q 9S 90 9 R 9Y
- 8 - 4 9- "8 ~ 2 - W - Z - X - X - 6
... - ... 7 ... ... 7 ... 2 * 6 ... ... Y ... Z
1 1- 14 1 18 1A 1P 1 4 17

Figure 3-16b. Substitution Codes: Decoding


82

Notice that the information requi red by the decoder to select the appropriate code is
openly available on the box and that by breaking the message into equal number groups
with coded spaces, the original word lengths are obliterated. Using a different code
number selector and by rescrambling the columns in Figure 3-16, other codes may be
created as required.

A record of shipping and copies of all documents must be provided to the oil company
representative at the wellsite (see Figure 3-17).

FORMATION LOGGING REPORT NO. _

COMPANY ouT .. ~T .JIL XI boP. WELL HI"> '" nI. ... "" ' " 1- A
DATE a.l 7 .I 13 ( TIME _....wI82 CO-.&.L..t:Wui?.
...<.::...-.._ _ _ _ _---.,.
DEPTH 2. 8 ~S W\ LAST REPORT DEPTH 2.81 J \11 (c(aCO tt@.l.)
REPORT BVJ: 't\. .:oB.L-A, (EXLOG) REPORT RECEIVED B Y " , , , , (OPERATOR)
BACKGROUND TO,G.. , i'lo .... e @ _ _ _ _ __

C ..... (0'40#2., 2..61].3


R'GOPERAT1ONS, O1""G .. , lUo "'e - '012.\1"6

'* . .
-1.635.1. ,C",r 11,S"",R.&.I1..S .. (lttJ)
LITHOLOGY, StI"'l.E: A/A ,6.S .... SS,T. Wlc....... ,~~l~wl w, _ ,,_
F-KEI> C$-,WE'u..5r>.r, W!O". . SHOW .... @ -C.O/2.~.""" """
_ _ _ _ _ _ _...,-_ _ _ _ _ _ 1lIl1OrllllcalLag: !Of 7 mIn

'2.....::...'-'B"'--'''''~/IIItI?''''-- ...., --:t.- """De".", O. 1'2. S.c:,. ';:, <-j 2.5e'-


_===__
ROP ......' __

D'TCHGAS ......' _.Of.~-...:....'....


'2._'%"'__ .... ,~ SoO"", /10.000 fPM 00',

ClImNGS GAS range" _-===--_ avg.: ---=- LogglngCondibons.~/Pcor: L.oQ...If't.lG,


CHAQMATOGRAPHrange:C, r=O.2.; c,~: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
c, as ;NC. d Eshmated Over/Under Balance. ~./Low:

SHOWS

THIS REPORT IS GOVERNED BV THE TERMS AND CONDmONS AS SET fORTH ON THE REVERS!: SIDE

Figure 3-17. Report of Core Processing and Shipping Details


83

3.36 RETRIEVABLE HARREL CORES

Although equipment differs, procedures for logging and processing these cores are similar
to those used in conventional coring. Differences are discussed below.

3.37 LOGGING

Several cores may be obtained in a single run with retrievable core barrels. Although
logged as a single, continuous bit run, each core should be logged as a separate core with
foota):;e and recovery reported accordingly.

3.38 SAM PLiroIG

I{ecovery and sampling of retrievable barrel cores are identical to the procedures dis-
cussed for conventional cores. However, greater time restraints exist.

If only one inner barrel is available, recovery must be achieved as quickly as possible to
allow it to be rerun. If two are available, the first core must be recovered, sampled and
described in the time it takes to cut and retrieve the second.

3.39 RUBBER SLEEVED CORES

3.40 LOGGING

I{ubber sleeved cores are cut in 2-ft increments with closure and drilling-off of the
expansion joint and force-on-bit being applied with pump pressure (see Paragraph 2.12).
Although this allows easy recognition of footage increments and depth, rates of penetra-
tion recorded over the core may be unrepresentative and inconsistent.

3.41 SAM PLiNG

The core will be recovered in a single piece enclosed in its rubber sleeve. It must then be
cut with a saw into lengths convenient for boxing. Shorter lengths may also be cut and
sealed for core analysis. Cut ends of the core are sealed with rubber caps and wrapped
with fiberglass tape. An upward pointing arrow to show core orientation is marked on
each piece of core using drillers chalk.

Unless permission is given to split the sleeve, geological evaluation must be restricted to
small samples extracted from cut ends.

Kubber sleeved cores which, to some extent, maintain reservoir saturation (see Para-
graph 3.45) and pressures better than conventional cores are sometimes frozen and sealed
before shipment.
84

3.42 ORIENTED CORES

These are treated exactly like conventional cores except that extra structural orienta-
tion information is available. When handling or breaking the core, take care to avoid
disfi~uring or obscuring the scribe marks.

3.43 PRESSUREO CORES

W hen pressured cores are taken, it is common for a pressure coring service crew to be
present at the wellsite to handle core recovery and packing. The logging geologist will
be required only as a geological observer. However, if no oil company geological repre-
sentative is present at the wellsite, the logging geologist may also be required to monitor
and report correct core processing procedures.

3.44 LOGGING

Logging is similar to conventional coring but special emphasis is placed upon establishing
dnd monitoring background levels of mud salinity and nitrate ion concentration so that
invasion may be estimated.

When the sensors are installed, monitorin6 of mud density, flowrate and standpipe pres-
sure and reporting of variations is also of extra importance in controlling filtrate inva-
sion of the core (see Paragraph 2.14).

3.45 RECOVE R Y

After the sealed lower barrel assembly is removed from the string, it is taken to a work
area where a pressure guage is attached and the recovered pressure measured to test
that a good pressure has been maintained.

A nonfreezing gel is then pumped into the assembly, closing a valve to seal the inner
from the outer barrel and flush mud and water from the space between.

When flushing is complete, nitrogen pressure, equal to the measured recovery pressure, is
reapplied and the whole assembly packed in a freezing box with dry ice. Complete
freezing of the core takes a minimum of five hours. When frozen, the inner barrel is
removed, as quickly as possible, to prevent thawing and returned to the dry ice freezing
box for a further period of at least one hour. Required freezing periods vary, of course,
with ambient temperature.

The inner core barrel is then cut into convenient shipping lengths, and small samples are
taken from the cut ends for geological and hydrocarbon evaluation. Pressure-tight metal
caps are clamped onto the cut ends and labeled with the normal well length and orienta-
tion information.

Throughout the whole operation, the barrel and core must be carefully watched for si 6 ns
of thawing. If this occurs, contained gas will be free to bleed-off from the core,
resul~ing in changes in saturations and pressure. At the first sign of thawing, the barrel
must be returned to the freezing box.
85

The core is shipped to a laboratory for analysis in insulated boxes filled with dry ice.
Pressured core analysis requires different equipment and procedures from conventional
core analysis and is rarely, if ever, performed at the wellsite.

3.46 EJ ECTOR CORES

Cores from a diamond core ejector bit are flushed, of unknown orientation and poorly-
known depth. They have no special value as cores and are logged and processed in the
same manner as drilled cuttings.

3.47 SIUEWALL CST- CORES

3.48 GUN SET-UP

After running wireline logs, decisions must be made regarding the sidewall coring pro-
gram. These include

Formations to be shot
Number of shots
Type of bullet and charge
Type of wire fastener

These should be made by the wellsite geologist and/or the logging geologist, in conjunc-
tion with the wireline logging engineer.

The logging instructions for the well will provide guidelines for selection of shotpoints,
but considerations of hole size and irregularity, formation hardness and misfi re record
must also be made.

3.49 Hole Size

The wi re fasteners used to retrieve the core from the borehole wall are available in a
variety of lengths. Since the gun is run centered in the hole, large diameter holes will
require longer fasteners (see Figure 3-18) in order to reach and penetrate the borehole
wall. However, if long fasteners are used in a small diameter hole, the bullet will pene-
trate too deeply and become trapped. Attempting to recover the bullet will result in the
fasteners breaking and the bullet being lost.

Careful scrutiny of the caliper log for zones to be shot should be made in order to decide
fastener length. Some zones may be so washed-out that no attempt to core should be
made

CST = Chronological Sample Taker.


86

SHORT FASTENER LONG FASTENER

Figure 3-1tl. Selection of Correct Hullet Fasteners


for In-Gauge Hole and Overgauge Hole

3.50 Formation Hardness

Where formations are hard, it may be necessary to use specially hardened bullets or
larger explosive charges to ensure sufficient penetration to obtain a good core. Softer
formation bullets may fail to penetrate or be broken in the impact, causing the core to
be lost.

On the other hand, hard formation bullets will penetrate too deeply into soft formations,
become trapped and lost.

3.51 Misfires and lost Bullets

Certain bullets may misfire or fail to fire. Others may fire, but due to the above consid-
erations, may be lost or broken. The previous success rate of sidewall coring in the area
and of the wireline service company must be considered when planning a sidewall coring
jJrogram. The number of n~ns and shots per run should take into account the possible
number of second shots required.

3.52 EXTRACTION

On retrieval of the gun from the hole, the sidewall gun is taken from the rig floor to the
wireline unit work area.

FIKST, MISFIKELJ HUllETS ANLJ CHAKGES AtU KEMOVED FKOM THE GUN. NO
COKE KECOVEI{Y SHOULD BE ATTEMPTELJ UNTIL THIS IS DONEI
87

Kemoval of sidewall cores from the gun is normally performed by the wireline logging
crew, but on extensive sidewall coring operations the logging geologist may be requested
to assist or supervise them.

The fasteners are cut free of the gun with wire cutters and then unscrewed from the
bullet. The base of the bullet is then removed and an extractor is used to push the core
out of the bullet into a glass core bottle (see Figure 3-19). The bottle normally has a
screw cap and a frosted label on which well and depth information can be written.

FASTENER

BULLET

Figure 3-19. Kemoval of Sidewall Cores

Throughout this operation, great care is requi red to keep bullets, cores and bottles in the
correct orderl

3.53 COKE EVALUATION

3.54 Recovery

Estimating sidewall core recovery is important for financial reasons. Sidewall coring
runs are charged for on the basis of the number of cores successfully shot. Prices are of
the order of $bU to $/iO per core.

The common criterion of successful recovery is a half inch. If less than a half-inch of
core is obtained, not including filter cake, the core is not charged for. However, if this
is the case, the wireline logging engineer will take the core and destroy it. If a further
run with spare shots is not planned to allow the zone to be reshot, the geologist may
decide that partial data is better than no data. In this case, a compromise is commonly
negotiated,with the logging engineer.
88

3.55 Lithology

Sidewall cores should be described carefully and a Core Report prepared for attachment
to the bottom of the Formation Evaluation Log (see Figure 3-20). The report should
include recovery and a tabulation of misfires and lost or broken bullets.

--- ~ -----
--------\r---------~
SIDtWAL L GUN "".3 :
4'63-5296', R[COVIERto ~ 22, MIS'~R(S . 1, Lon 8ULL'T' ~ 2, BRO.EN BUI.L[T!I: t
NUMBER OEPTH
--r-
RECOVERY OESR'PTION
30- 4163' SHALt. O'r ~ GY/GN. , ... WAXY.
$TROHG "5, SL SLTy w/oce
, so GR, 5L CALC

29 4206' Ii" ~ . G1'01'/OH, .11.. wI

-r------A.
-r
INCA 5lf F so
29 4251 ' M,SFIRE

V
V- -- ----v~--..--
I
,5 5,g,' LOST BUUH _

~----~=-------~------~----
-~-=---f'~_
5243 ' BAOKEN Sut. L'T

--- -
5296' No RECOVERY

--~- ---~rv-----~

Figure 3-20. Sidewall Core Report

When examining sidewall cores, try to minimize the extent of breakage involved. Con-
versely, remember that one end of the core will be obscured by filter cake and the sides
will consist of material pulverized and compacted by the bullet impact. Some scrapping
of the core surface will be necessary in order to expose relatively representative mate-
rial. For methods of more complete sidewall core description see Paragraph 4-42.

3.56 Hydrocarbons

Sidewall cores contain material which has been, at most, two inches from the borehole
for some considerable time. They will be almost certainly invaded and flushed. Never-
theless, all cores should be tested for natural fluorescence. If any is seen it should be
noted on the Core Report and a small piece of core (NUT THE WHOLE CORE) tested for
cut type and fluorescence and these results added to the report.

Gas analyses from sidewall cores may be similarly unrepresentative; however, if re-
quested, they may be performed in the same manner as conventional cores (see Para-
graph 3.30). The sample may be obtained by punching a small hole in the metal cap of
the core bottle.

3.57 Core Analysis

Side\Yall cores are of little value in core analysis. Long exposure to the borehole greatly
modifies their saturations and if they contain swelling clays, porosity and permeability.
89

The impact of the bullet pulverizes and compacts the outer part of the core while shat-
tering and disaggregating the center. Porosities determined from sidewall cores are
always unreliable and may be as much as five percent higher than conventional core plugs
(that is, showing fifteen percent porosity compared to ten percent -- an error of fifty
percent). Measured permeabilities will have even larger errors. Remember that perme-
ability increases exponentially with porosity.

Nevertheless, core analysis is sometimes performed on sidewall cores. The whole core is
requi red for this and no special sampling or processing is requi red. (See Paragraph 4.43.)

3.58 Logging

After all core runs have been completed, recovered and the Core Report prepared, the
core depths must be noted on the log. This is down with small black triangles, centered
in the core column, with the point to the right at the appropriate depth (see Figure
3-21). Normally it is only necessary to show cores which .vere recovered. However, if
the oil company wishes that all cores attempted be noted on the log, non-recovered
bullets may be denoted by hollow triangles.

SIDEWALL
CORES

} NO
RECOVERY

Figure 3-21. Sidewall Cores on the Formation Evaluation Log

3.59 SIDEWALL CORE SLICES

Core slices are almost always recovered broken into several pieces. The wireline logging
crew will remove the pieces from the catcher and slide them into a cylindrical metal or
plastic storage tube. If one tapered end of the core is contained in a piece large enough
to remain vertical in the catcher, it may be possible to determine the orientation of the
core, and this is marked on the tube with the core depth interval. The broken pieces may
be ,,~assembled and the core measured, described and reported like a conventional core
(see Figure 3-12).
90

Core slices are noted on the log in the same way as conventional cores, but the lines
marking the top and bottom of the cored interval slope toward each other within the core
column (see Figure 3-22).

CORE {
SLICES
} NO
RECOVERY

Figure 3-22. Core Slices on the Formation Evaluation Log

3.60 ROT ARY SIDE WALL CORES

t{otary sidewall cores should be treated and logged in the same manner as other retriev-
able barrel cores.
4
CORE ANALYSIS METHODS

4.1 PRINCIPLES

4.2 POROSITY

The apparatus used to determine effective porosity is the Ruska Universal Parameter
(Figure 4-1).

PYCNOMETER L 10

~T.~' NEEOLE
VALVE
I/OLUME
SCALE

Figure 4-1. Ruska Parameter

The parameter consists of a 100 cc volumetric mercury pump to which a pycnometer is


attached. The pump has a precision ground and honed, hard chromeplated cylinder,
stainless steel plunger and an alloy steel measuring screw. The chamber of the stainless
steel pycnometer has a volume of approximately 50 cc and admits cores up to 1-1/4
inches long and 1-1/2 inches in diameter. The parameter is furnished with one or two
test quality pressure gauges, with ranges dependent on the method of operation.
92

The pycnometer lid has a rapid-acting breech-lock closure with an O-ring seal. A needle
valve in the lid opens the chamber to the atmosphere. The movement of the pump me-
tering plunger is indicated on two scales. The right- and left-hand scales provide, re-
spectively, decreasing and increasing readings with the forward stroke of the plunger.
Both scales are graduated to read the plunger displacement in cubic centimeters. The
handwheel dial is graduated in 0.01 cc subdivisions and permits estimation of plunger
displacement to 0.001 cc. The right-hand scale, which has decreasing graduations, is
used for all volume measurements during determination of porosity, by the Kobe
method. Additionally, the right-hand scale is used to provide bulk volume readings when
the mercury injection method of porosity measurement is used. The mercury injection
method is to be used only at the specific request of the client.

The porosity samples have to be approximately 10 cc in volume and preferably have a


regular shape -- a right cylinder or cube is desirable. Irregular shapes with hollows
should be avoided, as air will be trapped in them and give erroneous results.

The porosity samples should also be thoroughly solvent-extracted and dried.

The volume scale and handwheel dial provide direct readings of the bulk volume of a solid
or porous body, in cubic centimeters. When correctly set up, the volume scale will read
zero with the pycnometer full of mercury and no sample present -- that is, the scale
reading will show zero when the forward movement of the pump plunger has displaced
mercury into the empty pycnometer up to the seat of the pycnometer valve. The
pycnometer is considered to be empty when mercury is just visible in the bottom of the
open pycnometer, and full when the lid is on and the first droplet of mercury appears in
the valve seat.

The void volume of a closed, empty pycnometer is approximatley 50 cc; the exact volume
is obtained by factory calibration. The yoke stop is set to read the factory calibration.
For example, if the calibrated pycnometer volume is 47.15 cc, the yoke stop is preset
with the pycnometer empty so that a volume scale reading equivalent to 47.15 cc is
obtained when the scale is engaged with the stop. The instrument is then readied for
operation by simply adjusting the hand-wheel dial to read 15, using the dial numbers
slanting to the right. Remember, the pycnometer is considered empty when mercury is
just visible in the bottom of the chamber and full when the fi rst droplet of mercury
appears in the valve seat.

The determination of bulk volume using a pycnometer with a volume of 47.15 cc consists
of the following:

1. With the pycnometer lid off to permit visual observation, mercury is withdrawn
until the pycnometer is empty.

2. The volume scale is engaged with the yoke stop and the handwheel is set to read 15,
slanted right to conform to the calibrated volume of the pycnometer chamber.

3. The sample is placed into the pycnometer and the lid is locked in position, leaving
the valve open.

4. Mercury is pumped into the chamber until a bead of mercury appears in the
pycnometer valve seat.
93

5. The volume of the sample is read directly on the volume scale with hand-wheel
dial numbers slanting right. For example, if the volume scale reading is somewhat
greater than 12 cc and the dial indicates 30-1/2, the bulk volume of the sample is
exactly 12.305 cc. Record bulk volume measurement (V b).

To determine the effective porosity of a core sample, the method makes use of Boyle's
Law to determine the actual grain volume of the sample which is then calculated with
the bulk volume to give the porosity. The theory of the method is as follows.

Assume a reference volume (V R) of air enclosed in the pycnometer at atmospheric pres-


sure (P A)' If the pressure in the pycnometer is then increased to a reference value PR'
then the air will be compressed to a new volume V c. Then, according to Boyle's Law,

(4-1 )

If the pressure is now brought back to PA, the volume will return to VR" If the core
sample with a grain volume of V is then enclosed in the pycnomter along with air at
atmospheric pressure, the total voFume of air V1 in the pycnometer will be given by

V
1
= VR - V
g
(4-2)

When the system is then compressed to the reference pressure PR, the final volume VF
will be the volume of the compressed air V 2 plus the grain volume Vg of the sample.

... V
2 = VF V
g
(4-3)

By applying Boyle's Law (Equation 4-1)

P (V - V )
A R g = pR (V
F
- V )
g
(4-4)

or

P V
A R
- PA V g = PR V F - PR V g (4-5)

Substituting Equation (4-1) in (4-5),

P V - P V = PR V F - P V (4-6)
R C A g R g

PR
(4-7)
V
g
=P - PA
(V F - Vc )
R
94

Equation (4-7) is the basic equation of the Kobe method of porosity determination.
Although it can be used in such a form for each sample, calculations would be tedious and
errors could mount depending on the accuracy of gauge and barometric pressure mea-
surements. A simpler graphical method is available and is used in wellsite core analysis.

To determine the total porosity, the bulk volume of the test sample is first found using
the parameter. The sample is then crushed to grain size, and the grain volume of the
sample is found using a glass volumeter. The volume of the sample should be approxi-
mately 9 to 10 cc and should be dried and extracted as for the previous method.

4.3 PE RM EABILITY

The R uska gas permeameter is the instrument used for measuring the permeability to air
of the core sample (Figure 4-2). The instrument consists of a core holder of a modified
Fancher type for drilled samples, a metal bushing adapter for shaped samples mounted in
sealing wax, and three flowmeters with a selector valve covering different ranges. A
pressure gauge and pressure regulator are used to regulate the inlet pressure from zero
to one atmosphere. The core holder has a thermometer for measuring the temperature
of the air as it passes through the core so that viscosity corrections can be applied.

FLOWMETERS

PRESSURE
GAUGE

SAMPLE
HOLDER

SELECTOR
VALVE

Figure 4-2. Ruska Permeameter


95

The core sample is sealed in the core holder in such a way that the air can pass only
lengthwise through the sample (Figure 4-3). The desired air pressure is adjusted with the
regulating valve and read on the pressure gauge. The flow through the sample is deter-
mined by the height of the center of the float in one of the flow meters.

SLEEVE

TEST
SAMPLE

Figure 4-3. Permeameter Core Holder

Any compressed gas may be used to operate the Ruska permeameter. For convenience,
air from the unit's regulated air supply is used for the permeability tests. The pressure
of the compressed air should be between 20 and 40 psi, and the air should be clean and
dry.

Core samples are prepared by cutting cylindrical sections from field cores with a chisel
or knife, or with a hoi ION diamond core drill. It is advisable to standardize on one core
size and to deviate from this standard only if special conditions make it necessary. A
common size is 1/2 or 3/4 inch-diameter by 1-1/4 inch long. The orientation of the core
sample vVith respect to the core should be noted. The permeability is standardly
measured parallel to the bedding planes, and cylindrical plugs are drilled at right angles
to the core axis. When cubic samples are prepared, the same sample may be used for de-
termining permeability along three axes. Core sizes must be established accurately,
since any inaccuracy in dimensions introduces errors.
96

Special core sizes may be necessary if the sample obtained from the field is too small or
delicate for cutting to standard sizes, as will be the case with sidewall cores, or if the
rate of flow through standard-size cores is not within the normal range of the instru-
ment.

After the core section has been cut to size, all the contained water and oil must be
extracted and the core thoroughly dried.

Delicate or fragile cores, which must be shaped by scraping and might be damaged or
crushed when clamped in the core holder, are first imbedded with sealing wax into metal
sleeves, which are then mounted into the holder.

When beginning the test, the large flowmeter is selected with a pressure differential of
0.25 atmospheres. If the flowmeter ball does not register between the 2.0 and 14.0 cm
marks, then the medium flowmeter is selected and the pressure adjusted to read 0.5
atmospheres. Again, if the flowmeter ball does not register between 2.0 and 14.0 cm,
then the small flowmeter is selected and the pressure adjusted to 1.0 atmospheres. The
flowmeter is always selected before increasing the pressure.

The standard d'Arcy equation for permeability is used

K=~
A !:,. P
(1-9)

Since the downstream pressure is 1 atmosphere absolute, the pressure gradient is equal to
the indicated gauge pressure. Thus the formula becomes:

Lar6e flowmeter:
Q jl L 4 (J jl L
(4-8)
K = or
A 0.25 A

(Jjl L 2 Q jl L
Medium flowmeter: K = A 0.5 or
A (4-9)

lJ jl L
Small flowmeter: K = A
(4-10)

where

K = permeability, darcies

)l = viscosity of the ai r, in cp (obtained from graph)

= average rate of flow, in cc/sec (obtained from flowmeter reading and


flowmeter calibration curve)

L = length of sample, cm

A cross-sectional area of sample, cm2

!:"P ::: pressure gradient, atm


97

The Ruska permeameter is calibrated at an upstream gauge pressure of

1.0 atmosphere for the small tube


0.5 atmosphere for the medium tube
0.25 atmosphere for the large tube

Sample Calculation

Observed: (1) flowrator reading = 41.0 mm on the large tube

(2) Gauge reading = 0.25 atm

(3) Diameter of core = 1.9 em (3/4')

(4) length of core = 1.9 em (3/4')

(5) Temperature = 20C

from the curve of the large tube, 41.0 mm reading gives Q of 25.5 cm 3/sec. The viscos-
ity of nitrogen at 20C equals 0.0175 centipoise. The cross-sectional area (A) is calcu-
lated from the diameter of the cylindrical core and equals 2.83 cm 2

Therefore,

4 x 0.0175 x 25.5 x 1.9


K = =
2.83
(4-8)

K = 1.202d or 1,202 rnd

4.4 SATURATION

Several methods are available for determining the fluid content of a core sample. The
residual oi I and water saturations are usually determined by one of two methods. The
one most commonly employed by logging companies is that of retorting a sample in an
electrically heat.ed, water-cooled condenser-type still. It is the more rapid method for
determining liquid content and is capable of producing reasonable, accurate results. A
better but more difficult method is the extraction distillation method which is only very
rarely used at the wellsite.

4.5 Ketort Procedure

figure 4-4 illustrates the basic components of a retort. The sample is contained in a
stainless steel chamber, sometimes referred to as a test bomb, which has a tight-fitting
screw top. The sample chamber sits inside the insulated electric heater, with its outlet
stem making a vapor-tight seal with the top of the condensing tube. The condensing tube
is fitted with an air fin-cooling section, and is further cooled by water circulating in a
chamber around the tube. A calibrated glass receiving tube collects the liquids from the
condensing tube.
98

TIGHT FITTING
SCREW CAP

AIR COOLER
FINS

VAPOR TIGHT SEAL

CONDENSING TUBE

WATER BATH

~~
r-
t'-
I~ RECEIVING

Figure 4-4. Saturation Still Ketort


99

A fragmented and accurately weighed core sample of about 100 grams is put into the
sample chamber, and the top screwed on tightly. The sample chamber is then put into
the retort which has been preheated to 1200 0 F, and the cooling water is turned on.
Water will begin to collect within two to three minutes after the sample is placed into
the heated still. A calibration graph is then plotted of retort water collected versus time
in minutes (Figure 4-5). The resulting curve rises for the first 5 or 15 minutes while most
of the free water is distilled. A plateau will eventually be reached (at 7-1/2 minutes in
this example) which marks the end of the distillation of free water. Water collected
after this time is the result of dehydration of the hydratable minerals. The water satura-
tion reading is therefore taken at the plateau value. The water is then turned off so
that there is no flow through the water bath, and the bath drained. The sample is then
left for a further 20 to 30 minutes to vaporize the heavier oil. After this time, the
recovered oil volume is recorded. To ensure good separation of oil and water, the sample
can be centrifuged or the collecting tube can be rubbed between the hands.

liME VOL
MIN. RfC. H, D
"1 "'2 "3 WATER CALIBRATION CURVrs
1.0 0.0
--
2.0 0.1
- c-.. SAMPLE NO DEPTH 3960
---
3 .0
- -
+- -
1.8
~---

. 0 4.0
-
50
- - 5.6
-- r--- .-
- -6.6 r-- -
6.0
70 7.6
- - c-
6.0
-80
-
9.0
-- -- -
6.2
- r- -
- 10-" - .6.5-I - -
11 .0 8.9
I 0
- - --
6.9
r--' --
~
-
8.9
- - 6.9 -
Il .O
f--
'40
- -
.50
--
6.9
I- -
FillO) 9.0
-
Oil 0.5
Time. Minulca

Figure 4-5. Saturation Still Calibration Graph

A correction factor has to be applied for the volume of oil collected to compensate for
vapor losses, coking, and cracking of the oil. This correction has been derived empiri-
cally from calibration tests made on each type of formation oil.

4.6 Extraction-Uistillation Procedure

The other method, less commonly employed in the field, is that of extraction-
dist'illation. It involves distilling the water from the core sample by refluxing it in a
solvent which is immiscible with water but miscible with oil. The extraction of oil is
100

completed by continued refluxing, after which the sample is dried. The oil volume is
calculated from total weight loss minus the amount of water recovered. It is possibly a
little more accurate than the retort method. However, it requi res the use of delicate
glassware, requires more time, and there is a greater possibility of operator error in
making the measurements.

UNIFORM I.D.
THROUGHOUT
LENGTH

WATER OUT~

REFLUX CONDENSER r
I,
II! I

I
I
j

I l
~ WATER IN

WATER TRAP
5 ml CAPACITY WITH
1/10th ml GRADUATIONS
(130 mm 5 mm)
EXTRACTOR

PYREX GLASS FLASK


VOLUME: 250 ml

Figure 4-6. Extraction-lJistillation Apparatus

Figure 4-6 illustrates the apparatus for the distillation extraction method and consists of
a pyrex glass flask (or a metal still) heated by suitable means and provided with a reflux
condenser which discharges into the graduated trap. The core samples are contained in
round-bottomed aluminum thimbles.
101

4.7 SAMPLE PREPARATION

The wrapped and labeled samples are brought to the logging unit and laid out in order.
They are then unwrapped, cleaned and core plugs obtained for core analysis. Samples
should be unwrapped one at a time and carefully rewrapped afterwards. This will pre-
serve them in the best possible condition in case resampling is necessary.

In some cases, it may be desirable to remove from a quarter to half an inch of the out-
side circumference of the core to eliminate some of the zone of drilling-fluid contamina-
tion. Always select the test samples for analysis from the interior of the core and a
minimum of one-half inch from the outside circumference of the core. The outside one-
half inch of the core will normally show the highest degree of alteration.

The porosity and permeability test samples must be selected immediately adjacent to the
saturation sample, especially the porosity sample; the saturation results are directly
related to and are dependent upon having the same porosity in the saturation sample as in
the porosity sample.

4.8 SATURATION SAMPLE

The saturation sampl~ requires a minimum of preparation. After selecting 100 to 120
grams of test sample from the centers of the cores, all that is necessary is to break the
portion into 1/4- to 1/2-inch-size pieces just immediately prior to placing sample into the
chamber for retorting. If the saturation tests are not run first, they must not be broken
up into fragments but carefully wrapped whole in foil and stored in a refrigerator to
prevent loss of fluids.

4.9 PERMEABILITY SAMPLE

The permeability plug may be cut with a diamond core drill if the core is firm to hard.
This cuttin,s :nethod requires a fluid for cooling the core bit and removal of cuttings.
The fluid must not cause any appreciable disintegration of the cementing material. For
this reason, the air source at 20 psi is used in most cases to prevent overheating the core
bit and sample. Only a small jet of air is required. Where the core is extremely hard,
water may be used in place of ai r. Unconsolidated, friable samples may be shaped with a
knife. The test plug must be extracted and dried prior to testing. If the test sample is
fairly soft, whereby it could be compressed by the clamping action of the Fancher core
holder, it must be mounted with sealing wax.

4.10 POROSITY SAM PLE

For hard to firm formations, the porosity test sample can be cut with the core drill in the
same manner as the permeability sample or by breaking the core sample with a hammer
into a single piece 9 to 1U cc in volume. For unconsolidated rock, the porosity sample is
carefully shaped with a knife.

Care should be taken not to damage the clays when shaping the test sample, or a portion
of t.he exterior pore openings may be sealed off. The test sample should not be too
irregular or angular to prevent any trapping of air bubbles by the mercury when measur-
102

in6 bulk volume. After shaping, the porosity sample must be extracted and dried. Re-
rnember, the porosity sample must be selected from as near as possible to where the
saturation sample ,vas taken for pore volume comparison.

4.11 SAMPLE EXTRACTION AND DRYING

After cutting and siz.ing the porosity and permeability samples, all fluids must be re-
moved before running tests. Oil and water may be removed either by extraction in the
Soxhlet apparatus or in an evaporating dish with suitable solvent such as toluene or
chlorothene. Upon completion of the extraction, the solvent is driven off by heating.
Porosity and permeability samples may be extracted and dried together, but it is critical
that such excessive heat is not used in drying that it will break down the hydratable
clays, thus producing mineral alteration. Only the solvent and interstitial water must be
removed in the drying process. The test samples should then be cooled and stored in a
desiccator until ready for use. In the case of poorly consolidated samples, it is desirable
to extract the fluids before final shaping.

WARNING

Be sure that the work area is


well ventilated, or do the extraction
in a well-ventilated safe area outside the unit.

4.12 Solvent Extraction

Extraction with an organic solvent is necessary to remove all hydrocarbons from the
sample. It is recommended standard practice to extract all samples regardless of the
presence or absence of visible shows. This provides for the removal of trace or residual
hydrocarbons. It also gives consistency in results by consistent processing of all
samples. When disposing used solvent, be sure to observe all wellsite safety rules and
local environmental protection regulations. Guidance from the drilling supervisor or rig
superintendent should be obtained when necessary.

In the case of low saturation with medium- to high-gravity oil, the samples may be
extracted using the evaporating dish and solvent method. This is done by marking the
samples for identification, placing them in an evaporating dish or pan, and heating the
solvent to about 150F. The container should have a tinfoil or regular cover. After
heating for five to ten minutes, the container should be checked under the fluorescent
light for color. The solvent should then be drained and a second application of solvent
added to the samples and heated. This process should be repeated until all oil has been
extracted from the samples and there is no fluorescence in the extraction solvent under
the ultraviolet light.

If fluorescence examination indicates the sample is highly saturated or that the oil is
rnedium to low gravity, the sample should be extracted by using the Soxhlet extraction
apparatus and toluene (Figure 4-7). Fill the glass flask approximately two-thirds full of
toluene, add a few "antibump" beads (porous pot bead which prevents violent boiling and
bumping), and turn the temperature-controlled hotplate on to boil the solution. The
solvent fumes rise through tube A into the sample chamber and up into the condenser.
When the solvent has condensed, it drips onto the sample and collects in the bottom of
103

the sample chamber. When the level of the solvent in the sample chamber reaches the
top of tube B, the sample chamber is drained of liquids by the siphon effect through tube
B into the solvent flask underneath. The process then repeats itself. Fresh solvent is
continuously cycled while the extracted hydrocarbons remain in the solvent flask. The
sample is therefore repeatedly immersed in fresh hot solvent. The extraction process
will continue as long as the hotplate is left on. The length of time that samples are left
in the extractor will vary considerably. When the sample ceases to discolor, the solvent
extraction is complete.

CONDENSER

SAMPLE HOLDER

Figure 4-7. Solvent Extraction

4.13 Drying

Test samples should be dried in a drying oven with a vacuum fan. If this oven is not
available, then the heat-lamp oven may be used. Tinfoil should be laid underneath the
test samples. Drying samples in the oven, whether it has been extracted with solvent or
not, should take at least twenty minutes for a friable sand and up to forty minutes for a
tight, silty sand. The sample should be cooled for at least ten minutes in a drying oven
with the heat element off. After cooling, the porosity sample should be weighed to the
nearest 1/100 of a gram. This is the weight measurement for dry bulk density
calculations and weight volume relationships on saturation pore volume. After being
drie_d and cooled, the samples are ready for porosity and permeability tests.
104

4.14 SEALING THE PERMEABILITY SAMPLE IN flAX

Permeability samples need to be sealed in wax only if they are insufficiently consolidated
to maintain shape when clamped in the permeameter sample holder. If this is the case,
the following procedure is used.

Usin~ the temperature-controlled hotplate, heat some sealing wax in a covered pot. Try
to avoid boiling the water. Sprinkle fine sand on the counter and set a 38 mm metal
sleeve on top of the thin layer of sand. Press down on the sleeve so that the level of sand
inside the sleeve is about 1/4 inch.

Measure the length and diameter of the sample for permeability calculations and set the
sample in the middle of the metal ring. The long axis of the sample should be perpendic-
ular to the counter. Press the sample just slightly into the sand so the wax will not run
over the end of the sample.

After the wax has been heated to the melting point, carefully pour the wax around the
sample, filling the annulus between the sleeve and the sample only to the top of the
sample. It is best to arrange to seal all the test samples which require wax treatment at
one'time, to save time in reheating and rearranging equipment. As soon as the wax
hardens, the metal sleeve is ready to be placed in an f{-48 rubber sleeve and inserted in
the permeameter for analysis. LJo not place it in the permeameter until the wax has
completely hardened. ---

After analysis, the wax and sealed sample can be knocked out after slightly heating the
metal sleeve. C lean the inside of the metal sleeve thoroughly, otherwise the wax 011 the
next sample run will not stick to the sides of the sleeve.

The final preparation of test samples is explained under individual core analysis test
procedures.

4.15 ANALYTICAL PRUCELJURE

Core analysis requires that a number of tests be performed on several samples (see
Figure 4-8). l.,Juality and consistency of results is obtained by performing tests in a
timely and efficient manner. The following procedures are desi~ned to allow wellsite
core analysis to be performed in the minimum of time with maximum efficiency and data
quality. This is done by integrating the procedures of the three major ,tests, porosity,
permeability and saturations, to minimize waiting time between stages.

4.16 PREPARATION

4.17 Long-Term

If core analysis is to be performed on the well, the core analysis set should be installed,
tested and inventoried well in advance. Any malfunctions or deficiencies must be
determined and corrected in time to allow core analysis to be performed correctly and
reliably.
105

CONVENTIONAL
CORE ANAL YSJS

SHAPE SAMPLE

SIDEWALL CORE
ANAL YSIS

DRYING OVEN

DESICCATOR
DESICCATOR

WEIGH DRY

BULK VOLUME
MEASUREMENT

CALCULA nONS

TO SPECIAL TEST

SPECIAL
INSTRUCTIONS QNl Y

KOBE METHOD GRAIN DENSITY


EFFEcnVE POROSITY TOTAL DENSITY

TOT AL POROSITY

TO SPECIAL TEST

Figure 4-8. Core Analysis Procedures


106

The core analysis set should contain the following:

QUANTITY ITEM

1 Ruska Permeameter with Wall Mounting Screws


1 Ruska Saturation Still Assembly (2 Stills) with Wall Mounting
Screws
1 Ruska Porometer
1 Triple Beam Balance and Wooden Case

PERMEAMETER SUPPLIES

6 Stainless Steel Core Sleeves


2 Rubber Core Sleeves, R-20
1 Rubber Core Sleeves, R-48
1 Permeameter Thermometer, Spare
2 Core Holder Rubber O-ring, 2" O.U.
1 Set of Three Permeameter Test Plugs

SATURATION STill SUPPLIES

6 G lass Receiving Tubes, Graduated


8 Rubber Stoppers, 2 hole
1 Retort Tube Cleaning Brush
12 Retort Gaskets, Asbestos
4 Stai n less Steel Retorts
2 Electric Cords for Retorts
1 Tempil Stick, 1200F

POKUMETER SUPPLIES

1U Pycnometer Gaskets, Spare


1 Pycnometer Valve, Spare
1 Packing Booster, Spare
1 Spanner Wrench
1 Paint Brush, Small
1 Eye Dropper
1 Set of 2 Steel Porosimeter Calib. Plugs (5/8 x 1/2 and 5/8 x 1)
1 Jar Mercury, Triple Distilled

OTriER CORE ANALYSIS SUPPLIES

1 3/4" uiamond Core Bit


1 Hydrometer, 10 - 45 Gravity
1 Hydrometer, 45 - 90 Gravity
1 Vernier Caliper
1 Set of Tongs, 9"
1 Mortar and Pestle Set, 45l
2 Casserole Uishes w/Wooden Handle, 43-H
2 Boxes Dennison Sealing Wax, 1-lb Box (Not Paraffin Wax!)
1 Plastic Beaker, 100 ml
1 Plastic Beaker, 250 ml
1 Plastic Beaker, 6UU ml
107

1 Plastic Funnel, 2'


1 Clamps, w/Vinylized Jaws
1 Dovetai I Support Cia mp
1 Screw Pinch Clamps
2 Pkg. Aluminum Foil, 12"
1 2 oz. bottle, Demulsifier Aerosol Solution in Plastic Bottle
1 Tygon Tube 3/8 Drain 48" long
1 Tygon Tube 3/8 Input with Fitting 36" long
1 Soxhlet Extraction Apparatus, Flask-250 ml Tube 40 ml Condenser
40 mm
1 Box Alconox Cleaner
1 Russel Volumeter, Glass
1 Hydrometer Cylinder, Glass
1 Ruska Porometer
1 Core Drill Unit and Press
1 Upright Rod for Hotplate
1 Gallon Toluene
1 Gallon Ethyl Alcohol
1 Metal Floor Clamp for Porometer
1 Permeameter Test Plug Calibration Chart
1 Ruska Porometer Manual
1 Ruska Permeameter Manual
1 Ruska Saturation Manual and Parts List
1 API Recommended Practice for Core Analysis Procedure
12 Core Analysis Supply Inventory List
2 Saturation Worksheets, Pad 50
1. Permeability Worksheets, Pad 50
2 Effective Porosity Worksheets, Pad 50
1 Total Porosity Worksheets, Pad 50
3 Core Analysis Report Form, Pad 50

4.18 Short-Term

All required equipment and supplies should be set up and ready before the core is re-
trieved. Before starting core analysis work, be sure to dress adequately in coveralls and
rubber-soled shoes, and remove watches, rings, etc., as mercury reacts with gold. Have
all the necessary equipment and supplies at your disposal and ready for use. Have a set
of Saturation, Effective Porosity, and Permeability Worksheets prepared and clipped
together.
108

4.19 EQUIPM ENT CALIBRATION

4.20 Saturation Stills

Plug in the stills in order for them to reach thei r operating temperature while you are
preparing the other equipment and samples. The water should be off at this stage (Figure
4-9). The time requi red to reach operating temperature will vary with the rig electrical
supply. Check the stills regularly, as overheating will result in melting of the polyflo
tubing.

RETORT CHAMBERS

SAMPLE 'BOMBS'

Figure 4-9. Plug in Stills


109

The collecting tubes should be clean, dry and have two drops of demulsifier in each. Put
them in place, ensuring that the tubes are firmly on the rubber stoppers (Figure 4-10).
Aside from preheating the stills to 1200F before running a retort sample, no mechanical
calibration of the stills is required.

COLLECTING TUBES

Figure 4-10. Install Collecting Tubes


110

4.21 Porometer

Before measuring the porosity test samples, the porometer must be calibrated for proper
operation. The procedure is as follows:

4.22 Mercury level Check: A bead of mercury should appear at the bottom of the
pycnometer chamber with the wheel crank back at the stop. Do not crank mercury back
all the way into the pump, as this allows air into the system and upsets the calibration.
Clean the chamber with a rag if there is any dirt in the chamber when empty. Add a few
drops of mercury if necessary so that the bead appears when the crank is in stop posi-
tion. Make sure that no air is trapped within the mercury volume.

4.23 Air Removal: At times, ai r may be drawn into the mercury pump. If so, the
volume of air must be reduced to less than 0.5 cc at 750 psi for proper operation of the
porometer. The actual factory correction factor is determined by Ruska. When all the
air is removed from the pump the correction factor should theoretically be the same as
the factory calibration. The procedure for removing the air is as follows:

a. After charging the requisite amount of mercury, the pycnometer lid is locked in
position, mercury is brought up to the pycnometer valve seat, and the valve is
closed.

b. Next, engage the pore space scale with the traveling yoke stop, and zero the hand-
wheel dial. Always zero and take all readings with the hand-wheel hard over in the
clockwise position.

c. Make sure the valve to the low pressure gauge is closed.

d. Increase the system pressure to 750 psi. The dial reading of the figures slanting
left will be a direct measure of the correction factor. The correction factor should
not exceed 0.50 cc.

e. If the volume reading exceeds 0.50 cc, the air must be evacuated.

f. The porometer is tilted backward until the face of the pressure gauge is horizon-
tal. By alternately moving the plunger in and out of the cylinder, first pressure and
then suction is applied to the gauge and system. Air trapped in the gauge, as well
as in other parts of the system, is displaced by mercury and collects in a recess
behind the packing gland. By bringing the porometer into its normal operating
position, this air can be expelled into the pycnometer and subsequently released.

g. The correction factor is then rechecked and the air evacuation process repeated
until the volume of ai r is less than 0.50 cc. It may be necessary to repeat this
procedure several times to reduce the volume of trapped air to an acceptable level.
111

4.24 Calibration: The method of calibration in the Ruska Porometer manual using
simulated air volumes is not nearly as effective as the Exploration logging system which
uses steel plugs. The steel plug calibration system utilizes two different size stainless
steel plugs (Figure 4-11). Bulk volume (Vb) and compres~ion volume (V f ) are measured
individually for the two plugs. A combined measurement IS then made on the two plugs,
giving three values for the grain volume calibration graph. The procedure is as follows:

a. Bulk volume measurements are taken on each of the two plugs and on the two plugs
combined. Since the steel plugs have no porosity, their bulk volume is equal to
their grain volume.

~STAINLESS STEEL
~ CALIBRATION PLUGS

Figure 4-11. Calibrate Porometer with Calibration Plugs

b. Draw a graph on large-scale linear graph paper and plot bulk volume in cc (Vb)
against the grain volume (V g) for each of the three measurements. For accurate
porosity measurements, the graph must be very accurately drafted using a sharp
hard pencil (see Figure 4-12).

c. Obtain the exact volume of pycnometer chamber from the Ruska factory calibra-
tion sheet. Fill the pycnometer chamber with a volume of mercury whereby
exactly 40.00 cc of reference ai r volume remains, and then place the first steel
plug into the chamber.

d. C lose the pycnometer valve and raise the system pressure to 30 psi reference
pressure on the low pressure gauge. Record the final dial reading (Vf) on the cali-
bration graph.
112

e. Repeat the procedure for the second plug, and then for the two plugs combined.
Plot the three V f measurements on the left-edge scale of the calibration graph.

f. The points on the calibration graph are the intersections of the grain volume and
compression volume measurements. These results must give a straight line when
connected or be remeasured until they do. It may also be necessary to prepare a
new calibration graph after several hours due to changes in atmospheric pressure
and temperature.

30.00
w
0:: 28.00
::J
III
0:: III
W
I- 0::
w 26.00
u.. Il.

u: ./

~
0
w 24.00
0
0::
~- ., 22.00
--_ a.
....

~-.
>0 (")

"0 20.00
~ I-
Oz
~Q 18.00
0:: III
...J III
w
0:: 16.00
0 Il.
::E
0 14.00
~~ I itl
u
~'i~ 1$.1
12.00

PLUG +1
o JJ l
5.0 10.0 15.0

PLUG +1 & +2
20.0 25 .0

PLUG +2
GRAIN VOLUME (VG) IN cc

Figure 4-12. Porometer Calibration Plot

4.25 Permeameter

Three test plugs are furnished with each permeameter. One plug is solid to check for
leaks. The other two plugs have synthetic ruby orifices pressed in a brass holder. (A few
test plugs are made of porous stainless steel. These are not quite as accurate as the
plugs with fixed orifices.) The purpose of running test-plug analysis is to check the
permeameter for leaks around the core test sample and for internal leaks or constrictions
within the permeameter.

The most critical calibration test is the solid plug used to check for leaks. All three
flowmeters must be checked for leaks using the solid plug for 1-atmosphere pressure.
Minute leaks in the flowmeters and around the gasket seal can significantly affect
permeameter measurements.
113

4.16 Solid Plug Calibration Test: (Figure 4-13)

a. Place the solid test plug in the 1{-20 rubber sleeve.

b. Make certain the rubber a-ring washer is in the bottom of the core holder. Place
the R-20 sleeve and test plug into the core holder; tighten down the clamp.

c. I<aise pressure to 1.0 atmosphere with the selector valve on the 'large' flow-
meter. Check for any flow on the large flowmeter. Change to the medium and
then to the small flowmeter, checking for any flow on each. There should be zero
readings on all three flowmeters for a proper leak test; otherwise, the permeame-
ter is not functional.

CALIBRA TION - V______


PLUGS ______

~~
Figure 4-13. Perrneameter Solid Plug Calibration
114

4.27 Flow Comparison Test: Flow tests are then made on the two orifice test plugs for
comparison with the laboratory-measured values.

a. Follow Steps a and b from Paragraph 4.26 for sealing the test plugs in the core
holder.

b. Measure the flow through the test plug in millimeters at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 atmos-
phere on the appropriate flowmeters.

c. Calculate the flow in cc/sec for each of the test plugs by using the Ruska outflow
rate graph in the Ruska Permeameter manual. Figure 4-14 is an example.

;:
0

;;
0

;;;
0

-
0
00
."
r
00
:;:
'" 1-H+H+ttHtHtt'!l:1tHlfII HOUSTON,
6121 HILLCROFT
TEX~S
]:J

> '"
60
]:J

]:J
m 0
...
>
0
z
Gl 0
'"
Z
3
3 0 '"
...0

'"0
'"0

0
0
0 o 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 tA
0 (:, 0 (:, 0 ;.." ( , ) . U,
I\)
o
(.,)....
0 0 0
NI (.,).... UI

o OUTFLOW R~TE IN cc/SEC ~T ME~N PRESSURE P

Figure 4-14. Permeameter Outflow Rate Graph (Example Only)

NOTE

Each permeameter has its own calibra-


tion graph which is specific to itself, and is
identified by the serial number of the instrument.
115

d. Determine the temperature-corrected viscosity of the air by using the "Gas Viscos-
ity Graph" (Figure 4-15)

. 0200

I
.0195
I I
AIR

.0190
I I
~
v.-~'-

17
::t

f/)

~~
W
f/)

. ttff-
0
.0185 I
a.
I-
z
I

--/
W
()

>- .0180
l-

I--~
f/)
0
()
f/)
//J
> .0175 7 ~ I
I--~
7 ' ,,
.0170
v, I
I

.0165
10 20 30 40
TEMPERATURE

Figure 4-15. Gas Viscosity Graph

e. Calculate: airflow (in cc), times corrected air viscosity (in cp), times flow pressure
(in atm), and compare this figure with the calibration value. The calibrated value
is furnished for all test plugs. F lowrates should check within 10 percent. This is
approximately +/- 1.0 mm on the small flowmeter and 0.5 mm on the medium and
large flowmeters.
116

4.26 CORE ANAL YSIS TESTS

The procedures for testing saturation and permeability and for measuring porosity, are
given in 63 steps. Since the tests and measurements are done 'simultaneously,' timing
becomes very important. Thus, the following information is a listing of steps to follow to
accomplish all three and is not separated into procedures for each test or measurement.

NOTE

Always keep samples in correct order, from left to right.

Beginning with Item 1 belo .... and continuing through Item 8, the
included steps must be carried out as quickly as possible once the
core has been unwrapped. These steps pertain to the Porosity and
Saturation tests.

1. Line up the samples to be analyzed. Lay the wrapped core samples out on the
bench from left to right, from the shallowest to the greatest depth (Figure 4-16).

Figure 4-16. Line Up Samples in Order, Left to Right


117

2. M ark wrapped samples from 1 onward (number 1 on the left). Note the numbers
and depths of the samples on the Saturation worksheet (Figure 4-17).

SHALLOWEST SAMPLE ON LEFT

r-
"
I,. tOGCING SATURATION WORK SHEET
Co,., po,y,_(_"_2.~C
_,_I_Co~__ (0''''' ____5"_ _ _ __ logg;'9 G.of. -r
,1("" ble-
W~tl c...c...._?~ ~I o th 'i'1 E\1 - 'CO lS' 00,.,_-,7_-_'B=--.....:;6..,;\_ __

~
Pore VolumC' SOl Somple!ccl :: WI. of Sot. Semple ..... / FI"'idsigmsl
W,. of Po,olity Plug ..... / Flvids (9 ms ' X Pore Volume of Porotily Plug (eet

So""otion ' 0/ = 'o,e


R.cov~/ed F,ee WOI., {ee l
Volvm. of Sot. Sompte fccl
X 100 Oil Saluro,ron ',-.1 ;:;;;;; Corrected Flee Oil (cel
POr e VOh.. ~ e of 501 . Sampl e fcc:)
X 100

M( ... SuRE,lltf ..... rS

...... ..
...
O,., i""..
0., (0"-"'"'' 0.,
"lot
CClIf
Gr.a .. ",
:t''CO'''1III "Cil
SelufO ' ....
WGI.,
SIll N.a'.~
CG'"
w&"
0,1 ...' 1 I .... ' 10 '. ) $a lol'l,'y
'O(lor Icd

I tt" 6 1. S
1
I '-~Bt.7

I 3 ~q n. '"

'" ~'ia'l.l
I

Figure 4-17. Number Samples and Record Depths


118

3. Unwrap sample number 1. Remove the core from its wrapping and break off a
piece, full diameter and about 2 inches long, from the center of the core (Figure
'-1H). Avoid fractures, mud invasions and contaminant and try to get a representa-
tive sample for that depth -- taking several pieces if necessary. Rewrap the unused
portions of the core and leave it in place.

Figure 4-18. Break Out Two-Inch Piece from Center of Sample

4. Break off a suitable porosity sample, taking a piece from the center of the core of
about 2 x 2 cm (20 g), avoiding rough edges or hollows as much as possible. Smooth
out the sample to a cubic or cylindrical shape if necessary (Figure 4-19).

Figure 4-19. Shape Porosity Sample

For hard to firm formations, the porosity test sample can be cut with the core drill
in the same manner as the permeability sample (see Item 13) or by breaking the
core sample with a hammer to a single piece, 9 to 10 cc in volume. For unconsoli-
dated rock, the porosity sample is carefully shaped with a knife.
119

Take care not to damage the clays when shaping the test sample, or a portion of
the exterior pore openings may be sealed off. The test sample should not be too
irregular or angular, to prevent any trapping of air bubbles by the mercury when
measuring bulk volume.

Figure 4-20. Weigh Porosity Sample

5. Carefully weigh this sample (Figure 4-20). Note down the sample number and
saturated weight on the Effective Porosity worksheet. Mark the side of the sample
with the appropriate number using a felt tip marker and place it in a marked
sample tray or dish to be dealt with later (Figure 4-21).

6. Make brief Lithological and Show remarks on the worksheet.

IJIJICl'fVI 1'0.051" WOI" SHUT

C NO_ ----=-S_ _

Figure 4-21. Record Depth, Weight and Lithology


120

7. From the center of the core, sufficient pieces of 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter should
be broken off to make up to 80 to 100 grams (Figure 4-22). These should be
weighed accurately to the nearest 0.01 gram, and all of the weighed sample must
be loaded into the retort and must fit easily (Figure4-23)

., .

SATURATION WORK SHEET


UtlOt"Tl()l.1 ~O(>GI NCi
""'''
Ie. "'"
"
Co Core
S
Logg in ; e.ol.
J ~"o bl ,-
,'I
Xlnr
Cc... ~~CQ.Id.. 7- 15 - 6 \
"" I De pth 9'1B I - 1002.5 ' Dolt

WI. of Sot. S.o mpl ......./f luidl (gms)


"01. VOlUMe Sol.
Sample [cd = WI. of POIO l i-t)' Plug w/fluids [gtlu) X Pore Volume of Porosity Plug Icd

Wot.r Sglulol"
l z;. Recoveled f tlll,. Waler icd
POI' VolUMe of SCI. Sample ted
X 100 O il Saluration (-'.1 = Corrected FIe. O il Icd
POftl Volume of Sal , Somp.lll leel
X 100
V MI ... SUUM(HTS C "" CU t AT I ON$

W".'" ,... ....


0.100 lrolll ~iUll~ 1to1ll1l1.l-
,.,.Vol ...... 0 ..1iI ' ... Co,",,,,"_
iz
14"(9 . . . ..., 1.H!I...ed torl
. .. 0 ..
~~~,~~ hi. ~ol Ci'.-~;It
.," 0 .' Wo,. <~.

......
5. 1, 0 '
....
a.,th c., O.IVot
.,.,.60
~.t. ,I

.'"
,ly So ~ ~ ....... .,lOI led 3oo'h,4'"I1"" 50",,.01,011 Wil t
. j l .. ,. , Will'" OJ G I O ' " $.aopl. "_lIl y ,u) <-. 0 .1 .1'1 0.' I_ I ''<I :k:l.1I11y
) k,) rCt] ""'.60 -~r;::rl $0"'....
ul
.cd

I ~qB I .S 82.S I

'l. '1~Bl.. 7 &.~8

3 ~~8~ . " ' '' .I/P


..; "'ia'!.'l. ~O . 77

Figure 4-22. Weigh Saturation Sample


121

H. Choose a clean, dry, stainless-steel bomb (retort) and ensure that the asbestos
gasket is in place in the lid. Screw the top on firmly and seal the outlet with mask-
ing tape. Tighten the top by hand with a bar or screwdriver through the lid. Mark
the bomb with the appropriate number and lay it down in an appropriate place.
Make sure the bombs cannot roll around.

FRAGMENTED AND
WEIGHED SATURA nON
SAMPLE

Figure 4-23. Load Retort

9. W rap sample #1 and return it to its place. C lean up the work area, putting remain-
ing core fragments into a labeled sample bag (Figure 4-24). Unwrap sample #2 and
repeat the procedure as for sample #1, working rapidly with the unwrapped sample.

Figure 4-24. Clean Up Work Area


122

10. Load the retorts containing samples 1 and 2 into the stills, making sure that the
masking tape has been removed from thei rends. Make sure that sample #1 is on
the left and that the collector tubes are in place and contain the demulsifier
(F igure 4-25).

Figure 4-25. Load Retorts into Stills

IYARNING

Be careful not to touch the


stills as they are extremely hot -- 1LOOFI
123

11. Turn on the water, pull out the left-hand knob on the stills (water inlet) and turn
the right-hand knobs on the stills counterclockwise (full circulation), (Figure 4-26).

Figure 4-26. Turn Water On

Figure 4-27. Set Timer


124

11. Set the timer for between 8 and 14 minutes, depending on initial verifications
(usually for 12 minutes; Figure 4-27). Water will begin to collect within two or
three minutes after the sample is placed into the heated still. Water volume read-
ings should be recorded at one-minute intervals in the first instance and then
plotted on the water calibration graph on the reverse side of the saturation work-
sheet (Figure 4-28). The resulting curve always rises sharply for the first 8 to 15
minutes while most of the free water is distilling, and usually reaches a plateau at
about 10 minutes. It is always necessary to draw a graph of water-versus-time for
the first sample at least, to separate core water from the water of crystallization.

WATER SATURATION WORK SHEET

rrME VOL
MJN. REC. H,O
#1 #2 #3 WATER CALIBRATION CU RVES
1.0 0 .0
SAMPLE NO, DEPTH 3980
2.0 0.1
3,0 1. 8
' ,0 4.0
-.
5.0 5.8
6 .0 8 .8
70 1.8 WATER OF
FREE CRYSTALLIZATION
8 .0 8 .0
WATER . .
1.0 cc
= 8 .0cc 9 ,0 8 .2
10,0 8.5
---
\\0
I--
8 .9
-
12.0 8.9
FREE WATER
13 .0 8 .9 8.0 cc
\A ,O 8 .9
15.C 8 .9

Flno1 9.0

Oil 0.5

~ A

Figure 4-2IJ. Plot Water Calibration Graph


125

After the first run the time to reach this plateau can be set on the timer, and it
will not be necessary to record the water level every minute. A sheet of paper can
be placed behind the tubes for easy reading (Figure 4-29).

Figure 4-29. Reading Collection Tubes


126

13. While waiting for the water readings from the retorts, there will be time to select
and shape the permeability plugs from sample 1 and 2. The permeability plugs may
be cut with a diamond core drill if the core sample is firm to hard. This cutting
method requires a fluid for cooling the core bit and removing the cuttings. The
fluid must not cause any appreciable disintegration of the cementing material. For
this reason, the air source at 20 psi is used in most cases to prevent overheating of
the core bit and sample. Only a small jet of air is required. Where the core is
extremely hard, water may be used in place of air (Figure 4-30). Unconsolidated,
friable samples may be shaped with a knife.

AIR (OR WATER IF


CORE IS VERY HARD)

CLAMP CORE
FIRMLY

Figure 4-30. Cut Permeability Sample Plugs


127

Figure 4-31. Cutting Plug

Consolidated Core Sample: Plugs for the permeability test should be drilled
from the core sample to within about 1j2-inch from the upper end of the core
bit (Figure 4-31). Upon retraction of the core bit, the plug is broken off using a
small screwdriver. The permeability plug is always cut parallel to the bedding
plane to determine horizontal permeability. If no bedding is apparent, the plug
should be cut perpendicular to the wall of the core. A ring incision is then cut
with a knife or hacksaw around the circumference of the upper end of the plug,
leaving about 1-1/4 inches of plug length. With a pair of pliers, a knife, or a
chisel placed against the incision, the end of the plug is broken off, leaving a
fresh fracture at both ends of the plug (Figure 4-32).

(
o

Figure 4-32. Preparing Sample Plug


128

Unconsolidated Sample: If the sample is too friable to be cut with a core drill,
it must be shaped with a knife into cylindrical or rectangular form. Again, the
ends of the plug must have fresh breaks and not be abraded with the knife. If
the test sample is fairly soft whereby it could be compressed by the clamping
action of the Fancher core holder, it must later be mounted with sealing wax as
described in Steps 49-51.

14. Number the side of the plugs with a felt tip marker, taking care not to mix up the
samples, and place them in appropriate trays -- either with or separate from the
porosity samples (Figure 4-33).

Figure 4-33. Number Sample Plugs

15. The plugs should then be measured, using Vernier calipers (Figure 4-34). Take
several readings to obtain an average. Note down the mean length and mean cross-
sectional area on the Permeability worksheet. Make sure that the plug is cut for
measurement of the horizontal permeability.
129

Figure 4-34. Measure Plugs and Record Length and Diameter

NOTE

F or Saturation Test, retorts wi II probably


now be ready for water readings.

16. Note down the water readings on the Saturation worksheet. Take the plateau
readings where the curve levels off (Figure 4-28).

17. Turn off the water by pushing in the left-hand knob on the bottom of the stills, turn
the right-hand knob fully clockwise, and disconnect the water source. The stills
should be full of water, but the flow should have stopped.

18. Set the timer for another 15 minutes, and, if present, turn on the extractor fan
over the workbench.

19. Prepare clean retort bombs and collecting tubes, and clean the balance.
130

NOTE

You should now have samples 1 and 2


cooking in stills, and porosity and permeability plugs
number 1 and 2 correctly marked and set in appropriate trays.

2U. Unwrap samples 3 and 4 and repeat the foregoing, ensuring that all samples are
clearly marked and ordered. Break-out and prepare as many samples as you have
spare retort bombs. Make sure that the bombs cannot roll around, that they are in
correct order, and that the orifices are taped over until they are to be used.

21. When the timer rings for the second time, drain the water off by pulling out the
left-hand knob on the bottom of the stills and opening the right-hand knob fully
counterclockwise. This will speed-up drainage of oil from the drain tubes.

22. Set the time for the final oil readings -- another 15 minutes. Heat the still to
120UO F to drive off the remaining heavy oil in the sample and condenser drain
tube. A piece of aluminium foil can be placed on top of the still for additional
heat.

After shaping, the porosity and permeability samples must be extracted and dried.
Remember, the porosity sample must be selected from as near as possible to where the
saturation sample was selected for pore volume comparison.

NOTE

You will now have time to extract


and dry the test samples.

After cutting and sIzIng the porosity and permeability samples, all fluids must be re-
moved before running tests. Oil and water may be removed by either extraction in the
Soxhlet apparatus or in an evaporating dish with a suitable solvent such as toluene or
chlorothene. Upon completion of the extraction, the solvent is driven off by heating.
Both porosity and permeability samples may be extracted and dried together, but it is
critical that excessive heat not be used in drying; this would break down the hydratable
clays and produce mineral alteration. Only the solvent and interstitial water should be
removed in the drying process. The test samples should then be cooled and stored in a
desiccator until ready for use. In the case of poorly consolidated samples, it is desirable
to extract the fluids before final shaping.

WARNING

Be sure that the work area is well


ventilated, or do the extractions outside.
131

23. In the case of low saturation with medium to high gravity oil, the samples may be
extracted using the evaporating dish and solvent method. This is done by marking
the samples for identification, placing them in an evaporating dish or pan, and
heating the solvent to about 150 0 F. The container should have a tinfoil or regular
cover. After heating for five to ten minutes, the container should be checked
under the fluorescent light for color. The solvent should then be drained and a
second application of solvent added to the samples and heated. This process should
be repeated until all oil has been extracted from the samples and there is no fluor-
escence in the extraction solvent under the ultraviolet light.

24. If fluorescence examination indicates the sample is highly saturated or that the oil
is medium to low gravity, the sample should be extracted by using the Soxhlet
extractor as described in Paragraph 4.12. The glass flask is filled approximately
two-thirds full of toluene, and the temperature-controlled hot plate is turned up to
boil the solution. The extracting process continues as long as the hot plate is left
on. The length of time that samples are left in the extractor will vary consider-
ably. For adequate extraction, one run of solvent should be made on the samples
that will yield no fluorescence of the solvent under the ultraviolet light.

25. Test samples should be dried in a drying oven with a vacuum fan. If this oven is not
available, then the heat-lamp oven may be used. Tinfoil should be laid underneath
the test samples. Drying the samples in the oven, whether they have been
extracted with solvent or not, should take at least twenty minutes for a friable
sand and up to forty minutes for a tight, silty sand. The sample should be cooled
for at least ten minutes in a drying oven with the heat element off. After cooling,
the porosity sample should be weighed in grams to the nearest 1/100 of a gram.
This is the weight measurement for dry bulk density calculations and weight volume
relationships on saturation pore volume. Upon completion of drying and cooling,
the samples are ready for porosity measurement and permeability tests.
132

:--

U'I\OIAl'IOH \000*0
I
",~,)C'Yz... 0 ;1 Co
IfIIICT1 ..... POtoIJIY WOU: 5Htn

c... ... S
_...... "-' ~~.\'I ...
I' OO;N I

'-e-~!I I Co", ~61- j001S' :Z- '!:H!1


"~\l1I ~

.. .
--.-. ......, -"-.. ._-'" .--
CIIL(\U,r:DIG

i .... . ....
......... ~ ~ ~
- i~
:::. ... ....
~
I 'R_ . . . , ..!
untOlOGolC Of:SCLI'TION
~ . -,..- 1I-...!L x NII:I ""' . +'"

, ~el,~ to,.. 1117 S> p~


""'f'6~~11<"" Moi> F~ ";"Q.\ ~

; ?",t & , . 3f... 1"',30 t--\ro -, E,1ft ,,, SeN AiU:t I !tI,AQR.~b,

fieH I'rSB t6 .<~ S.1oII~et.ot-J.~ F"sr <,II. HOI> "ru..,.

q ,'H " . n :,Q:.T t ",e.L.4~ F MIC.A. ,~-'-I> I~TG.e..

FbA. '"'I ~ro Cev 'F 1L..1.. f~ H.i:>~EV

S~" "... :m.; t'>~T 1e'L/o.LD F\.O"-,

Figure 4-35. Weigh Porosity Sample and Record Ury Weight

26. Make note of the weight on the Effective Porosity worksheet (Figure 4-35). Once
the samples are clean, dry and cool, and the porosity samples have been weighed,
set them out in their correct order from left to right, making sure that all samples
are clearly numbered (Figure 4-36).

Figure 4-36. Line Up Samples in Order


133

27. The porosity samples can be set on the bench behind the mercury pump (porometer)
and the permeability samples on the bench ready for mounting or on top of the
permeameter, out of the way.

213. Having first checked that the pressure gauge reads zero, open the porometer lid
and be sure that there is no mercury up in the lid (Figure 4-37). The sliding scale

C
pointer should be about halfway (20 cc).
CLOSE

OPEN

Figure 4-37. Open Porometer

29. tle sure the a-ring and seal are free of mercury, and insert porosity sample 1
(Figure 4-38). The top of the sample should be below the seat.

\PV,CNOM"..

\"-"
,

Figure 4-313. Insert Porosity Sample


134

30. t3e sure the screw valve is open and the valve to the low-pressure gauge is open
(counterclockwise), and close the porometer lid -- 1/6-turn clockwise -- and tighten
as hard as you can.

31. Fill the pycnometer chamber with mercury by slowly turning the wheel until a
small bead of mercury appears in the valve seat. If you overshoot, go back half a
turn and come up again. All readings on the porometer must be taken with the
wheel holding pressure, i.e., going up clockwise to the reading (Figure 4-39).

EFfECTlvt POROSITY WOIK SHEET 16 OOJI I

Cou- No _ _ _S
'--_ __

,
Logging Goo!.

0 ,. '1'i8 1- IOOlS' 00'" 7- 16-81

.." ..
MlASUJ:t.v.tNllo

W.,.M W.itllot
Y.
VOl __ Co...
V.
~.I R ....v. III
'.,..lIly
Dr, "'I~

.
D.~11Io -/~14"" D'Y llTHOlOGlC DESCRIPTION
,""'"~"
Vel" 'IIIoh..... 'tOIl",
I.-I 11l1li1 I '0<1 I hcl I'" ... /cd
v __ v~_v.
P_~ Xl (lg DfyWL _ 'I,

I 'i'iBf.~ l.!J.7; IH7 8.78 l~.3r

Figure 4-3<). Record Bulk Volume


135

32. Record the bulk volume measurement by reading off the cc's on the upper sliding
scale, and decimals on the inner circular scale. The reading should be noted on the
Effective Porosity worksheet (Figure 4-39).

33. f{un the mercury back by turning the wheel counterclockwise to the ink mark at
42+ on the sliding scale, making sure that you don't go back too far. Come up to
the 40 cc mark on the upper sliding scale by rotating clockwise, and exactly to zero
on the inner circular scale. If you overshoot, go back one-half turn and come up
again.

34. Firmly tighten down the needle valve, using finger tip pressure only, being careful
not to overtighten as this may damage the thread and/or the seat (Figure 4-40).

TIGHTEN NEEDLE
VAL VE FIRMLY
FINGERTIP TIGHT
ONLY

Figure 4-40. Close Needle Valve Finger Tight

35. Bring pressure up to 30 psi by rotating the wheel clockwise.

36. Record the compression volume by reading the cc's on the sliding scale and the
decimals on the inner circular scale. The readings should be recorded on the Effec-
tive Porosity worksheet (Figure 4-39).
136

37. Turn the wheel back until the pressure drops to zero, making sure that you do not
turn back beyond the 40 cc mark (Figure 4-41).

Figure 4-41. Back-Off Pressure

38. Double-check that the pressure is off, and then open the needle valve.

39. Carefully open the lid and lift it off carefully to avoid spilling mercury . Then
remove the sample and put it back in order in its tray.

40. Clean the pump by brushing off the a-ring and seal, and clean off excessive dust
and sand grains from the mercury (Figure 4-42).

41. Repeat the operation for the next sample until all are done.
137

WARNING

Keep the O-ring and seal free of mercury and dirt. Always wind up
to reading, i.e., turn the handle clockwise, and keep the slack taken
up. Take care not to draw air into the system, and avoid spilling
mercury. Mercury is poisonous and expensive.

CLEAN OFF THE


RU88ER O - RING

Figure 4-42. Keep O-Ring, Seal and Mercury Surface Clean

NOTE

The saturation samples should now be ready for you


to take the oi I readi ng.
138

42. I{emove the sample 1 collecting tube (left-hand first; Figure 4-43).

43. Take the oil reading, ensuring a good oil/water separation by centrifuging or rub-
bing between the hands. Take an average meniscus reading. Make a note of the
reading on the Saturation worksheet and also make a note of the color and any
other obvious property; e.g. paraffinic.

SATUtATION wo .c SHEET
L..a-cI'~o (joIOol j K"obi,,-
fk.t. 7-,e~el

Figure 4-43. Remove Collecting Tubes and Record Recovered Water and Oi I
139

44. Repeat Steps 42 through 43 for sample 2.

45. Separate or pipette off the oil from the tubes and keep them for oil gravity tests
(Figure 4-44).

PIPETTE

OIL
SAMPLE
COLLECTING WATER
TUBE

Figure 4-44. Separate Oil for Gravity Test

46. Remove the retort bombs from the stills and put them in the sink or in a metal
bucket. Use gloves and do not wet the hot bombs; allow them to cool in air (Figure
4-45).

WEAR GLOVES
AS STIllS ARE
VERY HOT

Figure 4-45. Remove Retorts


140

47. Clean up, wash and dry the collecting tube, and run a cleaning brush through the
stills (wear gloves).

48 . Turn the water on and ensure that it is circulating. Put two fresh collecting tubes
on the stills, each with two drops of demulsifier, and place retort bombs 3 and 4 in
the stills, having first removed the masking tape from their tips. Set the timer and
repeat the saturation sample procedure as for 1 and 2.

NOTE

Steps 49 through 51 may be omitted if


the plugs are well consolidated.

49. Line up the dry, clean permeability plugs in numerical order, making sure that all
measurements (area and length) have been noted for each plug. Line up all the
cylindrical plugs on top of the petmeameter (Figure 4-46). Set out as many sleeves
as you have noncylindrical plugs on a board or piece of asbestos sheet. Pour a small
amount of sand into each sleeve to form a small conical heap, and put the plugs
into the sleeves -- pressing them lightly into the sand. Keep them in numerical
order from left to right (Figure 4-47).

Figure 4-46 . Line Up Permeability Plugs in Order


141

PERMEABILITY
SAMPLE PLUG

STAINLESS
STEEL SLEEVES

Figure 4-47. Insert Plugs into Sleeves

NOTE

Retorts should now be ready


for water readings.

5U. Heat the sealing wax on a hot plate, using the enameled sauce pan. When liquid,
pour the wax carefully into the sleeves, filling the annulus between the sleeves and
the samples. The sealing wax should just reach the edge of the plug without cover-
ing the end, as shown in Figure 4-48. Avoid getting wax on the end of the sample;
if you do, it will have to be scraped off with a knife. Make certain that the seal
between the plug and the sleeve is complete. It is best to arrange to seal all the
test samples which require wax sealing at one time, if possible.

ENAMELLED
SAUCEPAN

MOLTEN WAX

DO NOT COVER
END OF SAMPLE

Figure 4-48. Pour Wax Into Sleeves


142

51. When the wax has cooled and hardened, mark the appropriate sample number on the
wax at the end of the sleeve as shown in Figure 4-49. Do not place it in the
permeameter until the wax has completely hardened.

Figure 4-49. Mark Sample Number on Wax

52. Set plug number 1 into the permeameter core holder. If the plug is cylindrical,
push it into the large rubber-core sleeve or, if it is mounted, into the tubular rubber
sleeve. Press the rubber sleeve complete with sample into the metal core holder,
tapered-end downward as shown in Figure 4-50.

PERMEABILITY
SAMPLE PLUG

BLACK RUBBER
CORE HOLDER
(TAPERED END DOWN)

BASE PLATE

Figure 4-50. Insert Sample in Core Holder


143

53. Screw on the bottom of the core holder, making sure that the rubber a-rings and/or
metal washer are correctly positioned. Hand-tighten only with fingertip pressure
(Figure 4-51).

54. Mount the core holder in the screw mounting in the permeameter, making sure the
top of the rubber sample sleeve is against the upper metal fitting. Also, ensure
that the metal core holder does not catch on the lower portion of the upper metal
fitting. Tighten-up hard on the handle to ensure a good fit around the sides of the
sample. Also, make sure that the rubber sleeve is not blocking the air outlet in the
metal base (Figure 4-51).

Figure 4-51. Mount Core Holder and Tighten


144

Figure 4-52. Adjust Airflow

55. Turn the permeameter on. With the permeameter set to "large" flowmeter, open
the valve until the gauge reads 0.25 atm. If the "large" flowmeter ball does not
stay between the 2.0 and 14.0 cm marks, then switch to the medium flowmeter,
raise the pressure to 0.50 atm and tap the gauge lightly. If the medium flowmeter
ball does not stay within 2.0 and 14.0 cm, switch to the small flowmeter, and raise
the pressure to 1.00 atm, and tap the gauge lightly. Always switch to the next
flowmeter before adjusting the pressure (see Figures 4-52 and 4-53).

Figure 4-53. Read Flowmeter


145

56. Make notes of the flowmeter reading, flowmeter size, inlet pressure, and air tem-
perature on the Permeability worksheet (Figure 4-54).

PUMEAllLln WOIK Stu."


(",t N.. -S
0. _ tie l - I ooU '

~ 'O_~ I'O' '''I('I'I


k,.J\ ill.O\ A
A 4..)t.QL- A
m .. ..at ... A

Figure 4-54. Record Permeameter Readings


146

57. Turn the pressure off, take out the holder, remove the rubber sleeve, and remove
the sample plug. Keep the permeameter and porosity plugs for the client or for
rerunning (Figure 4-55).

Figure 4-55. Remove Core Holder and Insert Next Sample

NOTE

When the timer rings, drain water from


stills as in Step 21.

58. Run the remaining permeability samples, repeating Steps 51 through 56.

NOTE

Retorts will probably now be ready


for final oil reading.
147

5Y. Take the oi I readings as for the previous samples and load up the next two.

60. When cooled, the used retorts have to be cleaned out. Wearing gloves, remove the
retorts frorn the sink or bucket and remove the tops (use vise and bar, if neces-
sary). Throw out the used core and clean the retorts with toluene or acetone by
washing through, using two beakers as illustrated in Figure 4-56. Make sure that
the retort spouts are clean.

Figure 4-56. Clean Retorts when Cool

61. Clean out the collecting tubes by washing with soap and water, using a test-tube
brush. They should then be dried and put away thoroughly clean for the next use
(Figure 4-57).

Figure 4-57. Clean Collecting Tubes


148

62. Run any remaining saturation, porosity and permeability samples as described in
Steps 1 through 61.

63. Repeat any tests which seem doubtful, even if it is necessary to break out more
core.

64. Put all remaining samples and plugs into labeled sample sacks and deliver them to
the client's representative.

4.29 Optional Total Porosity Test

If total porosity is required, one extra measurement must be made ill addi~ion to the
measurements already recorded on the Effective Porosity WOFk.heet. This involves a
glass volumeter.

1. Obtain the bulk volume of toluene in the glass volumeter whereby the liquid level
reaches the bottom part"of the calibrated tube when the volumeter is inverted.
This will provide a base reference volume reading before adding sand grains to the
volumeter. Record this reading.

2. Crush the porosity sample to grain size with a mortar and pestle. Be extremely
careful not to lose any sand grains.

3. Place the volumeter in the upright position and allow all the toluene to drain from
ther upper part of the volumeter. Remove the cap and carefully transfer the
weighed sand grains to the volumeter cap. Replace the cap carefully so as not to
lose any sand grains, and then invert the volumeter for the final reading. Be sure
that all sand grains stay in the cap of the volumeter, that the grains are completely
wetted by toluene, and that all entrapped air is eliminated from the volume of sand
grains and toluene. Record this final reading.

4. Initial (R1) and final (R2) readings are taken from the volumeter before and after
the sand grains are added. The increase in volume of fluid as a result of adding the
sand is a di rect measurement of the sand grain volume.

WARNING

Make sure that the work area is well


ventilated when working with toluene.

5. After the R2 reading is obtained, the sand grains must be removed from the
volumeter cap to prepare for the next sand grain measurement. Tilt the volumeter
at a maximum angle, still keeping all the sand grains in the cap. Place over a sink
and remove the cap, promptly uprighting the bottom part of the volumeter. The
objective is to lose the least amount of toluene and to prevent any sand grains from
being transferred from the cap to the bottom part of the volumeter. Remove all
-sand grains from the cap and clean out any residue. Add sufficient toluene to
replace that lost, whereby the liquid level will again provide a reference volume
readin6 in the inverted position. The volumeter is then ready for the next test.
149

6. Record the results on the Total Porosity Worksheet (Figure 4-58).

TOTAL POROSITY WORK SHEET


EXPLORATlON LOGGING 16 DOS

C.m XY7.. 61 Co s-
Car. No' _ _"":""-_ _ LogginCi
:r. K""blo....
Geol-'-~ __

Well C"_I'b..\\ - I ~'ie I - IOD'2.S 1 001.,_7-=---_'8_-_6_1_ _


Depth

MfIdUlrMENtS CAlCUlAnONS

V,
R, R, V.
v. !ZS
j Wivht Initial Finol Sand GraTn Groin Den.ity

lulk Volumel.' Volumet.r Volume Par. Volume Paro.lty lithologic De.cription
Depth 0 .. Volume Iccl lam/eel
Reading Iccl V 1'/.1
:l lam' Icel
Reading
Iccl lecl RI-R, V.-v. -! X 100 Dry WI. +v.
V,

I '1181.'1 1'1.17 8.78 SO S1.o.J 7.Y I.'!.B 15.7"10 lSi 5 ....1> 'lV"'~, PI.. {~fJ..~ I B~
1 "1'181.8 'l1.'!.O '1.04 50 56'.1 6.1 o.q~ 10.17. 2.c..!> -il.EP/SIHI, MOl> FH FIZ.I J

3 '1'183.~ IB.Y!" H'I.. So 51.0 7.0 0.(.,2- 1\. (" '7. 2..(,,4 MEtl-F G,1l.,'sI.. ~I..1Y ~e(l)

11.5'1 8.,8 1.1.08 18.'1 '1.


'I ~'8~. '!>
,... 50 S7.'S 2.'8 5"~"'1>,5uea..o.x, F"t!.T
1.~
~

~
~
- r- - - -
- I- I- - - ....... FROM
l- I- I- I- ...... VOLUMETER

r- 1-

"
~

FROM EFFECTIVE
f-

~
I-
"- t>OROSITY
WORKSHEET

Figure 4-58. Total Porosity Worksheet

4.30 Oil Gravity Tests

The gravity of the oil is necessary for the proper correction of recovered oil volume on
the saturation tests. It is also an important factor in evaluating all core analysis data.
Whenever possible, the gravity of the oil should always be reported on the core analysis
report. Oil gravities are corrected to API gravity at 60F. If the specific gravity of the
oil is required and the API gravity is known, it can be determined from the table that
follows Figure 4-59.

The equipment consists of two API Oil Gravity Hydrometers and a clear glass cylinder
for suspending the hydrometers in the oil or 'alcohol-water' solution. One hydrometer
range is from 10 to 45 and the other is from 45 to 90. Both hydrometers are
equipped with thermometers and temperature conversion scales for converting to API
gravity at 60 F.
150

When sufficient sample of formation oil is available to float the hydrometer:

1. Fill glass cylinder one-half full with oil sample and place appropriate hydrometer in
cylinder. Be sure the hydrometer floats freely and does not stick to the walls of
the cylinder or touch the bottom of the cylinder.

2. Record the gravity. This will be indicated by the level of oil on the scale at the top
of the hydrometer.

3. Remove the hydrometer and record the temperature.

4. Locate the corresponding oil gravity correction for the temperature scale to the
right of the thermometer and correct oil reading to API gravity at 60F.

If the quantity of formation oil available is small, such as the amount recovered in the
retort, then the gravity of the oil recovered in the retort receiving tube must be deter-
mined by the alcohol-water solution process. This is also referred to as the 'oil drop'
method. A droplet of retorted oil is suspended in an alcohol-water solution, as follows
(Figure 4-59):

,- -
I "t4I6'.S. r:1t~t
- <>.- -.,".. ,,"
~@ ::: - w
-- -
t:::'
-;;:;- -;;;-
-
2. ~!'l' &, ... ,.' ".J
,. "'I!~. ~ "'. Iw. L1 O. ,
-j'M.l 10.n
" o' ,, ' .,'

Figure 4-59. Oil Drop Gravity Test


151

1. Fill a glass cylinder half-full with an alcohol-water solution of approximately 1


to 1.

2. Pipette 1 drop of oil from the fluid saturation recovery into the solution.

3. Stir solution gently and note whether the oil drop rises or falls. Progressively add
water to make gravity of the solution lower, or add alcohol to make gravity higher,
depending on whether the drop of oil falls or rises. Repeat until drop remains
suspended at a constant level after gentle stirring of the solution.

4. Measure the gravity of the alcohol-water solution with an A PI hydrometer.

The conversion factors listed below may be used for converting API gravity to specific
gravity and for determining the density of oil in pounds per cubic foot.

0 Specific 3
API Gravity Iblft

Ii 1.014 63.4
10 1.000 62.5
12 0.986 61.6
14 0.973 60.8
16 0.959 60.0
lli 0.946 59.1
20 0.934 58.4
22 0.922 57.6
24 0.910 56.9
26 0.898 56.1
28 0.887 55.4
30 0.876 54.7
32 0.865 54.1
34 0.855 53.4
36 0.1:145 52.8
38 0.835 52.2
40 0.825 51.6
42 0.815 51.0
44 0.806 50.4
46 0.797 49.8
4H 0.788 49.3
50 0.780 48.7
52 0.771 48.2
54 0.763 47.7
56 0.755 47.2
58 0.747 46.7
60 0.739 46.2

OA PI @ 60 F = 141.5 - 131.5
--c-
G = Specific Gravity @ 60F
152

4.31 Water Salinity Tests

There are two methods for determining core-water salinity: chemical titration and
resistivity measurements. Both methods measure the amount of salts extracted from a
weighed volume of sample. These measured values must be converted to milligrams of
salt leached from the sample and then calculated to parts-per-milliqn total salt, the
normal method for expressing salinity.

The following equipment is required for core-water salinity determination:

pipettes and chemicals for titration


a mud resistivity meter and thermometer for resistivity measurements
a mortar and pestle for crushing the sample
a triple-beam balance for weighing the sample, an evaporating dish
a temperature-controlled hotplate

Twenty grams of sample are required for core-water salinity determination. Pref~rably,
the sample should be a portion of the retorted sample used in the saturation test. If not,
it should be selected at some point in the core as close as possible to the saturation or
porosity test sample. If the sample has not been previously retorted it must be dried in
the sample drying OVen before the salinity test is run.

1. Titration Method: Grind to grain size approximately 20 to 25 g of sample from a


previously retorted saturation sample.

2. Weigh 20.0 g of sample and transfer to an evaporating dish. Add 100 cc of distilled
water.

3. Heat the solution on the temperature-controlled plate. Do not boil. Stir the solu-
tion often. .

4. Filter the solution.

5. Run a salinity titration of 1.0 cc of the leached sample. The result should be
expressed as parts of sodium chloride per million parts of core water. This is an
intermediate measurement and not the final calculation of core-water salinity.

6. The measurement from the titration method is calculated in milligrams of NaC I,


leached from the sample by the formula:

cc AgNo x 1.65 x vol HOused to leach sample (cc)


3 2
NaC I (mg) = ----------::--:--:-:--------:------
cc of filtrate used

1.65 is the factor for converting mg chloride ion to mg NaCI while the silver ni-
trate solution is .0282N equivalent to 1 mg of C1 ion per m1.
153

7. The volume of the core water in the salinity sample is calculated as follows:

Vb =:m
T (1 - $)
(4-11 )

Pore Water (ml) = V x $ x 5 (4-12)


b w
where

w = dry Weight of salinity sample

p = grain density of porosity sample


m
$ = porosity from porosity test sample

Vb = bulk volume of salinity sample

Sw = water saturation from saturation test

The dry bulk density may be used for the grain density of the salinity sample.

The salinity of the pore water is obtained by:

(mg) NaCI x 100 = (4-13)


(m1) Pore Water

mg NaCI per 100 g pore water

mg NaCI per 100 g pore water x 10 = ppm NaCI (4-14)

9. Resistivity Measurement Method: Measure resistivity of filtered solution with a


Baroid or Fann Resistivity Meter.

10. Correct resistivity to 77 F by means of the Temperature Correction Chart


provided with the resistivity meter. This result must also be corrected for pore
water volume.

11. The resistivity value for the salt solution can be converted directly to milligrams of
salt or salinity by using the conversion chart for salinity determination supplied
with the resistivity meter.
154

4.32 CORE ANAL YSIS CALCULATIONS

4.33 Effective Porosity

1. Using the previously established porometer calibration graph (see Paragraph 4.24),
convert the Compression Volume (V f) readings to G rain Volume (V g) and record on
the worksheet (Figure 4-60 and 4-61).

30.00

28.00
SAMPLE +2
SAMPLE *4
SAMPLE *3
SAMPLE *1
24.00

22 .00

w 20.00
0:
0: :::>
.......w VJ
VJ
W
18.00

~
...
a:
18.00
" ..:w
z"
-
~
0: 14.00
-iii
~ Go 12.00

"0z 0'"
0

~ ... 10.00

w
a: 0
z
8 .00
...J iii
~ en
0 w 8.00
a:
Go
::I: 4 .00
0
0
2.00

0.00
0 2.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 10.0
GRAIN VOLUME (VGl IN cc

Figure 4-60. Porometer Calibration

2. Calculate Pore Volume (V p) and record on worksheet:

V (4-15)
P

3. Calculate Porosity (4)) and record on worksheet:

(4-16)

4. Calculate Apparent Dry Bulk Density and record on worksheet:

= Dry Weight (wns) (4-17)


Pb V (cc)
g
155

5. Type a final copy of the Effective Porosity Worksheet and brief lithology descrip-
tion abstracted from the Core Report (Figure 4-61).

unOIAnON tOGGING EffECTIVE POROSITY WORK SHEET 16 0051'

Core No, _ _ _5"-_ __

,
Company XYZ 0 I L Co Logging G.oI. J KNOBLA

W~II __~C~.~.~P.~E~L~L~#1~__ D.p1h'--2929;!81.!.:-::.c1~0~0~25L_ __ Da , __--'7!.:-:..!1~8=-8~1!......._

v_.... v_...
MEA$UIMEMIS CALCUlAnoNS

..... ,,_, 1...,..1


VI.
"
eo_.-. V.
....
VI. gj

,..,
... ...
with Wer,hl ~ Oraln ,-II, Drylvl
/U...14 v....... v Dell.lt, LITHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION
'0/1
v._v,,_v. ~ ... ~XIOO Dr,W..+ v,

1 81.4 0.7~ h9.1 8.7E 24.3 7.7C 1.08 12.3% 2.49 Sa, PL GRY-GRV/BRN MOD 'M fRI. IIEO-' QR,

2 82.8 1.3E 4.3C 9.0S 7.21 8.9~ 0.14 1.5% 2.38 SL SLlY, ARG, SUSRND, SUBELONG, rRST CR,

3 83.4 9.5E 8.4E 8.92 25.2C 8.0 0.90 10.1% 2.30 MOD WELL SRT, AIUN , II. CA, FR-GD INTCR

4 84.3 2.4 9.5~ 8.98 25.9 8.2~ 0.74 8.2% 2.37 POR _/ RED elY " LL, PL HON~Y BRN OIL STH,

Figure 4-61. Effective Porosity Worksheet


156

4.34 Permeability

1. Using the Permeameter Outflow Graph (Figure 4-62), convert the reading for the
appropriate flowmeter to Outflow Rate (Q) and record on the Permeability Work-
sheet (Figure 4-63).

;:
0

;:;
0

;;;
0

0
;;
0

."
r
0 "'0
::E
...'"....
0 0 '"
'm" ...
:ll
...
0
0

Z
G'>
Z
'"0
3
3 '"0
0
.
<.>
0

.,
0

0
0
.,
0
r; o
" ~ ~ ~~ <.> ... '"
o 0 , 0 0 o
11 OUTFLOW RATE IN cc/SEC AT MEAN PRESSURE P

Figure 4-62 . Permeameter Outflow Graph (Example Only)


157

PERMEABILITY WORK SHET II OOJIO


CeN". No. _ _ _5
____ o..o!OoOII~ O ~A_
D.p,. 9981-10025' Do" 7-1B-81

c_.
..... - "" ...,.....-
Ml"~UU""HIt. CAlCUI""ON'

..... ..
ItQWilltflU
0,,1110- 'OV4IlA rOI DAten

E- ,., .-.
,
i19981
h"t!1I OAKfS
0.,."" 1"'0) It I .,.. >.. In /I.,, VIKM~t
I" hI I' OL
~LUDA.tC'f1
m ,~~
fJ:XIOOCII
, Q
'-'
l D IC"I A I,.,l 2"al + A. K
'" l,~h l
ft,,.,. .. "'OL + A
'"
1 81.3 1.91 1.45 29 0 b.' Id 82 5.8 0181, 1 6' 2(0.0184 5.8* 1.91)/1,65 0,247 247
2 82.5 2.6} 1.45 26 0 1.( S 116 0.80 018, 1. 65 (0.0182 * 0,8 * 2.6})/1.65 0.02} 23
} 83.} 1.87 1.46 28 ,( S 127 0.98 018' 1.67 (0.018} * 0.98 * 1.87)/1.6 0.020 20
4 84.0 1.95 1.45 29 0.' M 79 I2&... rJll 84 1.65 2 (0. 0184 * 5.6. 1.95)/1.65 o 244 244

Figure 4-63. Permeability Worksheet

2. Using the Temperature-Viscosity Plot (Figure 4-64), determine Air Viscosity (]J)
at the measured temperature and record on the worksheet.

0..020
,

0.018

AIR

~ 0 .0"
w
I I

~"
j: 0.0 18 I
~ F-:::::::~b,.--
"!
~
;;;
o,o,e I

o
Ii:
;: 0 .017

l: ,
0 ,017
!
I

0 .018
I.
'20
I
I IlJo
I IfS"'''''PLE~'
40
I .4
I
soOc

I l' AMPlE "3


I SAMPlE "'2
TEMPE " '" TURE

Figure 4-64. Gas Temperature Viscosity Plot


158

3. Calculate Plug C ross-Sectional Area (A) and record on the worksheet:

2
Cross-Section Area (A), cm 2 = 1T [Diamet~r (an)] (4-18)

4. Calculate permeability (K) and record on the worksheet:

K(darcies)=M (JJQL) (4-19)


A

where

M = 1, with small flowmeter


2, with medium flowmeter
4, with large flowmeter

k (mi Ilidarcies) = 1000 K (4-20)

5. Type a final copy of the Permeability Worksheet (Figure 4-63).

4.35 Saturations

1. Using the Gravity Correction Plot (Figure 4-65), convert the measured gravity of
the retorted oil to the estimated original gravity before heating. Record on the
worksheet (Figure 4-66).

m
40
w
-J
Q.
:::E u.
<0
C/) 0

z
(j)

I- 30
PARAFFIN
BASE OIL
If!i
...J <
0 c::
u. < ~.
0 CJ
> ~
t: I-
> a:
20 R ASPHALT
BASE OIL
< 0
~
a: I-
W .l
CJ
a:
CJ 10
w w
I- a:
< u.
0
:::E W
l- II)
C/)
w 0
0 10 20 I 30 40 50
I
GRAVITY OF RETORTED OIL API AT 60F

Figure 4-65. Gravity Correction Plot


159

SATUlATlON wO1< SHUT

.
XY~ OIL Co
~",c.oI ~"o~
"' C"""tel.l 11 0. 7_18-61

!I ..... .~.
'.,.,.".
..-:-
'-_ ~:_o:".
~
~
~ .....
~.~~:::.
.-....,:;: -c.---.;r.:o,.:- '"':_"--~._
".-, ~'"'-_"
~
- 0:.;'-.- ~=
.... ,...... .."
-':"':'::" c: _ _
0;;
...,
1 9981.
~. " 2.0
I~ 21' 27' 20.1' I,,,. ' . 49 I 20 ' f--E.. 'J! ~& I J6.0~
'~c ~ . 68
9/10 . 16
2.2
1,7
0, 1
0, 1
21,lE 0,99
," 0 . 16 19.6 ~.....1!! 1100
J 998" 19.56 0 . 62 2 . 90 0 . 16 " . ,~ '7.0~
.~., ')0. 71
I--'..L ~ 2" 27" .lZ. II} 1.68 6. 80 ' .2 20' O. 4} 6 . '~ 0' . 6_

1200

Figure 4-66. Saturation Worksheet

2. Using the Volume Correction Plot (Figure 4-67), convert the Recovered Free Oil
Volumes to Corrected Free Oil Volumes and record on worksheet.

1.4 II. I

..J
(5
..J
-<
Z
;;
a:
o

o .2 .4 ,8 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1,8 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4


OBSERVED OIL cc _

Figure 4-67. Volume Correction Plot


160

3. Transfer from the Effective Porosity Worksheet the Weight (with fluids) and Pore
Volume of Porosity Samples from equivalent depths.

4. Calculate the Pore Volume of the saturation sample and record on the worksheet:

Pore Volume (Saturation Sample) =


Wt (Saturation Sample)
Pore Volume (Pore Sample) " Wt (Pore Sample)

5. Calculate the Oil and Water Saturations and record on the Worksheet:

Water Saturation (%) = (4-22)

Recovered Free Water


" 100%
Pore Volume (Sat. Sample)

Oil Saturation (%) = (4-23)

Corrected Free Oi I
" 100%
Pore Volume (Sat. Sample)

6. Type a final copy of the Saturation Worksheet. Add the directly measured forma-
tion Oil Gravity and the Core Water Salinity, if available.

4.36 Alternate Methods

4.37 The Oil Correction of recovered oil volume and gravity is required to compensate
for the loss of volatiles in distillation.

If for some reason the volume correction graph is not available, or to make a rough check
on your results, the following correction factors can be applied.

The average correction factors are:

low gravity oil (less that API 20) or asphaltic base oils:

less than 1.0 cc recovery, multiplying factor = 1.6


Over 1.0 cc recovery, multiplying factor = 1.3

High gravity (over API 20) or paraffin-base oils:

less than 1.0 cc recovery, multiplying factor = 1.3


Over 1.0 cc recovery, multiplying factor = 1.2
161

If a sufficiently large sample of uncontaminated oil becomes available from a later test,
empirical correction factors can be determined for the reservoir by retorting a known
volume of oil mixed with clean sand. Comparing the known volume and gravity before
the test with the measured volume and gravity of recovered oil, correction factors can
be determined.

Charge a retort number with 100 to 120 grams of sand sample completely void of any
oil. This sample may be a previously retorted sand or a barren sand from outcrop. The
procedure is to add 7 to 8 cc of water to the sand sample and then accurately pipette 2
to 3 cc of the formation oil to the sample. The sample is placed in the still and a retort
is run. The oil recovery is carefully measured in the receiving tube.

The volume correction factor is calculated by the ratio:

cc of oil pipetted into sand sample (4-24)


cc of oi I recovered after retort i ng

= Volume Correction Factor

4.38 The Pore Volume Calculation requires the weight of the porosity sample with its
original fluids. This requires that the porosity sample be manually cut from the core. If
a core drill is used, the plug will be partially flushed by the cutting fluid, air or water,
and its weight cannot be directly compared with that of the saturation sample.

In this circumstance, the pore volume calculation is performed using the ratio of sample
dry weights. That is, equation (4-21) is used, but the weights are the extracted and dried
weight of the porosity sample and the weight of the saturation sample after it has been
removed from the retort.

4.39 Total Porosity may be determined, as previously discussed, if it is required by the


client. If this is the case, be sure to discriminate between Total Porosity and Effective
Porosity in all written and verbal reports. Casual terminology can cause confusion.

1. Transfer Sample Number, Depth, Dry Weight, and Bulk Volume (V b) from the Effec-
tive Porosity Worksheet to the Total Porosity Worksheet (Figure 4--68).

TOTAL POROSITY WORK SHEET


bl'lORATlON lOOGlNG

CompctJtJ. XYZ OIL Co


tonl"o em J Klf08LA
W.' CAMPBELL 11 o.,lh 9981-10025'

j .... W.igh,
Do,
I,...,
v_.
....
V,

,I
R,
Inltlol
YolumeMt
RRd;"g
""~"
Volum-'.r
. . .dillG .,
V.
SandO,o;n
vol......
v.
'_Volv",.
',d
...III....
Y! ';"00
Grain D...lily
lOlli/cd lilholotico.~on

'"' Icd 1,-1, V,-V.


V.
DryWt. +V.

1 9981.4 19.11 8.78 50 57.4 7.4 1.3S 15.7% 2.59 I~HDS'OHE, PL ~RY/CRH

2 9982,8 21.30 9.09 50 58.1 8.1 0.99 10.9)1 2.63 -ftEO/UH, 1100 F .. , FRI,

3 9983.4 18.46 7.92 50 57.0 7.0 0.62 11.611 2.64 IIED-' CR, n SLlY, ARC,

4 9984.3 19.54 8.98 50 57.3 7.3 1.68 18.7'1' 2.68 SU.RHD. SUllfLDMQ, .. RSt

Figure 4-68. Total Porosity Worksheet


162

2. Calculate the Grain Volume (V ) of the crushed sample from the initial (R1) and
final (R2) volumeter readings, a~d record on the Worksheet:

V
g
= R2 - R1 (4-25)

3. Calculate the Total Pore Volume (V p) of the sample from the Bulk Volume (Vb) and
the G rain Volume (V g) and record it on the worksheet:

(4-26)

4. Calculate the Total Porosity (<</ and True Grain Density (pma) of the sample and
record it on the Worksheet.

V
(4-27)
/> (%) = vP 100%
b

pma
= Dry Weight
V (4-28)
g

5. Type a final copy of the Total Porosity Worksheet and add brief lithological de-
scriptions abstracted from the Core Report.

6. Using the Total Pore Volume, the Water and Oil Saturations may be recalculated.
When reporting these to the client make sure that the different calculation base is
understood.

4.40 PRESENTATION OF CORE ANALYSIS DATA

Core analysis data is usually presented in both tabular (the final copy Worksheets) and
graphical (the Core Analysis log) form.

Once all the results and calculations have been collated, a neat presentable report has to
be handed to the client.

When using the linear Utility log sheets (El PIN 18435 imperial or EL PIN 18436
metric), a graphical representation of the cored interval and analysis results should be
drafted as in the example shown in Figure 4-69. Dry transfers should be used for the
symbols, heading and labeling, as there is insufficient space in the headings for
typewriter lettering. The symbols used should be as shown in the example, and the .35
mm pen should be used for drafting the lithology and the curves. The suggested vertical
scale is one major division per foot (two divisions per meter), but a suitable scale should
be used to suit the client's needs and to best represent the data.
163

WELL: ~o::; "r.. Y'i 011 SHEET NO.

Co,,[ iii : , Cc:p," 1NUIIOJAr., : 6.206 .8 - 6.227 ,8

-.-
EII"nCTlY[ POJIIOSITY ... P['UIli& .. 'Ill T.... 1li&r.OE.A GAS

..."
- 0 -
TOTAL POIIIIOSIn' "'-
I MlL LIOoU!C.[S!
'1" t Q 60 ,I) 1(10
lG_+_
"'If ___ 0 __

LJl~OG'I' --0-- B,t.(:1Cl,JP $C "'~E .II t OI


,.'1)
wAnA .s .. TUIIl,A.JIOH .... POPiE
I."CI(U'P 5-CALI :CIII)I
_a
_!?C _
,--_. '""iO : ~
:0 ,)0 . (1 5 1(1 oWl tOO <"0( 1(10 II) tl) 1(1 IoU' .a.o"(l
4,+- -:-:.-::.

Figure 4-69. Core Analysis Log

The test results should be neatly tabulated by taking fresh worksheets and typing the
results as illustrated in Figure 4-61,4-63, 4-66 and 4-68. The same amount of care and
attention should be applied in drafting and typing the core analysis reports as is applied
in drafting the M aster Log.

Acc.ompanying the Core Analysis Log and worksheets should be copies of the Core
Report, the relevant sheet(s) of the Formation Evaluation Log, Core and Sample Shipping
Inventories.
164

4.41 SIDEWAll-CORE ANAL YSIS

Procedures for sidewall core samples are essentially the same as for conventional core
analysis except for minor modifications, due to the smaller size of the sample. Accuracy
is somewhat reduced because of the damage done to the sample by the percussion tool
and because of the size of the sample.

Normally, wellsite description of sidewall cores is limited by the requirement to mini -


mize core breakage. However, since performing core analysis on sidewall-cores entails
almost total destruction of them, a complete geological evaluation must be performed
first.

4.42 COKE DESCRIPTION

Make a 1 mm incision around the circumference of the core about two-thirds of the
length from the borehole end, and carefully break it apart. 00 not cut completely
through, as the passage of the knife may obscure some indistinct structure (see Figure

7
4-70).

FRESI:I. GENERALLY CONCAVE


SURFACE FURTHEST fROM HOLE
(REFERS TO END)

\ ., FILTER CAKE

~
~

Figure 4-70 . Break Core Laterally

Using the shorter piece, make further cuts if necessary to display any sections that are
normal and parallel to any structure. The core is now cut such that it may be examined
for all relevant possibilities with a minimum amount of breakage (see Figure 4-71).

Figure 4-71 . Split Shorter Piece Longitudinally


165

The fresh surfaces allow examination in UV light, without any contamination from lubri-
cants used in preparing the gun. The use ofaX10 hand lens is generally faster and more
versatile than using the microscope. For detailed characteristics and mineral identifica-
tion, however, the microscope must be used.

If the core is of a coarse, clastic composition, it will generally be more fragile than one
of high argillaceous content. The mechanics of deposition of clastic sediments usually
preclude the forming of any sedimentary structure small enough to be recognized in a
sidewall core. In more fine-grained sequences, bedding or fine laminae produced by
traction carpet mechanisms may be present, but care must be taken if a final
commitment has to be made. Ideally, a thorough knowledge of the regional and local
geology is necessary to identify a particular sedimentary structure in a clastic rock. A
discontinuity may be obvious, but a correct classification can be made only after the
consideration of several sedimentary parameters present in the area at the time of
deposition, i.e., the position of a sediment and its structure in the Bouma Cycle.

Refer to Formation Evaluation: Geological Procedures (Exlog, 1985) for a discussion of


geological techniques and classification systems.

Details of the orientation of the gun in relation to the geological trend is a prime requi-
site, so that the orientation of any particular structure may be ascertained to facilitate
correct interjlretation. This is most important in the interpretation of structures in any
rock.

Uon't confuse epigenetic structures with primary sedimentary structures. Pressure


solut-ion cleavage, grain-welding anisotropies, mica and clay segregations, concretion
boundaries, veins, bioturbation, ghost structures from dissolved fossil remains, and frac-
tures are some major examples. With the limited equipment provided in most logging
units, a correct interpretation of one particular structure would be almost impossible;
however, logical elimination may narrow the possibilities to two or three structures from
which an intelligent interpretation can be made. If this is not feasible, then make a short
list of possibilities on the report.

Identifying the mineral composition and bulk percentages is important, particularly when
correlating porosities and permeabilities from the wireline logs. Heavy mineral sands,
tuffs and generally clastic rocks that have a composition different from the classic
quartz-clay rock will produce a response that may be incorrectly interpreted if the
drilling engineer is not aware of unusual geological parameters. The percent concentra-
tion of heavy minerals in a sediment is rarely correctly estimated during normal logging
procedures. This is primarily a function of their rarity in that they tend to be overlooked
in the sample tray, and also because their high density causes higher sink velocities in the
annulus. This increases the possibility of their 'hanging up," particularly in a long, large-
diameter riser used in some offshore wells. However, in thick sands or tuffs that have
high concentrations of heavy mafic minerals, their concentration may be estimated
during mud logging -- but it will generally be a very pessimistic representation of the
true amount.

If the core is wholly or predominantly argillaceous, it was taken mainly for source rock
analysis and biostratigraphic control. To obtain most information from a clay core it
should be carefully prepared to display any structures to their best advantage. When
examining and describing clay cores, do not take the attitude that, visually, one and all
are very similar -- and then, after the first two or three have been described, carelessly
166

report the rest as being precisely the same unless there is something very obvious to
catch the eye. Unfortunately, analysis of mineral composition of a clay core is not
possible in an average logging unit, and visual appraisal of grain-to-grain characteristics
is also precluded by their size. This, however, is no real disadvantage: as a legacy of the
submicroscopic grain size, structures ,are consequently on a much smaller scale in com-
parison to arenaceous sediments. The majority of predominantly clay sediments were
deposited on a horizontal sediment-water interface, such that the mechanics of deposi-
tion in relation to the average clay particle shape caused all particles to be deposited
with their long axes parallel to the sediment surface (horizontal). If the clay is bentoni-
tic in character it will not possess this finely laminar structure as a primary sedimentary
feature, but may later acquire fissility through tectonic processes. Chloritic, illitic, and
kaolinitic clays will preserve their original sedimentary structures (unless they are physi-
cally disturbed) because of their nonhydrating capacities. Montmorillonite clays usually
have no original sedimentary structures due to the effects of dehydration which, when
initiated, rapidly redistributes ions -- causing vi rtual mass-movement.

The extremely slow rates of deposition of clays allow a very small environmental change
to be recorded on a very small scale, in comparison to clastic sediments. On the scale of
the sidewall core, hundreds of years of deposition may be represented in the thickness of
the diameter of the core. Within that time-scale, subtle changes in climate, current,
source area, water temperature, water depth, and zoological activity may be recorded as
a change in character of the clay on the seafloor at that time. Conditions may fluctuate,
cycle, or continually change such that changes in clay composition and structure may be
either gradual or very rapid with depth. Diligent examination of the clay cores, carrying
out the same procedures for each one and carefully noting the results, may reveal
geological information relating to the paleo-environment or source that would have been
overlooked if they have been given only cursory attention.

The orientation of planar structures (bedding laminae, veins and cleavage) is particularly
useful in that the local geological trend may be determined, if the attitude of the bullet
was known, and in conjunction with the use of an isopach map. In near vertical wells the
bullets enter the formation almost horizontally. Thus any dip noted in any laminar
structure in a clay sediment may be taken to represent the local dip of the formation,
unless the particular structure is known not to be related to original sedimentary
processes (veins).

4.43 CORE ANAL YSIS

4.44 Sample Preparation

The sidewall sample needs only to have the mud cake scraped off with a knife or brush to
be ready for analysis. Do not crush the sample for saturation determination, because the
entire analysis is run on one sidewall sample plug. Sidewall cores will normally require
wax-mounting for the permeability test. The exception is when the plugs are sufficiently
firm to be shaped with a knife to fit the R-20 permeameter sleeve.

4.45 Porosity and Permeability

1. Uescribe the core and scrape mud cake from it. Check for fluorescence under the
ultraviolet light.
167

2. With a knife, shape the core for porosity and permeability tests. The same test
sample is used for both tests, with the porosity test run first.

3. Weigh the test sample with fluids, to the nearest 0.01 gram.

4. If there is no fluorescence, dry sample in the shelf oven for approximately one
hour. If there is fluorescence, then it will have to be extracted.

5. Weigh sample without fluids, to the nearest 0.01 gram.

6. Determine bulk volume with porometer.

7. Determine compression volume with porometer and convert to grain volume.

IS. Calculate effective porosity.

9. Shape test sample to cylindrical dimensions to fit R-20 rubber sleeve, or, if
unconsolidated, for mounting in wax.

10. Measure length and diameter of sample with Vernier caliper to nearest 0.01 em.

11. Mount sample plug in appropriate rubber sleeve, depending on whether or not
sample is mounted in sealing wax.

12. Run permeability test. Be especially cautious of cracks in the test sample which
will give incorrect, high-permeability values.

13. Run core chip salinity.

4.46 Saturation

Sidewall cores are taken from the zone of mud invasion and flushing. Saturations in this
zone are of little value. However, if they are required, the saturation test is run first on
the entire plug, so do not crush the plug into chips. After the saturation test is run, the
sample is shaped for the porosity and permeability tests.

Calculation of saturations is similar to the method described in Paragraphs 4.35 and 4.38,
using the dry weight ratio.

4.47 CARE OF THE CORE ANALYSIS KIT

4.48 CLEAN UP AND STORAGE

1. Clean mercury off the outside of the porometer and tray; collect used mercury in a
beaker topped up with water and detergent. C lean the sample chamber with a
cotton swab. Clean the surface of the mercury in the pump. Clean the porometer
_ lid of mercury and di rt; remove the O-ring, carefully clean the ring and seat, and
replace; change the O-ring if it appears worn or damaged. Clean the inner seat of
O-ring in the chamber. Tighten the porometer lid, run the mercury in about half-
168

way (20 cc), close the needle valve, close the valve to the low pressure gauge, and
lock the handle by tying, taping or using a nail.

WARNING

Mercury is poisonous. Don't leave it lying around: keep it away


from heat; keep it off your clothes. Always wear rubber-soled shoes
to perform core analysis. C lean up all spilled mercury immedi-
atelyl Use rubber bulb or eye dropper for this.

2. C lean up all glassware, and store it in the proper drawer. Glassware and everything
else used for core analysis should be spotlessly clean. C lean all retort bombs,
inside and out, and store away neatly. Replace asbestos gaskets in the lids when
necessary (if worn or damaged). Clean out stills with a brush dipped in acetone or
chlorothene (wait until they have completely cooled offl).

3. C lean wax and sand from the board used for mounting samples. Once the permea-
bility tests have been run, mounted plugs can be removed from the metal sleeves by
heating the outside of the sleeve with a torch or soldering iron; the plug will slip
out of the sleeve. Deliver plugs to the client. C lean the inside of the rings, and
remove all traces of wax with chlorothene or acetone.

4. Put everything away neatly in its place so that you or anyone else can find it again
without difficulty.

Remember: Be clean and carefull Strive for accuracy first, speed second.

4.49 TEAR-OUT AND SHIPPING

The following are the normal packing and shipping instructions for the core analysis
equipment discussed in this manual.

Parometer: Bolt securely in its wooden crate. Raise pressure in the lower pressure
gauge to 30 psi and close the valve to this gauge. Next, tape the crank handle to prevent
its rotation. Nail down the top of the wooden crate.

Permeameter: Remove from wall and bolt it to the shipping bracket. Replace the four
wall screws and washers in the wall of the unit. Remove the yellow centigrade ther-
mometer from the permeameter and package it with the spare thermometer. Carefully
pack and secure the permeameter in its shipping crate.

Saturation Stills: Remove stills from the wall and replace the mounting screws back in
the wall. Be sure to remove the retorts during shipping. Package the stills in thei r
cardboard shipping case. Double-check to see that electric cords have not been left in
the unit.
169

Refer to the core analysis parts inventory list when packaging the remaining parts for
shipment, checking off each item on the list as it is packed. Any missing or damaged
items should be listed on the Final Request for Supplies and Operating Record. This form
should be sent to the local office, explaining how, when, and where the equipment was
shipped. Be thorough and do not leave any parts or manuals in the unit. At this time, the
core analysis equipment set should be completely ready for the next job. Any repairs or
replacements required should be according to your report. It should not be necessary for
the next crew or a service engineer to clean up or make wellsite repairs prior to next
using the kit.

If the Ruska core analysis equipment is damaged beyond repair or is malfunctioning, it


will have to be replaced in the field. As the porometer, permeameter, and saturation
stills are self-contained units, their replacement is basically a simple exchange. It is
extremely important that the Ruska manuals be exchanged along with the equipment."
The reason for this is that the factory calibration of the porometer and the permeameter
are applicable only to one specific instrument. The serial numbers and the instrument
should always be identical.
INDEX
Absolute porosity, 3, 19-20 preparation for retrieval of, 62-64
Acetate peels, for core analysis, 78-79 pressured, 84-85
Analytical procedure, for core recovery of, 38
analysis, 104-162 removal of, from barrel, 64-65
API gravity, 149-151 retrieval of, 2,51,62-66
API Oil Gravity Hydrometer, 149-151 rotary sidewall, 90
rubber sleeved, 83
Ball bearing swivel, 36(fig), 37 sampling of, 2,51, 70-79
Barrel, removal of core from, 64-65 shipping of, 79-82
Barrel cores, retrievable, 39-41,49,83 sidewaIl, 85-90, 164-167
Bit, core ejector, 45-46 Core analysis, 1-3
Bottomhole coring, 33-40 acetate peels for, 78-79
Boxing, of core, 66-70 calculations of, 154-162
Bubble-paint curve, 16 core slabbing for, 76-77
Bulk volume, determination of, 92-93 equipment preparation for, 104-106
Bullets, lost, 86 limitations of, 1
logging geologist and, 3
Canning, for sample preservation, 72 methods of, 91-169
Cementation, porosity and, 6, 7(fig) of sidewaIl cores, 88-89
Check valve, 37 presentation of, 162-163
Chloroth~ne, 102 procedures for, 104-162
Chronological Sample Taker (CST), qualitative, 2, 3
46-48 quantitative, 1
Circulating ports, 34(fig), 37 sample preparation for, 72-73,
Compaction, porosity and, 6, 7(fig) 101-104
Connate water, 13 sample selection for, 71-72
Consolidated sample, 127 sampling for, 70-73, 104
Conventional core, 51-82. Sidewall, 164-167
See also Core tests for, 116-148
Core thin sections for, 77-78
barrel, 83 Core analysis kit, 3
Boxing of, 66-70 care of, 167-168
characteristics of, 17-32 Core barrel, 33, 34(fig), 36-37
conventional, 51-82 oriented, 42-43
cracks in, 22 parts of, 36-37
depth of, 55 pressure, 43-45
description of, 2 retractable, 39
ejector, 85 retrievable, 39-41, 49, 83
flushing and, 21-22 reverse circulation, 41
footage, 55 reverse circulation retrievable, 41
gas evaluation of, 56-58 rubber sleeve, 41-42
geological evaluation of, 73-76 wireline, 39-40
hydrocarbon evaluation of, 75-76 wireline retrievable, 39-40
jamming of, 36 Core bit, 33-36
labeling of, 69(fig) diamond, 35,36
logging of, 54-59 drag, 35
lost, 55 drill bits and, 34-35
macroscopic examination of, 73-74 rotary cutter, 35
microscopic examination of, 74-75 size of, 35
oil evaluation of, 58-59 types of, 35
oriented, 84 Core catcher, 34(fig), 37, 38
packing and shipping of, 2 Core crusher sub, 46
porosity of, 93-94 Core ejector bit, 45-46
172

Core evaluation DrilIstem test analysis, 1


sidewall, 87-89 Drying, of sample, 103, 127-128
Core gun, wireline, 46-48
Core head, See Core bit Effective permeability, 11
Core labeling, encoding, 78-82 Effective porosity, 3, 19, 91-94,
Core point, 53-54 154-155
Core retrieval, 2,51,65-66 Ejector cores, 85
preparation for, 62-64 Encoding data, for tight holes, 79-82
Core sample Equipment
oil gravity tests on, 149-151 calibration of, 108-115
permeability measurement of, 94-97 care of, 167-168
porosity measurement of, 92-94 preparation of, 104-107
saturation of, 97-100 shipping, 168-169
total porosity test of, 148 Extraction, 102-103
water salinity tests on, 152-153 of sample, 127-128
Core slabbing, 76-77 of sidewall cores, 86-87
Core slicer, wireline, 49 Extraction-distillation procedure, for
COJ;e slices, sidewall, 89-90 determining saturation, 99-100
Core-water salinity, 152-153
Coring Flow comparison test, 114-115
bottomhole, 33-40 Fluid distribution, in reservoir, 12-14
care required during, 37-39 Fluorescence, 131
choosing point for, 53-54 Flushing
commencement of, 37 core and, 21-22
conventional, 33-39 permeability and, 22
mud tests during, 59-62 porosity and, 22
oriented, 42-43 saturation and, 32
planning for, 51-53 stratigraphy and, 32
procedures for, 33-49 Footage, 55
purpose of, 1 Formation hardness, 86
rate of penetration data for, 56 Freezing, for sample preservation, 72
retrievable, 39-41
retrievable barrel, 39-41 Gas, logged after tripping, 58
rubber sleeve, 41-42 Gas evaluation, 56-58
set-up for, 54 Gas permeameter, Ruska, 94-97
sidewall, 46-49 Geological evaluation, 72-76
with pressure barrel, 43-45
Critical Point, 15 Hole size, sidewall cores and, 85
Critical Pressure, 14-15 Hydrocarbon evaluation, of core, 75-76
Critical Temperature, 14-15 Hydrometer, API Oil Gravity, 149-151
Cubic packing, 6
Cuttings lithology, 59 Inner barrel, 34(fig), 37, 39
retrievable, 39
Darcy, 4 Irreducible water saturation, 13
d'Arcy, Henry, 4,22
d'Arcyequation, 27 Kobe method, 92"":94
Depth, porosity and, 6, 7(fig)
Depth discrepancies, 55 Logged after tripping (LAT), 58
Dew-point curve, 16 Logging
Diamond drill bit, 45-46 of conventional cores, 54-59
Double wrapping, for sample of core, 54-59
preservation, 72 cuttings lithology and, 59
Drill bit depth of, 55
core bits and, 34-35 of ejector cores, 85
diamond, 45-46 gas evaluation, 56-58
Dr1I1ing exponents, 53-54 lost core and, 55
Drilling parameters, monitoring oil evaluation, 58-59
of, 37-38 of oriented cores, 84
173

of pressured cores, 84 Petroleum reservoir


rate of penetration and, 56 defined, 5
of retrievable barrel cores, 83 idealized, 12-14
of rubber sleeved cores, 83 Phase relationships, 14-17
of sidewall cores, 89 Plastic coating, for sample
weight-on-bit and, 55 preservation, 72
Logging geologist, role of, 2-3 Pore, geometry of, 8
Lost bullets, 86 Pore space, distribution of, 5
Pore volume calculation, 161
Macroscopic examination, Porometer, 133-136
of core, 73-74 calibration of, 110-112
Microscopic examination, care of, 167-168
of core, 74-75 Ruska, 17,91, 169
Millidarcy, 4 shipping of, 168
Misfires, 86 supplies for, 106
Mud tests, during coring, 59-62 Porosity
absolute, 3, 19-20
Nitrate ion, test for, 60-62 calculation of, 154-155
cementation and, 6, 7(fig)
Oil correction factor, 160-161 changes in, during core retrieval, 21
Oil gravity tests, 149-151 compaction and, 6, 7(fig)
Oriented core barrel, 42-43 defined, 1, 3
Oriented cores, 84 depth and, 6, 7(fig)
Outer barrel, 34(fig), 36, 38-39 determination of, 91-94
in dolomites, 8
Packing effective, 3,91-94,154-155
cubic, 6 factors affecting, 5-8
rhombohedral, 6 intercrystalline, 8
Paraffin wax coating, for sample interparticle, 8
preservation, 72 intraparticle, 8
Penetration, rate of, 38, 56 in limestones, 8
Permeability limitations of measuring, 20-22
calculation of, 156-158 measurement of, 17-22
defined, 1-4 permeability and, 24
in dolomites, 8 of reservoir rock, 5-11
effective, 11 of sidewall core, 166-167
factors affecting, 8-11 vuggy, 8
fluid distribution and, 13-14 Porosity sample, 130, 132-136, 140
flushing and, 22 preparation of, 101-102
in limestones, 8 shaping of, 118-119
limitations of measuring, 24-28 Porosity test, total, 148
measurement of, 8, 22-28, 94-96 Pressure core barrel, 43-45
porosity and, 24 Pressured cores
relative, 11 logging of, 84
sample calculation of, 97 recovery of, 84-85
of sidewall core, 166-167 Purpp pressure
Permeability sample, 126-128, 130, high, 37
140-148 increase in, 38
preparation of, 101 monitoring of, 37
sealing in wax, 104 Pycnometer, 91-93, 134-136
Permeameter, 143-146
calibration of, 112 Rabbit, 34(fig), 37
flow comparison test for, 114-115 Rate of penetration, 38, 56
Ruska, 23-28,94-97, 169 Refluxing, 99-100
shipping of,- 168 Relative permeability, 11
solid plug calibration test for, 113 Reservoir characteristics, 3-17
supplies for, 106 Reservoir fluids, distribution of, 12-14
Permeameter core holder, 94-95 Reservoir geology, 5-11
174

Reservoir rock, porosity of, 5-11 hole size of, 85


Retort, 120-122 hydrocarbon evaluation of, 88
Retort procedure, for determining limitation of, 48
saturation, 97-99 logging of, 89
Retrievable core barrel, 39-41,49,83 permeability of, 166-167
Reverse circulation retrievable core porosity of, 166-167
barrel, 41 recovery of, 87
Rhombohedral packing, 6 rotary, 90
Rotary sidewall corer, 49 saturation of, 167
Rotary sidewall cores, 90 Sidewall core analysis, 164-167
Rubber sleeve core barrel, 41-42 Sidewall core slices, 89-90
Rubber sleeved cores, 83 Sidewall corer, rotary, 49
Ruska Permeameter, 23-28,94-97, 169 Sidewall coring, 33, 46-49
Ruska Porometer, 17, 91, 169 Sidewall CST cores, 85-90
Solid plug calibration test, 113
Safety jOint, 34(fig) Solvent extraction, 102-103
Salinity, 59-60, 152-153 Soxhlet apparatus, 102
Sample Stratigraphy, flushing and, 32
consolidated, 127 Stress relief, 22
drying of, 102-103, 127-128 Swivel, 34(fig), 37
extraction of, 102-103, 130-131
porosity of, 93-94 Thin sections, for core analysis, 77-78
preparation of, 101-104 Tight hole, encoding data for, 79-82
preservation of, 72-73 Toluene, 102
selection of, 7I - 72 Total porosity, 161-162
unconsolidated, 128 test of, 148-149
Sampling
of conventional cores, 70-73 Unconsolidated sample, 128
for core analysis, 70-73
of ejector cores, 85 Vapor Pressure Curves, 14
of oriented cores, 84 Volume correction factor, 161
of pressured cores, 84-85 Volumeter, 20
of retrievable barrel cores, 83 Vuggy porosity, 8
of rubber sleeved cores, 83
Saturation, 13 Water, connate, 13
calculation of, 158-160 Water salinity tests, 152-153
defined, 1, 5 Water saturation, irreducible, 13
determination of, 97-100 Wax, sealing, 104, 141-142
flushing and, 32 Weight-an-bit
limitations in measuring, 30-32 changes in, 55
measurement of, 28-32 low, 55
of sidewall core, 167 Wireline core gun, 46-48
Saturation sample, 119-120, 130, Wireline core slicer, 49
137-140 Wireline log, 1
preparation of, 101 Wireline retrievable core barrel, 39-40
Saturation still, 28-29, 122-123 Wrapping and canning, for sample
calibration of, 108-109 preservation, 72
shipping of, 168
supplies for, 106
Saturation still retort, 98(fig)
Sealing wax, 141-142
Shipping, of core, 79-82
Sidewall core
analysis of, 88-89, 166-167
description of, 164-166
evaluation of, 87-89
extraction of, 86-87
formation hardness of, 86