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What is QA/QC?

Quality Assurance is the system of action and planning needed

to provide maximum confidence for quality requirements.

Quality Control is the operational techniques i.e (Inspection, Testing & Examination) that are used
to fulfill requirement for quality.

What are the basic responsibilities of a QA/QC personal?

To ensure the execution of works are comply fully as per approved Code & standard procedure.

What is ITPs?
ITP: ITP means Inspection and Test Plan.
Details of work scope and required types of inspections

What are QA/QCs ITPs?

This is procedure informs about the kinds of quality check (surveillance inspection witness or hold
points) means quality of works is being done in proper sequences.

Hold point (H) is the level of inspection that client inspection must required through RFI and cannot
be proceeded until inspection is done by client.

Witness point (W) is the level of inspection that inspection activity can be proceeded without client
inspection or if client is not available as per RFI timing.

What is NCR? Why does it need for a QA/QC personal?

NCR means Non-Conformance Report, QA/QC personal has reserve the right to issue a warning if
contractor doesnt comply or violate with the standard procedure.

What is RFI? When an RFI will be raised?

Request for Inspection (RFI), RFI shall be raised only when the status of the preliminary inspection is
satisfactory, and the works (items) are hold or witness point.

What is schedule Q?
Schedule Q is an attachment to the contract, which is the provision of quality assurance and control,
Inspection and test plan.

What is WPS?
WPS is Welding Procedure Specification, It is a written document that provides direction to the
welder or welding operator for making production welds.

What is standard?
A Standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions and guidelines that function as
instructions for designers, manufacturers, operators, or users of equipment. Ex ASME31.3 is a
standard for process piping.

What is code?
A standard becomes a Code when it has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and is
enforceable by law, or when it has been incorporated into a business contract.

Page : 1/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

What is specification?
Specifications clearly and accurately describe the technical
requirements of any given product or process and are used heavily by purchasing departments for
controlling the quality of incoming materials. Ex API5L

What is the difference between Pipe and Tube?

Pipe is identified by NB (Inner Dia) and thickness is defined by Schedule.
Whereas Tube is identified by OD.

From which size onwards NB of pipe is equal to OD of Pipe?

From the size 14 and onwards NB = OD of pipe.

What is the difference between machine bolt and stud bolt?

Machine bolt has a head on one side and nut on other side but stud bolt have nuts on both sides.

What is the thumb rule to calculate spanner size for given bolt? Answer:
1.5 x diameter of Bolt

What is the thumb rule to calculate Current required for Welding? Answer:
Current (Amp) = [Diameter of Electrode (mm) X 40] + 20

What should be the radius of long radius elbow? Answer:

1.5D (Where D is the diameter of the pipe)

What is the min. distance to be maintained between two welds in a pipe

Minimum spacing of circumferential welds between centre lines shall not be less than 3-times
the pipe wall thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater.

Major Inspection of Material Receiving Major Inspection of Material (Pipe)

 Size  Welded Seam
 Condition  Inside Dia
 Type / Specification / Schedule  Out side Dia
 Storage  Length
 Heat Number  Wall Thickness
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Application Standard
Approved WPS / PQR & Drawing (welding package)
Have been approved and WPS is available to welders (and inspectors)
Composition & Condition:
Material (Base
In accordance with drawing/WPS>Identified and can be traced to a test certificate
Metal) Traceability
In suitable condition (free from damage and contamination
Welding equipment In suitable condition and calibrated as appropriate
Those to be used are as specified by the WPS are being stored/controlled as
Welding consumables
specified by the QC Procedure
Identification of welders qualified for each WPS to be used.
Welder qualifications
All welder qualification certificates JCC are valid (in date)
Weld preparations In accordance with WPS (and/or drawings)Edge Preparation:
In accordance with WPS/drawings tack welds are to good workmanship standard
Joint fit-ups
and to code/WPS
Weld faces are free from defects, contamination and damage
Preheat (if required) Minimum temperature is in accordance with WPS
All base materials (by spec, grade, P-No, Piping Diameter range) and wall
thicknesses to be used shall be included in the Weld Table.
Weld Table
Each Weld Table shall be completed & show all line designations to be used for the
entire complete job or contract.


Ensure weather conditions are suitable/comply with Code
Site/field welding
(conditions will not affect welding)
Welding process In accordance with WPS
Preheat Temperature (if required) Minimum temperature is being maintained in accordance with WPS
Inter-pass temperature Maximum temperature is in accordance with WPS
Welding consumables Inn accordance with WPS and being controlled as Procedure
Welding parameters Current, volts, travel speed are in accordance with WPS
Root run Visually acceptable to Code (before filling the joint) (for single sided welds)
Gouging/grinding By an approved method and to good workmanship standard
Interrun cleaning To good workmanship standard
Welder On the approval register/qualified for the WPS being used


Weld Each weld is marked with the welder's identification and is identified in accordance with
identification drawing/weld map
Ensure welds are suitable for all NDT (profile, cleanness etc)-
Weld appearance
Visually inspect welds and sentence in accordance with Code
Dimensional survey Check dimensions are in accordance with drawing/Code
Drawings Ensure any modifications are included on as-built drawings
NDT Ensure all NDT is complete and reports are available for records
Repairs Monitor in accordance with the Procedure
PWHT (if required) Monitor for compliance with Procedure (check chart record)
test (if required) Ensure test equipment is calibrated Monitor test to ensure compliance
with Procedure/Code. Ensure reports/records are available
Documentation Ensure all reports/records are completed and collated as required
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(ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

SECTION-1 Rules for Construction of Power Boilers

SECTION II Materials
Part A - Ferrous Material Specifications
Part B - Nonferrous Material Specifications
Part C - Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals
Part D - Properties (Customary)
Part E - Properties (Metric)
SECTION -IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
SECTION-V Nondestructive Examination
SECTION-VI Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
SECTION-VII Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
SECTION VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Division 1
Division 2 - Alternative Rules
Division 3 - Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels
SECTION IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications
SECTION X Fiber - Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
SECTION XI Rules for In service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
SECTION XII Rules for Construction and Continued S e r v i c e of Transport Ta n k s .

ASME B 31.3 - Process P i p i n g

ASME B 31.1 - Power Piping
ASTM - American Society of Testing Materials
A WS D 1.1 - American Welding S o c i e t y (Structural W e l d i n g )
A WS D l.6 - American W e l d i n g S o c i e t y (Structure S S Welding)

ASME B16.1 Cast iron pipes flanges & flanged fittings

Flanges ASME B16.5 Carbon steel pipes flanges & flanged fittings. (Up to 24)
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter steel flanges. (Above 24)
Butt welded ASME B16.9 Steel butt welding fittings
fittings ASME B16.28 Butt-welded short radius elbows & returns bends.
ASME B16.20 / API -601 Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges- Spiral wound
ASME B16.21 Non metallic gasket
Socket &
Threaded ASME B16.11 Forged steel socket welding & threaded fittings
ASME B16.10 Face to face & end to end dimension of valves.
Valves Flanged & butt-welded ends steel valves (Pressure &Temperature
ASME B16.34
ratings) except Ball, Plug & Butter fly Valves

As per ASME B31.3, what is the maximum weld reinforcement allowed?

Wall thickness Max. Weld Reinforcement

Less than 6 mm 1.5 mm
6 ~ 12.5 mm 3 mm
12.5 ~ 25 mm 4 mm
Above 25 mm 5 mm

Page : 4/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

A Numbers:

A Numbers are used to identify the weld metal chemical composition of ferrous metals.

Types of weld deposit C Cr Mo Ni Mn Si
1 Mild steel 0.20 --- --- --- 1.60 1.00
2 Carbon-Molybdenum 0.15 0.50 0.4-0.65 --- 1.60 1.00
3 Chrome (0.4% to 2%)-Mo 0.15 0.4-2.0 0.4-0.65 --- 1.60 1.00
4 Chrome (2% to 6%)-Mo 0.15 2.0 6.0 0.4-1.50 --- 1.60 2.00
5 Chrome (6% to 10.5%)-Mo 0.15 6.0-10.5 0.4-1.50 --- 1.20 2.00
6 Chrome-Martensitic 0.15 11-15 0.70 --- 2.0 1.00
7 Chrome-Ferritic 0.15 11-30 1.0 --- 1.0 3.00
8 Chrome-Nickle 0.15 14.5-30 4.0 7.5-15 2.50 1.00
9 Chrome-Nickle 0.30 25-30 4.0 15-37 2.50 1.00
10 Nickle to 4% 0.15 --- 0.55 0.80-4.0 1.70 1.00
11 Mn-Mo 0.17 --- 0.25-0.75 0.85 1.25-2.25 1.00
12 Ni-Cr-Mo 0.15 1.50 0.25-0.80 1.25-2.80 0.75-2.25 1.00

P Numbers:-
To reduce the number of welding procedure qualification required, BASE METALS have been assigned
P Numbers. These assignments are based essentially on comparable base metal characteristics, such as
Chemical composition, Weld ability and Mechanical properties. (P No.2 is not applied)

P Numbers Types of Material

1 Carbon-Manganese steel
3 Carbon - % Mo. (Alloy Steel)
4 1 % Cr % Mo. (Alloy Steel)
5 2 % Cr 1 % Mo, 5 Cr. (Alloy Steel)
6 High Alloy Martensitic stainless steel.
7 High Alloy Ferritic stainless steel
8 Austenitic stainless steel.
9 Nickel steel.
10 & 11 Quenched & Tempered Steel.
21 25 Al & Al base Alloys
31 35 Cu & Cu base Alloys
41 47 Ni & Ni base Alloys
51 53 Ti & Ti base Alloys
61 62 Zr & Zr base Alloys.

F Numbers:
F Numbers are used for filler metal designation & grouping of electrodes & welding rods.
It is based essentially on their usability characteristics.
The main purpose of F Numbers grouping is to reduce the number of welding procedure and performance
qualifications, where this can logically be done.

F Numbers Class. Of Filler Metals F Nos. Class. Of Filler Metals

1 - 21 25 Al & Al base alloys.
2 - 31 37 Cu & Cu base alloys.
3 - 41 45 Ni & Ni base alloys.
4 Low hydrogen electrode. 51 54 Ti & Ti alloys.
5 All stainless steel Electrode. (SMAW) 61 Zr & Zr alloys.
6 Bare wires/Core wires of CS, SS &LAS 71 72 Hard-facing weld metal.
Page : 5/15 Written By: Shahid Ali
What are the different types of Base Material w i t h Grade?
Material with Interpass
Grade Filler Electrod Pre Heat PWHT
P No. Temp
Wire e
API 5L Gr B 7018,701 <20mm : 10 C 19>593C
CS ER 70S-
A-53 Gr B 8 -1 >20mm: 80-100 250C to 647 C
P No.1 2/3/4 o
A-106 Gr B C
ER-80S- o 600 C
CS A-333 Gr-6 LTCS E-7018-1 Max 10 C 150C o
B2 200 C-2Hr
A 316 (25% C)
B 316 (25% C)
SS P No.8 C 316 (25% C) ER-316 E-316
A 316L ---- ----
---- ----
A 304 ER 316 L ER 316 L
A 304L 10C
ER 308 ER 308
Dissimilar A 309 ER 308 L ER 308L
Material SS A 321
to CS A 322 ER 309 ER 309
A 347
A 348
Pll - 13 mm> 704C
A335-P-11 P-11 = 150 C 260C to 760
Alloy o
A335-P-22 P-22=149 C P22 - High Alloy
300C 730C to 790C
SB 241 Gr 5083
P No.21 to

Welder Qualification:-
ASME Sec-IX & SAEP-324 must be qualified
JCC's shall be returned to PID when contractor welder goes on home leave or is terminated from the
project. NOTE: Contractor welders that return to work within three months from home leave (to the
same project) may be reinstated without retesting.

Position Qualification:
Pipe Groove

1G F
2G F,H
5G F,V,O
6G All
2G and 5G All

Qualification based on 2T formula

Process Used on base of Material Thickness:

SMAW = All above 3mm
GTAW = Thin Section <10mm
GMAW/FCAW= Typically 3 to 30mm
SAW = 15 to 150mm or above

GTAW process is mandatory for all Lines that will be less than 24 in Dia.
Page : 6/15 Written By: Shahid Ali
Contract Welders and Welder Operators performance
to meet 0.2% Linear and 5% joint basis, with
linear being the over-riding factor. From the
performance data the welders shall be
categorized from the linear WRR criteria as

A. 0 - 0.2% Level A
B. >0.2% - 0.4% Level B
C. >0.4% - 0.5% Level C
D. > 0.5% Level D, Revoke

Linear (Length) = RT Rejected / RT Done x 100

Joint (Qty) Nos. = RT Rejected / RT Done x 100

7. Level A, B & C Welders

 In all cases, Welder performance should target A Classification results with the lowest possible
Linear & Joint Repair Rates achievable.
 Continuing Process Improvement, Cost Effectiveness is acceptable for Cat. A & B welders.
 Cat. C welders are not cost effective and require close supervision)

8. Level D Welders

 Welders may exceed the 7.5% joint WRR weekly for a maximum period of 2-3 weeks with close
surveillance on all repairs.
 Additional supervision / additional NDT (to 100%) is required until consistent results of 7.5%
WRR or less (joint repair rate) are achieved.
 If WRR target is not achieved within 2-3 weeks, the options are: (i) welder may be considered
candidate for re-training and retesting or (ii) revoke qualification and remove from production

Consumable: (ASME Sec-II-C)

ER70S-2 & 3:
Filler metals are used extensively to produce high quality; high toughness welds with the GTAW
Process. These filler metals are also well suited for use in single side, melt through welding without a
protective root shielding gas on the backside of the joint.

ER70S-6: Not Use is Saudi ARAMCO without prior Approval:

This electrode is greater than 200 BHN and unfit for sour services, PWHT required.

Because: Maximum hardness for P-1 after heat treatment should be less than or equal to:
Sweet Service = 225 BHN Sour Services = 200BHN

Welding Consumables shall have a SAP ID number to show their purchase from an approved vendor
for specific consumable.
Page : 7/15 Written By: Shahid Ali
Drying & Re-Drying

A 5.1 A 5.5
Low Hydrogen Electrode Low Hydrogen Electrode
60XX 70XX & 80XX
Dried: 260-430 For 2-Hrs Dried: 370-430 For 2-Hrs

The drying step may be deleted if the electrodes are supplied in the dried condition in a hermetically
sealed metal can with a positive indication of seal integrity or vacuum sealed package.

Electrodes may be re-dried only once.

After drying the electrode shall be stored continuously in oven at 120-200 minimum

Exposure Limitation:-
A 5.1 A 5.5
Alloy Low Hydrogen Electrode Alloy Low Hydrogen Electrode
60XX 70XX & 80XX
Not be exposed if:- Not be exposed if:-
4-Hr Open in Atmosphere 2-Hr Open in Atmosphere
8-Hr in Portable Oven minimum 65oC 4-Hr in Portable Oven minimum 65oC

Electrodes exposed to the atmosphere for less than the permitted time period may be returned to a
holding oven maintained at 120C minimum; after a minimum holding period of 4-hours at 120C
minimum the electrodes may be reissued.

Electrode & Maximum Size can be used:- SAIC-W-2005

Electrode type Maximum Size

5mm for 1G/1F Position
Low Hydrogen Electrode
4mm for other Position
Non-Low Hydrogen Electrode 5mm for All Position

Stainless Steel & Non Ferrous Electrodes:-

Exposure Limitation:
Drying: 120C 250C (2-Hr) Not be exposed if:-
Store: 120C 200C Minimum 4-Hr Open in Atmosphere
8-Hr in Portable Oven minimum 65oC

Electrode Shelf Life = 2-Year maximum

Note: Lincoln currently recommends a 3-year shelf life in certain brands of SMAW electrodes. When a
manufacturer data sheet specifically states detailed storage conditions (humidity & temperature) and a shelf life
beyond three years, and storage requirements have been followed (as verified by Quality), electrodes may be
used for a period per manufacturer's instructions (to a three-year limit).

Contractor shall assure electrode issue control follows a "First In, First Out" Rule.
Check E6010 storage closely.

Page : 8/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

In Fillet Weld Convexity:-
Width of weld face Maximum convexity
W < 8mm 2mm
W > 8 to < 25mm 3mm
W 25mm 5mm

Tungsten Electrode: (Non-Consumable)

Zirconated (Brown) or Pure (Green) Use for AC (Cooper / Alloy, Mg, Mi, Plain Carbon, SS)
Thoriated (Red) Use for DC-ve (Steel & Most Metals)

Thoriated or Zirconated Use on DE+ve

Note: Ceriated (Orange) and Lanthanated (Gold) can be used in place of Thoriated.

Cutting and grinding contaminated and or oxidized tungsten electrode tips using the common
unacceptable practice of silicon carbide grinding wheels spreads contamination and does not produce
quality GTAW welds because of a tendency for tip fracturing & splintering & thus the need for
frequent redressing

Properly prepare new tungsten with diamond type cutting equipment specifically designed for
Tungsten (Tungsten Sharpener Model-Piranha, etc)

Tack Weld:
Thickness = 3.2 to 4.8
Length = 12.5 to 25.4

Upto 4 Dia = Use 3-Nos Tacking

Above to 4 Dia Use 4-Nos Tacking

Tack Weld: Less then 10 Dia Tacking without Clit

Bridging: Use of Clit


 Only 300 series SS brushes are used on austenitic & nickel alloys.
 Where tape is used for back purging, the tape uses an adhesive with a water soluble chloride
content not exceeding 50-ppm. Gray duct tape is prohibited (chlorides)
 Austenitic & nickel alloy material fabrication areas are separated from CS areas (upwind to
prevent cross contamination).
 PMI (Hand Held Spectrometer) results showing Copper Content greater than 0.7% indicate
unacceptable "cross contamination".
 Wind velocity in the weld area for GTAW, GMAW, or gas shielded FCAW shall not exceed 8 kph
(2.2 m/s)
 Oil, moisture, scale, rust, paint (except approved weld-able primers), metallic coatings (e.g. zinc)
or other foreign matter, has been removed from weld surfaces at least 25mm adjacent to weld

Page : 9/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

Preheat Temperature not be less than 10C
Preheat Temperature shall be established over a minimum distance 75mm of each side.
Temperature Equalization 1mint = For 25mm Thickness
When we required more than 93C Temperature in Preheat so we use Electrical Coil.

For (CS) P-1 Material:

10C < 25mm Thickness
79C > 25mm Thickness

Maximum Interpass Temperature:

P-1,3,4,5 315C
P-3x, P-4x, P-8 177C

Code exemptions for PWHT for P-No. 7 & P-No. 8 materials are not allowed at Saudi Aramco.
PWHT all P-No. 4 & P-No. 5 mat'l welds & pressure boundary attachments when Sour Service exists
or nominal chrome content is above 1.5%.

Sr # Material Thickness Temp C Soak Time

1 CS <20mm Not required
2 CS >20mm 593-649 1-Hr
3 Alloy Steel (P-4 & 5) >13mm 704-746 2-Hr
4 High Alloy Steel (P-6) All Thickness 732-788 2-Hr
5 Nickel Alloy (P-9 A &B) >20mm 593-635 1-Hr

Note: P No. 7 (High Alloy Ferritic stainless steel) & 8 (Austenitic stainless steel.) Not Done PWHT

Heating & Cooling Rate in PWHT is :- 222oC/Hr after 316oC

For PWHTs that are not performed in a furnace, insulation shall be applied a minimum of 300 mm on
either side of the weld that is to be PWHTed. The insulation shall not be removed before the temperature
has cooled to below 150C. The ends of open lines shall be closed off in order to eliminate drafts or air
circulation that could lower the temperature on the inside surface of the joint unless the internal surface is
also insulated.

Thermocouple Requirement: (J & K Types)

Pipe Dia = 305mm (12) or Less = 1 No.

Pipe Dia = 305 to 610 = 2 No.
Pipe Dia = 610 and above = 4 No.

Back Purging:
Purging is applied on P-5 and Greater materials, For process GTAW & GMAW root passes single
sided grove welds, Purging shall be maintained until at least 10mm of the weld deposit thickness has
been completed.
Not use of Nitrogen as purging gas in Austenitic Stainless steel.

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The purge shall achieve actual oxygen levels inside or exiting the
joint (via the vent) never greater than 50 ppm O2 (maximum
0.005%) prior to and during welding, as measured with an O2 analyzer with low-level read-out
capability. (ppm=Parts Per Millions)
12 ppm O2 = No oxide tint ... ACCEPTABLE
Oxygen level reduce by Purging:
In Low Alloy Steel = 1%
In SS & Ni = 0.05%

Weld Repair:
 For Crack defect first evaluated by CSD
 Crater Crack do not required special repair and shall be ground out only.
 During production do not require a separate repair procedure except for crack
 Replacement weld (Cut Out) shall be examined as repair.

Gap Control Procedure & Inspection

Check all Individual Axial gaps on socket-welded joints before welding.

Fit-up follows an approved Gap Control procedure!
Pre-Welding = 1.5 - 3 mm gap exists
SA CSD recommends 3 mm target gap on fit-ups.
After welding: Maximim gap of 50% engagement is acceptable.
Note: At a minimum, 50% engagement is obtained, this easily verified

If SMAW welding is used for socket welding, the largest size of electrode permitted is 3.2mm Dia.
The axial gap between male and female component, shall be maximum of 3 mm and minimum of 1.5
mm. This gap is required prior to welding. (It does not apply to piping already installed and welding
was completed successfully)

Butt joint Internal misalignment shall not exceed 1.5 mm.

NOTE: Internal tapering (ASME B31.3) by machining, backwelding, or a combination may be used to
correct any misalignment. If external surfaces of the components are not aligned, the weld shall be
tapered between them. [ASME B31.3, Para. 328.4.3 (2).

For Socket Welding:-

For steel piping in hazardous services, threaded and socket welding fittings shall conform to ASME
B16.11 Class 3000, Class 6000 or higher and
Pipe unions shall be limited to Class 3000 threaded or socket welding forged steel unions in
accordance with MSS SP-83

Welding Procedure used is approved & socket weld 2-pass minimum welding sequence (tacking
method, root pass, weld profile/form detail) is available to provide the welder adequate instruction in
the field.
Welder has been qualified for socket welding by passing RT on the first three production welds.

Page : 11/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

Buttering / Weld buildup:-
Buttering or weld build-up on the prepared surfaces shall not exceed the lesser of of the base metal
thickness or 10mm without the approval of CSD.

Permanent backing rings or strips shall not be used.

Full penetration groove joint included angles < 30 degrees, except portions of compound bevels, shall
not be used without approval.
Minimum distance between parallel butt welds shall be 25 mm or three times the wall thickness of the
joint, whichever is greater.

For field welding, remote Current controls shall be used if welding is more than 30 m from welding
power source or when welders are working in "remote" locations (e.g., on an elevated pipe-rack).
Surface Porosity, uneven Profile and undercut remove by grinding.
Inert gas flow time over an extinguishing arc follows the "15 second rule" = Zero Contamination
Note: 15* seconds cooling under gas flow will result in zero oxidation

Welding Sequence & Pipe Handling meets SA workmanship requirements. Prevent any associated
NDE penalty (RT) with the process:

 For pipelines greater than 16 inch, two welders are used, operating simultaneously and in opposite
 Second or hot pass is added ASAP after completing root pass.
 Time shall not exceed 5 mins (Vertical down, Cellulose electrode)
 Time shall not exceed 15 minutes for vertical up welding.
 Hot pass was made while pipe was fully supported (tractor, etc)
 The pipe shall not be lifted or moved during welding.
 Partially welded joints shall not be lifted or lowered into the ditch.
 The weld joint shall be completed within 24 hours of starting.
 Welds are completed before welding

Line Class:- (SAES-L-105)

First = Pressure rating
Second = Pipe Material
Third = Corrosion Allowance
Forth = Service

An example of a complete piping line class designator is "3CS1P". This designator specifies an ASME
pressure class 300, carbon steel piping system with 1.6 mm corrosion allowance designed for general
process service with no changes to the base piping line class material specification.

Page : 12/15 Written By: Shahid Ali

Page : 13/15 Written By: Shahid Ali
1. Elbow (Bends) To Joint the Two Pipe - Pipe Cut an
Angle of 45 or 90 By Radius:
By Types: Short Radius
Equal Elbow Long Radius
Reducing Elbow Extra Long Radius

2. Tee Used to make a Branch Line at Right Angle to the Main line
Equal Tee
Reducing Tee
3. Reducer Normally where do we use the following?
i. Eccentric reducers
Pump suction to avoid Cavitations, To maintain elevation (BOP) in rack.
ii. Concentric reducers = Pump discharge, vertical pipeline etc.

Concentric reducer is used in pump suction. (Yes / No). Explain. Answer:

No. Air pockets may form if concentric reducer is used at pump suction, which
results in Cavitations, and cause damage to Pump. To avoid this problem,
Eccentric Reducer with Flat Side Up (FSU)is used in Pump Suction.

4. Olets Olet use for connecting Main Line to Branch Line

Bore Sock olet
Fittings Thread olet
Weld olet
Sweep olet (Like Weld olet but use for other then 90o Angle

What are Weld olet and Sock olet, and where they are used?
Ans: Weld olet and Sock olet are basically self reinforced fittings.
Weld olet is used for Butt weld branch connection where standard tee is not
available due to size restrictions and the piping is of critical / high pressure
service .
Sock olet is used for socket welding branch connection, which require
reinforcing pad.

5. Valve 1-Check Valve (Non Return Valve)

Two Types: (Lift Check Valve, Swing check Valve)
Not Handle no need to operate: Installation Direction required 
2-Ball Valve: 90o Angle required for Work
3- Safety Valve
4- Globe Valve: Installation Direction required 
5- Butterfly Valve: Only move his Plate in 90o Angle (Both Side)
6- Gate Valve (No Direction required for installation)
7- Needle Valve
6. Flanges 1-Orifice Flange (hole for instruments)
we can check the Temperature or Pressure by this hole.
2-Neck Weld Flange: Long Neck Weld Flange
3-Slip on Flange
4-Blind Flange
5-Socket Weld Flange
6-Male & Female Flange / Tongue & Groove
Page : 14/15 Written By: Shahid Ali
(Gasket is use in this flange)
7-Reducing Flange
8-Lap Joint Flange
9-Threaded Flange

7. Gasket Gasket is a Ceramic Material Used to Fix RF-Raised Face

Between the Flanges. Non-Metallic Gasket

FF-Float Face Asbestos Gasket

Metallic Gasket Rubber Gasket
Tufflon Gasket
Octagonal Ring Gasket Lather Gasket
Plat Ring Gasket
Spiral Wound Gasket
8. Nipples Plain, Threaded, Swage
9. Saddle: Saddle use for taking connection from Main Line to Branch Line in 90o
& Direction..
Lateral &
Lateral use for taking connection from Main Line to Branch Line other then
90o Direction.
10. Caps But weld Caps
Threaded Caps
End Caps
11. Coupling Full Coupling
Half Coupling
Threaded Coupling
Reducer Coupling
12. Orifice Concentric Orifice
Plates Electric Orifice
Segmental Orifice
13. Spacer Spacer is used for putting the Gap between Flange and Pipe where large dia of

Which piping items will you drop down before conducting Flushing and Hydro-test?
Items like Control Valve, Orifice plates, Rota meters, safety valves, Thermo wells are dropped or
replaced with temporary spools before hydro test.

From which side of pipe will you take a branch connection?

When Fluid is Gas, Air or Steam and Cryogenic Service Topside When Fluid is Liquid Bottom

What is the normal upstream and downstream straight length of orifice flow meter?
Upstream - 15D Downstream - 5D

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