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# Root Locus Analysis (2)

Hany Ferdinando
Dept. of Electrical Eng.
Petra Christian University
General Overview
This section explain the root locus plot for
negative feedback
All rules use the opposite of the ones used
in the negative feedback
Standardization
R(s) + G(s) C(s)
+

H(s)

C ( s) G( s)

R( s ) 1 G ( s ) H ( s )
1 G(s)H(s) = 0

## Find Characteristic Equation!!

How to make it?
1. Start from the characteristic equation
2. Locate the poles and zeros on the s plane
3. Determine the root loci on the real axis
4. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci
5. Find the breakaway and break-in points
6. Determines the angle of departure (angle of
arrival) from complex poles (zeros)
7. Find the points where the root loci may cross
the imaginary axis
Example (1)
K ( s 2)
G( s) H ( s) 1
( s 3)( s 2 2s 2)

K ( s 2)
1 0
( s 3)( s 2s 2)
2

## 1. Start from the characteristic equation

Example (2)
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Part

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Part

## 2. Locate the poles and zeros on the s plane

Example (3)
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Part

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Part

## 3. Determine the root loci on the real axis

Example (4a)

k 360o
k180 o

3 1

[3 (1 i ) (1 i )] [2] 3

3 1 2

## 4. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci

Example (4b)
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Part

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Part

## 4. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci

Example (5)
From the characteristic equation, find
( s 3)( s 2 2s 2)
K
( s 2)
then calculate
dK 2s 3 11s 2 20s 10
0
ds ( s 2) 2

## 5. Find the breakaway and break-in point

Example (6)
qpole = 0 sum from pole + sum from zero
qzero = 0 sum from zero + sum from pole

qpole = 0 27 90 + 45 = -72

## 6. Determine the angle from complex pole/zero

Example (7)
Do this part by substituting jw for all s in the
characteristic equation

( jw )3 5( jw ) 2 8( jw ) 6 K ( jw ) 2 K 0
(5w 2 6 2 K ) j (w 3 8w Kw ) 0
K = - w2+8 and - w2 = -10/3
The root locus does not cross the jw axis

7. Find the points where the root loci may cross the
imaginary axis
Example (8)
Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Axis
Plot in negative feedback
Root Locus
8

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Real Axis
Root Locus in Matlab

## Function rlocus(num,den) draws the Root Locus

of a system. Another version in state space is
rlocus(A,B,C,D)
num
The characteristic equation 1 0
den

## For positive feedback use rlocus(-num,den) to

plot the Root Locus in complex plane
Next

## Design of a compensator is the topic

for the next meeting
See you there!