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Flowering plants

An index of common and scientific names


This is an index of scientific names and common (vernacular) names (in English) of flowering plants
and plant products.
It serves as an index to the Chart of Flowering Plant Families (www.botanicalchart.org.uk). All names
appearing on the chart are included in the index. In addition, we include many further scientific names
and also common names of useful and ornamental plants and plant products, thus giving a more extensive
listing than is possible on the chart itself.
The index may be used to locate common names, families and other names on the chart using the
hierarchical structure as follows. Given a common name or plant product, for example Mango, the
entry in the index says that Mango is in the genus Mangifera, in the family Anacardiaceae. This family
has an entry giving the order as Sapindales, which is in the Malvids, in the Rosids, which, finally, is in
the Eudicots, one of the major taxa of flowering plants.
Warning: The common, or vernacular, names in this index cover familiar plants and plant products.
These names vary from language to language. Moreover, often only local names are available. Sometimes,
the same name is used for several (sometimes quite unrelated) species. We have tried to disambiguate
common names using genera. However, some common names can be used quite loosely of a range of
different species (usage sometimes varying around the world). Particular problems arise with names
of timbers and also with some descriptive names of garden plants. In this index, as well as covering
scientific names, we have tried to provide a guide to the current usage of many common names, but
inevitably some usages may not be included and others may be not precise enough to be specified.

Resources

For a comprehensive index of flowering plants and ferns consult:


Mabberleys Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classifications, and Uses, 3rd
Edition, David J. Mabberley. Cambridge Univ. Press. 2008.

A valuable resource is the website:


Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated
since], P.F. Stevens, (2001 onwards). URL http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
Families and orders are those in the following paper, updated with more recent work where relevant:

An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG III. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society, 2009, 161:105-121.

Availability

This document and the Chart of Flowering Plant Families (David Rydeheard, 2011) are available from
the Botanical Chart website at http://www.botanicalchart.org.uk.

1
Index Alseuosmiaceae, Asterales
Alstroemeriaceae, Liliales
Abelia, Caprifoliaceae (Linnaeaceae)
Altingiaceae, Saxifragales
Abolbodaceae, in Xyridaceae
Alyssum, Brassicaceae
Abutilon, Malvaceae
Alzateaceae, Myrtales
Acacia, Fabaceae
Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllales
Acai palm (Euterpe), Arecaceae
Amaryllidaceae, Asparagales
Acanthaceae, Lamiales
Amborellaceae, Amborellales
Acanthus, Acanthaceae
Amborellales, Early-branching order
Aceraceae, in Sapindaceae
Ambrette (Abelmoschus), Malvaceae
Acerola (Malpighia), Malpighiaceae
Amelanchier, Rosaceae
Achariaceae, Malpighiales
Amphorogynaceae, in Santalaceae
Achatocarpaceae, Caryophyllales
Anacardiaceae, Sapindales
Achiote (Bixa), Bixaceae
Anarthriaceae, Poales
Acoraceae, Monocots
Ancistrocladaceae, Caryophyllales
Actinidiaceae, Ericales
Andaman marblewood (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Adoxaceae, Dipsacales
Androsace, Primulaceae
Aextoxicaceae, Berberidopsidales
Aneulophus, Erythroxylaceae
Afara (Terminalia), Combretaceae
Angelica, Apiaceae
Afina wood (Strombosia), Strombosiaceae
Angostura (bark) (Galipea &
African blackwood (Dalbergia), Fabaceae
Cusparia = Angostura), Rutaceae
African dogrose (Oncoba), Salicaceae
Angueuk wood (Ongokea), Aptandraceae
African dogrose (Xylotheca), Achariaceae
Anemone, Ranunculaceae
African forest elder (Nuxia), Stilbaceae
Anise (Pimpinella), Apiaceae
African hemp (Sparrmannia), Malvaceae
Aniseed myrtle (Syzygium), Myrtaceae
African oak (Lophira), Ochnaceae
Anisophyllaceae, Cucurbitales
African oak (Oldfieldia), Picrodendraceae
Annatto (Bixa), Bixaceae
African violet (Saintpaulia), Gesneriaceae
Annonaceae, Magnoliales
African walnut (Coula), Coulaceae
Anthurium, Araceae
African white pear (Apodytes),
Aphelandra, Acanthaceae
Icacinaceae (provisionally)
Aphyllanthaceae, in Asparagaceae
Afrostyrax, Huaceae
Apiaceae, Apiales
Agapanthus, Amaryllidaceae
Apiales, Campanulids
Agapanthaceae, in Amaryllidaceae
Apocynaceae, Gentianales
Agar wood (Aquilaria, sometimes Gyrinops),
Apodanthaceae, Cucurbitales (provisionally)
Thymelaeaceae
Apodytes, Icacinaceae (provisionally)
Agavaceae, in Asparagaceae
Aponogetonaceae, Alismatales
Agave, Asparagaceae
Apostasiaceae, in Orchidaceae
Agdestis, Phytolaccaceae
Apple (Malus), Rosaceae
Ageratum, Asteraceae
Apple, Custard (Annona), Annonaceae
Airplants (Tillandsia), Bromeliaceae
Apple, Kei (Dovyalis = Aberia), Salicaceae
Aizoaceae, Caryophyllales
Apple, Star (Chrysophyllum), Sapotaceae
Akaniaceae, Brassicales
Apricot (Prunus), Rosaceae
Akebia, Lardizabalaceae
Aptandraceae, Santalales
Akee (Blighia), Sapindaceae
Aquifoliaceae, Aquifoliales
Alangiaceae, in Cornaceae
Aquifoliales, Campanulids
Alder (Alnus), Betulaceae
Araceae, Alismatales
Alfalfa (Medicago), Fabaceae
Araliaceae, Apiales
Alismataceae, Alismatales
Aralidiaceae, in Torricelliaceae
Alismatales, Monocots
Ardisia, Primulaceae
Alkanet (various genera, including Anchusa
Areca, Arecaceae
& Alkanna), Boraginaceae
Arecaceae, Arecales
Alliaceae, in Amaryllidaceae
Arecales, Monocots
Allspice (Pimenta), Myrtaceae
Argan oil (Argania), Sapotaceae
Allspice, Carolina (Calycanthus), Calycanthaceae
Argophyllaceae, Asterales
Almond (Prunus), Rosaceae
Aristolochiaceae, Piperales
Aloe, Xanthorrhoeaceae
Arracacha (Arracacia), Apiaceae

2
Arrowgrass, various genera in Juncaginaceae Balsam of Peru (Myroxylon), Fabaceae
and Scheuchzeriaceae Balsam poplar (Populus), Salicaceae
Arrowhead (Sagittaria), Alismataceae Balsaminaceae, Ericales
Arrowhead (Nephthytis & Syngonium), Araceae Bamboo (various genera), Poaceae
Arrowroot, various genera and common names, Bamboo, Sacred/Heavenly (Nandina), Berberidaceae
including: Bamburanta (Ctenanthe), Marantaceae
East Indian arrowroot (Curcuma), Zingiberaceae Bambusaceae, in Poaceae
Polynesian arrowroot (Tacca), Dioscoreaceae Banana (Musa & Ensete), Musaceae
West Indian arrowroot (Maranta), Marantaceae Banksia, Proteaceae
Artemisia, Asteraceae Banyan (Ficus), Moraceae
Artichoke, Globe (Cynara), Asteraceae Baobab (Adansonia), Malvaceae
Artichoke, Jerusalem (Helianthus), Asteraceae Barbados cherry (Malpighia), Malpighiaceae
Arum, Araceae Barberry (Berberis), Berberidaceae
Asclepiadaceae, in Apocynaceae Barbeuiaceae, Caryophyllales
Asafoetida (Ferula), Apiaceae Barbeyaceae, Rosales
Ash (Fraxinus), Oleaceae Barclaya, Nymphaeaceae
Ash, Silver (Flindersia), Rutaceae Barclayaceae, in Nymphaeaceae
Ashoka tree (Saraca), Fabaceae Barley (Hordeum), Poaceae
Asparagaceae, Asparagales Barringtonia, Lecythidaceae
Asparagales, Monocots Barringtoniaceae, in Lecythidaceae
Asparagus, Asparagaceae Basellaceae, Caryophyllales
Aspen (Populus), Salicaceae Basil (Ocimum), Lamiaceae
Asphodel (Asphodelus), Xanthorrhoeaceae Basswood [NAm] (Tilia), Malvaceae
Asphodel, Bog (Narthecium), Nartheciaceae Bastard bullet tree (Humiria), Humiriaceae
Asphodelaceae, in Xanthorrhoeaceae Bat flower (Tacca), Dioscoreaceae
Aspidistra, Asparagaceae Bataceae, Brassicales
Astelia, Asteliaceae Batidaceae = Bataceae
Asteliaceae, Asparagales Baueraceae, in Cunoniaceae
Asteraceae, Asterales Bay [tree/leaves] (Laurus), Lauraceae
Asterales, Campanulids Bay, Loblolly (Gordonia), Theaceae
Asterids, Eudicots Bay, West Indian (Pimenta), Myrtaceae
Astilbe, Saxifragaceae Bayberry (Myrica), Myricaceae
Athel tree (Tamarix), Tamaricaceae Bdellium (Commiphora), Burseraceae
Atherospermataceae, Laurales Bean (Phaseolus, Vigna, Vicia etc), Fabaceae
Aubergine (Solanum), Solanaceae Beautyberry (Callicarpa), Lamiaceae
Aucuba, Garryaceae Bedstraw (Galium), Rubiaceae
Australian flycatcher (Cephalotus), Cephalotaceae Bee balm (Monarda), Lamiaceae
Australian heath (Epacris), Ericaceae Beebrush (Aloysia), Verbenaceae
Austrobaileyaceae, Austrobaileyales Beech (Fagus), Fagaceae
Austrobaileyales, Early-branching order Beech, Southern (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Averrhoaceae, in Oxalidaceae Beech, White (Gmelina), Lamiaceae
Avicennia, Acanthaceae Beech myrtle (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Avicenniaceae, in Acanthaceae Beefsteak plant (Perilla), Lamiaceae
Avocado (Persea), Lauraceae Beet (Beta), Amaranthaceae
Azalea (Rhododendron), Ericales Begonia, Begoniaceae
Begoniaceae, Cucurbitales
Belladonna (Atropa), Solanaceae
Bael (Aegle), Rutaceae Bellflowers (Campanula, Campanulastrum,
Bacuri (Platonia), Clusiaceae Codonopsis, Platycodon, etc.), Campanulaceae
Baku (Tieghemella), Sapotaceae Ben nut (Moringa), Moringaceae
Balanopaceae, Malpighiales Bengal quince (Aegle), Rutaceae
Balanophoraceae, Santalales Beni-seed (Sesame), Pedaliaceae
Balsa (Ochroma), Malvaceae Benzoin resin (Styrax), Styracaceae
Balsam (Impatiens), Balsaminaceae Berberidaceae, Ranunculales
Balsam, Copaiba (Copaifera), Fabaceae Bergamot (Monarda), Lamiaceae
Balsam, Tolu (Myroxylon), Fabaceae Bergamot orange (Citrus), Rutaceae
Balsam of Mecca (Commiphora), Burseraceae Berzelia, Bruniaceae

3
Bes(s)an = Chickpea Bougainvillea, Nyctaginaceae
Betel pepper (Piper), Piperaceae Box (Buxus), Buxaceae
Betony (Stachys), Lamiaceae Boxwood, West Indian (Casearia), Salicaceae
Betulaceae, Fagales Boxwood, West Indian (Phyllostylon), Ulmaceae
Bhesa, Centroplacaceae Boxwood, West Indian (Tabebuia), Bignoniaceae
Biebersteiniaceae, Sapindales Bramble (Rubus), Rosaceae
Bignoniaceae, Lamiales Brassicaceae, Brassicales
Bilberry (Vaccinium), Ericaceae Brassicales, Malvids
Bilimbi (Averrhoa), Oxalidaceae Brazil nut (Bertholletia), Lecythidaceae
Bindweed (Convolvulus & Calystegia), Brazil wax (Copernicia), Arecaceae
Convolvulaceae Brazilian tulipwood (Dalbergia), Fabaceae
Bindweed, Black (Fallopia), Polygonaceae Brazilwood or Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia), Fabaceae
Bindweed, Blue (Solanum), Solanaceae Breadfruit (Artocarpus), Moraceae
Birch (Betula), Betulaceae Breadfruit, Nicobar (Pandanus), Pandanaceae
Bird-of-paradise (Strelitzia), Strelitziaceae Breadnut (Brosimum & Artocarpus), Moraceae
Birthwort (Aristolochia), Aristolochiaceae Bretschneidera, Akaniaceae
Bischofiaceae, in Phyllanthaceae Bromeliaceae, Poales
Bittersweet (Solanum), Solanaceae Broom (Cytisus, Genista & Chamaecytisus), Fabaceae
Bittersweet (Celastrus), Celastraceae Broomrape (Orobanche), Orobanchaceae
Bixaceae, Malvales Brunelliaceae, Oxalidales
Black mangrove (Avicenna), Acanthaceae Brunia, Bruniaceae
Black-eyed Susie/Susan (Hibiscus), Malvaceae Bruniaceae, Bruniales
Black-eyed Susie/Susan (Rudbeckia), Astraceae Bruniales, Campanulids
Black-eyed Susie/Susan (Thunbergia), Acanthaceae Brunoniaceae, in Goodeniaceae
Blackberry (Rubus), Rosaceae Brushholly (Xylosma), Salicaceae
Bladder-flower (Araujia), Apocynaceae Bryony, White (Bryonia), Cucurbitaceae
Bladder nut (Staphylea), Staphyleaceae Bryony, Black (Tamus = Dioscorea), Dioscoreaceae
Bladderwort (Utricularia), Lentibulariaceae Buckeye [NAm] (Aesculus), Sapindaceae
Blandfordiaceae, Asparagales Buckthorn (Rhamnus), Rhamnaceae
Blazing star (Liatris), Asteraceae, Buckthorn, Sea (Hippophae), Elaeagnaceae
Blazing star (Mentzelia), Loasaceae Buckwheat (Fagopyrum), Polygonaceae
Blepharocaryaceae, in Anacardiaceae Buckwheat, Wild (Eriogonum & Fallopia),
Blinks (Montia), Montiaceae Polygonaceae
Bloodberry (Cordia), Boraginaceae, Buddleia = Buddleja, Scrophulariaceae
Bloodberry (Rivina), Phytolaccaceae Buddlejaceae, in Scrophulariaceae
Bloodwort (Achillea), Asteraceae Bugle (Ajuga), Lamiaceae
Bloodwort (Rumex), Polygonaceae Bulrush, various genera in Cyperaceae,
Bloodwort/Bloodroot (Sanguinaria), Papaveraceae also [UK] Typha, Typhaceae
Bloodworts (various genera), Haemodoraceae Bur-reed (Sparganium), Sparganiaceae
Blueberry (Vaccinium), Ericaceae Burma, Pride of/Jewel of (Curcuma), Zingiberaceae
Bo tree (Ficus), Moraceae Burmanniaceae, Dioscoreales
Bog asphodel (Narthecium), Nartheciaceae Burseraceae, Sapindales
Bog myrtle (Myrica), Myricaceae Bush mango (Irvingia), Irvingiaceae
Bog-rosemary (Andromeda), Ericaceae Bushmint (Hyptis & Mentha), Lamiaceae
Bogbean (Menyanthes), Menyanthaceae Busy Lizzie/Lizzy (Impatiens), Balsaminaceae
Bogota tea (Symplocos), Symplocaceae Butchers broom (Ruscus), Asparagaceae
Bomarea, Alstroemeriaceae Butomaceae, Alismatales
Bombacaceae, in Malvaceae Buttercup (Ranunculus), Ranunculaceae
Bonnetiaceae, Malpighiales Butterfly bush (Buddleja), Scrophulariaceae
Boobialla (Myoporum), Scrophulariaceae Butterwort (Pinguicula), Lentibulariaceae
Boojum tree (Fouquieria), Fouquieriaceae Buxaceae, Buxales
Borage (Borago), Boraginaceae Buxales, Eudicots
Boraginaceae, Lamiids Byblidaceae, Lamiales
Boryaceae, Asparagales
Bottlebrush (Beaufortia), Myrtaceae
Bottlebrush (Callistemon), Myrtaceae Caapi (Banisteriopsis), Malpighiaceae
Bottlebrush, Natal (Greyia), Melianthaceae Cabbage (Brassica), Brassicaceae

4
Cabombaceae, Nymphaeales Carob (Ceratonia), Fabaceae
Cactaceae, Caryophyllales Carolina Jessamine/Jasmine (Gelsemium),
Cactus, Cactaceae Gelsemiaceae
Caesalpiniaceae, in Fabales Carpetweed (Mollugo), Molluginaceae
Cajuput oil (Melaleuca), Myrtaceae Carpinaceae, in Betulaceae
Calabash (Lagenaria), Cucurbitaceae Carrot (Daucus), Apiaceae
Calabash tree (Crescentia), Bignoniaceae Caryocaraceae, Malpighiales
Calamus (Acorus), Acoraceae Cartonemataceae, in Commelinaceae
Calceolaria, Calceolariaceae Caryophyllaceae, Caryophyllales
Calceolariaceae, Lamiales Caryophyllales, Eudicots
Calendula, Asteraceae Cascara (Rhamnus), Rhamnaceae
Callicarpa, Lamiaceae Cascarilla (Croton), Euphorbiaceae
Callitrichaceae, in Plantaginaceae Cascarilla = Ladenbergia, Rubiaceae
Calochortus, Liliaceae Cashew (Anacardium), Anacardiaceae
Calophyllaceae, Malpighiales Cassava (Manihot), Euphorbiaceae
Caltrop (Tribulus), Zygophyllaceae Cassia (Cassia, sometimes Senna,
Caltrop, Water (Trapa), Lythraceae or (rarely) Vachellia farnesiana =
Calycanthaceae, Laurales Acacia farnesiana), Fabaceae
Calyceraceae, Asterales Cassia (Cinnamomum), Lauraceae
Cambodian mint (Persicaria), Polygonaceae Cassinopsis, Icacinaceae (provisionally)
Camellia, Theaceae Castor oil (Ricinus), Euphorbiaceae
Camomile (Anthemis, Matricaria, etc), Asteraceae Casuarinaceae, Fagales
Campanulaceae, Asterales Catalpa, Bignoniaceae
Campanulids, Asterids Catnip/Catmint (Nepeta), Lamiaceae
Camphor/Camphorwood (Cinnamomum), Cattail [NAm] (Typha), Typhaceae
Lauraceae, also other genera and families Ceanothus, Rhamnaceae
Campion (Silene & Lychnis), Caryophyllaceae Cecropia, Urticaceae
Campynemataceae, Liliales Cecropiaceae, in Urticaceae
Canacomyrica, Myricaceae Cedar, West Indian (Cedrela), Meliaceae
Canadian pondweed (Elodea), Hydrocharitaceae Celastraceae, Celastrales
Candleberry (Myrica), Myricaceae Celastrales, Fabids
Candleberry (Aleurites), Euphorbiaceae Celery (Apium), Apiaceae
Candlenut (Aleurites), Euphorbiaceae Celosia, Amaranthaceae
Canellaceae, Canellales Celtis, Cannabaceae
Canna, Cannaceae Celtidaceae, in Cannabaceae
Canna, Water (Thalia), Marantaceae Centaury (Centaurium), Gentianaceae
Cannabaceae = Cannabidaceae, Rosales Centrolepidaceae, Poales
Cannabis, Cannabidaceae Cephalotaceae, Oxalidales
Cannaceae, Zingiberales Ceratophyllaceae, Ceratophyllales
Cannonball tree (Couroupita), Lecythidaceae Ceratophyllales, Early-branching order
Canotiaceae, in Celastraceae Cercidiphyllaceae, Saxifragales
Cape pondweed (Aponogeton), Aponogetonaceae Cervantesiaceae, in Santalaceae
Cape rush (Chondropetalum), Restionaceae Ceylon olive (Elaeocarpus), Elaeocarpaceae
Caper (Capparis), Capparaceae Champak (Michelia), Magnoliaceae
Cappar(id)aceae, Brassicales Chana = Chickpea
Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacales Chaste tree (Vitex), Lamiaceae
Capsicum, Solanaceae Chaulmoogra oil (Hydnocarpus), Achariaceae
Carambola (Averrhoa), Oxalidaceae Chenopodiaceae, in Amaranthaceae
Caraway (Carum), Apiaceae Cherimoya (Annona), Annonaceae
Cardamom (Elattaria & Amomum), Zingiberaceae Cherry (Prunus), Rosaceae
Cardiopteridaceae, Aquifoliales Cherry, Liberian (Sacoglottis), Humiriaceae
Cardiopterygaceae = Cardiopteridaceae Cherry mahogany (Tieghemella), Sapotaceae
Cardoon (Cynara), Asteraceae Chervil (Anthriscus), Apiaceae
Caricaceae, Brassicales Chestnut, Horse (Aesculus), Sapindaceae
Carlemanniaceae, Lamiales Chestnut, Sweet (Castanea), Fagaceae
Carnauba (Copernicia), Arecaceae Chestnut, Water (Eleocharis), Cyperaceae
Carnation (Dianthus), Caryophyllaceae Chia (Salvia), Lamiaceae

5
Chickpea (Cicer), Fabaceae Coconut (Cocos), Arecaceae
Chicle (Manilkara), Sapotaceae Codonopsis, Campanulaceae
Chicory (Cichorium), Asteraceae Coffee (Coffea), Rubiaceae
Chilli (Capsicum), Solanaceae Coir (Cocos), Arecaceae
Chinese tallow tree (Triadica = Sapium), Cola (Cola), Malvaceae
Euphorbiaceae Colchicum, Colchicaceae
Chinquapin (Castanea, Chrysolepis & Colchicaceae, Liliales
Castanopsis), Fagaceae Coleus (Solenostemon), Lamiaceae
Chlaenaceae = Sarcolaenaceae Colicwood (Myrsine), Primulaceae
Chloanthaceae, in Lamiaceae Columelliaceae, Bruniales
Chloranthaceae, Chloranthales Columnea, Gesneriaceae
Chloranthales, Early-branching order Comandraceae, in Santalaceae
Chocolate (Theobroma), Malvaceae Combretaceae, Myrtales
Choisya, Rutaceae Combretum, Combretaceae
Christmas bells (Blandfordia), Blandfordiaceae Comfrey (Symphytum), Boraginaceae
Chrysanthemum, Asteraceae Commelinaceae, Commelinales
Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiales Commelinales, Monocots (Commelinids)
Chumprak (Heritiera), Malvaceae Commelinids, Monocots
Churnwood (Citronella), Cardiopteridaceae Congress weed (Parthenium), Asteraceae
Cicely (Myrrhis), Apiaceae Connaraceae, Oxalidales
Cineraria, Asteraceae Convolvulaceae, Solanales
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum), Lauraceae Copal (Copaifera), Fabaceae
Cinnamon, White (Canella), Canellaceae Corbichonia, Lophiocarpaceae
Cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia), Myrtaceae Cordiaceae, in Boraginaceae
Ciogue (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae Cordyline, Asparagaceae
Circaeasteraceae, Ranunculales Coreopsis, Asteraceae
Cissus, Vitaceae Coriander (Coriandrum), Apiaceae
Cistaceae, Malvales Coriander, Vietnamese (Persicaria), Polygonaceae
Citronella trees (Citronella), Cardiopteridaceae Coriaria, Coriariaceae
Citrus, Rutaceae Coriariaceae, Cucurbitales
Clarkia, Onagraceae Coridaceae, in Primulaceae
Clematis, Ranunculaceae Cork (Quercus), Fagaceae
Cleomaceae, Brassicales Corkwood, Florida (Leitneria), Simaroubaceae
Cleome, Cleomaceae Corn [NAm and elsewhere] (Zea), Poaceae
Clerodendrum, Lamiaceae Cornaceae, Cornales
Clethraceae, Ericales Cornales, Asterids
Cleyera, Pentaphylacaceae Corsiaceae, Liliales
Clivia, Amaryllidaceae Corylaceae, in Betulaceae
Clover (Trifolium), Fabaceae Corynocarpaceae, Cucurbitales
Cloves (Syzygium), Myrtaceae Cosmos, Asteraceae
Clubrush (Scirpus, also Bolboschoenus, Isolepis Costa, Costaceae
& Schoenoplectus), Cyperaceae Costaceae, Zingiberales
Clusiaceae, Malpighiales Cotinus, Anacardiaceae
Clutia, Peraceae Cotton (Gossypium), Malvaceae
Cneoraceae, in Rutaceae Coulaceae, Santalales
Cneorum, Rutaceae Courgette (Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae
Coachwood (Ceratopetalum), Cunoniaceae Crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia), Lythraceae
Cobaea, Polemoniaceae Cranberry (Vaccinium), Ericaceae
Cobaeaceae, in Polemoniaceae Cranes bill/Cranesbill (Geranium), Geraniaceae
Cobra lily (Darlingtonia), Sarraceniaceae Crassulaceae, Saxifragales
Coca, Cocaine (Erythroxylum), Erythroxylaceae Creosote bush (Larrea), Zygophyllaceae
Cochlospermaceae, in Bixaceae Cress, Garden (Lepidium), Brassicaceae
Cockscomb (Celosia), Amaranthaceae Cress, Land (Barbarea), Brassicaceae
Coco de mer (Lodoicea), Arecaceae Cress, Pepper- (Lepidium), Brassicaceae
Coco-grass (Cyperus), Cyperaceae Cress, Water- (Nasturtium), Brassicaceae
Coco plum (Chrysobalanus), Chrysobalanaceae Cress, Winter (Barbarea), Brassicaceae
Cocoa (Theobroma), Malvaceae Crinodendron, Elaeocarpaceae

6
Crocosmia, Iridaceae Deutzia, Hydrangeaceae
Crocus, Iridaceae Devils claw (Harpagophytum), Pedaliaceae
Croomiaceae, in Stemonaceae Devils claw (Proboscidea), Martyniaceae
Crossosomataceae, Crossosomatales Dialypetalanthaceae, in Rubiaceae
Croton, Euphorbiaceae Diapensiaceae, Ericales
Crowberry (Empetrum), Ericaceae Diascia, Scrophulariaceae
Crypteroniaceae, Myrtales Dicentra, Papaveraceae
Ctenolophonaceae, Malpighiales Dichapetalaceae, Malpighiales
Cubeb (Piper), Piperaceae Dicrastylidaceae, in Lamiaceae
Cucumber (Cucumis), Cucurbitaceae Dictamnus, Rutaceae
Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbitales Didiereaceae, Caryophyllales
Cucurbitales, Fabids Didymelaceae, in Buxaceae
Cudjoe wood (Jacquinia = Bonellia), Primulaceae Diegodendraceae, in Bixaceae
Culvers root (Veronicastrum), Plantaginaceae Diervillaceae, in Caprifoliaceae
Cumin (Cuminum), Apiaceae Dika nut (Irvingia), Irvingiaceae
Cunoniaceae, Oxalidales Dill (Anethum), Apiaceae
Cuphea, Lythraceae Dillenia, Dilleniaceae
Curare (Chondrodendron), Menispermaceae Dilleniaceae, Eudicots
Curare (Strychnos), Loganiaceae Dioncophyllaceae, Caryophyllales
Currant bush (Ribes), Grossulariaceae Dioscoreaceae, Dioscoreales
Curry tree/leaf (Murraya), Rutaceae Dioscoreales, Monocots
Curtisiaceae, Cornales Dipentodontaceae, Huerteales
Cuscutaceae, in Convolvulaceae Dipsacaceae, in Caprifoliaceae
Custard apple (Annona), Annonaceae Dipsacales, Campanulids
Cyanastraceae, in Tecophilaeaceae Dipterocarpaceae, Malvales
Cyclamen, Primulaceae Dirachmaceae, Rosales
Cyclanthaceae, Pandanales Dissotis, Melastomataceae
Cyclocheilaceae, in Orobanchaceae Ditchgrass (Ruppia), Ruppiaceae
Cymodoceaceae, Alismatales Dock (Rumex), Polygonaceae
Cynomoriaceae unplaced Dodder (Cuscuta), Convolvulaceae
Cyperaceae, Poales Dodecatheon, Primulaceae
Cypripediaceae, in Orchidaceae Dogbane (Apocynum), Apocynaceae
Cyphiaceae, in Campanulaceae Dogwood (Cornus), Cornaceae
Cyrillaceae, Ericales Donatiaceae, in Stylidaceae
Cytinaceae, Malvales Doryanthaceae, Asparagales
Dove tree (Davidia), Cornaceae
Dracaena, Asparagaceae
Dabai (Canarium), Burseraceae Dragon tree (Dracaena), Asparagaceae
Daffodil (Narcissus), Amaryllidaceae Dragons blood (Croton), Euphorbiaceae
Dahlia, Asteraceae Dragons blood (Calamus), Arecaceae
Daisy (Bellis, Aster, etc), Asteraceae Dragons blood (Daemonorops), Arecaceae
Damiana (Turnera), Passifloraceae Dragons blood (Dracaena), Asparagaceae
Dandelion (Taraxacum), Asteraceae Dragons blood (Pterocarpus), Fabaceae
Danta (Nesogordonia), Malvaceae Droseraceae, Caryophyllales
Daphne, Thymelaeaceae Drumstick tree (Cassia), Fabaceae
Daphniphyllaceae, Saxifragales Drumstick tree (Moringa), Moringaceae
Dasypogonaceae, Monocots (Commelinids) Duckeodendraceae, in Solanaceae
Date (Phoenix), Arecaceae Duckweed (Lemna), Araceae
Date-plum (Diospyros), Ebenaceae Dulongiaceae, in Phyllonomaceae
Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales Durian (Durio), Malvaceae
Day lily (Hemerocallis), Xanthorrhoeaceae Dysphaniaceae, in Amarathaceae
Davidia, Cornaceae
Davidiaceae, in Cornaceae
Davidsoniaceae, in Cunoniaceae Ebenaceae, Ericales
Degame (Calycophyllum), Rubiaceae Ebony (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Degeneriaceae, Magnoliales Ecdeiocoleaceae, Poales
Desfontainia, Columelliaceae Echinacea, Asteraceae

7
Eelgrass (Vallisneria), Hydrocharitaceae Fennel (Foeniculum), Apiaceae
Eelgrass (Zostera), Zosteraceae Fenugreek (Trigonella), Fabaceae
Eggfruit (Pouteria), Sapotaceae Feverfew (Tanacetum), Asteraceae
Eggplant (Solanum), Solanaceae Fig (Ficus), Moraceae
Ehretiaceae, in Boraginaceae Fig, Hottentot (Carpobrotus), Aizoaceae
Ekki tree (Lophira), Ochnaceae Fig-marigold (Mesembryanthemum and
Elaeagnaceae, Rosales other genera), Aizoaceae
Elaeocarpaceae, Oxalidales Figwort (Scrophularia), Scrophulariaceae
Elatinaceae, Malpighiales Firethorn (Pyracantha), Rosaceae
Elder (Sambucus), Adoxaceae Flag, Sweet (Acorus), Acoraceae
Elder, African forest (Nuxia), Stilbaceae Flag iris (Iris), Iridaceae
Elderberry (Sambucus), Adoxaceae Flagellariaceae, Poales
Elecampane (Inula), Asteraceae Flax (Linum), Linaceae
Elemi (Canarium), Burseraceae Flax, New Zealand (Phormium), Xanthorrhoeaceae
Elephant tree (Bursera), Burseraceae Flindersiaceae, in Rutaceae
Ellisiophyllaceae, in Plantaginaceae Flowering rush (Butomus), Butomaceae
Elm (Ulmus), Ulmaceae Flycatcher, Australian (Cephalotus), Cephalotaceae
Elodea, Hydrocharitaceae Foetidiaceae, in Lecythidaceae
Emblingiaceae, Brassicales Fogfruit (Phyla), Verbenaceae
Emmotum, Icacinaceae (provisionally) Forget-me-not (Myosotis), Boraginaceae
Empetraceae, in Ericaceae Forsythia, Oleaceae
Emu bush (Eremophilas), Scrophulariaceae Fouquieriaceae, Ericales
Emu bush (Hakea), Proteaceae Foxglove (Digitalis), Plantaginaceae
Endive (Cichorium), Asteraceae Foxglove tree (Paulownia), Paulowniaceae
Epacridaceae, in Ericaceae Francoaceae, in Melianthaceae
Eremolepidaceae, in Santalaceae Frangipani (Plumeria), Apocynaceae
Eremosynaceae, in Escalloniaceae Frankeniaceae, Caryophyllales
Ericaceae, Ericales Frankincense (Boswellia), Burseraceae
Ericales, Asterids Franklin tree (Franklinia), Theaceae
Eriocaulaceae, Poales Freesia, Iridaceae
Erodium, Geraniaceae Fremontodendron, Malvaceae
Erythropalaceae, Santalales Freijo (Cordia), Boraginaceae
Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiales Fritillary (Fritillaria), Liliaceae
Escallonia, Escalloniaceae Frogbit (Hydrocharis &
Escalloniaceae, Escalloniales Limnobium), Hydrocharitaceae
Escalloniales, Campanulids Fuchsia, Onagraceae
Eucalyptus, Myrtaceae Fumariaceae, in Papaveraceae
Eucommiaceae, Garryales Fumitory (Fumaria), Papaveraceae
Eucryphia, Cunoniaceae Fustic, Old (Maclura), Moraceae
Euphorbiaceae, Malpighiales Fustic, Young (Cotinus), Anacardiaceae
Euphroniaceae, Malpighiales
Eupomatiaceae, Magnoliales
Eupteleaceae, Ranunculales Gabon nut (Coula), Coulaceae
Eurya, Pentaphylacaceae Gaboon (Aucoumea), Burseraceae
Euryalaceae, in Nymphaeaceae Gaharu (Aquilaria), Thymelaeaceae
Evening primrose (Oenothera), Onagraceae Galangal (usually Alpinia, sometimes
Exacum, Gentianaceae Kaempferia, Boesenbergia), Zingiberaceae
Eyebright (Euphrasia), Orobanchaceae Galax, Diapensiaceae
Galbanum (Ferula), Apiaceae
Galingale (Cyperus), Cyperaceae, see also Galangal
Fabaceae, Fabales Galip nut (Canarium), Burseraceae
Fabales, Fabids Pili nut (Canarium), Burseraceae
Fabids, Rosids Gamboge (Garcinia), Clusiaceae
Fagaceae, Fagales Gardenia, Rubiaceae
Fagales, Fabids Garbanzo bean = Chickpea
Fatsia, Araliaceae Garlic (Allium), Amaryllidaceae
Featherfoil (Hottonia), Primulaceae Garlic-tree (Afrostyrax), Huaceae

8
Garrya, Garryaceae Greengage (Prunus), Rosaceae
Garryaceae, Garryales Greenheart (Chlorocardium), Lauraceae
Garryales, Lamiids Grevillea, Proteaceae
Gaultheria, Ericaceae Grey mangrove (Avicenna), Acanthaceae
Geissolomataceae, Celastrales Greyia, Melianthaceae
Gentian (Gentiana), Gentianaceae Greyiaceae, in Melianthaceae
Gentianaceae, Gentianales Griselinia, Griseliniaceae
Gentianales, Lamiids Griseliniaceae, Apiales
Geosiridaceae, in Iridaceae Gromwell (Lithospermum), Boraginaceae
Geraniaceae, Geraniales Grossulariaceae, Saxifragales
Geraniales, Malvids Grubbiaceae, Cornales
Geranium, Geraniaceae Guarana (Paullinia), Sapindaceae
Germander (Teucrium), Lamiaceae Guava (Psidium), Myrtaceae
Gesneriaceae, Lamiales Guayule (Parthenium), Asteraceae
Gherkin (Cucumis), Cucurbitaceae Guggul gum (Commiphora), Burseraceae
Gilia, Polemoniaceae Gum trees (Eucalyptus), Myrtaceae
Ginger (Zingiber), Zingiberaceae Gum guggul (Commiphora), Burseraceae
Ginseng (Panax), Araliaceae Gunneraceae, Gunnerales
Gladiolus, Iridaceae Gunnerales, Eudicots
Glaucidiaceae, in Ranunculaceae Gunpowder-tree (aka Pigeon Wood or Nalita)
Glaucidium, Ranunculaceae (Trema), Cannabaceae
Globe thistle (Echinops), Asteraceae Gutta-percha (Palaquium), Sapotaceae
Globularia, Plantaginaceae Gyrocarpaceae, in Hernandiaceae
Globulariaceae, in Plantaginaceae Gyrostemonaceae, Brassicales
Gloriosa, Colchicaceae
Glory bush (Tibouchina), Melastomataceae
Gloxinia, Gesneriaceae Hackberry (Celtis), Cannabaceae
Goetzeaceae, in Solanaceae Haemodoraceae, Commelinales
Goji berry (Lycium), Solanaceae Halesiaceae, in Styracaceae
Golden leaf tree (Chrysophyllum), Sapotaceae Halophytaceae, Caryophyllales
Goldenrod (Solidago), Asteraceae Halorag(id)aceae, Saxifragales
Gomortegaceae, Laurales Hamamelidaceae, Saxifragales
Gonystylaceae, in Thymelaeaceae Handkerchief tree (Davidia), Cornaceae
Goodenia, Goodeniaceae Hanguanaceae, Commelinales
Goodeniaceae, Asterales Harmal (Peganum), Nitrariaceae
Gooseberry (Ribes), Grossulariaceae Hawaiian snowbush (Breynia), Phyllanthaceae
Gooseberry, Cape (Physalis), Solanaceae Hawthorn (Crataegus), Rosaceae
Gooseberry, Chinese (Actinidia), Actinidiaceae Hawthorn, Water (Aponogeton), Aponogetonaceae
Gooseberry, Indian (Phyllanthus), Phyllanthaceae Hazel (Corylus), Betulaceae
Gooseberry, Otaheite/Tahitian Heather/Heath (Calluna, Erica,
(Phyllanthus), Phyllanthaceae Phyllodoce, Cassiope), Ericaceae
Gooseberry, Star (Sauropus), Phyllanthaceae Heavenly/Sacred bamboo (Nandina), Berberidaceae
Goosefoots (Chenopodium), Amaranthaceae Hebe (Veronica), Plantaginaceae
Gorse (Ulex), Fabaceae Hectorellaceae, in Montiaceae
Gotu kola (Centella), Apiaceae Helichrysum, Asteraceae
Goupiaceae, Malpighiales Heliconiaceae, Zingiberales
Gourd (various genera inc. Cucumis, Lagenaria, Heliotrope (Heliotropium), Boraginaceae
Benincasa, Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae Hellebore (Helleborus), Ranunculaceae
Gran = Chickpea Hellebore, False (Adonis), Ranunculaceae
Granadilla (Passiflora), Passifloraceae Hellebore, False (Veratrum), Melianthaceae
Grape (Vitis), Vitaceae Helleborine (Epipactis, & Cephalanthera,
Grapefruit (Citrus), Rutaceae also Calopogon), Orchidaceae
Grass (many genera), Poaceae Helwingiaceae, Aquifoliales
Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia), Celastraceae Helxine, Urticaceae
Grass pinks (Calopogon), Orchidaceae Hemerocallidaceae, in Xanthorrhoeaceae
Grass tree (Xanthorrhoea), Xanthorrhoeaceae Hemlock (Conium), Apiaceae
Grease nut (Hernandia), Hernandiaceae Hemlock, Water (Cicuta), Apiaceae

9
Hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe), Apiaceae Hydrastis, Ranunculaceae
Hemp (Cannabis), Cannabidaceae Hydrocharitaceae, Alismatales
Hemp, African (Sparrmannia), Malvaceae Hydrocotylaceae, in Araliaceae
Hemp, Manila (Musa), Musaceae Hydrophyllaceae, in Boraginaceae
Henbane (Hyoscyamus), Solanaceae Hydrostachyaceae, Cornales (provisionally)
Henna (Lawsonia), Lythraceae Hypecoum, Papaveraceae
Henriqueziaceae, in Rubiaceae Hypericaceae, Malpighiales
Hernandiaceae, Laurales Hypericum, Hypericaceae
Heteropyxidaceae, in Myrtaceae Hypoxidaceae, Asparagales
Heuchera, Saxifragaceae Hypseocharis, Geraniaceae
Hibbertia, Dilleniaceae Hyssop (Hyssopus & Agastache), Lamiaceae
Hibiscus, Malvaceae
Hickory (Carya), Juglandaceae
Hickory, Beaked (Annamocarya), Juglandaceae Icacinaceae, Lamiids
Himantandraceae, Magnoliales Idigbo (Terminalia), Combretaceae
Hippocastanaceae, in Sapindaceae Illiciaceae, in Schisandraceae
Hippocrateaceae, in Celastraceae Imbuia (Phoebe), Lauraceae
Hippuridaceae, in Plantaginaceae Impatiens, Balsaminaceae
Hog plum (Spondias), Anacardiaceae Indian shot (Canna), Cannaceae
Hog plum (Ximenia), Ximeniaceae Indian mast tree (Polyalthia), Annonaceae
Holly (Ilex), Aquifoliaceae Indian pipe (Monotropa), Ericaceae
Holly, Sea (Acanthus), Acanthaceae Indigo (Indigofera), Fabaceae
Holly, Sea (Eryngium), Apiaceae Inoy/Inoi nut (Poga), Anisophylleaceae
Hollyhock (Alcea), Malvaceae Ipecacuanha (Psychotria), Rubiaceae
Honesty (Lunaria), Brassicaceae Ipecacuanha, White (Ionidium = Hybanthus),
Honey berry (Lonicera), Caprifoliaceae Violaceae
Honey flower (Lambertia), Proteaceae Iridaceae, Asparagales
Honey flower (Melianthus), Melianthaceae Iris, Iridaceae
Honey myrtle (Melaleuca), Myrtaceae Iroko (Milicia or Chlorophora = Maclura), Moraceae
Honeysuckle (Lonicera), Caprifoliaceae Ironwood - many genera and families
Hop (Humulus), Cannabidaceae Irvingiaceae, Malpighiales
Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya), Betulaceae Isano oil (Ongokea), Aptandraceae
Hoplestigmataceae, in Boraginaceae (provisionally) Ivy (Hedera), Araliaceae
Hornbeam (Carpinus), Betulaceae Ivy, Poison (Toxicodendron = Rhus), Anacardiaceae
Hornwort (Ceratophyllum), Ceratophyllaceae Ixioliriaceae, Asparagales
Horse chestnut (Aesculus), Sapindaceae Ixonanthaceae, Malpighiales
Hortoniaceae, in Monimiaceae
Hosta, Asparagaceae
Hottentot fig (Carpobrotus), Aizoaceae Jaborandi (Pilocarpus), Rutaceae
Houmiriaceae = Humiriaceae Jaboty (Erisma), Vochysiaceae
House-leek (Sempervivum), Crassulaceae Jaboty (Helicostylis), Moraceae
Hoya, Apocynaceae Jacaranda, Bignoniaceae
Hua, Huaceae Jackfruit (Artocarpus), Moraceae
Huaceae, Fabids Jacobs ladder (Polemonium), Polemoniaceae
Hualo (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae Jalop (Ipomoea), Convolvulaceae
Huambula wood (Minquartia), Coulaceae Jasmine (Jasminum), Oleaceae
Huckleberry (Vaccinium, Gaylussacia), Ericaceae Jasmine, Cape (Gardenia), Rubiaceae
Huckleberry, Garden (Solanum), Solanaceae Jasmine, New Zealand (Parsonsia), Apocynaceae
Hugoniaceae, in Linaceae Jasmine, Night-blooming (Cestrum), Solanaceae
Humiriaceae, Malpighiales Jasmine, Night-flowering (Nyctanthes), Oleaceae
Hyacinth (Hyacinthus), Asparagaceae Jasmine, Star (Trachelospermum), Apocynaceae
Hyacinth, Water (Eichhornia), Pontederiaceae Jasmine tree (Millingtonia), Bignoniaceae
Hyacinthaceae, in Asparagaceae Jatropha, Euphorbiaceae
Hydatellaceae, Nymphaeales Jelutong (Dyera), Apocynaceae
Hydnoraceae, Piperales Jessamine/Jasmine, Carolina (Gelsemium),
Hydrangea, Hydrangeaceae Gelsemiaceae
Hydrangeaceae, Cornales Jimson weed (Datura), Solanaceae

10
Jobo (Spondias), Anacardiaceae Lanariaceae, Asparagales
Joinvilleaceae, Poales Lantana, Verbenaceae
Jojoba (Simmondsia), Simmondsiaceae Lapageria, Philesiaceae
Jongkong (Dactylocladus), Crypteroniaceae Lardizabalaceae, Ranunculales
Joshua tree (Yucca), Asparagaceae Lasora (Cordia), Boraginaceae
Jovellana, Calceolariaceae Lauraceae, Laurales
Judas tree (Cercis), Fabaceae Laurales, Magnoliids
Juglandaceae, Fagales Laurel, Azores (Laurus), Lauraceae
Jujube (Ziziphus), Rhamnaceae Laurel, Bay (Laurus), Lauraceae
Julianiaceae, in Anacardiaceae Laurel, Californian (Umbellularia), Lauraceae
Juncaceae, Poales Laurel, Camphor (Cinnamomum), Lauraceae
Juncaginaceae, Alismatales Laurel, Cherry (Prunus), Rosaceae
Jute (Corchorus), Malvaceae Laurel, Great (Rhododendron), Ericaceae
Laurel, Mountain (Kalmia), Ericaceae
Laurel, New Zealand (shrub) (Coprosma),
Kadsura, Schisandraceae Rubiaceae
Kalanchoe, Crassulaceae Laurel, New Zealand (tree) (Corynocarpus),
Kalmia, Ericaceae Corynocarpaceae
Kamahi (Weinmannia), Cunoniaceae Laurel, Portugal (Prunus), Rosaceae
Kangaroo paw (Anigozanthus & Macropidia), Laurel, Spotted (Aucuba), Garryaceae
Haemodoraceae Laurel, Sumac (Malosma = Rhus), Anacardiaceae
Kapok (Ceiba), Malvaceae Laurel, Tasmanian (Anopterus), Escalloniaceae
Kapur (Dryobalanops), Dipterocarpaceae Lavender (Lavandula), Lamiaceae
Karanda (Carissa), Apocynaceae Lavender, Sea (Limonium), Plumbaginaceae
Karanda nut (Elaeocarpus), Elaeocarpaceae Laxmanniaceae, in Asparagaceae
Karir (Capparis), Capparaceae Leadwood (Krugiodendron), Rhamnaceae
Karo tree (Pittosporum), Pittosporaceae Leadwood (Ceratostigma), Plumbaginaceae
Katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum), Cercidiphyllaceae Leadwood tree (Combretum), Combretaceae
Kapok (Ceiba), Malvaceae Leadwort (Ceratostigma), Plumbaginaceae
Kava (Piper), Piperaceae Leafflower (Phyllanthus), Phyllanthaceae
Keaki (Zelkova), Ulmaceae Leatherwood (Cyrilla), Cyrillaceae
Kei apple (Dovyalis = Aberia), Salicaceae Leatherwood (Dirca), Thymelaeaceae
Khat (Catha), Celastraceae Leatherwood (Eucryphia), Cunoniaceae
Kirkiaceae, Sapindales Leatherwood (Olearia), Asteraceae
Kite tree (Nuxia), Stilbaceae Lebombo ironwood (Androstachys), Picrodendraceae
Kiwi fruit (Actinidia), Actinidiaceae Lechenaultia = Leschenaultia
Knapweed (Centuarea), Asteraceae Lecythidaceae, Ericales
Kohekohe (Dysoxylum), Meliaceae Ledocarpaceae, in Vivianiaceae
Koeberliniaceae, Brassicales Leeaceae, in Vitaceae
Kokoon (Kokoona), Celastraceae Leek (Allium), Amaryllidaceae
Kola nut, see Cola Leitneriaceae, in Simaroubaceae
Krabak (Anisoptera), Dipterocarpaceae Lemnaceae, in Araceae
Krameriaceae, Zygophyllales Lemon (Citrus), Rutaceae
Kudzu (Pueraria), Fabaceae Lemon thorn (Cassinopsis),
Kulim wood (Scorocarpus), Strombosiaceae Icacinaceae (provisionally)
Kumquat (Fortunella), Rutaceae Lenga (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Lengkuas = Galangal
Lennoaceae, in Boraginaceae
Labdanum (Cistus), Cistaceae Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales
Labrador tea (Ledum), Ericaceae Lentil (Lens), Fabaceae
Laburnum, Fabaceae Leptaulus, Cardiopteridaceae
Lacistemataceae, Malpighiales Leschenaultia, Goodeniaceae
Lacquer (Rhus), Anacardiaceae Lettuce (Lactuca), Asteraceae
Lactoridaceae, Piperales Lettuce, Sea (Scaevola), Goodeniaceae
Lamiaceae, Lamiales Lewisia, Montiaceae
Lamiales, Lamiids Leycesteria, Caprifoliaceae
Lamiids, Asterids Lichee, see Lychee

11
Lignum vitae (Guaiacum), Zygophyllaceae
Lilac (Syringa), Oleaceae
Lilaeaceae, in Juncaginaceae Macachi (Arjona), Schoepfiaceae
Liliaceae, Liliales Macadamia, Proteaceae
Liliales, Monocots Macary bitter (Picramnia), Picramniaceae
Lily (Lilium), Liliaceae Mace (Myristica), Myristicaceae
Lily, Peruvian (Alstroemera), Alstroemeriaceae Mackinlayaceae, in Apiaceae
Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria), Asparagaceae Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus),
Lily-of-the-valley tree (Clethra), Clethraceae Apocynaceae
Lily-of-the-valley tree (Crinodendron), Madder (Rubia), Rubiaceae
Elaeocarpaceae Madeira vine (Anredera), Basellaceae
Lily-of-the-valley tree (Oxydendrum), Ericaceae Madrone (Arbutus), Ericaceae
Lime (Citrus), Rutaceae Madwort (Asperugo), Boraginaceae
Lime tree [UK] (Tilia), Malvaceae Madwort (Lobularia, Aurinia and Alyssum),
Limnanthaceae, Brassicales Brassicaceae
Limnocharitaceae, in Alismataceae Maesaceae, in Primulaceae
Linaceae, Malpighiales Magnolia, Magnoliaceae
Linaloa, Burseraceae Magnoliaceae, Magnoliales
Linderniaceae, Lamiales Magnoliales, Magnoliids
Linnaeaceae, in Caprifoliaceae Maguey (Agave), Asparagaceae
Linseed (Linum), Linaceae Mahogany (Swietenia), True m., West
Liquidambar, Altingiaceae Indian m., Cuban m. & Honduras m., Meliaceae,
Liquorice/Licorice (Glycyrrhiza), Fabaceae (also species in Khaya & Entandrophragma
Lisianthus (Eustoma), Gentianaceae in Meliaceae)
Lissocarpaceae, in Ebenaceae Mahogany, African (Khaya), Meliaceae
Litchi, see Lychee Mahogany, Chinese (Toona), Meliaceae
Lithops, Aizoaceae Mahogany, New Zealand (Dysoxylum), Meliaceae
Littorella, Plantaginaceae Maize (Zea), Poaceae
Lizards tail (Saururus), Saururaceae Makita (Atuna), Chrysobalanaceae
Loasaceae, Cornales Makore (Tieghemella), Sapotaceae
Lobelia, Campanulaceae Malesherbiaceae, in Passifloraceae
Lobeliaceae, in Campanulaceae Mallow (Malva), Malvaceae
Loblolly bay (Gordonia), Theaceae Malpighiaceae, Malpighiales
Lobster-claw (Clianthus), Fabaceae Malpighiales, Fabids
Lobster-claw (Heliconia), Heliconiaceae Malvaceae, Malvales
Lodh (bark) (Symplocos), Symplocaceae Malvales, Malvids
Loganiaceae, Gentianales Malvids, Rosids
Longan (Dimocarpus), Sapindaceae Mamaki (Pipturus), Urticaceae
Loosestrife, purple (Lythrum), Lythraceae Mamey sapote (Pouteria), Sapotaceae
Loosestrife, yellow (Lysimachia), Primulaceae Mamoncilla (Melicoccus), Sapindaceae
Lophopyxidaceae, Malpighiales Manatee grass (Syringodium & Cymodocea),
Lopseed (Phryma), Phrymaceae Cymodoceaceae
Loquat (Eriobotrya), Rosaceae Mandrake (Mandragora), Solanaceae
Loranthaceae, Santalales Mangeao (Litsea), Lauraceae
Lotus, Sacred (Nelumbo), Nelumbonaceae Mango (Mangifera), Anacardiaceae
(also Nymphaea, Nymphaeaceae) Mango, Bush (Irvingia), Irvingiaceae
Lousewort (Pedicularis), Orobanchaceae Mangosteen (Garcinia), Clusiaceae
Lovage (Levisticum), Apiaceae Mangrove, Black (Avicenna), Acanthaceae
Lovegrass (Eragrostis), Poaceae Mangrove, Red (Rhizophora), Rhizophoraceae
Lowiaceae, Zingiberales Mangrove, White/Grey (Avicenna), Acanthaceae
Luffa, Cucurbitaceae Mangrove, White (Conocarpus, Languncularia &
Lungwort (Pulmonaria), Boraginaceae Lumnitzera), Combretaceae
Lupin (Lupinus), Fabaceae Mangrove apple (Sonneratia), Lythraceae
Luzuriagaceae, Liliales Mangrove palm (Nypha), Arecaceae
Lychee/Lichee/Litchi (Litchi), Sapindaceae Manila hemp (Musa), Musaceae
Lythraceae, Myrtales Manwood, Black (Minquartia), Coulaceae
Lythrum, Lythraceae Maple (Acer), Sapindaceae

12
Maple, Queensland (Flindersia), Rutaceae Mimosa, Fabaceae
Maracaibo boxwood (Casearia), Salicaceae Mint, including Spearmint, Peppermint &
Marantaceae, Zingiberales Horse mint (Mentha), Lamiaceae
Marcgraviaceae, Ericales Mint, Cambodian (Persicaria), Polygonaceae
Mares tail (Hippuris), Plantaginaceae Mint bush (Prostanthera), Lamiaceae
Marigold (Tagetes), Asteraceae Mirabilis, Nyctaginaceae
Marigold, Corn (Glebionis), Asteraceae Misodendraceae, Santalales
Marigold, Desert (Baileya), Asteraceae Mistletoe, various genera and families in Santalales,
Marigold, Marsh (Caltha), Ranunculaceae including European m. (Viscum),
Marigold, Mexican (Tagetes), Asteraceae American m. (Phoradendron) and
Marigold, Pot (Calendula), Asteraceae Dwarf m. (Arceuthobium),
Marigold, Tree (Tithonia), Asteraceae all in Viscaceae
Marjoram (Origanum), Lamiaceae Mitrastemonaceae = Mitrastem(m)ataceae,
Marrow (Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae Ericales (provisionally)
Marshmallow (Althaea), Malvaceae Mock orange, (Philadelphus) Hydrangeaceae
Martyniaceae, Lamiales Molluginaceae, Caryophyllales
Mast tree, Indian (Polyalthia), Annonaceae Mombin (Spondias), Anacardiaceae
Mastic (Pistacia), Anacardiaceae Monimiaceae, Laurales
Maundia, Juncaginaceae Monkey flower (Mimulus), Phrymaceae
Mayacaceae, Poales Monotropa, Ericaceae
Mayten (Maytenus), Celastraceae Monotropaceae, in Ericaceae
Mbura (Parinari), Chrysobalanaceae Monstera, Araceae
Meadow saffron (Colchicum), Colchicaceae Moonseed (Cocculus & Menispermum),
Meadowfoam (Limnanthes), Limnanthaceae Menispermaceae
Medinilla, Melastomataceae Moraceae, Rosales
Medusagyne, Ochnaceae Morinaceae, in Caprifoliaceae
Medusandraceae, in Peridiscaceae Moringaceae, Brassicales
Melanophyllaceae, in Torricelliaceae Morning glory (Ipomoea, and other genera),
Melanthiaceae, Liliales Convolvulaceae
Melastomataceae, Myrtales Moschatel (Adoxa), Adoxaceae
Meliaceae, Sapindales Moss-rose (Portulaca), Portulacaceae
Melianthaceae, Geraniales Moutan (Paeonia), Paeoniaceae
Meliosmaceae, in Sabiaceae Mpingo wood (Dalbergia), Fabaceae
Melon (Cucumis), Cucurbitaceae Muhuhu oil/wood (Brachyleana), Asteraceae
Melon, Bitter (Momordica), Cucurbitaceae Mulberry (Morus), Moraceae
Melon, Horned (Cucumis), Cucurbitaceae Mullein (Verbascum), Scrophulariaceae
Melon, Water (Citrullus), Cucurbitaceae Mulukhiyah (Corchorus), Malvaceae
Melon, Winter (Benincasa), Cucurbitaceae Muntingiaceae, Malvales
Mendonciaceae, in Acanthaceae Musaceae, Zingiberales
Mengkulang (Heritiera), Malvaceae Mustard (Sinapis & Brassica), Brassicaceae
Menispermaceae, Ranunculales Mustard-tree (Nicotiana), Solanaceae
Menyanthaceae, Asterales Mustard-tree (Salvadora), Salvadoraceae
Meranti (Shorea), Dipterocarpaceae Myodocarpaceae, Apiales
Mercury (Mercurialis), Euphorbiaceae Myoporaceae, in Scrophulariaceae
Mersawa (Anisoptera), Dipterocarpaceae Myricaceae, Fagales
Mescal (Agave), Asparagaceae Myristicaceae, Magnoliales
Mesembryanthemum, Aizoaceae Myrothamnaceae, Gunnerales
Mesquite (Prosopis), Fabaceae Myrrh (Commiphora), Burseraceae
Methi = Fenugreek Myrrh, Sweet (Opopanax), Apiaceae
Metteniusaceae, Lamiids Myrsinaceae, in Primulaceae
Micranthemum, Linderniaceae Myrtaceae, Myrtales
Mignonette (Reseda), Resedaceae Myrtales, Malvids
Milk-vetch (Astragalus), Fabaceae Myrtle (Myrtus), Myrtaceae
Milkweed (Asclepias), Apocynaceae Myrtle, Aniseed (Syzygium), Myrtaceae
Milkweed (Sonchus), Asteraceae Myrtle, Beech (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Milkwort (Polygala), Polygalaceae Myrtle, Black (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Millet (various genera), Poaceae Myrtle, Brown (Choricarpia), Myrtaceae

13
Myrtle, Cinnamon (Backhousia), Myrtaceae Oca quina (Ullucus), Basellaceae
Myrtle, Crape (Lagerstroemia), Lythraceae Ochna, Ochnaceae
Myrtle, Creeping (Vinca), Apocynaceae Ochnaceae, Malpighiales
Myrtle, Dwarf Australian (Myoporum), Ocotillo (Fouquieria), Fouquieriaceae
Scrophulariaceae Octoknemaceae, Santalales
Myrtle, Honey (Melaleuca), Myrtaceae Okra (Abelmoschus), Malvaceae
Myrtle, Lemon (Backhousia), Myrtaceae Olacaceae, Santalales
Myrtle, Rose (Archirhodomyrtus), Myrtaceae Oleaceae, Lamiales
Myrtle, Wax (Myrica), Myricaceae Oleander (Nerium), Apocynaceae
Myrtle, White (Auranticarpa), Pittosporaceae Olearia, Asteraceae
Myrtle, White (Hypocalymma), Myrtaceae Oleaster (Elaeagnus), Elaeagnaceae
Myrtle, Willow (Agonis), Myrtaceae Oliniaceae, in Penaeaceae
Myrtle hakea (Hakea), Proteaceae Olive (Olea), Oleaceae
Myrtle wattle (Acacia), Fabaceae Olive, Ceylon (Elaeocarpus), Elaeocarpaceae
Olivillo (Aextoxicon), Aextoxicaceae
Ombu (Phytolacca), Phytolaccaceae
Najadaceae, in Hydrocharitaceae Omu (Entandrophragma), Meliaceae
Nanodeaceae, in Santalaceae Onagraceae, Myrtales
Nartheciaceae, Dioscoreaceae Oncothecaceae, Lamiids
Nasturtium, Garden (Tropaeolum), Tropaeolaceae Onion (Allium), Amaryllidaceae
Natal bottlebrush (Greyia), Melianthaceae Opepe (Nauclea), Rubiaceae
Nectarine (Prunus), Rosaceae Opiliaceae, Santalales
Needle bush (Hakea), Proteaceae Opium (Papaver), Papaveraceae
Needle bush (Vachellia farnesiana = Opopanax, Apiaceae
Acacia farnesiana), Fabaceae Orache (Atriplex), Amaranthaceae
Neem (Azadirachta), Meliaceae Orange (Citrus), Rutaceae
Nelumbonaceae, Proteales Orchid (many genera), Orchidaceae
Nemesia, Scrophulariaceae Orchidaceae, Asparagales
Nemophila, Boraginaceae Oregano (Origanum), Lamiaceae
Nepenthaceae, Caryophyllales Oregano, Mexican (Lippia), Verbenaceae
Nesogenaceae, in Orobanchaceae Orobanchaceae, Lamiales
Nettle (Urtica), Urticaceae Osage orange (Maclura), Moraceae
Nettle, Rock (Eucnide), Loasaceae Osier (Salix), Salicaceae
Neuradaceae, Malvales Osmanthus, Oleaceae
Ngaio (Myoporum), Scrophulariaceae Otaheite gooseberry (Phyllanthus), Phyllanthaceae
Nicobar breadfruit (Pandanus), Pandanaceae Ovoga wood (Poga), Anisophylleaceae
Nightshade, Deadly (Atropa), Solanaceae Oxalidaceae, Oxalidales
Nightshade, Stinking (Hyoscyamus), Solanaceae Oxalidales, Fabids
Nightshade, Woody (Solanum), Solanaceae
Nire (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Nitrariaceae, Sapindales Pachysandra, Buxaceae
Nolanaceae, in Solanaceae Padauk wood (Pterocarpus), Fabaceae
Nothofagaceae, Fagales Paeoniaceae, Saxifragales
Nutmeg (Myristica), Myristicaceae Pagoda tree (Styphnolobium), Fabaceae
Nyatah (Palaquium), Sapotaceae Palm (many genera), Arecaceae
Nyctaginaceae, Caryophyllales Palm oil (Elaeis), Arecaceae
Nymphaeaceae, Nymphaeales Palmyra palm (Borassus), Arecaceae
Nymphaeales, Early-branching order Panama hat plant (Carludovica), Cyclanthaceae
Nymphoides, Menyanthaceae Pandaceae, Malpighiales
Nyssaceae, in Cornaceae Pandanaceae, Pandanales
Pansy (Viola), Violaceae
Papaveraceae, Ranunculales
Oak (Quercus), Fagaceae Papaw (Asimina), Annonaceae
Oak, Tan (Lithocarpus), Fagaceae Papaya (Carica), Caricaceae
Oat (Avena), Poaceae Papyrus (Cyperus), Cyperaceae
Ombu (Phytolacca), Phytolaccaceae Paracryphiaceae, Paracryphiales,
Oca (Oxalis), Oxalidaceae Paracryphiales, Campanulids

14
Paradise nut (Lecythis), Lecythidaceae Apocynaceae
Parchment-bark (Pittosporum), Pittosporaceae Peroba, White (Paratecoma), Bignoniaceae
Paris, Melanthiaceae Peroba rosa (Aspidosperma) , Apocynaceae
Parnassia, Celastraceae Persimmon (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Paropsia, Passifloraceae Petai (Parkia), Fabaceae
Parsley (Petroselinum), Apiaceae Petermanniaceae, Liliales
Parsnip (Pastinaca), Apiaceae Petiveria, Phytolaccaceae
Passifloraceae, Malpighiales Petroleum nut (Pittosporum), Pittosporaceae
Passion flower (Passiflora), Passifloraceae Petrosaviaceae, Monocots
Passionfruit (Passiflora), Passifloraceae Petunia, Solanaceae
Patchouli (Pogostemon), Lamiaceae Peyote (Lophophora), Cactaceae
Pau marfin (Balfourodendron), Rutaceae Phacelia, Boraginaceae
Paulownia, Paulowniaceae Phellinaceae, Asterales
Paulowniaceae, Lamiales Philadelphus, Hydrangeaceae
Pawpaw (Asimina), Annonaceae Philesiaceae, Liliales
Pea (Pisum), Fabaceae Philodendron, Araceae
Pea, sweet (Lathyrus), Fabaceae Philydraceae, Commelinales
Peach (Prunus), Rosaceae Phlox, Polemoniaceae
Peanut (Archis), Fabaceae Phormium, Xanthorrhoeaceae
Pear (Pyrus), Rosaceae Phrym(at)aceae, Lamiales
Pear, African (Dacryodes), Burseraceae Phyllanthaceae, Malpighiales
Pear, African (Manilkara), Sapotaceae Phyllonomaceae, Aquifoliales
Pear, Prickly (Opuntia), Cactaceae Physenaceae, Caryophyllales
Pearwood, African (Baillonella), Sapotaceae Phytolaccaceae, Caryophyllales
Pearlwort (Sagina & Colobanthus), Caryophyllaceae Pickrel weed (Pontederia), Pontederiaceae
Pecan (Carya), Juglandaceae Picramniaceae, Picramniales
Pedaliaceae, Lamiales Picramniales, Malvids
Peepul (Ficus), Moraceae Picrodendraceae, Malpighiales
Pelargonium, Geraniaceae Pieris, Ericaceae
Pellicieraceae, in Tetrameristaceae Pilea, Urticaceae
Pellitory-of-the-wall (Parietaria), Urticaceae Pili nut (Canarium), Burseraceae
Peltanthera, Gesneriaceae Pimpernel (Anagallis), Primulaceae
Penaeaceae, Myrtales Pineapple (Ananas), Bromeliaceae
Pennantiaceae, Apiales Pinedrops (Pterospora), Ericaceae
Pennyroyal (Mentha), Lamiaceae Pink (Dianthus), Caryophyllaceae
Pennywort, Water (Hydrocotyle), Araliaceae Piperaceae, Piperales
Pentadiplandraceae, Brassicales Piperales, Magnoliids
Pentaphragmataceae, Asterales Pipevine (Aristolochia), Aristolochiaceae
Pentaphylacaceae, Ericales Pipewort (Eriocaulon), Eriocaulaceae
Peony (Paeonia), Paeoniaceae Pistachio (Pistacia), Anacardiaceae
Peperomiaceae, in Piperaceae Pitchapple (Clusia), Clusiaceae
Pepper (Piper), Piperaceae Pitcher plants, several families: Nepenthaceae,
Pepper (Capsicum), Solanaceae Sarraceniaceae & Cephalotaceae
Pepper, Betel (Piper), Piperaceae Pittosporum, Pittosporaceae
Pepper, Sichuan/Szechuan (Zanthoxylum), Pittosporaceae, Apiales
Rutaceae Plane tree (Platanus), Platanaceae
Pepper, Tasmanian (Drimys = Tasmannia), Plantaginaceae, Lamiales
Winteraceae Plantain (Musa), Musaceae
Pepper elder (Piper & Peperomia), Piperaceae Plantain (Plantago), Plantaginaceae
Peppercress (Lepidium), Brassicaceae Plantain, Floating water (Luronium), Alismataceae
Pequi (Caryocar), Caryocaraceae Plantain, Water (Alisma), Alismataceae
Pera, Peraceae Plantago, Plantaginaceae
Peraceae, Malpighiales Platanaceae, Proteales
Peridiscaceae, Saxifragales Platycarpum, Rubiaceae
Perilla, Lamiaceae Platycodon, Campanulaceae
Periwinkle (Vinca), Apocynaceae Plocospermataceae, Lamiales
Periwinkle, Madagascar (Catharanthus), Plum (Prunus), Rosaceae

15
Plum, Australian native, (Sideroxylon ), Sapotaceae Psiloxylaceae, in Myrtaceae
Plum, Yellow (Ximenia), Ximeniaceae Ptaeroxylaceae, in Rutaceae
Plumbaginaceae, Caryophyllales Pulque (Agave), Asparagaceae
Plumbago, Plumbaginaceae Pumpkin (Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae
Poaceae, Poales Punicaceae, in Lythraceae
Poached egg plant (Limnanthes), Limnanthaceae Punnai oil (Calophyllum), Calophyllaceae
Pod grass (Scheuchzeria), Scheuchzeriaceae Purpleheart (Peltogyne) , Fabaceae
Podophyllaceae, in Berberidaceae Purslane, Summer (Portulaca), Portulacaceae
Podostemaceae, Malpighiales Purslane, Winter (Claytonia), Montiaceae
Poison ivy (Toxicodendron = Rhus), Anacardiaceae Purslane, Pink (Claytonia), Montiaceae
Poisonleaf (Dichapetalum), Dichapetalaceae Purslane, Sea (Halimione), Amaranthaceae
Pokeweed (Phytolacca), Phytolaccaceae Putranjivaceae, Malpighiales
Polemoniaceae, Ericales Pyrolaceae, in Ericaceae
Polemonium, Polemoniaceae
Polygalaceae, Fabales
Polygonaceae, Polygonales Quaruba (Vochysia), Vochysiaceae
Polyosomaceae, in Escalloniaceae Quassia, Simaroubaceae
Pomegranate (Punica), Lythraceae Queensland walnut (Endiandra), Lauraceae
Pomelo (Citrus), Rutaceae Quiinaceae, in Ochnaceae
Pondweed (Potamogeton), Potamogetonaceae Quillajaceae, Fabales
Pondweed, Canadian (Elodea), Hydrocharitaceae Quince (Cydonia & Pseudocydonia), Rosaceae
Pondweed, Cape (Aponogeton), Aponogetonaceae Quince, Bengal (Aegle), Rutaceae
Pontederiaceae, Commelinales Quince, Flowering (Chaenomeles), Rosaceae
Popcorn-flower (Cryptantha & Plagiobothrys), Quinine (Cinchona), Rubiaceae
Boraginaceae Quinoa (Chenopodium), Amaranthaceae
Poplar (Populus), Salicaceae Quintinia, Paracryphiaceae
Poplar, Balsam (Populus), Salicaceae
Poppy (Papaver & Meconopsis), Papaveraceae
Poppy, California (Eschscholzia), Papaveraceae Radish (Raphanus), Brassicaceae
Poppy, Desert bearpaw (Arctomecon), Raffia (Raphia), Arecaceae
Papaveraceae Rafflesia, Rafflesiaceae
Poppy, Horned (Glaucium), Papaveraceae Rafflesiaceae, Malpighiales
Poppy, Matilija (Romneya), Papaveraceae Ragwort (Senecio), Asteraceae
Poppy, Nepal (Meconopsis), Papaveraceae Rain tree (Albizia), Fabaceae
Poppy, Prickly (Argemone), Papaveraceae Rambutan (Nephelium), Sapindaceae
Poppy, Pygmy (Canbya), Papaveraceae Ramie fibre (Boehmeria), Urticaceae
Poppy, Tree (Dendromecon & Romneya), Ramin (Gonystylus), Thymelaeaceae
Papaveraceae Rampion (Phyteuma & Campanula), Campanulaceae
Poppy, Tulip (Hunnemannia), Papaveraceae Ranunculaceae, Ranunculales
Poppy, Water (Hydrocleys), Alismataceae Ranunculales, Early-branching Eudicot
Poppy, Welsh (Meconopsis), Papaveraceae Raoulia, Asteraceae
Poppy, Wind (Stylomecon), Papaveraceae Rapateaceae, Poales
Portulacaceae, Caryophyllales Rape/Rapeseed (Brassica), Brassicaceae
Posidoniaceae, Alismatales Rasamala (Altingia), Altingiaceae
Potaliaceae, in Gentianaceae Rattan (various genera), Arecaceae
Potamogetonaceae, Alismatales Rattle (Rhinanthus), Orobanchaceae
Potato (Solanum), Solanaceae Rauli (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Potato, Sweet (Ipomoea), Convolvulaceae Red mangrove (Rhizophora), Rhizophoraceae
Pottingeriaceae, in Celastraceae Red-hot poker (Kniphofia), Xanthorrhoeaceae
Prayer plant (Maranta & Calathea), Marantaceae Reed (Phragmites, Arundo, etc.), Poaceae
Prickly pear (Opuntia), Cactaceae Reedmace (Typha), Typhaceae
Primrose (Primula), Primulaceae Rehmannia, Orobanchaceae (provisionally)
Primulaceae, Ericales Resedaceae, Brassicales
Privet (Ligustrum), Oleaceae Restionaceae, Poales
Protea, Proteaceae Retziaceae, in Stilbaceae
Proteaceae, Proteales Rhabdodendraceae, Caryophyllales
Proteales, Early-branching Eudicot Rhamnaceae, Rosales

16
Rhatany root (Krameria), Krameriaceae Sage, Wood (Teucrium), Lamiaceae
Rhipogonaceae, Liliales Sagebrush (Artemisia), Asteraceae
Rhizophoraceae, Malpighiales Sago (Metroxylon), Arecaceae
Rhododendron, Ericaceae Saguaro (Carnegiea), Cactaceae
Rhoeo = Tradescantia, Commelinaceae St. Johns wort (Hypericum), Clusiaceae
Rhoipteleaceae, in Juglandaceae Sakaki (Cleyera), Pentaphylacaceae
Rhopalocarpaceae, in Sphaerosepalaceae Salep (Orchis), Orchidaceae
Rhubarb (Rheum), Polygonaceae Salicaceae, Malpighiales
Rhynchocalycaceae, in Penaeaceae Sallow (Salix), Salicaceae
Rhynchotheca, Vivianiaceae Saltbush (Atriplex), Amaranthaceae
Rice (Oryza), Poaceae Saltwort (Batis), Bataceae
River oak (Casuarina), Casuarinaceae Saltwort (Salicornia & Salsola), Amaranthaceae
Riverweed (Podostemon), Podostemaceae Salvadoraceae, Brassicales
Roble (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae Samphire, Golden (Inula), Asteraceae
Rock nettle (Eucnide), Loasaceae Samphire, Marsh (Salicornia), Amaranthaceae
Rockrose (Cistus et al.), Cistaceae Samphire, Rock (Crithmum), Apiaceae
Rodgersia, Saxifragaceae Samydaceae, in Salicaceae
Roridulaceae, Ericales Sand apple (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Rosaceae, Rosales Sand apple (Parinari), Chrysobalanaceae
Rosales, Fabids Sandalwood (Santalum), Santalaceae
Rose (Rosa), Rosaceae Sanicle (Sanicula), Apiaceae
Rose imperial (Cochlospermum), Bixaceae Sanseviera = Dracaena, Asparagaceae
Rosemary (Rosmarinus), Lamiaceae Santalaceae, Santalales
Rosewood, various genera, mainly Dalbergia, Santalales, Eudicots
Fabaceae, including Brazilian rosewood Sapele (Entandrophragma), Meliaceae
and (East) Indian rosewood Sapindaceae, Sapindales
Rosewood, Burmese (Pterocarpus), Fabaceae Sapindales, Malvids
Rosids, Eudicots Sapodilla (Manilkara), Sapotaceae
Rousseaceae, Asterales Sapotaceae, Ericales
Rubber (Hevea), Euphorbiaceae Sapota/e (Manilkara), Sapotaceae
Rubber tree (Ficus), Moraceae Sapote, Black (Diospyros), Ebenaceae
Rubber tree, Panama (Castilla), Moraceae Sapote, Mamey (Pouteria), Sapotaceae
Rubiaceae, Gentianales Sarcolaenaceae, Malvales
Rudbeckia, Asteraceae Sarcospermataceae, in Sapotaceae
Rue (Ruta), Rutaceae Sargentodoxaceae, in Lardizabalaceae
Ruppiaceae, Alismatales Sarraceniaceae, Ericales
Ruscus, Asparagaceae Sarsaparilla (Smilax), Smilacaceae
Ruscaceae, in Asparagaceae Sassafras, Lauraceae
Rush (Juncus), Juncaceae Sassafras, Blackheart (or Southern/Tasmanian)
Rush, Cape (Chondropetalum), Restionaceae (Atherosperma) Atherospermataceae
Rush, Flowering (Butomus), Butomaceae Satinleaf (Chrysophyllum), Sapotaceae
Russian vine (Fallopia), Polygonaceae Satinwood, Ceylon or East Indian
Rutaceae, Sapindales (Chloroxylon), Rutaceae
Rye (Secale), Poaceae Satinwood, Jamaican or West Indian
(Zanthoxylum), Rutaceae
Saururaceae, Piperales
Sabiaceae, Early-branching Eudicots Sausage tree, usually (Kigelia), Bignoniaceae
Saccifoliaceae, in Gentianaceae Sauvagesiaceae, in Ochnaceae
Sacred bamboo (Nandina), Berberidaceae Savory (Summer & Winter) (Satureja), Lamiaceae
Sacred lotus, see Lotus Saxifragaceae, Saxifragales
Saffron (Crocus), Iridaceae Saxifrage (Saxifraga), Saxifragaceae
Saffron, Meadow (Colchicum), Colchicaceae Scabious, Caprifoliaceae (Dipsacaceae)
Sage (Salvia), Lamiaceae Schefflera, Araliaceae
Sage, Antelope (Eriogonum), Polygonaceae Scheuchzeriaceae, Alismatales
Sage, Jerusalem (Phlomis), Lamiaceae Schisandraceae, Austrobaileyales
Sage, Russian (Perovskia), Lamiaceae Schoepfiaceae, Santalales
Sage, Texas (Leucophyllum), Plantaginaceae Schlegeliaceae, Lamiales

17
Screw pines (Pandanus), Pandanaceae Snowbush, Hawaiian (Breynia), Phyllanthaceae
Scrophulariaceae, Lamiales Snowdrop (Galanthus), Amaryllidaceae
Scyphostegiaceae, in Salicaceae Soapberry (Sapindus), Sapindaceae
Scytopetalaceae, in Lecythidaceae Soapberry (Shepherdia), Elaeagnaceae
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae), Elaeagnaceae Soapwood (Caryocar), Caryocaraceae
Sea heath (Frankenia), Frankeniaceae Soapwood (Pithecellobium), Fabaceae
Sea holly (Acanthus), Acanthaceae Solanaceae, Solanales
Sea holly (Eryngium), Apiaceae Solanales, Lamiids
Sea lavender (Limonium), Plumbaginaceae Soldanella, Primulaceae
Sea lettuce (Scaevola), Goodeniaceae Sonneratiaceae, in Lythraceae
Sedge (usually Carex), Cyperaceae Sorghum, Poaceae
Selago, Scrophulariaceae Sorrel (Rumex), Polygonaceae
Self-heal (Prunella & Stachys), Lamiaceae Sorrel, Wood (Oxalis), Oxalidaceae
Semolina (Triticum), Poaceae Souari nut (Caryocar), Caryocaraceae
Senecio, Asteraceae Soursop (Annona), Annonaceae
Senega root (Polygala), Polygalaceae Sourwood (Oxydendrum), Ericaceae
Senna, Fabaceae Southern beech (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Sesame (Sesamum), Pedaliaceae Southernwood (Artemisia), Asteraceae
Setchellanthaceae, Brassicales Sow thistle (Sonchus), Asteraceae
She-oak (Casuarina & Allocasuarina), Soya (Glycine), Fabaceae
Casuarinaceae Spanish moss (Tillandsia), Bromeliaceae
Shea (butter) (Vitellaria), Sapotaceae Sparganiaceae, in Typhaceae
Shisham wood, (Dalbergia), Fabaceae Spectacle fruit (Wislizenia), Cleomaceae
Shoal grass (Halodule), Cymodoceaceae Sphaerosepalaceae, Malvales
Shorea, Dipterocarpaceae Sphenocleaceae, Solanales
Shortia, Diapensiaceae Sphenostemon, Paracryphiaceae
Silk-tassle bush (Garrya), Garryaceae Spiderwort (Tradescantia), Commelinaceae
Silk vine (Periploca), Apocynaceae Spikenard (Nardostachys), Caprifoliaceae (Valeri-
Silvianthus, Carlemanniaceae anaceae)
Silver ash (Flindersia), Rutaceae Spinach (Spinacia), Amaranthaceae
Silverbells (Halesia), Styracaceae Spinach, Indian/Malabar (Basella), Basellaceae
Simaroubaceae, Sapindales Spindle tree (Euonymus), Celastraceae
Simmondsiaceae, Caryophyllales Spiraea, Rosaceae
Siparunaceae, Laurales Spring beauty (Claytonia), Montiaceae
Siphonodontaceae, in Celastraceae Spurge (Euphorbia), Euphorbiaceae
Sipo (Entandrophragma), Meliaceae Squash (Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae
Sisal (Agave), Asparagaceae Squill (Scilla), Asparagaceae
Sissoo wood, (Dalbergia), Fabaceae Stachyuraceae, Crossosomatales
Sladeniaceae, Ericales Stackhousiaceae, in Celastraceae
Smilacaceae, Liliales Staff-tree (Celastrus), Celastraceae
Smilax, Smilacaceae Staphyleaceae, Crossosomatales
Smoketree/bush (Cotinus), Anacardiaceae Star anise (Illicium), Schisandraceae
Smoketree (Psorothamnus), Fabaceae Star apple (Chrysophyllum), Sapotaceae
Snake-root (Ageratum), Asteraceae Starwort (Callitriche), Plantaginaceae
Snake-root (Eupatorium), Asteraceae Stemonaceae, Pandanales
Snake-root, Indian (Rauwolfia), Apocynaceae Stemonuraceae, Aquifoliales
Snake-root, Virginian (Aristolochia), Sterculiaceae, in Malvaceae
Aristolochiaceae Stilbaceae, Lamiales
Snake-root, Black (Cimifuga), Ranunculaceae Stinkwoods (see below, also Foetidia,
Snake-root, Black (Sanicula), Apiaceae Lecythidaceae; Gyrocarpus, Hernandiaceae;
Snakewood (Acacia), Fabaceae Zieria, Rutaceae, etc.)
Snakewood (Brosimum = Piratinera), Moraceae Stinkwood, Cape/Black (Ocotea), Lauraceae
Snakewood (Colubrina), Rhamnaceae Stinkwood, Green (Jacksonia), Fabaceae
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum), Plantaginaceae Stinkwood, Grey (Jacksonia), Fabaceae
Sneezewood (Ptaeroxylon), Rutaceae Stinkwood, Red (Prunus), Rosaceae
Snowberry (Symphoricarpos), Caprifoliaceae Stinkwood, White (Celtis), Cannabaceae
Snowberry (Chiococca), Rubiaceae Stixaceae, Brassicales

18
Stock (Matthiola), Brassicaceae Taro (Colocasia, also Alocasia, Amorphophallus,
Stock, Virginia (Malcolmia), Brassicaceae Cyrtosperma & Xanthosoma), Araceae
Stonecrop (Sedum), Crassulaceae Tarragon (Artemisia), Asteraceae
Storax (Styrax), Styracaceae Tasmanian laurel (Anopterus), Escalloniaceae
Strawberry (Fragaria), Rosaceae Tawhai (Nothofagus), Nothofagaceae
Strawberry tree (Arbutus), Ericaceae Tea (Camellia), Theaceae
Strelitziaceae, Zingiberales Tea, Bogata (Symplocos), Symplocaceae
Streptocarpus, Gesneriaceae Tea, Labrador (Ledum), Ericaceae
Stripeseed (Piriqueta), Passifloraceae Tea tree (Melaleuca), Myrtaceae
Strombosiaceae, Santalales Teak (Tectona), Lamiaceae
Strychnine (Strychnos), Loganiaceae Teasel (Dipsacus), Caprifoliaceae (Dipsacaceae)
Stylidiaceae, Asterales Tecophilaeaceae, Asparagales
Stylobasiaceae, in Surianaceae Tef (Eragrostis), Poaceae
Styracaceae, Ericales Tepuianthus, Thymelaeaceae
Styrax, Styracaceae Tequila (Agave), Asparagaceae
Sugar beet (Beta), Amaranthaceae Ternstroemiaceae, in Pentaphylacaceae
Sugar cane (Saccharum), Poaceae Tetracentraceae, in Trochodendraceae
Sumac(h) (Rhus), Anacardiaceae Tetrachondraceae, Lamiales
Sun cup (Camissonia), Onagraceae Tetramelaceae, Cucurbitales
Sundew (Drosera), Droseraceae Tetrameristaceae, Ericales
Sunflower (Helianthus), Asteraceae Theaceae, Ericales
Sunrose (Helianthemum), Cistaceae Theligonaceae, in Rubiaceae
Surette (Byrsonima), Malpighiaceae Themidaceae, in Asparagaceae
Surianaceae, Fabales Theophrastaceae, in Primulaceae
Sweet chestnut (Castanea), Fagaceae Thesiaceae, in Santalaceae
Sweet flag (Acorus), Acoraceae Thismia, Burmanniaceae (provisionally)
Sweet gale (Myrica), Myricaceae Thismiaceae, in Burmanniaceae (provisionally)
Sweet neem = Curry tree Thistle (Carduus, Cirsium, Onopordum etc.),
Sweet pea (Lathyrus), Fabaceae Asteraceae
Sweet potato (Ipomoea), Convolvulaceae Thistle, Globe (Echinops), Asteraceae
Sweetgum (Liquidambar), Altingiaceae Thistle, Sow (Sonchus), Asteraceae
Sweetleaf (Sauropus), Phyllanthaceae Thomandersiacae, Lamiales
Sweetleaf (Stevia), Asteraceae Thorn apple (Datura), Solanaceae
Sweetleaf (Symplocos), Symplocaceae Thrift (Armeria), Plumbaginaceae
Sweetshrub (Calycanthus), Calycanthaceae Throatwort (Trachelium), Campanulaceae
Sweetsop (Annona), Annonaceae Thunbergia, Acanthaceae
Sweetspire (Itea), Iteaceae Thurniaceae, Poales
Sycamore [UK] (Acer), Sapindaceae Thyme (Thymus), Lamiaceae
Sycamore [NAm] (Platanus), Platanaceae Thymelaeaceae, Malvales
(applied to other genera elsewhere) Ticodendraceae, Fagales
Symphoricarpos, Caprifoliaceae Tigerwood (Astronium), Anacardiaceae
Symplocaceae, Ericales Tigerwood (Coula), Coulaceae
Tigerwood (Lovoa), Meliaceae
Tiliaceae, in Malvaceae
Tabonuco (Dacryodes), Burseraceae Tipu (Tipuana), Fabaceae
Taccaceae, in Dioscoreaceae (provisionally) Titi (Cliftonia & Cyrilla), Cyrillaceae
Talipot (Corypha), Arecaceae Toadflax (Linaria), Plantaginaceae
Tamanu oil (Calophyllum), Calophyllaceae Tobacco (Nicotiana), Solanaceae
Tamaricaceae, Caryophyllales Tolu balsam (Myroxylon), Fabaceae
Tamarind (Tamarindus), Fabaceae Tomato (Solanum), Solanaceae
Tamarisk (Tamarix), Tamaricaceae Toon (Toona), Meliaceae
Tambalacoque (Sideroxylon), Sapotaceae Toquilla straw plant (Carludovica), Cyclanthaceae
Tan oak (Lithocarpus), Fagaceae Torchwood (Amyris), Rutaceae
Tansy (Tanacetum), Asteraceae Torenia, Linderniaceae
Tapioca (Manihot), Euphorbiaceae Torote (Bursera), Burseraceae
Tara vine (Actinidia), Actinidiaceae Torricelliaceae, Apiales
Tarata (Pittosporum), Pittosporaceae Tovariaceae, Brassicales

19
Trapa, Lythraceae Vivianiaceae, Geraniales
Trapaceae, in Lythraceae Vochysiaceae, Myrtales
Travellers palm (Ravenala), Strelitziaceae
Tree of heaven (Ailanthus), Simaroubaceae
Tremandraceae, in Elaeocarpaceae Wallflower (Erysimum & Cheiranthus), Brassicaceae
Tribelaceae, in Escalloniaceae Walnut (Juglans), Juglandaceae
Trichostephanus, in Salicaceae (provisionally) Walnut, African (Coula), Coulaceae
Trigger plant (Stylidium), Stylidiaceae Water caltrop (Trapa), Lythraceae
Trigoniaceae, Malpighiales Water canna (Thalia), Marantaceae
Trillium, Melanthiaceae Water chestnut (Eleocharis), Cyperaceae
Trimeniaceae, Austrobaileyales Water hawthorn (Aponogeton), Aponogetonaceae
Trincomali wood (Berrya), Malvaceae Water hemlock (Cicuta), Apiaceae
Triuridaceae, Pandanales Water hyacinth (Eichhornia), Pontederiaceae
Trochodendraceae, Trochodendrales Water lily, various genera in Nymphaeaceae,
Trochodendrales, Eudicots Nelumbonaceae & Cabombaceae
Tropaeolaceae, Brassicales Water melon (Citrullus), Cucurbitaceae
Trumpet vine (Campsis), Bignoniaceae Water milfoil (Myriophyllum), Haloragaceae
Tulip (Tulipa), Liliaceae Water pennywort (Hydrocotyle), Araliaceae
Tulip tree (Liriodendron), Magnoliaceae Water plantain (Alisma), Alismataceae
Tummy wood (Careya), Lecythidaceae Water plantain, Floating (Luronium), Alismataceae
Tung tree (Vernicia), Euphorbiaceae Water poppy (Hydrocleys), Alismataceae
Tupelo (Nyssa), Cornaceae Water-shield (Brasenia), Cabombaceae
Turmeric (Curcuma), Zingiberaceae Water-shield, Carolina (Cabomba), Cabombaceae
Turneraceae, in Passifloraceae Water starwort (Callitriche), Plantaginaceae
Turnip (Brassica), Brassicaceae Watercress (Nasturtium), Brassicaceae
Turtle grass (Thalassia), Hydrocharitaceae Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum), Boraginaceae
Tutsan (Hypericum), Clusiaceae Waterleaf (Talinum), Talinaceae
Typhaceae, Poales Waterwort (Elatine), Elatinaceae
Wattle (Acacia), Fabaceae
Wax myrtle (Myrica), Myricaceae
Udo (Aralia), Araliaceae Waxplant (Hoya), Apocynaceae
Ulmaceae, Rosales Weigela, Caprifoliaceae (Diervillaceae)
Ulmo (Eucryphia), Cunoniaceae Weld (Reseda), Resedaceae
Unicorn plant (Proboscidea), Martyniaceae Wellstediaceae, in Boraginaceae
Urticaceae, Rosales West Indian bay tree (Pimenta), Myrtaceae
West Indian boxwood (Casearia), Salicaceae
West Indian boxwood (Phyllostylon), Ulmaceae
Valerian (Valeriana), Caprifoliaceae (Valerianaceae) West Indian boxwood (Tabebuia), Bignoniaceae
Valerianaceae, in Caprifoliaceae Wheat (Triticum), Poaceae
Vanilla, Orchidaceae White beech (Gmelina), Lamiaceae
Velloziaceae, Pandanales White mangrove (Avicenna), Acanthaceae
Venus fly-trap (Dionaea), Droseraceae White mangrove (Conocarpus, Languncularia
Verbascum, Scrophulariaceae & Lumnitzera), Combretaceae
Verbena, Verbenaceae White pear, African (Apodytes),
Verbenaceae, Lamiales Icacinaceae (provisionally)
Veronica, Plantaginaceae Widgeon grass (Ruppia), Ruppiaceae
Vervain (Verbena), Verbenaceae Willow (Salix), Salicaceae
Vetch (Vicia), Fabaceae Willow myrtle (Agonis), Myrtaceae
Vetchling (Lathyrus), Fabaceae Willowherb (Epilobium), Onagraceae
Vetiver (Chrysopogon), Poaceae Wingnut (Pterocarya), Juglandaceae
Viburnum, Adoxaceae Winter cress (Barbarea), Brassicaceae
Vietnamese coriander (Persicaria), Polygonaceae Winters bark (Drimys), Winteraceae
Violaceae, Malpighiales Winteraceae, Canellales
Violet (Viola), Violaceae Winterberry (Ilex), Aquifoliaceae
Violet, African (Saintpaulia), Gesneriaceae Wintergreen (Gaultheria), Ericaceae
Viscaceae, Santalaceae Wintergreen (Pyrola and related genera), Ericaceae
Vitaceae, Eudicots Wintergreen oil, various families and genera,

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including above, also Betula & Spiraea
Wire-netting bush (Corokia), Argophyllaceae
Wishbone flower (Torenia), Linderniaceae
Witch hazel (Hamamelis), Hamamelidaceae
Wolfberry (Lycium), Solanaceae
Wolfberry (Symphoricarpos), Caprifoliaceae
Wood sage (Teucrium), Lamiaceae
Wood sorrel (Oxalis), Oxalidaceae
Woodrush (Luzula), Juncaceae
Wormwood (Artemisia), Asteraceae
Woundwort (Stachys), Lamiaceae

Xanthophyllaceae, in Polygalaceae
Xanthorrhoeaceae, Asparagales
Xeronemataceae, Asparagales
Ximeniaceae, Santalales
Xyridaceae, Poales

Yam (Dioscorea), Dioscoreaceae


Yam [mainly USA] (Ipomoea), Convolvulaceae
Yarrow (Achillea), Asteraceae
Yellow birds nest (Monotropa), Ericaceae
Yellow-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium), Iridaceae
Yellow-eyed grass (Xyris), Xyridaceae
Yerba mansa (Anemopsis), Saururaceae
Yerba mate (Ilex), Aquifoliaceae
Yerba santa (Eriodictyon), Boraginaceae
Yerba santa (Piper), Piperaceae
Ylang-ylang (Cananga), Annonaceae
Yucca, Asparagaceae

Zannichelliaceae, in Potamogetonaceae
Zapote = Sapote (Manilkara), Sapotaceae
Zebra-wood, usually Microberlinia, Fabaceae,
also Connarus, Connaraceae and others
Zelkova, Ulmaceae
Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales
Zingiberales, Monocots
Zinnia, Asteraceae
Zosteraceae, Alismatales
Zucchini (Cucurbita), Cucurbitaceae
Zygophyllaceae, Zygophyllales
Zygophyllales, Fabids

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