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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership / M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324 Integrating Technology into Education

Name:____Engin Blackstone__________ Date: _______6/4/17_______

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., & MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals' Perceptions of the
Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 4(3), 187-196.


Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what
is the theoretical background or overarching theme):
The present study specifically examines the following two research questions:
What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology? And
Do principals perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?

Purpose of the research:

The purpose of this study is to examine principals perspectives and orientations
toward technology by including their years of experience and gender.


What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:

Participants: Sample of 310 principals 126 males and 184 females- from a large
metropolitan area in the southwest region of the US

Procedures: The questionnaire was administered by graduate students in the

Educational Leadership program at a major, urban doctoral-granting university located
in the south-central region of the U.S. The survey instrument was designed specifically
for this purpose and included both qualitative and quantitative questions.

Data Collection Methods/Data Source: Questionnaire was administered by

graduate students, who were trained how to administer the questionnaire and principal

Data Analysis: Analysis of the interview data began with a process of data reduction.
The participants responses were read several times to become familiar with the data.
The data was then coded into meaningful categories. Once the categories were
established, another researcher independently coded a 10% sample of responses to
determine the consistency of the coding. The inter-coder reliability results revealed a
high level of agreement (Cohens kappa = .94).


Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

- About one-third (35%) of the principals indicated that technology was used as a
primary communication tool.
- Over one-quarter (28%) of principals responded that 192 technology was
integrated in teachers classroom instruction.
- The third category was using technology for data sharing and management
- Category four was using technology as a resource to find information (15%)
- Technology was also used for administrative tasks, such as taking attendance
- Finally, technology was used for student learning (10%)
- Males and females differed in their perceptions in categories: Instruction,
Resource, Administrative Task, and Student Learning.

Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):

This study indicates that principals have a positive view of technology and are using
technology themselves. Their positive attitude is viewed by teachers as being
supportive of integration of technology into the classroom (Anderson & Dexter, 2005;
Baylor & Ritchie, 2002; Chang, 2012; Isabelle & Lapointe, 2003; Ritchie, 1996;
Sharratt, 1999).

Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your

It is great to see that the research shows principals positive view of technology, but it
doesnt make significant impact if they are not prepared to effectively implement it. It is
crucial to get principals well-trained in technology usage, and should be one of the
integral part of the principal preparation program. Also, districts should require
principals to include technology integration trainings in their annual PD plans. As a
superintendent of three principals, I will definitely require it for my principals and
myself next year.