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INTRODUCTION TO BASIC ENGLISH TENSES AND THEIR USES

1. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

Examine the chart and see the explanation on Present Simple Tense. Fill in the gaps with sample
sentences.

Present Simple Tense


When to use to talk about daily activities, habits, general statements of fact.
Time signals every day, each year, on Mondays, on Saturday nights, etc.
Structure (+) S + V1
with verb (NOTE: I/you/they/we + V1
he/she/it + V1 + -s/-es)

(-) S + do/does + not + V1

(?) Yes/No Question
Do/Does + S + V1 ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + do/does + S + V1 ?

Structure (+) S + am/is/are + complement


with be
(-) S + am/is/are + not + complement

(?) Yes/No Question
Am/Is/Are + S + complement ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + am/ is/ are + S/ complement ?

Complement = noun, adjective, adverb


2. PAST SIMPLE TENSE
Examine the chart and see the explanation on Past Simple Tense. Fill in the gaps with sample
sentences.

Past Simple Tense


When to use to talk about activities or situations that began and ended at a particular time in the
past.
Time signals yesterday, last night, this morning, a week ago, in 2000, etc.
Structure (+) S + V2
with verb
(-) S + did + not + V1

(?) Yes/No Question
Did + S + V1 ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + did + S + V1 ?

Structure (+) S + was/were + complement
with be
(-) S + was/were + not + complement

(?) Yes/No Question
Was/Were + S + complement ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + was/were + S/complement ?

Complement = noun, adjective, adverb

3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


Examine the chart and see the explanation on Present Continuous Tense. Fill in the gaps with
sample sentences.
Present Continuous Tense
It is used to: 1. Express an activity that is in progress (or is happening) right now.
Example: We are studying English at the moment.
2. Express future time when the sentence concerns a definite plan, a definite
intention, a definite future activity.
Example: I am leaving for Surabaya tomorrow.
Time signals right now, at the moment, this month, this year, tomorrow, etc.
Structure (+) S + am/is/are + V -ing
with verb
(-) S + am/is/are + not + V -ing

(?) Yes/No Question
Am/ Is/ Are + S + V ing ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + am/ is/ are + S + V ing ?

Structure (+)S + being + complement


with be
(-)S + being + complement

(?) Yes/No Question
Am/ Is/ Are + S + being + complement ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + am/ is/ are/ + S + being ?

Complement = noun, adjective, adverb


4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Examine the chart and see the explanation on Present Perfect Tense. Fill in the gaps with
sample sentences.

Present Perfect Tense


It is used 1. Express activities or situations that occurred (or did not occur) before now, at
to: some unspecified time in the past.
Example: I have replied your email.
2. Express activities that were repeated several or many times in the past. The exact
times are unspecified.
Example: She has been to Makassar twice.
3. Express situations that begin in the past and continue to the present, if it is used
with since and for.
Example: They have worked for MG Holiday for 2 years.
Time just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, lately, since, for, once,
signals twice, many times, not yet, etc.
Structure (+) S + have/ has + V3
with (NOTE: I/you/they/we + have
verb he/she/it + has)

(-) S + have/ has + not + V3

(?) Yes/No Question
Have/ Has + S + V3 ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + have / has + S + V3?

Structure (+) S + have/ has + been + complement


with be
(-) S + have/ has + not + been + complement

(?) Yes/No Question
Have/ Has + S + been + complement ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + have/ has + S + been ?

5. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Simple Future Tense


It is used To predict a future event:
to: It will rain tomorrow.
With I or We, to express a spontaneous decision:
I'll pay for the tickets by credit card.
To express willingness: I'll do the washing-up.
He'll carry your bag for you.
In the negative form, to express unwillingness:
The baby won't eat his soup.
I won't leave until I've seen the manager!
With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to make an offer:
Shall I open the window?
With we in the interrogative form using "shall", to make a suggestion:
Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to ask for advice or
instructions:
What shall I tell the boss about this money?
With you, to give orders:
You will do exactly as I say.
With you in the interrogative form, to give an invitation:
Will you come to the dance with me?
Will you marry me?
Time signal Tomorrow, next time, next , .. later
Structure (+) S + will + V1
with
verb (-) S + will + not + V1

(?) Yes/No Question
Will+ S + V1 ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + will + S + V1?

Structure (+) S + will + be + complement


with be
(-) S + will + not + be + complement

(?) Yes/No Question
Will + S + be + complement ?

(?) WH Question
Question Word + will + S + be ?

WILL vs BE GOING TO