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Y10

GlobalizationAssessment
GroupReport

ResearchQuestion
TowhatextenthasAmericanisationpositively
impactedHongKong?

NoelAuYeung,SoniaLau,KristiWong,JessicaYam
Y10Peace

1
Content

PlanofInvestigation3

EvidenceofCollectingInformation8
Cuisine
Consumerism
Entertainment

OPVL24

Transcript29
Presentationscript
Powerpointslides

Workallocation43

Evaluationofprocessandproduct45

References48



2
PlanofInvestigation
Research Question Justification:
Being Hong Kong citizens ourselves, we have noticed that many Americans especially enjoy
travelling to Hong Kong, and that the American culture they bring along with themselves
have slowly melt into Hong Kongs society. If you go out to Causeway Bay, there are
McDonald's, H&M stores and cinemas playing Matt Damon movies within a ten minute
walking distance between each other - and we have noticed how our daily lives are largely
shaped by Americanization. Quite frankly, we have also realized that we would mostly prefer
American goods and services over our local ones. Locals have always complained about
how this is ruining our Chinese culture and traditions, but we hope to investigate into it to see
if this is actually the case. By investigating into how Americanization has positively impacted
Hong Kong, we will be able to be more appreciative of Hong Kong for what it is - a cultural
melting pot of both Western and Eastern culture, that offers an incredibly diverse amount of
goods and services to its citizens and visitors. As we plan to conduct surveys and interviews,
we will also be able to learn how local Hong Kongers other than ourselves feel about the
effect of mass globalisation on our small city.

Area of research Priority Possible sources, give examples Key terms of researching

1 (Aspect 1 - Cuisine) 2 Secondary Research- Examples of


Examples of Possible sources~ American cuisine
Online articles: CNN, BBC, Times, stores:
American cuisine
The Guardian, South China Morning Mcdonalds, KFC,
stores and how their Posts, Apple Daily (both Hong Kong Starbucks
popularity have based and international based) Restaurant
increased in Hong Dictionaries: Oxford dictionary, locations analysis
Kong. Merriam Webster
Websites: Educational websites
published from organisations,
2 (Aspect 1 - Cuisine) 2 Examples of
university websites, Hong Kong
Do Hong Kong American cuisine
Government websites, HK Tourism
stores:
citizens enjoy boards (Hong Kong based and
Mcdonalds, KFC,
American cuisine international based)
Starbucks
Books: (Any books based on
stores that are Examples of local
globalisation or Hong Kong culture)
introduced into Hong restaurants: Cafe
Forums: local forums or international
Kong? Which ones de coral. Tai Hing
forums
Enjoyment
are they more Museums: The Hong Kong Film
familiar with? Archive

Why should we collect information


3 (Aspect 1 - Cuisine) 2 Production
from these sources?
What have Chinese methods
By browsing through these sources,
Handmade
restaurants learnt we are able to define and understand
Factories
from American the key terms we would explore in our
Instant food (fast
research. Also, we aim to collect a
restaurants? (The food chains)
variety of information from reliable and
difference in the way Supermarkets,
renowned websites or organisations,
they produce food convenience
therefore we chose to research our
stores
now compared to the information according to the articles
past?) and websites listed above. Through
our research, we also aim to collect
data on the trends and statistics
4 (Aspect 1 - Cuisine) 3 Examples of
related to the increase of
American cuisine

3
How does Americanisation in Hong Kong, as we stores:
Americanisation hope to identify the pattern and Mcdonalds, KFC,
explore deeper into how possibly did Starbucks
affect Chinese
Americanisation make a positive Examples of local
Cuisine? impact towards the economy, culture restaurants: Cafe
and citizens choices of Hong Kong. de coral. Tai Hing

(Aspect 2 - 1 ~ American brands


Consumerism) in Hong Kong
Primary research-
What are some American clothing
Possible sources~
American brands in Interviews: face to face interviews brands in Hong
Hong Kong? with local/American citizens in Hong Kong
Kong American
Surveys: Sending a survey within the computer brands
school and get opinions from students
in Hong Kong
and teachers, sending a survey
targeted at local Hong Kongers about Consumerism of
how Americanization has affected their the American
lives Brands in Hong
Photos: We can take pictures of
Kong
American introduced cuisine stores
and American fashion brands as well
(Aspect 2 - 2 as American based movies and American brands
Consumerism) entertainment that are currently VS Hong Kong
present in popular places in Hong brands
How did the Kong (e.g. Causeway Bay, Mong Hong Kong
American brands Kok...etc.) , to put emphasis on the
frequency of American stores in the clothing brand sale
affect the local
city. rates across the
brands throughout
years
the years?
Why should we collect information Hong Kong
from these sources?
computer brand
For our primary research, we chose to
collect information mainly based on sale rates across
surveys, interviews and photos, the years
because we hope to collect different
(Aspect 2 - 4 perspectives from people in Hong American brands
Consumerism) Kong (however focusing mainly on first in Hong Kong
locals and Americans). In order to do
Why are American
When and how did this, we plan to prepare relevant
questions to interview Hong Kong brands so popular
the American brands
citizens face to face, as well as to send in Hong Kong
start being
out a survey within the school targeted What makes
popularized in Hong towards teachers and students, and
American brands
Kong? another targeted mainly at locals. After
we have collected their answers, we superior
will analyse the results which provides
(Aspect 2 - 5 us more insight towards our research (Survey)
Consumerism) question. By considering the
responses from our interviewees, it
Do Hong Kong provides us more evidence and
people normally answers towards whether or not
purchase their goods Americanisation has created a positive
impact towards Hong Kong, and what
from American
citizens think about it. Also, in terms of
brands or local collecting pictures, we can take photos
brands and why? of American stores that are present at
a popular place in Hong Kong (e.g.
(Aspect 2 - 3 Mong Kok and Causeway Bay) and Impacts of the
accordingly draw conclusions on the
Consumerism) American brands
popularity of American stores in Hong
Kong. towards us
What are the impacts
of the American

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brands towards the Impacts of the
Hong Kong people American brands
and the local towards Hong
companies? Kong people
Impacts of the
American brands
to the Hong Kong
companies

(Aspect 3 - 4 Examples of
Entertainment) famous American
films: Titanic,
What percentage of Room, Fast and
the 10 most popular Furious, Pitch
Perfect
films in Hong Kong
Percentage,
American? statistics

(Aspect 3 - 4 Examples of
Entertainment) famous American
films: Titanic,
Do Hong Kong Room, Fast and
citizens prefer local Furious, Pitch
Perfect
movies or American
Examples of local
movies? movies: Golden
Chicken, Little
Big Master, Ten
Years

(Aspect 3 - 4 Examples of Hong


Entertainment) Kong movie stars:
Andy Lau, Miriam
Are Hong Kong Yeung. Steven
citizens more familiar Chow, Chau Yun
Fat
with American or
Examples of
local movie stars? American movie
stars: Leonardo
Dicaprio, Angelina
Jolie, Johnny
Depp, Brad Pitt,
Jennifer Lawrence,
Kristen Stewart,
Anne Hathaway,
Emma Stone

Questions

Where should I look Refer to the table above.


for information?

Where should I avoid Websites such as Wikipedia, Wiki-answers, Quora and so on, where information can be freely
looking for edited by anonymous people who do not have any qualifications or credibility should be avoided.
information? Additionally, we should also avoid looking at websites that are biased or lean towards one certain
point of view. This is because when were doing secondary research, we should always stay as
neutral as possible.

5
How will I record We will be opening a folder named Globalisation assessment, where all of our plans, sources and
relevant information? data will be recorded and structured neatly and accordingly. We will also be creating a separate
document for each aspect - cuisine, consumerism and entertainment - where we will be putting our
research, analysis and bibliography, so that our information will be more organised, and we can
avoid wasting time to search on Google Drive for one specific document.

How will I remember Whenever we look at something from a certain link, we will copy that link and paste it onto a
to cite my sources? document named useful links. By the end of our project, we will go through the list of links we
have put down on the list cite each source using a citing application called Easybib, so that we
wont forget to cite certain links.

What methods For our primary research, we chose to collect information mainly based on surveys, interviews and
(internet research, photos, because we hope to collect different perspectives from people in Hong Kong (however
library research, focusing mainly on locals and Americans). In order to do this, we plan to prepare relevant
interviews, surveys, questions to interview Hong Kong citizens face to face, as well as to send out a survey within the
copy and paste) will I school targeted towards teachers and students, and another targeted mainly at locals. As for
use to complete this collecting pictures, we can take photos of American stores that are present at a popular place in
investigation? Why? Hong Kong (e.g. Mong Kok and Causeway Bay) and accordingly draw conclusions on the
popularity of American stores in Hong Kong.

For secondary information, such as gathering information and data online, we would first find
reliable websites that would effectively aid in answering our research question, and moreover
choose the best sources and reference the information from there. Also, we would be sure to
highlight the important parts from different articles, and opinions from different publishers to
broaden my inquiry and minimise limitations.

Who can I look for Whenever we are stuck on something, we should console Mr.Santella for help and guidance. Plus,
guidance? we are planning to finish everything prior to the due date in order to have time to be able to ask Mr.
Santella for feedback, and amend our work in order to do better in our presentation.

In a group project, Noel Au Yeung


what will be each Group Leader
persons Oversees the entire project
responsibilities? Gives advice to members
Constantly check our product against the criteria)
Researcher
Research about how Americanisation has affected cuisine in Hong Kong

Jessica Yam
Director of Research
Categorize research
Distribute research questions to members
Contribute to every aspect of research
Ensure sources used are relevant and reliable
Remember to cite each source using Easybib at the end of the entire research
process
Make sure group members maintain a consistent amount of progress on
research (and follow the action plan)

Sonia Lau
Director of Presentation
Format research into point form
Find relevant and interesting photos to include in the presentation
Design layout of presentation, such that everything is organised and easy to read
Improve the aesthetics of our presentation (make sure it is eye catching and
engaging to the audience)
Researcher
Research about how Americanisation has affected consumerism in Hong Kong

Kristi Wong
Director of written report
Organise all of the research done into a report
Edit information and research
Check and replace vocabulary and grammar

6
Ensure that the information and data used are relevant
Make sure everything is in formal language
Researcher
Research about how Americanisation has affected entertainment in Hong Kong

What problems do I We may not be able to find what we want just on the internet, therefore we may have to flick
foresee? How can through different books in order to complete our research. Moreover, there are three aspects that
they be we aim to research, which require a lot of time for investigation and analysis of the research we
avoided/overcome? have done, and time is also needed at the end to plan and finalise our presentation. Therefore time
management would be the main thing we will need to focus on, and by prioritising our work and
keeping a consistent progress prior the due date, we will be able to have the time to do what we
need to do.

What are the major See below.


steps that will be
followed to complete
this particular
investigation/project?

Action Plan
Step Description Date to be Completed

1 Determine research question and 04/11/2016


justification.

2 Complete plan of investigation. 07/11/2016

3 Produce survey/interview 07/11/2016


questions to ask the general
public.

4 Send survey out to general public 08/11/2016


(geared towards Hong Kongers
and American expats)

5 Analyze the survey results. 10/11/2016

6 Research information about the 3 12/11/2016


aspects from secondary sources
(internet, books, articles, etc.)

7 Select, analyze and edit research 13/11/2016


information.

8 Structure our information and 14/11/2016


research into a powerpoint
presentation.

9 Film video of powerpoint 15/11/2016


presentation.

10 Edit video of powerpoint 15/11/2016


presentation (if needed).

11 Write and organize supporting 16/11/2016


documents to hand in with video.

12 Double check everything. 16/11/2016

13 Hand in final project to Mr 17/11/2016


Santella.

7
EvidenceofCollectingInformation
Planning-MindMaps


Aspect1-Cuisine
Survey results


________________________________________________________________________
Articles and reports
Source 1
Title: Fast food culture in HK
Type of source: Online article

8
In Hong Kong, there are numerous restaurants which are available in a level of convenience. As the melting of
east and west makes the food culture of Hong Kong become abundant, we can find any style of food any time.
As a place where the world meets, Japanese, Korean, Thai and Vietnamese restaurants are very common to be
found. Therefore, Hong Kong is reputed Worlds Fair of Food. The food from east and west are very popular to
Hong Kong people, so no matter the food is inexpensive or expensive, side dish or main dish, all of them are
included in Hong Kong food culture.

Americanization is the influence of the United States on the popular culture. Critics sometimes give
Americanization a very negative signification because they perceive as negative the far-reaching American
influence in many countries. In Hong Kong, companies such as McDonalds, Starbucks, Pizza Hut and KFC are
very popular. For instance, McDonalds is a typical American symbol of fast food culture. With the faster pace of
life, take-out and fast food business began to take root. Since the 1970s, American fast food restaurants have
made flourishing development along with an accelerated beat of life. For many Hong Kong people, taking fast
food is just to fill the stomach, this culture has become a part of their life and fulfill their needs.

Besides, the fast food style also changes the food culture of Chinese food. For examples, many traditional food
items have begun to be made like instant food. Dim sum, dumplings (wonton), congee and rice are prepared in
factories and transported to supermarkets and convenience shops for sale. Since the American fast food is
successful, there are a lot of Hong Kong-Style Fast Food Shops, such as Cafe de Coral, Maxims and Fairwood.
Also, there are some fast food shops in food courts typically attaching to malls or supermarkets such as
CitySuper. In Hong Kong, supermarkets provide the public with a one-stop purchase service which is very
convenient for customers. Globalization and Americanization are an international movement of trend, the fast
food culture is especially influenced. With economic develops rapidly and the faster pace of life, fast food
business began to take root. The fast food culture also influences many Hong Kong people, taking fast food to fill
the stomach has become a part of their life.

Reference: "Fast Food Culture in Hong Kong." HKUSPACE. N.p., 30 July 2011. Web. 09 Nov. 2016.
<https://hkuspace.wordpress.com/2011/07/03/fast-food-culture-in-hong-kong/>.

Source 2
Title of source: Burgers and Beers Lead Hong Kong Restaurant Industry Growth
Type of source: News article

Fast food and bars did the best while Chinese restaurants saw fewer diners and lower spending, according to the
figures.

Fast food receipts increased 6.4 per cent year on year, bar sales increased 4.3 per cent, other drinking venues
sales increased 3.9 per cent and Chinese restaurants increased 1.7 per cent.

But the upwards trend for the local restaurant industry could be short lived, according to Simon Wong Ka Wo
from the Federation of Restaurant and Related trades.

There will be a 2 to 3 per cent slight decrease in the restaurant sector in terms of its overall performance for the
whole year, Wong forecast. He warned that some Hong Kong restaurants might have to suffer a little bit over
coming months, but the industry will bounce back in the fourth quarter.

The increase seems a little bit surprising to me as the performance of the economy for the past six months does
not seem so promising, Wong said.

The major reason is people tend to spend more on some middle to low-end restaurants like McDonalds instead
of high-end ones due to the stagnant economy, contributing to the increase in overall value of total receipts.

Reference: "Burgers and Beers Lead Hong Kong Restaurant Industry Growth." South China Morning Post. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.

9
<http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/economy/article/1998331/burgers-and-beers-lead-hong-kong-restaurant-
industry-growth>.

Source 3
Title of source: HRI Food Service Sector Annual 2014
Type of source: Annual report
As Asias most cosmopolitan city, Hong Kong boasts around 14,000 restaurants serving a wide range of world
cuisines. These restaurants are comprised of 37% Chinese, 56% non-Chinese restaurants, and 7% fast food
outlets. In addition, there are over 1,000 bars, pubs and other eating and drinking establishments.

Non-Chinese restaurants: Many Hong Kong consumers enjoy western food, as do the over 54 million tourists (in
2013). 5-Star and other high-end western restaurants are as likely to be patronized by locals as tourists/visitors.
Japanese food, fast food chains, coffee houses and casual dining establishments are also increasing their
presence. A typical lunch at a western restaurant costs around HK$150-350 (US$19.23-44.87) per person and a
typical dinner costs around HK$250-500 (US$32.05-64.10) per person. Fast food outlets: Fast food outlets are
popular among Hong Kong consumers. The most popular fast food chains in Hong Kong are McDonalds, KFC
and Pizza Hut. There are also some large local fast food chains such as Caf De Coral, Maxims and Fairwood
that serve both Chinese and western foods. Competition among fast food chains is intense

Reference:
N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://www.usfoods-hongkong.net/res/mns/00355/HK1416%20-%20HRI_Food_Service_Sector_Annual_2014.p
df+>.

Source 4
Title of source: Burgers and Beers Lead Hong Kong Restaurant Industry Growth
Type of source: News article

Fast food and bars did the best while Chinese restaurants saw fewer diners and lower spending, according to the
figures.

Fast food receipts increased 6.4 per cent year on year, bar sales increased 4.3 per cent, other drinking venues
sales increased 3.9 per cent and Chinese restaurants increased 1.7 per cent.

But the upwards trend for the local restaurant industry could be short lived, according to Simon Wong Ka Wo
from the Federation of Restaurant and Related trades.

There will be a 2 to 3 per cent slight decrease in the restaurant sector in terms of its overall performance for the
whole year, Wong forecast. He warned that some Hong Kong restaurants might have to suffer a little bit over
coming months, but the industry will bounce back in the fourth quarter.

The increase seems a little bit surprising to me as the performance of the economy for the past six months does
not seem so promising, Wong said.

The major reason is people tend to spend more on some middle to low-end restaurants like McDonalds instead
of high-end ones due to the stagnant economy, contributing to the increase in overall value of total receipts.

Reference:
"Burgers and Beers Lead Hong Kong Restaurant Industry Growth." South China Morning Post. N.p., n.d. Web.
17 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/economy/article/1998331/burgers-and-beers-lead-hong-kong-restaurant-
industry-growth>.

__________________________________________________________________________________________

10
Restaurant webpage
Source 1
Title: Icon in a Cup
Type of Source: Online article/booklet/PDF

Starbucks, one of the worlds most famous brands, has been in Hong Kong since 2000.
George W. Russell asks Institute member Patrick Kwok, Head of Operations at Coffee
Concepts, which operates the 137 Starbucks outlets, about the state of the business and the future of the citys
complex coffee culture

Reference:
Kwok, Patrick, Head Of Operations, and Coffee Concepts (Hong Kong) Limited. ICON CUP (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

Source 2
Title of article: About Us
Type of source: Webpage

KFC HK operates over 60 stores in Hong Kong and Macau. Fortress Hill store's brand new image gives every
customer a remarkable and warm dining experience with the particular new designed elements. The new design
creates a modern ambience for enjoying our delicious KFC's fried chicken.

Reference:
" - KFC HK." - KFC HK. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2016.
<https://www.kfchk.com/en/home/index.html>.

Source 3
Title of article: Food and beverage
Type of source: Webpage

Renowned as the culinary capital of Asia, Hong Kong boasts around 8,500 restaurants in the city. With dining out
a regular pastime for local residents and a growing number of international visitors, there is no better place than
Hong Kong to showcase and develop your exciting food and beverage concept.

Hong Kongs high number of international and Mainland Chinese visitors means excellent brand exposure. Its
combination of a skilled workforce, strong intellectual property protection and pro-business regulation makes it
the ideal launchpad for brands targeting the Chinese and Asian markets.

The best way to find out about food trading and distribution opportunities in Hong Kong is to contact InvestHKs
Tourism & Hospitality team.

Reference:
Cheung, Tony. "Food and Beverage." Food and Beverage | English. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.investhk.gov.hk/business-opportunities/food-beverage.html>.

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Data, tables, statistics
Source 1
Title of source: HRI Food Service Sector Annual 2014
Type of source: Annual report

Given below is a partial list of the restaurants in HK

Company name Type of food No. of Outlets

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Maxims Chinese Restaurants/ fast food/ Max concepts/ 304
Bakery

Mcdonalds Fast food - Burgers 237 (81 Mccafe)

Caf de Coral Chinese fast food/ lunch boxes 156

Fairwood Chinese fast food 104

KFC Fast food - Chicken 60

Starbucks Coffee & snacks 128

Pizza Hut Pizza, local menu 76

Pacific Coffee Coffee & Snacks 124

Deli France Bakery, fast food sandwiches 29

Steak Expert Steak house 7

Spaghetti House International 21

Epicurean International 14

Caf Deco Group International 32

Lan Kwai Fong Entertainment International 4

Olivers Super Sandwich Fast Food Sandwiches/ salads 17

Mix California Smoothies & Wraps 3`

Pret a Manger Fast food sandwiches/ salads 14

Chiram restaurant Ltd International 5

Ruby Tuesdays American style dining 6

Burger King Fast Food - Burgers 10

Jimmys Kitchen International 2

Ruths Chris Steakhouse American Style Steak House 2

Bubba Gump American Style dining 1

HArlans International 1

Lawrys The Prime Rib American Steak House 1

Mortons the Steakhouse American Steak House 1

Eclipse Management International 11

Outback Steakhouse Australian / American style Steak House 8

Red Ant Chinese 5

Elite Concepts International 8

California Pizza Kitchen American Style pizza 4

12
Dan Ryans American Style dining 2

Reference:
N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://www.usfoods-hongkong.net/res/mns/00355/HK1416%20-%20HRI_Food_Service_Sector_Annual_2014.p
df+>.

Source 2
Title of source: Mcdonalds Find a Restaurant
Type of source: Map (Mcdonalds store locator Hong Kong)

Mcdonald's: In 1975, the first McDonald's in Hong Kong opened on Paterson Street, Causeway Bay. Mcdonald's
have become one of Hong Kong customers top fast-food choices. The company have grown over the years and
today there are around 235 McDonald's Restaurants in Hong Kong in 2016, employing more than 15,000
McDonald's staff. And we are committed to offer a pleasant dining experience to every customers

Reference:
"Find a Restaurant :: McDonald's Hong Kong." Find a Restaurant :: McDonald's Hong Kong. N.p., n.d. Web. 17
Nov. 2016. <http://www.mcdonalds.com.hk/en/restaurant-locator.html>.

Aspect2-Consumerism
Survey results

13
Analysis:

H&M or Giordano H&M

Forever 21 or Bossini Forever 21

Abercrombie & Fitch or ESPRIT Abercrombie & Fitch

From the survey, it could be seen that over 80% of the VSA students prefer American brands over local brands.
The survey was done with the presence of myself beside them. Some reasons for choosing American brands
over local brands are:

- All the fashion trends revolve around American brands, so I have to be a part of the trend (following the
trend).
- I believe that most of the American brands have a higher quality(quality assurance) than local brands.
- There are just more American brands than local ones, so I see the American brands more often.
- Its just that the local brands are a bit lame and too old school, I want to be hippy and blend in with the
trend
- These days, what we care about is being Tumblr. Therefore, local brands are excluded!

*Only analyzed the consumerism part of the survey

_________________________________________________________________________________________
Articles
Source 1
Title of source: American Fashion Brands Hitting Emotional Sweet Spot in Hong Kong
Type of source: Secondary Source- Online Article

Younger Consumers Fueling Recent American Brand Influx

Since American traders moved to Hong Kong in 1842 in the wake of the First Opium War, USA-born-and-bred
brands have proliferated in the city to include Levis, Calvin Klein, Gap and DKNY. The enthusiasm for the
countrys apparel brands has continued with brands such as American Eagle Outfitters, 7 for all Mankind, True
Religion, and J. Crew hitting the Hong Kong high street in recent years.

But the craze for American clothing brands soared with the grand opening of the Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F)
flagship store in Aug 2012 in Central. In keeping with the labels tradition, A&F flew in their hottest models
hand-picked from global A&F stores for the event, where they flexed and posed for photo ops with Hong Kongs

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enthusiastic fans. For an entire week, crowds surrounded the shirtless A&F models parading around various
districts in the city and riding double-decker buses through Central.

Younger Consumers Show Strongest Resonance With American Brands

American brands have consistently stood for freedom and independence, evoking the rugged west with the rebel
as hero. This positioning seems compelling for a significant minority of Hong Kongs younger consumers. In a
recent survey from Ipsos Hong Kong of 1,000 consumers, 22 percent of consumers aged 1534 said they liked
American casual wear brands. A reputation for being stylish and wholesome (aka down-to-earth) appeared to
drive overall liking of American labels amongst consumers in this age segment.

Though adjectives like fashionable (72 percent) and youthful (67 percent) scored the highest among the 11
possible attributes, these did not have strong predictive influence on overall liking.When buying American labels,
this segment of consumers most strongly identifies with the comfort (89 percent) and fit (48 percent) offered by
the brands.

Since comfort and fit come up as strong predictors for overall liking, it is not surprising that the youth (18-24) and
working-class (25-34) segments show a strong affinity with American labels. Positive affinity for American brands
has room to grow amongst Hong Kong consumers, since only 10 percent of consumers aged 35+ show some
feelings of liking these brands and 29 percent indicate some disliketowards American casual wear brands.

Appetite For American Apparel Brands Larger Than Spending

Along with other international brands, American brands command a price premium. Hong Kong youth are willing
to pay, on average, 14 percent more for American brands compared to local brands (e.g., Bossini, Giordano).
However, since HK youth perceive American brands to be priced at two to three times higher coupled with a
relatively low median monthly personal income of below HK$5,000 (US$644) young consumers need to get
creative about satisfying their appetite for American branded clothing.

In qualitative research, recent Hong Kong university graduates revealed that their parents or part-time work
funded their clothing expenses. Young graduates also noted their preference for purchasing with discounts:
seasonal sales, borrowing a friends VIP card or using a store staff discount.

Building a Closer Relationship With Hong Kong Consumers

With the recent re-ignition of the passion for American labels, brands now face the task of deepening their
engagement with Hong Kong consumers to gain more share of wallet. Several key drivers will shape consumer
expectations and needs in the casual wear category. Like their global counterparts, staying connected and
proactive engagement are two key drivers in purchase decisions. As technology enables constant connectivity
on-the-go via smartphones or mobile devices, consumers expect equally smooth access on mobile as on PCs, as
well as user-friendly websites and apps.

Looking across different customer segments, customers engage with brands in one of two ways. Active
participation in conversation by the consumer takes place in social blogs, online forums or discussion groups.
Consumers will contribute to topic threads, leave comments and share experiences via product ratings/ reviews.
But brands can also play an active role in shaping consumer expectations and perceptions.

For example, Hong Kong consumers show openness for brands to actively get in touch with them via push
notifications, and seem willing to be synced in to receive information (news or non commercial information).
Given the above trends, mobile shows great potential for brands to more proactively engage with target
customers.

Implications

American brands have clearly hit the emotional sweet spot with younger and professional consumer segments.
Given the rapidly expanding success of the high-design high-value brands like Zara and H&M, it might be worth
considering alternative collections to bring younger consumers into the brand franchise by lowering the cost of
entry for the 15-24 fashion conscious consumer.

The market has also seen several successful forays by brands like DKNY and CK into the 30s consumer
segment, which has the potential to not only expand the fan base but also to tap into larger disposable incomes.

15
With this two-pronged approach, American apparel brands can continue to grow in their appeal to the Hong Kong
market.

Based in Hong Kong, Hiroe Li is a Research Manager at Ipsos Loyalty, the global leader in customer experience,
satisfaction and loyalty research with over 1,000 dedicated professionals located in over 40 countries around the
world.

Reference: JingDaily. "American Fashion Brands Hitting "Emotional Sweet Spot" In Hong Kong." Jing Daily. N.p.,
09 July 2013. Web. 09 Nov. 2016.
<https://jingdaily.com/american-fashion-brands-hitting-emotional-sweet-spot-in-hong-kong/>.

Source 2
Title of source: More International Brands Set up HK Stores in 20132
Type of source: Secondary Source- Online Article

About 40 international brands established their first store or first stand-alone store in Hong Kong in 2013, a new
report released by Jones Lang LaSalle shows.
These include retailers in fashion & accessories, jewellery and watches, cosmetics, restaurants, skincare and
even bookstore coming from America, Europe, Australia and Asia.
Some brands such as Oroton, Topshop, Intimissimi and Innisfree opened street flagship stores to build up their
presence, whereas others like Desigual, Volcom and Victorias Secret and the re-entry of Michael Kors adopted a
more cautious approach of setting up stores in shopping mall environments.
Retailers indicate their continued confidence in Hong Kong by consistently investing in their existing stores and
opening new flagships. While many neighbouring Asian cities are doing incredibly well in sales and profit
margins, it is here in Hong Kong that the retailers find most comfort and confidence in housing their flagships,
said Tom Gaffney, Head of Retail at Jones Lang LaSalle Hong Kong.
The Retail Atelier report noted that confidence from these international brands toward Hong Kongs retail market
was supported by the strong underlying fundamentals of the market. Total retail sales in 2013 reached over
HKD494 billion (USD63.6 billion), up 11 percent compared to the growth of 9.8 percent in 2012. Domestic
consumption was supported by a healthy labour market, with the unemployment rate edging down to 3.2 percent,
the lowest level since end-2012.
The Retail Atelier report also noted that the retail market received sustained support from the steady growth of
the inbound tourism market.
Tourist arrivals in 2013 recorded 11.7 percent growth in 2013, slower than the 16 percent growth in 2012. The
growth in Mainland Chinese tourist arrivals continued to slow 11.1 percent year on year in the fourth quarter of
2013. However, the market was boosted by the increase spending power by Chinese visitors.
According to the Hong Kong Tourism Boards latest visitor spending report, per head spending by Chinese
visitors on shopping increased by 7.5 percent you to HKD4,246 (USD547.1) in the first half of 2013. In particular,
per head spending from same-day Chinese visitors, who typically spend approximately HKD2,500 (USD322.1)
per visit, increased 10.6 percent you, compared to overnight Chinese visitors, which grew only 8.5 percent you.
Looking ahead, we believe international retailers will continue to choose Hong Kong to house their flagships,
given the steady market growth driven by strong demand, Gaffney said. However, the retail sales in 2014 may
post a slower growth due to some potential headwinds, including weaker private domestic consumption caused
by a sharp correction in the citys residential property market, as well as a possible slowdown in mainland visitor
arrivals partly because of a temporary freeze on the number of pilot cities for the IVS Scheme."
Reference: Fong, Erica, Contributor, and Journalist. "More International Brands Set up HK Stores in 2013." Retail
in Asia. N.p., 08 Nov. 2016. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.retailinasia.com/in-trends/news/business__finance/more-international-brands-set-hk-stores-2013/>.

Source 3
Title of source: Why Hong Kong is still attractive to international retailers
Type of source: Secondary Source- Online Article

Hong Kong is the worlds second most appealing luxury retail destination after London, JLL said.

16
Hong Kong is still an appealing destination for international retailers, especially mid-market brands which see the
recent slowdown and rental decline as an opportunity to get a business presence in the city, according to
property consultants.

In some prime locations, rents have dropped more than 40 per cent from their peak in the second half of 2014.
Some retailers, which failed to compete against luxury brands to get a shop in Hong Kong in the past. see this as
an opportunity, said Joe Lin, executive director, retail services, for CBRE Hong Kong.

Sportswear brands are very active and have plans to expand, he said.

As an example, Adidas took over Coachs coveted spot in the middle of Centrals business district, and opened
another flagship outlet in Fashion Walk in Causeway Bay early this month.

Hong Kong s retail market suffered across the board when in 2003 when Sars broke out, or after global financial
crisis in 2008. But now the city only sees a slump in retail sales of luxury products, said Lin.

The latest government statistics showed Hong Kongs retail sales dropped 12.5 per cent in the first three months
of this year, the poorest first-quarter performance since 1999. Marchs retail sales value was down 9.8 per cent
year-on-year and demand for jewellery and watches fell by more than 20 per cent. The government said the
slowdown in inbound tourism continued to be a severe drag on retail sales.

In a report released by JLL on Monday, the property consultant said Hong Kong is the worlds second most
appealing luxury retail destination after London.

The research, which for the first time provides a global ranking of cities by their appeal to cross-border retailers,
also put Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, Beijing, Osaka and Taipei in the top 10.

Despite a recent change in profile and spending patterns of Mainland Chinese tourism which has led to a
slowdown in sales, retailers continue to benefit from the citys top notch infrastructure network, superior business
conditions and strong economic climate, according to the report.

Many brands view Hong Kong as a stepping stone to enter China or a platform to go international. Recent
entrants into Hong Kong include luxury lingerie retailer Agent Provocateur, Italian cosmetics brand Kiko Milano
and athletic clothes for yoga and running Lululemon.

Hong Kong also features many of Asias top eateries, including restaurants from celebrity chefs such as Joel
Robuchon, Gordon Ramsay, Jamie Oliver and Jason Atherton.

The study sample consists of 240 international retail brands; each has a significant presence in at least two
global regions, those being the Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East and Africa region.

International brands targeting the mass and mid-market are active in Hong Kongs retail leasing market. They
are usually sport, accessories, bank, shoe and F&B retailers,Terence Chan, head of retail at JLL in Hong Kong,
said.

Lin of CBRE said retailers are expecting a further rent cut before they make up their minds to go into Hong Kong.

He said retail rents on average fell 17 per cent last year and have dropped another 5.5 per cent so far this year.

We expect the street rent to drop 10-15 per cent this year, said Lin.

A few years ago, the China factor was a major reason for international retailers to expand their footprint in Hong
Kong but that strategy has changed, according to Lin.

For mid-range brands and sportswear brands, they see Hong Kong itself as a sound local market to enter as
rents drop, said Lin.
Reference: Sito, Peggy. "Why Hong Kong Is Still Attractive to International Retailers." South China Morning Post.
N.p., 10 May 2016. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.scmp.com/property/hong-kong-china/article/1943049/why-hong-kong-still-attractive-international-reta
ilers>.

17
Source 4
Title of source: Giordano 2016 Annual Report
Type of source: Secondary Source- Online Report
(Please check the attachment on the next page )
Reference: LAU, Peter Kwok Kuen. "Giordano 2016 Annual Report." GIORDANO INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
(n.d.): n. pag. 4 May 2016. Web. 11 Nov. 2016.

Source 5
Title of source: More foreign brands and restaurants debut in western
Type of source: Secondary Source- Online Article

A growing number of foreign brands and restaurant operators are making their debuts in the western New
Territories where regional malls are notching up solid sales growth, according to industry experts.

Hurt by a slump in the number of big-spending mainland tourists, retail property owners in traditional tourist areas
such as Causeway Bay, Tsim Sha Tsui and Central have forced some individual landlords to cut rents by up to
50 per cent.

However, the retail landscape in the western and northern New Territories is different.

"We have not received any requests for rent cuts," said Jessica Wong, assistant general manager for leasing at
Sun Hung Kai Real Estate Agency. She heads a retail portfolio covering Yuen Long, Tsuen Wan and Kwai Fong.

Sales volume and numbers of shoppers have each risen 10 per cent so far this year, she added.

Wong said about 40 per cent of the fashion and accessories brands at its soon-to-be opened Yoho Mall in Yuen
Long were first-time entrants in the western New Territories.

"Our new mall is not only targeted at residents in Yuen Long but also the 1.5 million people in the northwestern
New Territories," she said.

Foreign brands such as Victoria's Secret, Cath Kidston and Hollister will open their first outlets at Yoho Mall in
Yuen Long.

The 1.1 million square foot Yoho Mall is due for completion by the end of next year. The first phase of 600,000 sq
ft has been fully let to 200 retailers at a rent of HK$50 to HK$150 per square foot per month. The phase one
development, which will open on September 1, is expected to generate HK$200 million rental income for the first
year.

Wong said some shops with new retail concepts and designs were being charged lower monthly rents than
existing malls in the area.

"We hope to receive a better rental turnover based on our tenants' sales revenue," she said.

In addition, about 30 restaurants, accounting for 25 per cent of the total mall space, could drive up shopper traffic.

Joe Lin Chi-ho, an executive director of retail services at CBRE, said regional malls would be less affected by
weakening sales.

"Most tenants are selling mid-priced products and address local residents' daily necessities. Some famous
fashion brands will also open bigger stores in New Territories shopping malls [to escape] soaring rents in core
districts," he said.

18
At Yoho Mall, H&M will open a 22,000 sq ft store while Zara will add one 18,000 sq ft shop.

Lin said the advantage of Yoho Mall was that it is located at West Rail's Yuen Long Station where it could draw a
critical mass of customers.

"For a new mall, rents should be more competitive as retailers see it as a testing ground for their business," he
said.

Reference: Li, Sandy. "More Foreign Brands and Restaurants Debut in Western New Territories." South China
Morning Post. N.p., 12 Aug. 2015. Web. 10 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.scmp.com/property/hong-kong-china/article/1848650/more-foreign-brands-and-restaurants-debut-we
stern-new>.

__________________________________________________________________________________________
Online webpage
Source 1
Title of source: Are you always in front of or following the trend? Come to Hong Kong Fashion Shopping
Type of source:Secondary Source- Online Webpage

What lady doesn't like pretty clothes? Hong Kong Fashion Shopping offers you tons and tons of
choices. You can spend outrageously or within a super tight budget. In the end, it will always
satisfy you.

If you are a fan of certain brands, you can definitely go to big malls to buy them. Hong Kong has
almost all the brands from all over the world.

There are some Hong Kong original brands with great design and quality. Most of them are not
limited to men and children clothes.

Reference: "Hong Kong Fashion Shopping." Facts About Hong Kong. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.facts-about-hong-kong.com/Hong-Kong-Fashion-Shopping.html>.

Aspect3-Entertainment
Survey results

19

_________________________________________________________________________________________
Articles and reports
Source 1
Title of source: Challenges of the Film Industry in Hong Kong
Type of Source: Analytical report

Local audiences have been increasingly attracted to imported movies especially the big-budget Hollywood
movies, in line with the viewing preference of audiences elsewhere. As a result, the box office of foreign movies
in Hong Kong increased four-folds over the past two decades to HK$1,602 million in 2015, quadrupling their
share in the overall box office of Hong Kong from around 20% in 1992 to about 80% in 2015. By contrast, the
share of Hong Kong movies plunged from around 80% to around 20% over the same period (Figure 1 below).

Reference: Cheung, Chi-fai. "Challenges of the Film Industry in Hong Kong." Legislative Council of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region - Challenges of the Film Industry in Hong Kong. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Nov.
2016.
<http://www.legco.gov.hk/research-publications/english/essentials-1516ise13-challenges-of-the-film-industry-in-h
ong-kong.htm>.

Source 2
Title of source: Hong Kong movie industrys revival a welcome sight
Type of Source: Newspaper article

An insider in the movie industry once admitted to the media that there were not even enough new films to
compete in the Hong Kong Film Awards.

Filmmakers turned independent so they could negotiate film deals on their own not to make better films but to
make more films for more money. Some operators in the industry viewed the 1997 handover as the deadline for
raking in as much money as possible. Others said the decline began with the 1993 blockbuster Jurassic Park.
People were more attracted to Hollywood productions than Hong Kong films. Between 1992 and 1996, the
market share of American films increased from 20 percent to 46 percent.

20
If the Hong Kong film industry is to recover its former glory in the 21st century, it should capitalize on its inherent
advantages. Recently, most successful Hong Kong films were co-productions with the mainland. This is a
workable path for our future growth.

With a long history in movie production, Hong Kong can provide professionals experienced in writing, directing,
producing, and other related activities. And, because of its Western influence, Hong Kong can help infuse
Western ideas to a Chinese movie, adding color and international appeal.

Reference: Ho, Chi-Ping. "Hong Kong Movie Industry's Revival a Welcome Sight." China Daily - Asia Pacific.
N.p., 21 Sept. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2016.
<http://pub.chinadailyasia.com/opinion/columnists/HO-CHI-PING/531.html>.

Source 3
Title of source: Development of the Local Film Industry Over the Past 40 Years
Type of Source: Analytical report

From figure 2.2 (below), over 85% (139/162) of the interviewees prefer Hollywood movie more than locals. Only
14% of them would like to choose to watch a local movie.

Reference: Chan, Mark. Development of Local Film Industry over past 40 Years. Hong Kong: n.p., 2014. HKEAA.
Web. 9 Nov. 2016.

Source 4
Title of source: Bringing Hong Kong Movie Industry to a New Era
Type of Source: Analytical report

Both the number of production and box office earnings has gone downhill since late 1990s. At the peak of the
industry, there were nearly 200 movies produced locally. In the past ten years, the number decreased, there were
less than 60 movies produced per year in mid 2000s only.

Talents are being distracted by the continuously declining situation and many of them
have gone to Hollywood for better prospects.

21
Between 1992 and 1996, the market share of American films in Hong Kong increased from 20% to 46%, in the
same period. Box office earnings for Hong Kong movies declined by 50%. In the keen competition, the increased
market share of foreign movies seriously affected the box office income of local movies

Reference:
Yuen, Ruby, and Rachel Chan. Bringing Hong Kong Movie Industry to a New Era. N.p.: SFCC, n.d. Print.

________________________________________________________________________
Data, tables, statistics
Title of source: List of Highest-Grossing Films in Hong Kong of All Time
Type of Source: Online website

Rank Title Gross Year Country Distributor Director


1 Avatar HK$178,029,440 2009 US 20th Century Fox James
Cameron
2 Avengers: Age of HK$132,746,652 2015 US Walt Disney Pictures Joss Whedon
Ultron
3 Titanic HK$128,003,033 1997 US Paramount Pictures James
Cameron
4 Iron Man 3 HK$106,389,801 2013 US Walt Disney Pictures Shane Black

5 Transformers: Age HK$$98,196,851 2014 US/China Paramount Michael Bay


of Extinction

6 Marvel's The HK$96,705,670 2012 US Walt Disney Pictures Joss Whedon


Avengers

7 Jurassic World HK$91,828,500 2015 US Universal Studios Colin


Trevorrow

8 Toy Story 3 HK$89,364,118 2010 US Walt Disney Pictures Lee Unkrich


9 Transformers: HK$84,703,797 2011 US Paramount Pictures Michael Bay
Dark of the Moon

10 Minions HK$83,432,370 2015 US Universal Studios Pierre Coffin


Kyle Balda

11 The Dark Knight HK$80,269,966 2012 US Warner Bros. Christopher


Rises Nolan

12 Monsters HK$77,407,664 2013 US Walt Disney Pictures Dan Scanlon


University

22
13 Harry Potter and HK$76,785,999 2011 US US Warner Bros. David Yates
the Deathly
Hallows Part 2
14 The Amazing HK$61,983,852 2012 US Columbia Pictures Marc Webb
Spider-Man
15 Jurassic Park HK$61,898,795 1993 US Universal Studios Steven
Spielberg
16 You Are the Apple HK$61,857,826 2011 Taiwan 20th Century Fox Giddens Ko
of My Eye
17 Kung Fu Hustle HK$61,278,697 2004 Hong Columbia Pictures Stephen
Kong/China Chow
18 Shaolin Soccer HK$60,739,847 2001 Hong Kong Universe Stephen
Entertainment Chow
19 Furious 7 HK$59,519,000 2015 US Universal Studios James Wan
20 The Dark Knight HK$58,524,393 2008 US Warner Bros. Christopher
Nolan

Only 10% of the 20 highest-grossing films in Hong Kong were actually made in Hong Kong; while 85% of those
films were made in the United States.

Reference:
." (n.d.): n. pag. MPIA. 19 Jan. 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2016.
<http://www.mpia.org.hk/upload/file/00009/PR_20100119.pdf>.












23
OPVLSourceAnalysis(Validity)
Source1-Cuisine(NoelAuYeung)
Reference:OurSurvey(https://sonialau.typeform.com/to/V1XnnZ)
Origin Purpose
- Primary Source - The intended audience for this
- Our survey (refer to link above) survey are for students and
- Questions and survey designed, teenagers in general
built and structured by our group - We sent this survey to students in
- It was generated using the software VSA and received responses from
surveymonkey them regarding our inquiry questions
- It was made on 9-11-2016 - We aim to investigate and collect
different peoples perspectives on
how has Americanisation made an
impact towards the aspects of
cuisine, consumerism and
entertainment of Hong Kong
- According to their responses, we
hope to analyse the results and
collect evidence to support our
research

Value Limitations
- Conducting surveys are easy to - results may be biased as students
administer who do our survey are across
- It can be developed in less time different year groups and may have
(compared to other data-collection different opinions
methods) - Students may not provide accurate,
- Cost-effective honest answers because of
- Allows us to be capable of collecting boredom or lack of knowledge
data from a large number of - Survey question answer options
respondents could lead to unclear data because
- Numerous questions can be asked certain answer options may be
about a subject, giving extensive interpreted differently by
flexibility in data analysis respondents. For example, the
- With survey software, advanced answer option somewhat agree
statistical techniques can be utilized may represent different things to
to analyze survey data to determine different subjects, and have its own
validity, reliability, and statistical meaning to each individual
significance, including the ability to respondent. Yes or no answer
analyze multiple variables options can also be problematic.
- A broad range of data can be Respondents may answer no if the
collected (e.g., attitudes, opinions, option only once is not available.
beliefs, values, behavior, factual)

Source2-Cuisine(JessicaYam)
24
Reference::N.p.,n.d.Web.<http://www.usfoods-hongkong.net/res/mns/00355/HK1416%20-%20HRI_Food_Ser
vice_Sector_Annual_2014.pdf+>.

Origin Purpose
- Secondary source - The intended audience of this
- Online report source is the public, especially
- HRI Food Service Sector members of the Hotel Restaurant
Annual 2014 Institution in Hong Kong
- Written by USDA (U.S. Department - Purpose: To report on the
of Agriculture) performance of Hong Kongs food
- Published on 3/24/2014 service sector in 2014
- Author: Chris Li, Annie Lai - E.g 1: Growth of Hong Kong
- Chris Li and Annie Lai: restaurants receipts and
Agricultural Marketing purchases
Specialist - E.g 2: Hong Kong imports of
- Organize and implement customer oriented
trade promotional activities. agricultural products &
seafood
- The point of view is impartial. Only
datas and tables are included, no
personal opinion can be found

Value Limitations
- This source provides us with - The report is published on 2014 (2
sufficient numerical data to support years ago), thus the data might be
our arguments outdated and cannot reflect the
- Included source for each table current situation of Hong Kong
(Ensures the validity and reliability of - It only shown a partial list of the
the data) restaurants in Hong Kong (cannot
- Since theres no personal opinion represent every restaurant, data is
conveyed, we can ensure the report not comprehensive)
is unbiased and trustable - Since this source is unbiased and
- Report is approved and double only data and tables are provided,
checked by Erich Kuss (director of thus we will not be able to collect
foreign service personnel) before any public opinion towards
being published Americanisation from this source
- All data comes from reliable and
well known sources
- E.g 1: Hong Kong census
and statistics department,
which is one of the approved
departments of the Hong
Kong Administrative Region
of the Peoples Republic of
China

Source3-Consumerism(SoniaLau)
25
Reference:JingDaily."AmericanFashionBrandsHitting"EmotionalSweetSpot"InHong
Kong."JingDaily.N.p.,09July2013.Web.09Nov.2016.
<https://jingdaily.com/american-fashion-brands-hitting-emotional-sweet-spot-in-hong-kong/>.
Origin Purpose
- Secondary Source - The intended audience of this
- Online Article (JingDaily) source are Hong Kong citizens
- Written by Hiroe Li - It was created to allow Hong Kong
- Hiroe Li is a Research citizens to have an overview on how
Manager at Ipsos Loyalty, the American brands are starting to
the global leader in customer dominate our city with supporting
experience, satisfaction and surveys by Ipsos, one of the largest
loyalty research with over and most successful research
1,000 dedicated company in Hong Kong
professionals located in over - It also showed how the American
40 countries around the labels build a closer relationship with
world the Hong Kong customers in order
- It was written on March 20, 2013 to have a higher sales rate through
- It was written in Hong Kong different ways, such as active
- It was created by typing an online participation in social media, online
article by Hiroe Li and submitting the forums, etc.
article to JingDaily and was
approved by JingDaily

Value Limitations
- This source tells us that during - This source was written 3 years ago,
2013, there are continuously more so the situation in Hong Kong might
and more American fashion brands be different where there are a lot
proliferated in Hong Kong, such as more youngsters falling for
Levis, Calvin Klein, Gap, DKNY American brands, because of its
- It also tells us that young consumers popularity and the trend
show strong resonance towards the - Most of the results that has been
American brands, where a lot of the discussed in the article are mostly
youngsters receive low income, but about American fashion brands
spend on average 14% more money affecting the Hong Kong consumers
on their clothing (for American or how the American fashion brands
brands) compared to local brands weave into the society quickly
(e.g. Bossini, Giordano) in order to - It mostly discussed on how the
satisfy their appetite for American American brands grow their success
apparels rapidly in Hong Kong and how do
American brands hit the emotional
sweet spot with younger and
professional consumer segments
- Some negative comments from the
surveyees could be recorded down
to balance out the positivity or how
the growth of the American brands
affect Hong Kong consumers

26
Source4-Entertainment(KristiWong)
Reference:Cheung,Chi-fai."ChallengesoftheFilmIndustryinHongKong."Legislative
CounciloftheHongKongSpecialAdministrativeRegion-ChallengesoftheFilm
IndustryinHongKong.N.p.,n.d.Web.09Nov.2016.
<http://www.legco.gov.hk/research-publications/english/essentials-1516ise13-challenges-of-th
e-film-industry-in-hong-kong.htm>.
Origin Purpose
- Secondary Source - The intended audience of this report is
- Analytical report people working at the LegCo - as the
- Written by Cheung Chi-Fai report was especially prepared for this
- He is a member of the Research purpose - however it is also aimed at
Office in the Legislative Council of people working in the Hong Kong
the Hong Kong Special entertainment industry.
Administrative Region. He - This report shows the different
specializes in the entertainment advancements, setbacks, and changes
sector of the research department, that have been made to the
and regularly contributes to local entertainment industry in the past year.
newspapers like the South China By looking at this, people will be able to
Morning Post (especially learn what works and what doesnt in
editorials). the industry, and make appropriate
- Written on March 23rd, 2016 changes.
- Written in Hong Kong

Value Limitations
- The report is written by someone - As this is an unbiased source, it is great
working in the HK government, for collecting data, but not so great for
meaning that it is very reliable. This is collecting actual, genuine public
because government officials have the opinions. As the entertainment industry
ability to conduct many surveys, and is an industry that relies primarily on the
collect lots of data to get the opinions of the public, this source isnt
information that they need. that great for referring to the successes
- This is also an unbiased perspective of and failures of both HK and American
the state of the Hong Kong movie movies.
industry. As government officials - No actual examples of specific movies
typically have to report on the data they that have done especially well or not
currently have rather than making an well were given, leaving me to question
argument, this allows me to see the the validity of the graphs and information
true circumstances that the industry is stated in the report.
currently going through. - Not many comparisons were made to
the state of the HK film industry in
previous years, which cannot help me
determine whether or not there was
actually a decline in the industry as
stated in the report.

Source5-Entertainment(KristiWong)

27
Reference:Teo,Stephen.HongKongCinema:TheExtraDimensions.London:BFI,
1997.Print.
Origin Purpose
- Secondary Source - The intended audience of this book are
- Book people who are looking to learn more
- Written by Stephen Teo about the entertainment industry. It is
- He is a professor of and the head written for just the average readers
of the Lingnan Universitys because it doesnt use complicated
Broadcast and Cinema Studies language relating to the film industry.
Division; and an associate - This book recounts the cinematic history
professor at the Wee Kim Wee of Hong Kong in the post war period,
School of Communication and looks at successful films featuring
Information. He is the author of people like Bruce Lee and Jackie Chan,
several books on the state of Hong and mentions how the arrival of foreign
Kongs cinematic industry. films has begun to create the end of
- Published in 1997 Hong Kong cinema.
- Written in Hong Kong

Value Limitations
- The report is written by someone that - The book does not contain much data,
previously worked in the film industry, graphs, or statistics that support the
and teaches in universities about the authors opinions and point of view. A lot
entertainment culture of Hong Kong, of it is based on personal experiences,
meaning that it is very reliable. The however that may not be as reliable.
book has a long list of references to - The book was written in 1997, which is
ensure the authors reliability. nearly 20 years ago. The information
- This is also a real perspective of the that may have been relevant and
state of the Hong Kong movie industry, important at that time may not be
as it is written by someone who has relevant and important today.
been very much involved in Hong
Kongs entertainment culture. The book
has a lot of his personal experiences
working as a director/ producer on
films, highlighting the failures the HK
film industry has experienced over the
time.

28
Transcript
Slide 1: Good morning/afternoon, today we will be talking about to what extent has Americanisation
positively impacted Hong Kong.

Slide 2: Being Hong Kong citizens ourselves, we have noticed that many Americans especially enjoy
travelling to Hong Kong, and that the American culture they bring along with themselves have slowly
melt into Hong Kongs society. If you go out to Causeway Bay, there are McDonald's, H&M stores and
cinemas playing Matt Damon movies within a ten minute walking distance between each other - and
we have noticed how our daily lives are largely shaped by Americanization. Quite frankly, we have
also realized that we would mostly prefer American goods and services over our local ones. Locals
have always complained about how this is ruining our Chinese culture and traditions, but we hope to
investigate into it to see if this is actually the case. By investigating into how Americanization has
positively impacted Hong Kong, we will be able to be more appreciative of Hong Kong for what it is - a
cultural melting pot of both Western and Eastern culture, that offers an incredibly diverse amount of
goods and services to its citizens and visitors.

Slide 3: Throughout our research, we will be mainly exploring three aspects regarding our research
question, including cuisine, consumerism and entertainment.

Slide 4: Now were going to talk about the impact of Americanization on Hong Kong cuisine.

Slide 5: According to our investigation, American Cuisine has made an impact towards the Hong Kong
Society by introducing a wider variety of western food choices and restaurants, such as Mcdonalds,
Starbucks, Outback Steakhouse, Pizza Hut...etc. However, it has also caused the disappearance of
traditional chinese cuisines that might make an impact towards Hong Kong culture. Now, we will be
analysing the extent of positivity of such impact towards the Hong Kong society nowadays.

Slide 6: Now were gonna talk about examples of American cuisine and how their popularity has
increased in Hong Kong.

Slide 7-11: To do so, we have conducted research on the population of both leading Chinese and
American cuisine restaurants in Hong Kong, which is shown in the list below. The restaurants
highlighted in blue indicates that they are American Cuisine or Americanized restaurants. On the other
hand, restaurants highlighted in red indicates that they are selling Chinese food.
Examples of American cuisine stores and how their popularity have increased in Hong Kong. (table
1.1-1.4)
As seen from these table, 19 out of 26 (which is more than 73%) of the leading restaurants in Hong
Kong sell American style food.

Slide 12: So what are the advantages, as well as disadvantages with such overwhelming population
of American cuisine or Americanized Chinese stores in Hong Kong? Although it is good to introduce
American Cuisine restaurants to Hong Kong as it offers citizens with a larger variety of choices and
they get to taste American food, without actually visiting America in person. However, having too
many of these restaurants will lead to the loss of Hong Kongs unique culture and thus, the decrease
in tourism, as traditional Chinese food is what makes Hong Kong stands out.

Slide 13: In fact, Western tourists have realised such negative trend, which has been going on for a
while. This tourist here does not understand why with all the amazing authentic Chinese food in Hong
Kong, anyone would want to eat the American equivalent.. In his opinion, Chinese food nowadays

29
are americanized in order to suit the palette of foreigners. By americanized it means that the
original ingredients and steps are slightly amended or simplified, to suit the culture or needs of
American citizens, as it usually takes a long time for Americans to make complicated and technical
traditional Chinese dishes.

Slide 14: However, theres always a different side to each argument and heres an example. Although
there are people who opposes American Chinese food, yet there are also citizens who crave for it. In
their opinion, American Chinese offers them a larger variety of choices and the dishes are slightly
amended, such that they can accept and adapt to it more easily. For example, Americanized Chinese
restaurants usually offer spoons and forks to its customers because some of them might not know
how to use chopsticks. Furthermore, the ingredients used and tastes of traditional Chinese dishes can
sometimes be exotic and extreme. For instance, it can be extremely spicy or bitter. Thus, the steps,
ingredients and seasoning of these dishes are also amended.

Slide 15: Next up, we will be discussing whether or not Hong Kong citizens enjoy American cuisine
stores that are introduced into Hong Kong culture and whether or not they are familiar with them.

Slide 16: According to our survey results, it shows that Hong Kong citizens are more familiar with
American cuisine stores as compared to local restaurants. In terms of coffee shops, there are 88% of
people who voted for starbucks, with the remaining 12% for Pacific Coffee. For restaurants, 98% had
voted for Mcdonald's over Maxims, which had 2%. Also, the majority also chose to get Hamburgers
over Hong Kong Style toast, which had a percentage of 82% and 18% respectively. The difference
between these choices of local cuisine vs. American cuisine is significant, which appears to us that
Hong Kongers are very willing to embrace American food culture that has been embedded into the
society of Hong Kong, and it is a more popular choice as opposed to local food and restaurants. As
open-minded citizens, it is good to embrace and learn from various cultures, yet too much attention on
American cuisine, instead of local cuisine might lead to the close down of Chinese cuisine
restaurants. As citizens are likely to establish more and more American cuisine restaurants in order to
adapt to its increasing trend. Small businesses such as historical Chinese restaurants will be
significantly affected, as they might not be able to cope with such sudden change in culture, especially
when they have been making traditional Chinese dishes for a long period of time.

Slide 17: Now were gonna talk about what Chinese restaurants have learnt from American
restaurants in terms of food production.

Slide 18: Furthermore, Americanisation has impacted the manufacture of Chinese food as well. With
the increase of fast food companies such as McDonalds, Starbucks in Hong Kong. A faster pace of
life, take-out and fast food business began to take root. For many Hk citizens, the aim of consuming
fast food is just to fill their stomach, and such culture has became a part of their life and fulfill their
needs. In order to adapt with such change in culture, various traditional food have begun to be made
like instant/ fast food. Many dumplings and rice are produced in factories, instead of being handmade.
They are then sent to supermarkets and convenience stores for sale. With the American fast food
business being so successful, it leads to the appearance of Hk- style fast food shops as well.
Examples are Cafe de coral and Fairwood. Although this provides a more convenient media for locals,
as well as tourists to try Chinese food, however this might affect the quality, taste and texture of these
cuisines. By producing these food products in factories, this contributes to the decline of tradition and
culture as many Chinese dishes such as dim sums, are preferably handmade in order to ensure the
quality of its appearance, taste and texture. Moreover, many local articles such as Hong Kong have
stated that indigenous cultures should not be permeated by globalization or Americanization, as
negative consequences are evident. Americanization results in an automatic embrace of values
strongly associated with America. However, this can result in a rejection of indigenous cultural values,

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such as native cuisines as we are exploring within the aspect, and the disappearance of traditional
restaurants and cultures, with American goods overtaking the market and overshadowing local
businesses.

Slide 19: The merge of American and Chinese food has also enhanced Hong Kongers taste in trying
American food, which allowed them to appreciate a different sense of style in cuisine. Their love and
appreciation towards American food has triggered the increase of American restaurants in the city.
However, this phenomenon has also created a negative impact towards the disappearance of Hong
Kong culture within the society, which includes the loss of tradition, as well as the decrease in the
uniqueness of Hong Kong. Now, we will be moving onto the next aspect, consumerism.

Slide 20-23: Since American traders moved to Hong Kong in 1842 after the First Opium War,
American brands have proliferated in the city, such as H&M, Abercrombie and Fitch, Forever 21,
Levis, Calvin Klein, American Eagle and so on. Through researching and creating a survey, it could
be seen that young consumers show the strongest resonance with American brands.

Slide 24: Do Hong Kong people normally purchase their goods from American brands or local brands
and why?

Slide 25: In a survey made in 2013 from Ipsos Hong Kong, of 1,000 consumers, 22% of consumers
aged 15-34 said they normally buy their casual clothes from American brands, because of their
concept and the clothes are fashionable, which can show they are youthful and is flowing with the
trend. On the other hand, 20% aged 35 or above indicated some dislike towards American casual
wear brands thinking that it is way too expensive and not worth it since clothes designed and made by
local brands are a lot more cheaper and matches more of the price.

Slide 26: From the same survey, it has also been found that Hong Kong youth are willing to pay, on
average, 14 percent more for American brands compared to local brands, e.g. Bossini, Giordano.
Although Hong Kong youth get relatively less income, but they are so perceived to the American
brands that they have to satisfy their appetite for American branded apparel.

Slide 27-28: There were also 3 questions related to consumerism in our own survey and it was
targeted across the year bands in VSA. Weve asked students to choose between an American
fashion brand or a local fashion brand and the results are as follows.
As you can see from the data collected, a significant few of the students prefer local fashion brands
over American fashion brands and more than 80% of the students prefer American fashion brands.

Slide 29: Although the above data might not be able to represent every citizen in Hong Kong, yet it
can still be concluded that choosing American brands over local brands has became a phenomenon
among teenagers and adults. In fact, such trend has been noticed by articles and here are their
responses

Slide 30: To conclude, American brands have clearly hit the emotional sweet spot with younger and
professional consumer segments-- JingDaily.

Slide 31: So, How did the American brands affect the local brands throughout the past year?

Slide 32: Giordano, a fashion brand in Hong Kong, is affected by it strongly. Here is the table showing
the total sales, CSS, gross profit, gross margin, CSGP, number of outlets as at quarter-end and net
change in outlet. As you can see, the total sales of Giordano declined by 7%, gross profit decreased

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by 5% and number of outlets as at quarter-end decreased by 5, where everything decreased and
affected negatively towards this local brand.

Slide 33: Heres a chart on the year on year change of Giordano through 2014 to 2016.

Slide 34: Heres a chart on the CSS and CSGP growth by quarter through 2014 to 2016.

Slide 35: Based on the above datas and surveys,we believe that Americanisation has positively
impacted Hong Kongs consumerism to a medium extent. As American stores have increased within
the city, this caused a decrease in sales of local companies and brands, contributing to the decline of
local businesses. It is evident that local stores are unable to compete with international and American
brands that are newly introduced in Hong Kong, as they lack a sense of fashion and trend.
American stores have therefore overtaken the industry, attracting a relatively higher amount of
customers, and thus causing local companies to crumple within their businesses and eventually shut
down.

Slide 36: Now were going to talk about the impact of Americanization on Hong Kong entertainment.

Slide 37: First Im going to talk about the popularity of American films in Hong Kong.

Slide 38-39: Here is a list of the top 20 highest grossing movies in Hong Kong, as of year 2015. You
can see that American movies completely dominate the top 10 list - if you go to the top 11-20, then
you can see that there are only 2 movies that are made in Hong Kong. That means only 10% of the
most popular movies in Hong Kong are actually made in Hong Kong. Additionally, the 2 movies made
in Hong Kong were made over 10 years ago, and this implies that the Hong Kong film industry hasnt
been thriving for about 10 years now.

Slide 40: This is a graph made by the SFCC, showing that at the peak of the Hong Kong movie
industry, there were around 200 movies produced annually. As big-budget American movies were
introduced in the 1990s, you can see the graph slowly decline as the market share of American films
in Hong Kong increased from 20% to 46%. Experts in the field sometimes blame this decline on the
failure of the Hong Kong film industry itself - because the government has never allowed large
expenses to be spent in the entertainment industry - but they often put the blame on the introduction
of American movies to the society. Now that there are American movies to focus on, the government
is spending even less time and resources on helping the movie industry be successful.

Slide 41: The Hong Kong movie industry has been failing so much that an insider from China Daily
says that there were not even enough new films to compete in the Hong Kong Film Awards in 2011.

Slide 42: Now Im gonna talk about whether or not Hong Kong citizens prefer local movies or
American movies.

Slide 43: This graph done by the HKEAA shows how the box offices have slowly and steadily been
dominated by foreign films. It doesnt say specifically that American films are the cause of that, but it
can be deduced that they are because of the fact that Hollywood is the most thriving movie industry in
the whole world.

Slide 44: Ho Chi-Ping, a researcher at the HKEAA, suggests that Hong Kong can help infuse
Western ideas to a Chinese movie, adding color and international appeal. This already poses a
problem, because while the Hong Kong film industry was thriving just years before, this expert is
suggesting that in order for it to be a success right now, Hong Kong had to replicate what we see in

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American movies. This was met with lots of dissatisfaction from local citizens, as they claimed that
their local culture was completely gone, and replaced by that from Hollywood.
In fact, Hollywood is actually so successful that the SFCC reports that talents are being distracted by
the continuously declining situation and many of them have gone to Hollywood for better prospects.
So even if Hong Kong had a fighting chance at rescuing its failing film industry, it wouldnt matter
because many local actors have gone to America to continue their careers. As you can see with both
these quotes, the movie culture in Hong Kong is just gradually disappearing.

Slide 45: We conducted our own survey where we compared famous movies from Hollywood to those
from Hong Kong, and found that in fact, people of the Hong Kong society do prefer and are more
familiar with American movies.

Slide 46: Now Im going to talk about whether or not Hong Kong citizens are more familiar with
American or local movie stars.

Slide 47: In our survey, we compared famous actors and actresses from Hollywood to those from
Hong Kong, and found that in fact, people of the Hong Kong society do prefer and are more familiar
with American actors and actresses.

Slide 48:
- Caused the Hong Kong film industry to decline drastically
- Local movies are unable to compete with the millions of American movies that are flooding
box offices
- Made Hong Kongers unaware of the Hong Kong entertainment industry and culture (as they
largely favor the American entertainment industry)
- Forced many local actors to seek better opportunities in America
- Made the HK government pay even less attention to the HK film industry

Slide 48: Now we are going to evaluate the impact of Americanization on the 3 aspects that we
investigated on.

Slide 4.9: (Evaluation)

Slide 50:
Aspect Evaluation Justification

Cuisine To a medium - Enhanced Hong Kongers taste in trying American food


extent - offer more food choices
- Hong Kong citizens prefer American cuisine more than
traditional chinese cuisine
- disappearance of Hong Kong culture within the society,
which includes the loss of traditional chinese cuisines

Consumerism To a medium - Affected the Hong Kong local fashion brands total sales,
extent CSS, gross profit, gross margin, CSGP and so on
- Allowed Hong Kong people to have a wider variety of
choosing their clothes
- Hong Kong citizens prefer the style of American brands
over the local brands
- Disappearance of local brands because of the expansion
and popularization of the American brands

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Entertainment To a low extent - Worsened the state of the Hong Kong film industry
- Made the HK government pay even less attention to the
HK film industry
- Made the number of Hong Kong-made movies decline
drastically
- Forced many local actors to seek better opportunities in
America

Slide 51: Along the streets, it is a normal phenomenon where you see loads of American food
restaurants, with steaks, hamburgers and numerous Starbucks stores, with people walking around
with packed fast food, young teens and adults in ripped jeans, hoodies and other American style
clothing, and blazing cinemas showcasing their latest Hollywood films. Such a scene is evident in
many other cities around the globe, Hong Kong, in particular, is also one of them. This shows the
impact of Americanisation, influential, popular and persuasive.
With the increase of American cuisine restaurants, clothing brands, and American movies showcasing
in local cinemas, this phenomenon conveys how people view America in the form of a role model and
a leader in influencing other countries and have their culture blended in. But despite its increase in
Hong Kong, also mentioned in our research and investigation above, Americanization indeed results
in a rejection of indigenous cultural values, such as native cuisines, decrease and closure of local
clothing stores, and chinese films becoming less popular in comparison to American films in local
cinemas.

Slide 52: It is argued that the American culture domination poses a threat to culture diversity. Ranging
from Hollywood, popular music, fashion brands, and fast food, the world in which we live in would be
imbued with less local colour. Unique festivals and rites celebrated by people of different culture round
the world which filled the world with vibrancy are on the verge of extinction.
Many locals and tourists have also complained that it is becoming harder for one to appreciate Hong
Kong culture whilst visiting the city. Traditional chinese Dai Pai Dongs have been radically decreasing
over the past few years, with overwhelming American bars and restaurants newly introduced into the
city and the questionable disappearance regarding Hong Kongs culinary identity. Also, in terms of the
consumerism sector, the increase of American brands have also lead to the decrease of local clothing
stores, the majority of citizens wardrobes packed with American style and brand clothing. Chinese
films were also evidently not as popular as compared to American films that make massive amounts
of money with fully sold out ticket boxes.

Slide 53: Therefore, it is important that countries all around the world have to make a conscious effort
to preserve and promote their culture. This would ensure that cultural roots would remain to bond
people belonging to different cultures and ethnic groups. It would also serve to ensure that our world
would continue to be colourful and vibrant

Slide 54: Overall, we believe that Americanisation has positively impacted Hong Kong to a medium to
low extent.

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WorkAllocation
NoelAuYeung:
Over the course of this project, I was in charge of researching the impact of Americanization
on Hong Kongs cuisine along with Jessica. I also took on the role of a group leader within this project
to oversee our groups progress in achieving our goals and to ensure every group-mate completes
their tasks on time. Investigating on how Americanisation has made an impact towards Hong Kong
has been an intriguing topic for me. I chose to research mainly on cuisine as I have noticed significant
changes in the style and origin of restaurants within the city over the past few years. I am a big fan of
Dai Pai Dongs, which are traditional chinese food stores located on the streets of Hong Kong. But due
to the radical increase of American Cuisine stores, this has affected many local traditional restaurants
and caused the loss of indigenous culture and cultural values of Hong Kong. Thus, this has caught my
attention towards raising the awareness of this phenomenon in the society. By choosing cuisine as
what Ill be predominantly researching about, and the impact of Americanisation towards Hong Kong
in general, I wish to explore deeper about this issue, and enhance my knowledge and understanding
towards how Americanisation affects us locally and globally.

Apart from researching about cuisine, I also aided my groupmates in their areas of research
and analysed information to form strong supported arguments. Overall, all of us contributed with
sufficient amount of work done from each individual. Everyone put time and effort into improving the
quality and aesthetics of our final product, and also took initiative in completing each of our respective
assignments accordingly.

SoniaLau:
I was primarily in charge of researching the impact of Americanization on Hong Kongs
consumerism industry. I am interested in consumerism especially on the fashion aspect of it, as I am
also one of the young consumers who shows a strong resonance towards the American brands and
has an appetite for American apparel brands. When I was 8 years old, most of my clothes were from
local brands, such as Bossini, Baleno, Giordano and so on. Since more and more of the local brands
were closed down and American brands are starting to become a new trend in Hong Kong where all
my friends are purchasing their apparel from famous and mainstream American brands, so now my
clothes are mostly from American brands (American Eagle, Abercrombie and Fitch, H&M), as it
meant that I am not outdated and can be fitted to the society along with my friends. This was the
reason why I was extremely inquisitive and drawn towards this aspect in our project immediately. After
researching and investigating on this aspect, Ive finally found out that the reason why a number of
local brands were closed down and it was because of the introduction of the many American brands
to Hong Kong through the view recent years. I was a bit startled by the fact that not many people
disagree with the ongoing trend of Americanisation, as I believe that numerous of the adults, mostly
middle aged feel that American brands are unsuitable to the youngsters in Hong Kong.

I was also in charge of ensuring the aesthetics of the presentation and also finding most of
the graphics on the presentation (excluding the graphs). My job was to make the presentation good
looking and engaging for the audiences to be drawn to it. In order to do that I had to find different
photos that matches the information we wrote in a slide and find the best place to put it or use the
picture as a background with the opacity changed slightly. Moreover, I had to ensure that our
powerpoint looks professional to allow our audiences to feel the validity of our research and believe in
what we present.

43
KristiWong:
I was primarily in charge of researching the impact of Americanization on Hong Kongs
entertainment industry. I chose this aspect because I am incredibly enthusiastic about American
movies and American entertainment in general; and I am rather uninformed about Hong Kongs
entertainment industry. From this investigation, I was able to learn that Im not the only one in this
situation - many young people living in Hong Kong much prefer American goods and services over
that of Hong Kongs - which proves that Americanization is a true issue in Hong Kong that leads to the
loss of its original culture. While completing my research, I made sure to use a variety of reliable
sources for my investigation - including analytical reports, newspaper articles, books and so on.

I was also in charge of overlooking the final presentation, script, and report in order to make
sure things are logical, in order, and to make sure that there were no amateur mistakes in grammar
and use of vocabulary. This ensures that it is easy for our audience and readers to understand the
points and arguments that we are making, and it also makes it professional enough for the audience
to believe in the genuinity and validity of both our findings and our research. While doing this final
check of our work, I also referred back to the rubrics constantly to make sure that we were doing what
was asked of us, to make sure that we were constantly on topic, and to make sure that we werent
including things that were irrelevant to our question. By doing this, I was ensuring that we could do
well in the assessment and achieve the highest grade possible.

JessicaYam:
I was in charge of researching the impact of Americanization on Hong Kongs cuisine industry
along with Noel. This is because cuisine is such a huge and broad topic compared to the other 2
aspects, which is why we allocated two people for it. I chose this topic because it is something I am
interested in and am familiar with. I wish to connect with something so essential, like food through
conducting an investigation on it. Furthermore, I am personally a huge fan of Chinese cuisine, but
due to Americanisation, it is rumored that most of the traditional dishes are Americanized in order to
suit the palette of foreigners or attract more tourists. This has struck my interest and curiosity to see if
this is actually the case and discover the disadvantages as well as advantages of Americanized
Chinese food.

Besides from conducting research on my chosen aspect, I was also in charge of going
through all the data and sources we found to ensure it is relevant to our research question. Such step
is extremely crucial when conducting an investigation, as irrelevant sources might cause us to digress
from our main subject and thus, not be able to answer our research question successfully . Moreover,
I also ensured if we have sufficient sources and examples throughout our presentation to support our
argument. In addition, I checked if my group members maintain a consistent amount of progress on
research, such that it leaves us with a decent amount of time to double check everything.

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EvaluationandReflection
ResearchQuestion:
Did you write a good question?
Yes, because our question is unbiased and it allows us to conduct investigations on both
sides of Americanization. Furthermore, our question is specific, which provides us a clear
idea on what kind of sources we have to collect. Finally, our question is good because it
allows us to determine the extent to which

Did it provide you with enough areas to research and to find good content?
Yes, the question can be split into a number of different aspects; however, we chose to
focus on three different but interrelated aspects: cuisine, consumerism, and entertainment.
Within those three aspects, we were really able to dive in deep and find different things that
were beneficial to our investigation.

Did it provide you with the ability to demonstrate your critical thinking?
Yes, because we have to conduct investigations on both the advantages and disadvantages
of Americanization (think for both sides), in order to come to the conclusion of our research
question To what extent has Americanisation positively impacted Hong Kong?. It also
required us to look at different peoples perspectives towards

What could have been a better research question?


To what extent has westernization positively impacted Hong Kong? would have been a
better research question, as we found that there were plenty more reliable sources at our
disposal on westernization in Hong Kong rather than Americanization in Hong Kong. We
couldnt use those sources for this investigation as they didnt specify whether they were
talking about the USA, but they would definitely be useful if we had a different research
question. Also, since westernization is a bit more broader of a topic, we could look into more
than just three aspects.

Sources:
Did you spend enough time finding sources?
Yes, but it would be better if we could spent more time on finding sources, such that we can
find more examples and statistics to back up our ideas.

Did you find an appropriate number of sources?


More than 15 sources has been found and recorded into our source booklet, with an equal
number of primary and secondary sources.

How appropriate, reliable, valid were the sources that you used?
We used both primary and secondary sources, such that we can collect the publics
responses, as well as numerical data to support our statement. To ensure the validity of our
sources, we did not use any information from website

45
Did you try to find sources that had different ideas or perspectives to other sources (and
different to your outlook)?
Yes, we tried to find sources that had different ideas or perspective to other sources. We did
this most often by looking at various forums online, where

How were sources divided up within the group?


We didnt divide sources up within our group, but we split up different aspects that
Americanization has affected among the four of us, and we each completed the research
tasks that each aspect required us to do, making sure that we used a variety of sources.

Did you use sources from a variety of media? Was you source evaluation successful?
Yes, our sources come from various media such as books, online articles, reports, forums,
etc. We successfully evaluated these sources by following the OPVL format (Origin,
purpose, value, limitations).

Presentation:
Did your presentation answer the question you set well?
Yes, our presentation answered the question we set well. We answered the research
question by focusing on three aspects: cuisine, consumerism and entertainment. Weve
each chose the aspect that we would like to investigate on and did further research to
answer the research question in depth.

Was the presentation appropriate for the audience?


The presentation is appropriate for the audience, as our presentation is under 20 minutes
and is in depth. Our powerpoint supporting our presentation contains a lot of graphics,
therefore it would allow the audience to be engaged fully into our 17 minutes presentation.

Was your presentation interesting and engaging?


In order to create an engaging, creative and eye-catching presentation, we have included
various diagrams, photos, as well as images into our slides. We tried to remove as many
words from our slides as possible, because we would like our audience to focus on us not
the slides. Furthermore, we tried to include body gestures to make us seem

Did everyone in the group take an equal share of the work for the presentation?
Yes, everyone in the group took an equal share of the work for the presentation taking an
example of splitting our research aspects into three aspects and allowing the pair who were
doing it together would be in charge of doing an introduction and conclusion to make it fair
for everybody in the group.

Did you present all of the suggested components?


Yes, weve followed the rubric along researching and finishing our presentation.

Was your presentation balanced with each aspect given an appropriate amount of time?
Yes, our presentation was balanced with each aspect presented in around 4 to 5 minutes.

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Reflection:
What new information did you learn as a result of doing this project? (this could be about the
subject matter or the processes needed to complete the assessment)
This project has enhanced our knowledge on the implications of Americanization towards
Hong Kong. Although we mainly focused on three aspects to investigate on, including
cuisine, consumerism and entertainment, but during the process of researching, we still had
the opportunity to navigate through different sources, such as online articles, reports, books,
forums...etc, thus enriched our understanding from within. We also learnt to consider several
perspectives regarding how positive has Americanisation impacted us. During the process,
we also looked through different graphs and figures which allowed us to understand the
trends and influences happening in our lives on a daily basis. Overall, this project has
strengthened our comprehension of Americanisation on the whole.

How would you do this project differently to make it better?


In order to improve our performance from this project, we can be more specific in terms of
research and answering our research question. Sometimes our information might not be
spot on, as we might explore a bit more outside the box. Also, we can also conduct more
analysis towards the implications of Americanisation, which displays our critical thinking
within the process. We can also generate stronger arguments with backup statistics and
reports from well established organisations regarding to what extent has Americanisation
positively impacted Hong Kong.

What was the best part of the work you did?


We think that the best part of the work we did was creating a powerpoint filled with charts,
pictures and it can engage the audience to our 17 minutes video. Moreover, we also think
that our research was done thoroughly and extensively with a lot of articles with peoples
opinions, surveys, etc..

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