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CHAPTER 11

PROBLEM 11.1

Determine the modulus of resilience for each of the following grades of structural steel:

(a) ASTM A709 Grade 50: Y 50 ksi


(b) ASTM A913 Grade 65: Y 65 ksi
(c) ASTM A709 Grade 100: Y 100 ksi

SOLUTION

Structural steel: E 29 106 psi for all three steels given.

(a) Y 50 ksi 50 103 psi

Y2 (50 103 )2
uY uY 43.1 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(29 106 )

(b) Y 65 ksi 65 103 psi

Y2 (65 106 ) 2
uY uY 72.8 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(29 106 )

(c) Y 100 ksi 100 103 psi

Y2 (100 103 ) 2
uY uY 172.4 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(29 106 )

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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1791
PROBLEM 11.2

Determine the modulus of resilience for each of the following aluminum alloys:

(a) 1100-H14: E 70 GPa Y 55 MPa


(b) 2014-T6: E 72 GPa Y 220 MPa
(c) 6061-T6: E 69 GPa Y 150 MPa

SOLUTION

Aluminum alloys:

(a) E 70 109 Pa Y 55 106 Pa

Y2 (55 106 ) 2
uY 9
21.6 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(70 10 )

uY 21.6 kJ/m3

(b) E 72 109 Pa Y 220 106 Pa

Y2 (220 106 ) 2
uY 9
336 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(72 10 )

uY 336 kJ/m3

(c) E 69 109 Pa Y 150 106 Pa

Y2 (150 106 )2
uY 163.0 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(69 109 )

uY 163.0 kJ/m3

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1792
PROBLEM 11.3

Determine the modulus of resilience for each of the following metals:

(a) Stainless steel


AISI 302 (annealed): E 190 GPa Y 260 MPa
(b) Stainless steel
AISI 302 (cold-rolled): E 190 GPa Y 520 MPa
(c) Malleable cast iron: E 165 GPa Y 230 MPa

SOLUTION

(a) E 190 109 Pa, Y 260 106 Pa

Y2 (260 106 ) 2
uY 177.9 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(190 109 )

uY 177.9 kJ/m3

(b) E 190 109 Pa, Y 520 106 Pa

Y2 (520 106 ) 2
uY 9
712 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(190 10 )

uY 712 kJ/m3

(c) E 165 109 Pa, Y 230 106 Pa

Y2 (230 106 ) 2
uY 9
160.3 103 N m/m3
2E (2)(165 10 )

uY 160.3 kJ/m3

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1793
PROBLEM 11.4

Determine the modulus of resilience for each of the following alloys:

(a ) Titanium: E 16.5 106 psi Y 120 ksi


(b) Magnesium: E 6.5 106 psi Y 29 ksi
(c) Cupronickel (annealed): 6
E 20 10 psi Y 16 ksi

SOLUTION

(a) E 16.5 106 psi, Y 120 103 psi

Y2 (120 103 ) 2
uY uY 436 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(16.5 106 )

(b) E 6.5 106 psi, Y 29 103 psi

Y2 (29 103 )2
uY uY 64.7 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(6.5 106 )

(c) E 20 106 psi, Y 16 103 psi

Y2 (16 103 ) 2
uY uY 6.40 in. lb/in 3
2E (2)(20 106 )

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1794
(ksi) PROBLEM 11.5
100
The stress-strain diagram shown has been drawn from data obtained
80
during a tensile test of a specimen of structural steel. Using
60 E 29 106 psi, determine (a) the modulus of resilience of the steel,
40 (b) the modulus of toughness of the steel.
20

0
0.021 0.2 0.25
0.002

SOLUTION

(a) Y E Y

Y2 1 2 1
uY E Y (29 106 )(0.002)2
2E 2 2

uY 58.0 in. lb/in 3


(b) Modulus of toughness total area under the stress-strain curve

A 1 (57)(0.25 0.002) 14.14 kips/in 2


14.14 in. kip/in 3

A2 (28)(0.25 0.021) 3.21 kips/in 2
2
3.21 in. kip/in 3
2
A3 (20)(0.25 0.075) 2.33 kips/in 2
3
2.33 in. kip/in 3
modulus of toughness uY A1 A2 A3

modulus of toughness 20.0 in. kip/in 3

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1795
(MPa) PROBLEM 11.6
600
The stress-strain diagram shown has been drawn from data obtained
during a tensile test of an aluminum alloy. Using E 72 GPa,
450 determine (a) the modulus of resilience of the alloy, (b) the modulus
of toughness of the alloy.
300

150


0.14 0.18
0.006

SOLUTION

(a) Y E Y

Y2 1 2 1
uY E Y (72 109 )(0.006) 2
2E 2 2
1296 103 N m/m3 uY 1296 kJ/m3
(b) Modulus of toughness total area under the stress-strain curve
The average ordinate of the stress-strain curve is

500 MPa 500 106 N/m 2.


The area under the curve is A (500 106 )(0.18) 90.0 106 N/m 2.
modulus of toughness 90.0 106 J/m3 90.0 MJ/m3

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1796
P (kN) PROBLEM 11.7
P
400 The load-deformation diagram shown has been drawn
from data obtained during a tensile test of a specimen of
400 mm
300 an aluminum alloy. Knowing that the cross-sectional area
d
of the specimen was 600 mm2 and that the deformation
200 was measured using a 400-mm gage length, determine by
approximate means (a) the modulus of resilience of the
100 P' alloy, (b) the modulus of toughness of the alloy.

d (mm)
50
2.8

SOLUTION
P P

A 600 106 m 2


L 400 mm
Draw curve:
(a) Modules of resilience:
(shaded area)
1
uY (500 MPa)(0.007)
2
uY 1.750 MJ/m3
(b) Modules of toughness: (total area under curve)
1
1.750 MJ/m3 (500 MPa)(0.125 0.007) (6.33 500)(0.125 0.007)
2
1.750 MJ/m3 59 MJ/m3 10.46 MJ/m3 71.2 MJ/m3

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1797
P (kips)
P
PROBLEM 11.8
20
The load-deformation diagram shown has been
15
drawn from data obtained during a tensile test of a
5
18 in. 8
-in.-diameter rod of structural steel. Knowing
10
that the deformation was measured using an 18-in.
d gage length, determine by approximate means
5
(a) the modulus of resilience of the steel, (b) the
P' modulus of toughness of the steel.
d (in.)
0.36 3.2 4
0.025

SOLUTION
5
-in.-diameter rod:
3
2
5 2
A 0.3068 in
4 8
P 12.5 kips
40 ksi
A 0.3068 in 2
0.025 in.
1.389 103
L 18 in.
Y 40 ksi
Draw - curve:
(a) Mod. of resilience:
(shaded area)
1 1
uY Y Y (40 103 psi)(1.389 103 )
2 2
uY 28.0 in. lb/in 3
(b) Mod. of toughness: (total area under - curve)
1
28 in. lb/in 2 (40 ksi)(0.02 0.0014) (40 65)(0.1778 0.02) (62.5)(0.222 0.1778)
2
28 744 9860 2760 13,390 in. lb/in 2
Modulus of toughness 13.40 in. kips/in 3

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1798
PROBLEM 11.9
C
Using E 29 106 psi, determine (a) the strain energy of the steel rod ABC when
P 8 kips, (b) the corresponding strain energy density in portions AB and BC of the
3 ft 3
rod.
4
in.

2 ft 5
8
in.

SOLUTION

P 8 kips, E 29 103 ksi

P 2
A d 2 , V AL, , u
4 A 2E
U uV

Portion d(in.) L(in.) A(in2) V(in3) (ksi) u (in. kip/in 3 ) U (in. kip)
3
AB 0.625 24 0.3608 7.363 26.08 11.72 10 86.32 103
BC 0.75 36 0.4418 15.904 18.11 5.65 103 89.92 103
176.24 103

(a) U 176.2 103 in. kip U 176.2 in. lb


(b) In AB : u 11.72 103 in. kip/in 3 u AB 11.72 in. lb/in 3
In BC : u 5.65 103 in. kip/in 3 u BC 5.65 in. lb/in 3

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1799
PROBLEM 11.10
20-mm diameter

B 16-mm diameter Using E 200 GPa, determine (a) the strain energy of the steel
A
C
rod ABC when P 25 kN, (b) the corresponding strain-energy
density in portions AB and BC of the rod.
P
1.2 m
0.8 m
2m

SOLUTION

AAB (20) 2 314.16 mm 2
4
314.16 106 m 2

ABC (16) 2 201.06 mm 2
4
201.06 106 m 2
P 25 103 N
P 2L
U
2 EA
(25 103 ) 2 (1.2) (25 103 )2 (0.8)

(2)(200 109 )(314.16 106 ) (2)(200 109 )(201.06 106 )
(a) U 5.968 6.213 12.18 N m U 12.18 J

P 25 103
(b) AB 79.58 106 Pa
AAB 314.16 106

AB
2
(79.58 106 ) 2
u AB 9
15.83 103 u AB 15.83 kJ/m3
2E (2)(200 10 )

P 25 103
BC 124.28 106 Pa
AAB 201.16 106

BC
2
(124.28 106 ) 2
uBC 38.6 103 uBC 38.6 kJ/m3
2E (2)(200 109 )

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1800
PROBLEM 11.11
A

E F A 30-in. length of aluminum pipe of cross-sectional area


B P 1.85 in 2 is welded to a fixed support A and to a rigid cap B. The
steel rod EF, of 0.75-in. diameter, is welded to cap B. Knowing
D C
that the modulus of elasticity is 29 106 psi for the steel and
30 in.
10.6 106 psi for the aluminum, determine (a) the total strain
48 in. energy of the system when P 8 kips, (b) the corresponding
strain-energy density of the pipe CD and in the rod EF.

SOLUTION

Member EF carries a force P 8000 lb in tension while member CD carries 8000 lb in compression.

Area of member EF: A d2 (0.75)2 0.4418 in 2
4 4
(a) Strain energy.
P2 L (8000)2 (30)
CD : U CD 48.95 in. lb
2 EA (2)(10.6 106 )(1.85)
P2 L (8000) 2 (48)
EF : U EF 119.89 in. lb
2 EA (2)(29 106 )(0.4418)
Total: U U CD U EF 168.8 in. lb U 168.8 in. lb.
(b) Strain energy density.
8000 2 (4324) 2
CD : 4324 psi, u
1.85 2E (2)(10.6 106 )

u 0.882 in. lb/in 3


8000 2 (18,108) 2
EF : 18,108 psi, u
0.4418 2E (2)(29 106 )
u 5.65 in. lb/in 3

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1801
0.5 m PROBLEM 11.12
B
A
C 20 mm A single 6-mm-diameter steel pin B is used to connect the steel strip
D
E DE to two aluminum strips, each of 20-mm width and 5-mm
P thickness. The modulus of elasticity is 200 GPa for the steel and
1.25 m 5 mm 70 GPa for the aluminum. Knowing that for the pin at B the
allowable shearing stress is all 85 MPa, determine, for the loading
shown, the maximum strain energy that can be acquired by the
assembled strips.

SOLUTION

Apin d2 (6)2 28.274 mm 2
4 4
28.274 106 m 2
all 85 106 Pa
Double shear: P 2 A (2)(28.274 106 )(85 106 )
4.8066 103 N
For strips AB, DB, BE, A (20)(5) 100 mm 2 100 106 m 2
1
FAB FDB P 2.4033 103 N
2
2
FAB LAB (2.4033 103 )(0.5)
U AB U DB 0.2063 J
2 Ea AAB (2)(70 109 )(100 106 )
2
FBE LBE (4.8066 103 )2 (1.25 0.5)
U BE 0.4332 J
2 Es ABE (2)(200 109 )(100 106 )
Total: U U AB U DB U BE 0.846 J U 0.846 J

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1802
PROBLEM 11.13
10-mm diameter

6-mm diameter
Rods AB and BC are made of a steel for which the yield strength
B
A is Y 300 MPa and the modulus of elasticity is E 200 GPa.
a C Determine the maximum strain energy that can be acquired by the
P assembly without causing any permanent deformation when the
6m length a of rod AB is (a) 2 m, (b) 4 m.

SOLUTION

AAB (10) 2 78.54 mm 2 78.54 106 m 2
4

ABC (6)2 28.274 mm 2 28.274 10 6 m 2
4
P Y Amin (300 106 )(28.274 106 )
8.4822 103 N
P2L
U
2EA
(a) a 2m L a 6 2 4m
(8.4822 103 ) 2 (2) (8.4822 103 )2 (4)
U
(2)(200 109 )(78.54 106 ) (2)(200 109 )(28.274 106 )
4.5803 25.4466 30.0 N m 30.0 J
(b) a 4m L a 6 4 2m
(8.4822 103 ) 2 (4) (8.4822 103 )2 (2)
U
(2)(200 10 )(78.54 10 ) (2)(200 109 )(28.274 106 )
9 6

9.1606 12.7233 21.9 N m 21.9 J

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1803
PROBLEM 11.14

Rod BC is made of a steel for which the yield strength is Y 300 MPa
C B and the modulus of elasticity is E 200 GPa. Knowing that a strain
energy of 10 J must be acquired by the rod when the axial load P is
P
applied, determine the diameter of the rod for which the factor of safety
1.8 m
with respect to permanent deformation is six.

SOLUTION

For factor of safety of six on the energy,


U Y (6)(10) 60 J
Y2 (300 106 ) 2
uY
2E (2)(200 109 )
225 103 J/m3

UY ALuY

UY 60
A
LuY (1.8)(225 103 )
148.148 106 m 2


A d2
4

4A (4)(148.148 106 )
d

3
13.73 10 m
d 13.73 mm

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1804
PROBLEM 11.15
18-mm diameter C
The assembly ABC is made of a steel for which E 200 GPa
and Y 320 MPa. Knowing that a strain energy of 5 J must be
12-mm diameter
B acquired by the assembly as the axial load P is applied, determine
the factor of safety with respect to permanent deformation when
(a) x 300 mm, (b) x 600 mm.
A
x
900 mm
P

SOLUTION

Y 320 MPa 320 106 Pa, E 200 GPa 200 109 Pa



AAB 2
d AB (12) 2 113.097 mm 2 113.097 106 m 2
4 4

ABC 2
d BC (18) 2 254.47 mm 2 254.47 106 m 2
4 4
Amin AAB
Force at yielding or allowable axial force.

P PY Y Amin (320 106 )(113.097 106 ) 36.191 103 N

(a) x 300 mm: LAB 0.300 m, LBC 0.600 m


2
P LAB P LBC P 2 LAB
2
L
UY U AB U BC BC
2 EAAB 2 EABC 2E AAB ABC
(36.191 103 ) 2 0.300 0.600
9 6
6
(2)(200 10 ) 113.097 10 254.97 10
(3.2745 103 )(2652.6 2353.2) 16.392 J
Applied energy: U 5J
UY 16.392
Factor of safety: F .S. 3.28
U 5
(b) x 600 mm: LAB 0.600 m, LBC 0.300 m
36.191 103 0.600 0.300
UY 9 6
6
(2)(200 10 ) 113.097 10 254.97 10
(3.2745 103 )(5305.2 1176.6) 21.225 J

UY 21.225
Factor of safety: F .S. 4.25
U 5

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1805
PROBLEM 11.16
A
Show by integration that the strain energy of the tapered rod AB is
2c

1 P2 L
U
c 4 EAmin
B P
L
where Amin is the cross-sectional area at end B.

SOLUTION

cx
Radius: r Amin c 2
L

c2
A r2 x2
L2
2 L P 2dx P2 2L L2 dx
U
L 2 EA

2E L c2 x2
2 2 2L
P L 1
x
2 E c 2 L

P 2 L2 1 1 P2 L
2L L U
2 EAmin 4 EAmin

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1806
2.55 in.
2.85 in. PROBLEM 11.17
2.10 in.
1.5 in.
Using E 10.6 106 psi, determine by approximate means the
P
maximum strain energy that can be acquired by the aluminum rod
3 in. shown if the allowable normal stress is all 22 ksi.
A

4 @ 1.5 in.  6 in.

SOLUTION


Amin (1.5)2 1.7671 in 2
4
all 22,000 psi
Pall all Amin 38,877 lb

P 2dx P 2 dx 2 P 2 dx
U
2 EA 2 E d 2

E d2
4
Use Simpsons rule to compute the integral. h 1.5 in.

Section d(in.) 1/d 2 (in 2 ) multiplier m (1/d 2 ) (in 2 )


1 1.50 0.4444 1 0.4444
2 2.10 0.22675 4 0.9070
3 2.55 0.15379 2 0.3076
4 2.85 0.12311 4 0.4924
5 3.00 0.11111 1 0.1111
2.2625
B 1
dx h 1.5
A d 2
=
3
m 2 =
d 3
(2.2625) = 1.13125 in-1

(2)(38877) 2 (1.13125)
U U 102.7 in. lb
(10.6 106 )

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1807
B PROBLEM 11.18
P
1
A
2 l In the truss shown, all members are made of the same material and have the
C uniform cross-sectional area indicated. Determine the strain energy of the truss
1
2 l D
when the load P is applied.
A

SOLUTION

2
2 1 5
LBC LCD l l l
2 2
Joint C. (equilibrium)
2 2
Fx 0: FBC FCD 0
5 5
FCD FBC

1 1
Fy 0 : FBC FCD P 0
5 5
5 5
FBC P FCD P
2 2
Strain energy.
F 2L 1 2
U 2
FBC LBC FCD LCD
2 EA 2 EA
2 2
1 5 5 5 5
P l
P l
2 EA 2 2 2 2

P 2l
U 1.398
EA

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1808
l PROBLEM 11.19
P

A In the truss shown, all members are made of the same material and have the uniform
B C cross-sectional area indicated. Determine the strain energy of the truss when the
load P is applied.

308

SOLUTION

3 2
Fy 0: FCD P 0 FCD P
2 3
1 1
Fx 0: FBC FCD 0 FBC P
2 3
F 2L 1 F 2L
U
2 EA 2 E A

Member F L A F2L/A
1 1 2
BC P l A P l /A
3 3
2 8 2
CD P 2l A P l /A
3 3
3P 2l /A

1 P 2l P 2l
U 3 U 1.5
2 E A EA

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1809
l PROBLEM 11.20
P

A In the truss shown, all members are made of the same material and have the uniform
B C cross-sectional area indicated. Determine the strain energy of the truss when the
load P is applied.

A A

30

SOLUTION

Equilibrium of joint C.
3 2
Fy 0: FCD P 0 FCD P
2 3
1 1
Fx 0: FBC FCD 0 FBC P
2 3
Equilibrium of joint D.
3
Fy 0: FBD FCD 0 FBD P
2

1 F 2L 1 F 2L
Strain energy. U
2 EA 2E A

Member F L A F2L/A
BC 1
P l A 1 2
P l/A
3 3

CD 2
P 2l A 8 2
P l/A
3 3

BD P 3l A 3P 2l/A

4.732P2l/A

1 P 2l P 2l
U 4.732 U 2.37
2E A EA

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1810
P PROBLEM 11.21
C In the truss shown, all members are made of the same material and have the uniform
2A 2A cross-sectional area indicated. Determine the strain energy of the truss when the load
3
4 l P is applied.
A D
B

SOLUTION
3 3
Fx 0: FCD FCB 0
5 5
FCB FCD
4
Fy 0: P 2 FCD 0
5
5
FCB FCD P
8
3
Fx 0: FBD FCD 0
5
3
FBD FCD 0
5
3 5 3
FBD P P
5 8 8
F 2L 1 F 2L
U
2 EA 2E A
1 179 2
Pl

2 E 384 A
179 P 2l P 2l
U 0.233
768 EA EA
Member F L A F 2 L /A
5 5 125 2
CB P l 2A P l /A
8 6 768
5 5 125 2
CD P l 2A P l /A
8 6 768
3 9 2
BD P l A P l /A
8 64
179 2
P l /A
384

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1811
80 kN PROBLEM 11.22

2500 mm2
C 30 kN Each member of the truss shown is made of aluminum and has the
cross-sectional area shown. Using E 72 GPa, determine the strain
2000 mm2 energy of the truss for loading shown.
2.4 m

D
B

2.2 m
1m

SOLUTION

Lengths of members:
LBC (3.22 2.42 )1/ 2 4 m
LCD (12 2.42 )1/ 2 2.6 m

E 72 GPa 72 109 Pa
Forces in kN.
Equilibrium of truss.
M B 0: (30)(2.4) (80)(3.2) Dy (2.2) 0
Dy 83.636 kN

Fy 0: Dy By 80 0
83.636 By 80 0 By 3.636 kN

Member forces.
4m 4
FBC By (3.636 kN) 6.061 kN
2.4 m 2.4
2.6 m 2.6
FCD Dy (83.636 kN) 90.606 kN
2.4 m 2.4
Fi Li
Strain energy. U U BC U CD
2 AE
2
FBC LBC F2 L (6.061 103 )2 (4) (90.606 103 )2 (2.6)
U CD CD
2 EABC 2 EACD (2)(72 10 )(2 10 ) (2)(72 109 )(2.5 103 )
9 3

0.510 J 59.290 J U 59.8 J

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1812
B PROBLEM 11.23
3 in2
2.5 ft
2 in2 C 24 kips Each member of the truss shown is made of aluminum and has the
cross-sectional area shown. Using E 10.5 106 psi, determine the
2.5 ft strain energy of the truss for the loading shown.
5 in2 40 kips
D

6 ft

SOLUTION

LBC LCD 62 2.52 6.5 ft 78 in.


Joint C:
6 6
Fx 0: FBC FCD 24 0 (1)
6.5 6.5
2.5 2.5
Fy 0: FBC FCD 40 0 (2)
6.5 6.5
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously,
FBC 65 kips FCD 39 kips

Joint D
2.5
Fy 0: FBD FCD 0 FBD 15 kips
6.5
F 2L 1 F 2L
U
2 EA 2 E A

Member F (103 lb) L(in.) A(in 2 ) F 2 L /A (109 lb 2 /in.)


BC 65 78 3 109.85
BD 15 60 2 6.75
CD 39 78 5 23.73
140.33

140.33 109
U 6682 lb in. 6.68 kip in.
(2)(10.5 106 )

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1813
w PROBLEM 11.24

B Taking into account only the effect of normal stresses, determine the strain
A energy of the prismatic beam AB for the loading shown.
L

SOLUTION

v
M K 0: M (wv) 0
2
1
M wv 2
2
2
L M2 1 L 1 2
U
0 2 EI
dv
2 EI
0
2 wv dv

L
w2 L w2 v 5

4
v dv
8 EI 0 8 EI 5 0

w2 L5 w2 L5
U
40EI 40 EI

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1814
P PROBLEM 11.25
D
A B Taking into account only the effect of normal stresses, determine the strain
energy of the prismatic beam AB for the loading shown.
a L

SOLUTION

M D 0: aP LRB 0
aP aP
RB
L L

Over portion AD:


M Px
a
a M2 1 a 2 2 P 2 x3 P 2a3
U AD 0 dx 0
P x dx
2 EI 2EI 2 EI 3 0
6 EI

Over portion DB:


aP
M v
L
L M2 1 L a2P2 2
U DB 0 dv v dv
2 EI 2 EI 0 L2
L
P 2a 2 L 2 P 2a 2 v3 P 2a 2 L
v dv
2EIL2 0 2 EIL2 3 0
6EI

P 2a 2
Total: U U AD U DB U (a L)
6 EI

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1815
P P PROBLEM 11.26
a a
D E
A B Taking into account only the effect of normal stresses, determine the strain
energy of the prismatic beam AB for the loading shown.

SOLUTION

Symmetric beam and loading: RA RB

Fy 0: RA RB 2 P 0 RA RB P

Over portion AD, M RA x Px


a
a M2 P2 a P 2 x3 P 2 a3
U AD 0 2 EI
dx
2 EI 0
x 2 dx
2 EI 3 0

6 EI

P 2 a 2 ( L 2a )
Over portion DE, M Pa U DE
2 EI
Over portion EB,
By symmetry,
P 2 a3
U EB U AD
6 EI

P2 a2
Total: U U AD U DE U EB U (3L 4a )
6 EI

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1816
M0 PROBLEM 11.27
A B
D Taking into account only the effect of normal stresses, determine the
strain energy of the prismatic beam AB for the loading shown.
a b
L

SOLUTION

M0
M B 0: RA L M 0 0 RA
L
M0
M A 0: RB L M 0 0 RB
L
M0x
A to D: M J 0: M 0
L
M0x
M
L
a M 2 dx M 02 a M 02 a3
U AD 0 2 EI

2 EIL2 0
x 2 dx
6 EIL2
M 0v
D to B: M K 0: M
L
M 0v
M
L
b M 2 dv M 02 b M 02b3
U DB 0 2 EI

2 EIL2 0
v 2 dv
6 EIL2

M 02 (a3 b3 )
Total: U U AD U DB U
6 EIL2

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1817
8 kips PROBLEM 11.28

A
D
B
Using E 29 106 psi, determine the strain energy due to
bending for the steel beam and loading shown. (Neglect the
S8 3 18.4
effect of shearing stresses.)
6 ft 3 ft

SOLUTION

M D 0: RA L aP 0
aP
RA
L

aP
Over portion AD: M x
L
2
L M2 1 L aP
U AD 0 dx x dx
2EI 2 EI 0 L
P 2a 2 L 2
x dx
2EIL2 0
P 2a 2 L

6 EI
Over portion DB: M Pv
a M2 1 a 2 2 P 2a3
U BD 0 dv 0
P x dx
2 EI 2 EI 6EI

P 2a 2
Total: U U AD U DB ( a L)
6 EI
Data: P 8000 lb, L 6 ft 72 in., a 3 ft 36 in., E 29 106 psi
I 57.5 in 4
(8000) 2 (36) 2 (72 36)
U
(6)(29 106 )(57.5)
U 895 in. lb

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1818
2 kips 2 kips 1.5 in.
PROBLEM 11.29

B C Using E 29 106 psi, determine the strain energy due to bending for
A D D the steel beam and loading shown. (Neglect the effect of shearing
3 in.
stresses.)
60 in.
15 in. 15 in.

SOLUTION

Over A to B: M Px
a M 2 dx P 2 a P 2 a3
U AB 0 2 EI

2 EI 0
x 2 dx
6 EI
Over B to C: M Pa constant
M 2b P 2 a 2b
U BC
2 EI 2 EI
P 2 a3
By symmetry, U CD U AB
6 EI

P 2 a 2 (2a 3b)
Total: U U AB U BC U CD
6 EI

Data: P 2 103 lb, a 15 in., b 60 in.


1
I (1.5)(3)3 3.375 in 4
12
(2 103 )2 (15)2[(2)(15) (3)(60)]
U U 322 in. lb
(6)(29 106 )(3.375)

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1819
180 kN PROBLEM 11.30
W360  64
C
A B Using E 200 GPa, determine the strain energy due to bending for the
steel beam and loading shown. (Neglect the effect of shearing stresses.)
2.4 m 2.4 m

4.8 m

SOLUTION

1
Over portion AC, M Px
2
L/2 M2 P2 L/2
U AC 0 2 EI
dx
8 EI 0
x 2 dx
L/2
P 2 x3 P 2 L3

8EI 3 0
192 EI

P 2 L3
By symmetry, U CB U AC
192 EI

P 2 L3
Total: U U AC U CB
96 EI

Data: P 180 103 N, L 4.8 m, E 200 109 Pa


I 178 106 mm 4 178 106 m 4
(180 103 ) 2 (4.8)3
U 1048 N m U 1048J
(96)(200 109 )(178 106 )

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1820
80 kN 80 kN PROBLEM 11.31
W310  74
D E
A B Using E 200 GPa, determine the strain energy due to bending for
the steel beam and loading shown. (Neglect the effect of shearing
1.6 m 1.6 m 1.6 m stresses.)
4.8 m

SOLUTION

Over portion AD, M Px


a M2 1 a
U AD 0 2 EI
dx
2 EI 0
( Px)2 dx
a
P 2 x3 P 2 a3

2 EI 3 0
6 EI

Over portion DE, M Pa

( Pa)2 a P 2a3
U DE
2EI 2 EI

P 2a3
By symmetry, U EB U AD
6EI

5 P 2a3
U U AD U DE U EB
6 EI
Data: P 80 103 N, a 1.6 m, E 200 109 Pa
I 163 106 mm 4 163 106 m 4
5 (80 103 ) 2 (1.6)3
U 670 N m U 670 J
6 (200 109 )(163 106 )

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1821
PROBLEM 11.32

w Assuming that the prismatic beam AB has a rectangular cross section, show
that for the given loading the maximum value of the strain-energy density
in the beam is
B
A
45 U
umax
L 8 V

where U is the strain energy of the beam and V is its volume.

SOLUTION

L 1
M B 0: RA L ( wL) 0 RA wL
2 2
1 2 1
M RA x wL w( Lx x 2 )
2 2
L M w2 L
U 0 2 EI
dx
8 EI 0
( L2 x 2 2 Lx3 x 4 )dx
L
w2 L2 x3 2 Lx 4 x5

8 EI 3 4 5
0

w2 L5 1 1 1
3 2 5
8 EI
w2 L5

240 EI

1 L L 1 2
2
M max w L wL
2 2 2 8
M max c wL2 c
max
I 8I

max
2
w2 L4 c 2
umax
2E 128 EI 2
U

1
8 LI 8 L 12 bd

3

umax 15c 2 15 d2
2

8 8
Lbd V
45 45
45 U
umax
8 V

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1822
A
PROBLEM 11.33
TA 5 300 N m
In the assembly shown, torques TA and TB are exerted on disks A and B,
0.9 m
30 mm respectively. Knowing that both shafts are solid and made of aluminum
B (G 73 GPa), determine the total strain energy acquired by the
TB 5 400 N m
assembly.
0.75 m
46 mm
C

SOLUTION

Over portion AB: TAB TA 300 N m


4
30 9 4
J AB c4 3 4
79.52 10 mm 79.52 10 m
2 2 2
LAB 0.9 m
2
TAB LAB (300) 2 (0.9)
U AB
2GJ AB (2)(73 109 )(79.52 109 )
6.977 J
Over portion BC: TBC TA TB 300 400 700 N m,
LBC 0.75 m
4
46 3 4 9 4
J BC 439.57 10 mm 439.57 10 m
2 2
2
TBC LBC (700)2 (0.75)
U BC 5.726 J
2GJ BC (2)(73 109 )(439.57 109 )
Total: U U AB U BC 6.977 5.726 12.70 J

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1823
PROBLEM 11.34

36 in. The design specifications for the steel shaft AB require that the shaft
B acquire a strain energy of 400 in. lb as the 25-kip in. torque is applied.
Using G 11.2 106 psi, determine (a) the largest inner diameter of the
shaft that can be used, (b) the corresponding maximum shearing stress in
A the shaft.

2.5 in.

25 kip in.

SOLUTION
U 400 in. lb
T 25 kip in. 25 103 lb in.
L 48 in.
T 2L
U
2GJ
T 2L (25 103 ) 2 (48)
J 3.3482 in 4
2GU (2)(11.2 106 )(400)

d 0 d
4 4
4
But J i
2 2 2 32
d 0 di4
32
(a) di4 d 04 J

32
2.54 (3.3482)

4.9580 in 4
di 1.492 in.
Tc0
(b)
J
(25 103 )(1.25)

2.5112
9.33 103 psi
9.33 ksi

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1824
PROBLEM 11.35
A Show by integration that the strain energy in the tapered rod AB is
2c
7 T 2L
U
c T
48 GJ min

B
where J min is the polar moment of inertia of the rod at end B.
L

SOLUTION

cx
r
L
c4
J r4 x 4 , J min c4
2 2 L4 2
2 L T 2 dx 2L T 2 dx
U
L 2GJ
L c4 4
2G 4
x
2 L
T 2 L4 2L dx

2GJ min L x4
2L
T 2 L4 1

2GJ min 3x3 L

T 2 L4 1 1 7 T 2L
U 3
3 U
2GJ min 3(2 L) 3L 48 GJ min

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1825
y PROBLEM 11.36
20 MPa The state of stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a
brass for which Y 160 MPa. Using the maximum-distortion-energy
criterion, determine the range of values of z for which yield does not
75 MPa occur.
z
100 MPa
z
x

SOLUTION

1
ave (100 20)
2
60 MPa
x y 100 20

2 2
40 MPa
xy 75 MPa

2
x y
xy
2
R
2
402 752
85 MPa
a ave R
145 MPa
b ave R
25 MPa
c z
( a b )2 ( b c ) 2 ( c a ) 2 2 Y2
(145 25) 2 (25 z ) 2 ( z 145) 2 (2)(160) 2
28,900 (625 50 z z2 ) ( z2 290 z 21,025) 51,200
2 z2 240 z 650 0

240 2402 (4)(2)(650)


z 60 62.65
(2)(2)
z 122.65 MPa, 2.65 MPa
2.65 MPa < z < 122.65 MPa

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1826
y PROBLEM 11.37
20 MPa The state of stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a
brass for which Y 160 MPa. Using the maximum-distortion-energy
criterion, determine whether yield occurs when (a) z 45 MPa,
75 MPa (b) z 45 MPa.
z
100 MPa
z
x

SOLUTION

1
ave (100 20)
2
60 MPa
x y 100 20

2 2
40 MPa
xy 75 MPa

2
x y
xy
2
R
2
402 752
85 MPa
a ave R 145 MPa
b ave R 25 MPa
c z

?
( a b ) 2 ( b c )2 ( c a )2 2 Y2

(a) c z 45 MPa
?
(145 25) 2 (25 45) 2 (45 145) 2 2(160)2 51,200
28,900 4900 10,000 43,800 51,200 (No yield.)

(b) c z 45 MPa
?
(145 25) 2 (25 45)2 (45 145)2 51,200
28,900 400 36,100 65,400 51,200 (Yield occurs.)

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1827
y PROBLEM 11.38

y The state of stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a


grade of steel for which Y 65 ksi. Using the maximum-distortion-
energy criterion, determine the range of values of y for which the
factor of safety associated with the yield strength is equal to or larger
8 ksi than 2.2.
z x
14 ksi

SOLUTION

1
ave (0 8)
2
4 ksi
x z 8 0

2 2
4 ksi
xz 14 ksi
2
z
xz
2
R x
2
42 142
14.56 ksi
a ave R
18.56 ksi
b ave R
10.56 ksi
c y
2

( a b ) 2 ( b c )2 ( c a )2 2 Y
F .S .
2
65
(18.56 10.56)2 (10.56 y ) 2 ( y 18.56)2 2
2.2
847.97 (111.51 21.12 y y2 ) ( y2 37.12 y 344.47) 1745.87
2 y2 16 y 441.92 0

16 162 (4)(2)(441.92)
y
(2)(2)
4 15.39
y 19.39 ksi, 11.39 ksi
11.39 ksi y 19.39 ksi

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1828
y PROBLEM 11.39

y The state of stress shown occurs in a machine component made of a


grade of steel for which Y 65 ksi. Using the maximum-distortion-
energy criterion, determine the factor of safety associated with the
yield strength when (a) y 16 ksi, (b) y 16 ksi.
8 ksi
z x
14 ksi

SOLUTION

1
ave (0 8)
2
4 ksi
x z 8 0

2 2
4 ksi
xz 14 ksi
2
z
R x xz
2

2
42 142
14.56 ksi
a ave R
18.56
b ave R
10.56
c y
2

( a b ) 2 ( b c )2 ( c a )2 2 Y
F .S .
(a) c y 16 ksi
2
65
(18.56 10.56) 2 (10.56 16)2 (16 18.56) 2 2
F .S .
8450
847.97 705.43 6.55 F .S . 2.33
( F .S .) 2

(b) c y 16 ksi
2
65
(18.56 10.56) 2 (10.56 16) 2 (16 18.56)2 2
F .S .
8450
847.97 29.59 1194.39 F .S . 2.02
( F .S .)2

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1829
b PROBLEM 11.40
M0

Determine the strain energy of the prismatic beam AB, taking


A B d
into account the effect of both normal and shearing stresses.

SOLUTION

M0 M
Reactions: RA , RB 0
L L
M0
Shear: V
L
M0
Bending moment: M v
L
For bending,
L M2 M 02 L
U1 0 2 EI
dv
2 EIL 2 0
v 2 dv
M L3 M 2 L
0 2 0
6 EIL 6 EI
For shear,
3V y2 1
xy 1 2 c d
2 A c 2
2
xy
2
9V 2 y2 9 M 02 y2 y4
u 1 1 2 2 4
2G 8GA2 c 2 8G (bd ) 2 L2
c c
L c 2
9M 0 b L c y2 y4

U 2 u dv 0 c
ub dy dx

8Gb 2 d 2 L2 0 c
1 2 dy dx
c 2 c 4
c
9M 02 L 2 y3 1 y5 9 M 02 L 4 2

8Gb d L 2 2 0
y


3 c 2 5 c 4
dx
8Gb d 2 L2 0
2c 3 c 5 c dx

c

9M 02 16 6 M 02 c 3 M 02
c L
8Gb d 2 L2 15 5 Gb d 2 L 5 Gb dL
M 02 L 3 M 02
Total: U U1 U 2
6 EI 5 Gb dL
1
with I bd3
12
2 M 02 L 3 M 02 2 M 02 L 3Ed 2
U U 3
1
Eb d 3 5 Gb dL Eb d 10GL2

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1830
PROBLEM 11.41*
B
R2 R1 Q A vibration isolation support is made by
A
A bonding a rod A, of radius R1, and a tube
B, of inner radius R2, to a hollow rubber
B cylinder. Denoting by G the modulus of
A L rigidity of the rubber, determine the strain
Q energy of the hollow rubber cylinder for
(a) (b) the loading shown.

SOLUTION

Fx 0: (2 rL) Q 0
Q

2 rL

2 Q2
u
2G 8 2 r 2 L2 G
Q2 dV Q2 L R2 2 r dr

U u dV 2 2
8 GL
r 2 8 2 GL2 0 R1 r2
dx

lnr dx
Q2 L R2 dr Q2 L Q2 R

R2
dx U ln 2
4 GL2 0 R1 r 4 GL2 0 R1
4 GL R1

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1831
PROBLEM 11.42
V0
A
B A 5-kg collar D moves along the uniform rod AB and has a speed
v0 6 m/s when it strikes a small plate attached to end A of the
D rod. Using E 200 GPa and knowing that the allowable stress in
the rod is 250 MPa, determine the smallest diameter that can be
1.2 m
used for the rod.

SOLUTION
1 2 1
Um mv0 (5)(6) 2 90 J
2 2
P L ( A max ) 2 L
2
Um m
2 EA 2 EA
2 EU m (2)(200 109 )(90)
A 2 480 106 m 2
max L (250 106 )2 (1.2)

4A (4)(480 106 )
d2 A d 24.7 103 m d 24.7 mm
4

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1832
A B PROBLEM 11.43
v0
E
The 18-lb cylindrical block E has a horizontal velocity v0 when it strikes
squarely the yoke BD that is attached to the 78 -in.-diameter rods AB
and CD. Knowing that the rods are made of a steel for which Y 50 ksi
C D and E 29 106 psi, determine the maximum allowable speed v0 if the
3.5 ft
rods are not to be permanently deformed.

SOLUTION

At the onset of yielding, the force in each rod is


F Y A.
Corresponding strain energy:
2
FAB LAB 2 A2 L Y2 AL
U AB Y
2 EAAB 2EA 2E
2
FCD LCD 2 AL
U CD Y
2 EACD 2E

Y2 AL
Total: U m U AB U CD
E
1 2 1W 2
Um mv0 v0
2 2 g

2 gU m 2 g Y2 AL
Solving for v02 , v02
W EW

2 g Y2 AL
v0
EW
Data: g 32.17 ft/s 2 386 in./s 2 Y 50 103 psi
2
7
A d2 2
0.60132 in , E 29 106 psi
4 48
L 3.5 ft 42 in. W 18 lb
(2)(386)(50 103 )2 (0.60132)(42)
v0 305.6 in./sec
(29 106 )(18)
v0 25.5 ft/sec

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1833
A B PROBLEM 11.44
v0
E
The cylindrical block E has a speed v0 16 ft/s when it strikes squarely the
yoke BD that is attached to the 78 -in.-diameter rods AB and CD. Knowing that
the rods are made of a steel for which Y 50 ksi and E 29 106 psi,
C D determine the weight of block E for which the factor of safety is five with
3.5 ft
respect to permanent deformation of the rods.

SOLUTION

At the onset of yielding, the force in each rod is


F Y A.
Corresponding strain energy:
2
FAB LAB Y2 A2 L Y2 AL
U AB
2 EAAB 2 EA 2E
Y2 AL
U CD U AB
2E
Y2 AL
U m U AB U CD
E
1 1W 2
U m mv02 ( F .S .) v0 ( F .S .)
2 2 g

2 gU m 2 g Y2 AL
Solving for W, W
v02 ( F .S .) v02 ( F .S .) E

Data: g 32.17 ft/ sec2 386 in./ sec 2 , Y 50 103 psi,


2
7
A d2 0.60132 in 2 E 29 106 psi
4 4 8
L 3.5 ft 42 in. F .S . 5

v0 16 ft/sec 192 in/sec

(2)(386)(50 103 ) 2 (0.60132)(42)


W W 9.12 lb
(192) 2 (5)(29 106 )

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1834
PROBLEM 11.45
A

The 35-kg collar D is released from rest in the position shown and is
2m 40-mm diameter stopped by a plate attached at end C of the vertical rod ABC. Knowing that
E 200 GPa for both portions of the rod, determine the distance h for
which the maximum stress in the rod is 250 MPa.
B
30-mm diameter
m
1.5 m D
h

SOLUTION

Portion BC has smaller cross section, thus



Pm all ABC (250 MPa) (0.030 m) 2 176.7 kN
4
Maximum strain energy (for Pm 176.7 kN )

Pm2 Li Pm2 Li (176.7 kN) 2 2m 1.5 m
Um
2 Ai E 2 E Ai 2(200 GPa) (0.040 m)2
(0.030 m)2
4 4
U m 78.06 103[1591.6 2122.1] 289.9 J
1
Max. deflection: Pm m U m
2
1
(176.7 kN) m 289.9 J
2
m 3.28 103 m 3.28 mm
Work of weight U m
W (h m ) U m
(mg )(h m ) U m
(35 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 )(h m ) 289.9 J
h m 0.8443 m 844.3 mm
h 844.3 m 844.3 3.28 h 841 mm

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1835
PROBLEM 11.46
A

The 15-kg collar D is released from rest in the position shown and is
2m 40-mm diameter stopped by a plate attached at end C of the vertical rod ABC. Knowing that
E 200 GPa for both portions of the rod, determine (a) the maximum
deflection of end C, (b) the equivalent static load, (c) the maximum stress
B
30-mm diameter that occurs in the rod.
m
1.5 m D
h

SOLUTION

E 200 GPa


Pm Li Pm Li Pm 2m 1.5 m
(a) m
Ai E E Ai 200 GPa (0.04 m)2 (0.03 m) 2
4 4
m 18.57 109 Pm
Pm 53.85 106 m
1 1
Strain energy: Um Pm m (53.85 106 ) m
2
2 2
Weight falls distance of h m
Work of weight strain energy

W (h m )
1
2

53.85 106 m
2
(1)

W mg (35 kg)(9.81 m/s) 343.4 N


For h 0.5 m
Eq. (1): 343.4(0.5 m ) 26.93 106 2m

Solve quadratic: m 2.531 103 m 2.53 mm


(b) Pm 53.85 106 m (53.85 106 )(2.531 103 m) Pm 136.3 kN
Pm 136.3 kN
(c) m 192.82 MPa m 192.8 MPa
ABC
(0.030 m) 2
4

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1836
A C E PROBLEM 11.47

The 48-kg collar G is released from rest in the position shown and is stopped by
plate BDF that is attached to the 20-mm-diameter steel rod CD and to the
15-mm-diameter steel rods AB and EF. Knowing that for the grade of steel used
all 180 MPa and E 200 GPa, determine the largest allowable distance h.
2.5 m

B D F

SOLUTION

AB L CD L EF L
Let m be the maximum elongation. m
E E E
AB CD EF 180 MPa 180 106 Pa
L 2.5 m E 200 109 Pa
(180 106 )(2.5)
m 0.00225 m
200 109

Fm2 L ( EA m /L) 2 L 2
EA m
For each rod, U
2 EA 2 EA 2L

Rod CD: ACD (20)2 314.16 mm 2 314.16 106 m 2
4

(200 109 )(314.16 106 )(0.00225)2


U CD 63.617 J
(2)(2.5)


Rods AB and EF: AAB AEF (15) 2 176.71 mm 2 176.71 106 m 2
4

(200 109 )(176.71 106 )(0.00225) 2


U AB U EF 35.674 J
(2)(2.5)

Total strain energy: U m U AB U CD U EF 134.97 J


Work of falling collar:
U m mg (h m ) (48)(9.81)(h m )

Equating, (48)(9.81)(h m ) 134.97 h m 0.28662 m


h 0.28662 0.00225 0.285 m h 285 mm

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1837
A PROBLEM 11.48

v0 A 25-lb block C moving horizontally with a velocity v0 hits the


C post AB squarely as shown. Using E 29 106 psi, determine the
largest speed v0 for which the maximum normal stress in the pipe does not
7.5 ft exceed 18 ksi.

W5  16

SOLUTION

W5 16: I x 21.4 in 4 , S x 8.55 in 3

Maximum stress: m 18 ksi


Maximum bending moment:
M m m S x (18 ksi)(8.55 in 3 ) 153.9 kip in.
Equivalent force: Pm L M m
M m 153.9 kip in.
Pm 1.71 kips 1710 lb
L 90 in.
From Appendix D,
Pm L3 1710)(90)3
ym 0.66956 in.
3EI (3)(29 106 )(21.4)
1 1
Um Pm ym (1710)(0.66956) 572.48 in. lb
2 2
47.706 ft lb
1W 2
Kinetic energy: T v0
2 g

25
T v02 0.3882v02 ft lb
(2)(32.2)

Equating, T Um

0.3882v02 47.706

Maximum speed. v0 11.09 ft/s

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1838
A PROBLEM 11.49

v0 Solve Prob. 11.48, assuming that the post AB has rotated 90 about its
C longitudinal axis.

7.5 ft PROBLEM 11.48 A 25-lb block C moving horizontally with a


velocity v0 hits the post AB squarely as shown. Using E 29 106 psi,
B determine the largest speed v0 for which the maximum normal stress in
the pipe does not exceed 18 ksi.

W5  16

SOLUTION

W5 16: I y 7.51 in 4 , S y 3.00 in 3

Maximum stress: m 18 ksi


Maximum bending moment:
M m m S y (18 ksi)(3.00 in 3 ) 54.0 kip in.

Equivalent force: Pm L M m
Mm 54.0 kip in.
Pm 0.600 kips 600 lb
L 90 in.
From Appendix D,
Pm L3 600)(90)3
ym 0.66945 in.
3EI (3)(29 106 )(7.51)
1 1
Um Pm ym (600)(0.66945) 200.83 in. lb
2 2
16.736 ft lb
1W 2
Kinetic energy: T v0
2 g

25
T v02 0.3882v02 ft lb
(2)(32.2)

Equating, T Um

0.3882v02 16.736

Maximum speed. v0 6.57 ft/s

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1839
PROBLEM 11.50
0.9 m

B An aluminum tube having the cross section shown is struck


0.9 m
squarely in its midsection by a 6-kg block moving
C t = 10 mm horizontally with a speed of 2 m/s. Using E 70 GPa,
100 mm 80 mm determine (a) the equivalent static load, (b) the maximum
stress in the beam, (c) the maximum deflection at the
100 mm
v0 midpoint C of the beam.
A

SOLUTION
1 2 1
Kinetic energy: T mv0 (6 kg)(2 m/s) 2 12 J
2 2
Moment of inertia.

Aluminium
E 70 GPa

1
I aa [80 1003 60 803 ]
12
4.1067 106 mm 4
4.1067 106 m 4
Pm L3
From Appendix D: ym
48EI
1 P 2 L3
Um Pm ym m
2 96 EI
Pm2 (1.8 m)3
(a) Um T : 12 J Pm 7535.5 N
96(70 GPa)(4.1067 106 m 4 )
Pm 7.54 kN
1 1
(b) Mm Pm L (7535.5 N)(1.8 m) 3391 N m
4 4
M c (3391 N m)(0.050 m)
m m 41.28 MPa
I 4.1067 106 m 4
m 41.3 MPa
3 3
Pm L (7535.5 N)(1.8 m)
(c) ym 3.184 103 m
48EI 48(70 GPa)(4.1067 106 m 4 )
ym 3.18 mm

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1840
PROBLEM 11.51

Solve Prob. 11.50, assuming that the tube has been replaced
0.9 m
by a solid aluminum bar with the same outside dimensions as
B the tube.
0.9 m

C t = 10 mm PROBLEM 11.50 An aluminum tube having the cross


100 mm 80 mm section shown is struck squarely in its midsection by a 6-kg
100 mm block moving horizontally with a speed of 2 m/s. Using
v0
A E 70 GPa, determine (a) the equivalent static load, (b) the
maximum stress in the beam, (c) the maximum deflection at
the midpoint C of the beam.

SOLUTION

For solid aluminum bar,


1
Ia 80 1003 6.667 106 m 4
12
Follow solution of Prob. 10.50: T 12 J
Pm L2 1 P 2 L3
ym ; U m Pm ym m
48EI 2 96EI
Pm2 (1.8 m)3
(a) Um T : 12 J Pm 9601 N
96(70 GPa)(6.667 106 m 4 )
Pm 9.60 kN
1 1
(b) Mm Pm L (9601 N)(1.8 m) 4320.5 N m
4 4
M c (4320.5 N m)(0.05 m)
m m 32.40 MPa
I 6.667 106 m 4
m 32.4 MPa
Pm L3 (9601 N)(1.8 m)3
(c) ym 2.500 103 m
48EI 48(70 GPa)(6.667 106 m 4 )
ym 2.50 mm

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1841
PROBLEM 11.52
D
2 kg
40 mm The 2-kg block D is dropped from the position shown onto the end of a 16-mm-
A
B diameter rod. Knowing that E 200 GPa, determine (a) the maximum deflection
0.6 m
of end A, (b) the maximum bending moment in the rod, (c) the maximum normal
stress in the rod.

SOLUTION
4 4
d 16
I 3.2170 103 mm 4
42 4 2
3.2170 109 m 4
d
c 8 mm 8 103 m LAB 0.6 m
2
Appendix D, Case 1:
Pm L3AB
ym M m Pm LAB
3EI
3EI (3)(200 109 )(3.217 109 )
Pm 3 ym 3
8.9361 103 ym
LAB (0.6)
1 1
Um Pm ym (8.9361 103 ) ym2 4.4681 103 ym2
2 2
Work of dropped weight: mg (h ym ) (2)(9.81)(0.040 ym )
0.7848 19.62 ym
Equating work and energy,
0.7848 19.62 ym 4.4681 103 ym2
ym2 4.3911 103 ym 175.645 106 0

(a) ym
1
24.3911 103 (4.3911 103 ) 2 (4)(175.645 106 )
15.629 103 m ym 15.63 mm

Pm (8.9361 103 )(15.629 103 ) 139.66 N

(b) M m Pm LAB (139.66)(0.6) |M m | 83.8 N m

|M m | c (83.8)(8 103 )
(c) m 9
208 106 Pa m 208 MPa
I 3.2170 10

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1842
D
m 40 mm
PROBLEM 11.53
h
A B The 10-kg block D is dropped from a height h 450 mm onto the
E aluminum beam AB. Knowing that E 70 GPa, determine (a) the
60 mm
maximum deflection of point E, (b) the maximum stress in the beam.
0.4 m

1.2 m

SOLUTION

1
I (40)(60)3 720 103 mm 4 720 109 m 4
12
1
S (40)(60) 2 24 103 mm3 24 106 m3
6
Pma 2b 2
Appendix D: ym
3EIL
Pm (0.4 m)2 (0.8 m) 2
ym
3(70 GPa)(720 109 )(1.2 m)

(a) ym 0.5644 106 Pm or Pm 1.772 106 ym


1 1
Um Pm ym (1.772 106 ym ) ym 885.9 103 ym2
2 2
Work of weight W (h ym ) mg (h ym )
(10 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 )(0.45 m ym ) 885.9 103 ym2
885.9 103 ym2 98.1ym 44.145 0
Solve quadratic: ym 7.114 103 m ym 7.11 mm
(b) Pm 1.772 106 ym 1.772 106 (7.114 103 m)
Pm 12.61 kN
ab (0.4 m)(0.8 m)
M m M E Pm (12.61 kN)
L 1.2 m
M m 3.363 kN m
c M 3.363 kN m
m Mm m
I S 24 106 m3
m 140.11 MPa
m 140.1 MPa

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1843
D
4 lb
PROBLEM 11.54
1.5 in. B
A C The 4-lb block D is dropped from the position shown onto the end of a
5
8
-in.-diameter rod. Knowing that E 29 106 psi, determine (a) the
maximum deflection at point A, (b) the maximum bending moment in
the rod, (c) the maximum normal stress in the rod.
2 ft 2 ft

SOLUTION

Use Appendix D.

Pm L3 Pm L3
y2 y1 L B
3EI 3EI
2Pm L3 2 Pm L3
ym y1 y2 ym
3EI 3EI
1 1 3EI 3EI 2
Um Pm ym 3 ym ym
2 2 2L 4 L3
W ( h ym ) U m
3EI 2
W ( h ym ) ym (1)
4 L3
Substitute given data:
3(29 106 psi)(7.49 103 in 4 ) 2
(4 lb)(1.5 in. ym ) ym
4(24 in.)3
(a) 6 4 ym 11.784 ym2
Solve quadratic: ym 0.9032 in. ym 0.903 in.
3EI 3(29 106 psi)(7.49 103 m 4 )
(b) Pm y m (0.9032 in.) 21.29 lb
2L3 2(24 in.)3
M m M E PmL (21.29 lb)(24 in.) 510.96 lb in.
M m 511 lb in.
M mc M 510.96 lb in.
(c) m m m 21.3 ksi
I S 23.97 103 in 3

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1844
PROBLEM 11.55

A 160-lb diver jumps from a height of 20 in. onto end C of a


2.65 in.
diving board having the uniform cross section shown.
B 20 in. Assuming that the divers legs remain rigid and using
A
C E 1.8 106 psi, determine (a) the maximum deflection at
point C, (b) the maximum normal stress in the board, (c) the
2.5 ft
9.5 ft 16 in. equivalent static load.

SOLUTION

1
I (16)(2.65)3 24.813 in 4
12
L 9.5 ft 114 in.
a 2.5 ft 30 in.
1
c (2.65) 1.325 in.
2
P L
Over portion AB: M m x
a
a M2 P 2 L2 a 2 P 2 L2 a
U AB
0 2 EI
dx m 2
2 EIa 0
x dx m
6 EI
Over portion BC: M Pm v
L M2 P2 L Pm2 L3
U BC
0 2 EIdv m
2 EI 0
v 2 dv
6 EI
Pm2 L2 (a L)
Total: U U AB U BC
6 EI
1 2U m Pm L2 (a L)
Pm ym U m ym
2 Pm 3EI

3EI (3)(1.8 106 )(24.813)


Pm y m ym 71.598 ym
L2 (a L) (114)2 (114 30)
1
U m Pm ym 35.799 ym2
2
Work of weight: W (h ym ) (160)(20 ym ) 3200 160 ym
Equating: 3200 160 ym 35.799 ym2
ym2 4.4694 ym 89.388 0

(a) ym
1
24.4694 4.46942 (4)(89.388) ym 11.95 in.

(c) Pm (71.598)(11.95) 856 lb Pm 856 lb


M m (856)(114) 97,535 lb in.
Mm c (97,535)(1.325)
(b) m 5210 psi m 5.21 ksi
I 24.813

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1845
PROBLEM 11.56

A block of weight W is dropped from a height h onto the horizontal


W beam AB and hits it at point D. (a) Show that the maximum deflection
ym at point D can be expressed as
h
D
A B 2h
ym yst 1 1
ym yst

D'

where yst represents the deflection at D caused by a static load W


applied at that point and where the quantity in parenthesis is referred to
as the impact factor. (b) Compute the impact factor for the beam and
the impact of Prob. 11.52.
D
2 kg
40 mm PROBLEM 11.52 The 2-kg block D is dropped from the position
A shown onto the end of a 16-mm-diameter rod. Knowing that
B
E 200 GPa, determine (a) the maximum deflection of end A, (b) the
0.6 m
maximum bending moment in the rod, (c) the maximum normal stress
in the rod.

SOLUTION

Work of falling weight: Work W (h ym )

1 1
Strain energy: U Pym kym2
2 2
where k is the spring constant for a load applied at point D.
Equating work and energy,
1 2
W ( h ym ) kym
2
2W 2W
ym2 ym h0
k k
W
ym2 2 yst ym 2 yst h 0 where yst
k

2 yst 4 yst2 8 yst h 2h


(a) ym ym yst 1 1
2 yst

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1846
PROBLEM 11.56 (Continued)

For Problem 11.52, W mg (2)(9.81) 19.62 N


4
16
E 200 10 Pa9
I 3.217 103 mm 4 3.217 109 m 4
4 2
L 0.6 m h 40 mm 40 103 m

WL3
Using Appendix D, Case 1, yst
3EI
(19.62)(0.6)3
yst 2.196 103 m
(3)(200 109 )(3.217 109 )
2h (2)(40 103 )
36.44
yst 2.196 103

(b) Impact factor. 1 1 36.44 Impact factor 7.12

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1847
PROBLEM 11.57
W
A block of weight W is dropped from a height h onto the horizontal
h beam AB and hits point D. (a) Denoting by ym the exact value of
D the maximum deflection at D and by ym the value obtained by
A B neglecting the effect of this deflection on the change in potential
ym
energy of the block, show that the absolute value of the relative
D' error is ( ym ym )/ym , never exceeding ym /2h. (b) Check the result
obtained in part a by solving part a of Prob. 11.52 without taking ym
into account when determining the change in potential energy of the
D load, and comparing the answer obtained in this way with the exact
2 kg answer to that problem.
40 mm
A
B PROBLEM 11.52 The 2-kg block D is dropped from the position
0.6 m shown onto the end of a 16-mm-diameter rod. Knowing that
E 200 GPa, determine (a) the maximum deflection of end A,
(b) the maximum bending moment in the rod, (c) the maximum
normal stress in the rod.

SOLUTION

1 1
U Pm ym kym2
2 2
where k is the spring constant for a load at point D.
Work of falling weight: exact: Work W (h ym )
approximate : Work Wh

1 2
Equating work and energy, kym W (h ym ) (1) exact
2
1 2
kym Wh (2) approximate
2
where ym is the approximate value for ym .

Subtracting,
1
2

k ym2 ym2 Wym

2W
ym2 ym2 ( ym ym )( ym ym ) ym
k
ym ym 2W
Relative error:
ym k ( ym y m )

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1848
PROBLEM 11.57 (Continued)

2W ym2
But from Eq. (2).
k h
ym ym ym2 y
(a) Relative error m
ym
h ( ym ym ) 2 h

(b) From the solution to Problem 11.52, ym 15.63 mm


Approximate solution: W mg (2)(9.81) 19.62 N
E 200 109 Pa
4 4
d 10
I 3.217 103 mm 4
42 4 2
3.217 109 m 4
L 0.6 m, h 40 mm
40 103 m

3EI (3)(200 109 )(3.217 109 )


k
L3 (0.6)3
8.936 103 N/m

2Wh (2)(19.62)(40 103 )


ym2
k 8.936 103
175.65 106 m 2

ym 13.25 103 m 13.25 mm

15.63 13.25
Relative error: relative error 0.152
15.63
ym
0.166
2h

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1849
P PROBLEM 11.58
D
A B Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection at point D
caused by the load P.
a b
L

SOLUTION

Pb Pa
Reactions: RA , RB
L L
Pbx
Over AD: M RA x
L
M2a P 2b2 a
U AD
0 2 EI
dx
2 EIL2 0
x 2dx

P 2b 2 a3

6 EIL2
Pav
Over DB: M RB v
L

M2
b P2a2 b
U DB
0 2 EI
dv
2 EIL2 0
v 2dv

P 2 a 2 b3

6 EIL2

P 2 a 2b 2 (a b) P 2a 2 b 2
Total: U U AB U BC
6 EIL2 6 EIL

1 2U Pa 2 b 2
P D U D D
2 P 3EI

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1850
P PROBLEM 11.59

A D Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection at point D
B caused by the load P.
L a

SOLUTION

See solution of Prob. 11.28 for beam of length L with overhang of length a, load at end of overhang.
P 2a 2
U (a L )
6 EI
1 1 P 2a 2 Pa 2
PyD U : PyD (a L) yD (a L)
2 2 6 EI 3EI

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1851
M0 PROBLEM 11.60
A B
D Using the method of work and energy, determine the slope at point D
caused by the couple M 0 .
a b
L

SOLUTION

M0 M0
Reactions: RA RB
L L
M0x
Over portion AD: M
L

M2
a M 02 a
U AD
0 2 EI
dx
2 EIL2 0
x 2 dx

M 0 a3

6 EIL2
M 0v
Over portion DB: M
L

M2b M 02 b
U DB
0 2 EI
dv
2 EIL2 0
v 2 dv

M 02b

6 EIL2

M 02 (a3 b3 )
Total: U U AD U DB
6 EIL2

1 2U M 0 ( a 3 b3 )
M 0 D U D D
2 M0 3EIL2

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1852
B M0 PROBLEM 11.61
A D
Using the method of work and energy, determine the slope at point D
caused by the couple M 0 .
L a

SOLUTION

M0 M0
Reactions: RA RB
L L
M x
Over portion AB: M 0
L
L M2 M 02 L 2
U AB 0 dx x dx
2 EI 2 EIL2 0
M 02 L

6EI
Over portion BD: M M 0
M 02a
U BD
2 EI
Total: U U AB U BD
M 02 ( L 3a)

6 EI
1
M 00 U
2
2U M 0 ( L 3a)
D D
M0 3EI

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1853
P PROBLEM 11.62
2EI EI
C Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection at point C
B caused by the load P.
A

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Bending moment: M Pv
Over AB:
M2
L P2 L 2
U AB
L/ 2 4 EI
dv
4 EI L/ 2
v dv
P 2 3 L 7 P 2 L3
3
L
12 EI 2 96 EI

L/ 2 M2 P2 L/ 2
Over BC: U BC 0 2 EI
dv
2 EI 0
v 2 dv

1 P 2 L3

48 EI

3 P 2 L3
Total: U U AB U BC
32 EI

1 2U 3PL3
P C 0 C C
2 P 16 EI

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1854
P PROBLEM 11.63
EI C EI
A B Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection at point C
caused by the load P.
2EI

a a a a

SOLUTION

Symmetric beam and loading:


1
RA RB P
2
1
From A to C , M RA x Px
2
a M 2a M2
U AC 0 2 EI
dx a 4 EI
dx
2
P a P2 2a

8 EI 0
x 2 dx
16 EI a
x 2 dx

P 2 a3 P2 3 3 3 P 2 a3
(2 a ) a
24 EI 48 EI 16 EI

3 P 2 a3
By symmetry, U CB U AB
16 EI

3 P 2 a3
Total: U U AB U BC
8 EI

1 2U 3Pa3
P C U C C
2 P 4 EI

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1855
M0 PROBLEM 11.64
B
A EI Using the method of work and energy, determine the slope at point B
2EI C
caused by the couple M0.
L/2 L/2

SOLUTION
M0
M B 0: RA L M 0 0 RA
L
M0
M RA X X
L
L/2 M2
Over portion AC: U AC
0 2(2 EI )
dx

M 02 L/2 1 M 02
U AC
4 EIL2 0
x 2 dx
96 EI
2
L M
Over portion CB: U CB
L / 2 2 EI
dx

M 02 L
U CB
2 EIL 2 L/2
x 2 dx

M 02 3 L
3
L
6 EIL2 2
7 M 02 L

48 EI
5 M 02 L
Total: U U AC U CB
32 EI
1 2U 5M 0 L
M 0 B U B B
2 M0 16 EI

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1856
M0 PROBLEM 11.65
B
A EI Using the method of work and energy, determine the slope at point D caused
2EI D
by the couple M 0 .
L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

M0 M0
Reactions: RA , RB
L L
Bending moment diagram.
L M 0x
Over 0 x , M
2 L
L M v
Over 0 v , M 0
2 L
2 2
L/2 M AD L/2 M BD
Strain energy: U U AD U BD
0 2(2 EI )
dx 0 2 EI
dv


M0 2 M0 2
L/2 x L/2 v M 0 1 ( L / 2)3 M 0 1 ( L / 2)3

L L
U dx dv
0 2(2 EI ) 0 2 EI EIL 4 3 EIL 2 3
M 02 L 1 1 3 1 M 02 L M 02 L

EI 96 48 96 EI 32 EI
1 1 1 M 02 L 1 M 0L
M 0 D U : M 0 D D
2 2 32 EI 16 EI

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1857
PROBLEM 11.66
450 N
L
500 mm The 20-mm-diameter steel rod BC is attached to the lever AB and to the
C fixed support C. The uniform steel lever is 10 mm thick and 30 mm
A deep. Using the method of work and energy, determine the deflection of
point A when L 600 mm. Use E 200 GPa and G 77.2 GPa.
B

SOLUTION

Member AB. (Bending)


1
I (10)(30)3 22.5 103 mm 4
12
22.5 109 m 4
a 500 mm 0.500 m
M B Pa (450)(0.500) 225 N m
M Px
a M a P 2 x 2 dx P 2 a3
U AB 0 2 EI
dx 0 2 EI

6 EI
(450) (0.500)3
2
0.9375 J
(6)(200 109 )(22.5 109 )
Member BC. (Torsion)
1
T M B 225 N m c d 10 mm
2

J c 4 15.708 103 mm 4 15.708 109 m 4
2
L 600 mm 0.600 m
T 2L (225) 2 (0.600)
U BC 12.5242 J
2GJ (2)(77.2 109 )(15.708 109 )

Total: U U AB U BC 0.9375 12.5242 13.4617 J

1 2U (2)(13.4617)
P A U A 59.8 103 m
2 P 450
A 59.8 mm

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1858
PROBLEM 11.67
B
Torques of the same magnitude T are applied to the steel shafts AB
and CD. Using the method of work and energy, determine the length L
of the hollow portion of shaft CD for which the angle of twist C is
T equal to 1.25 times the angle of twist at A.

60 in.

A D
2 in.
E
T

L
C
1.5 in.

SOLUTION

T is the same for each shaft.


1 1
C 1.25 A U AB T A and U CD T C
2 2
Then U CD 1.25 U AB (1)


Shaft AB: LAB 60 in. c 2 in. J AB c4 (2) 4 25.133 in 4
2 2

T 2 LAB T 2 (60) T2
U AB 2.3873
2GJ AB (2G)(25.133) 2G

Shaft portion CE: LCE L, co 2 in., ci 1.5 in.



J CE
2
c 4
o
ci4
2
(24 1.54 ) 17.1806 in 4

T 2 LCE T 2L T 2L
U CE 0.058205
2GJ CE (2G )(17.1806) 2G

Shaft portion ED: LED 60 L, J DE J AB 25.133 in 4

T 2 LED T 2 (60 L) T2 T 2L
U ED 2.3873 0.039789
2GJ ED 2G (25.138) 2G 2G

T2 T 2L
Shaft CD: U CE U ED 2.3873 0.018416
2G 2GJ

T2 T 2L T2
Using Eq. (1), 2.3873 0.018416 (1.25)(2.3873)
2G 2G 2G
0.018416 L (0.25)(2.3873) L 32.4 in.

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1859
PROBLEM 11.68

Two steel shafts, each of 0.75-in. diameter,


C are connected by the gears shown. Knowing
that G 11.2 106 psi and that shaft DF is
3 in. fixed at F, determine the angle through
F
B
which end A rotates when a 750-lb in. torque
is applied at A. (Neglect the strain energy
4 in. E
T
due to the bending of the shafts.)
8 in.
A
D
6 in.

5 in.

SOLUTION

Work-energy equation:
1
TA A U
2
2U
A
TA

Portion AB of shaft ABC:


TAB TA 750 lb in.
LAB 5 6 11 in.
4 4
d 0.75
J AB 31.063 103 in 4
2 2 2 2
2
TAB LAB (750) 2 (11)
U AB 8.892 in. lb
2GJ AB (2)(11.2 106 )(31.063 103 )
Portion BC of shaft ABC: U BC 0

TB TAB 750
Gear B: FBE 250 lb
rB rB 3
Gear E: TE rE FBE (4)(250) 1000 lb in.
Portion DE of shaft DEF: U DE 0

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1860
PROBLEM 11.68 (Continued)

Portion EF of shaft DEF: TEF TE 1000 lb in.


4
d
LEF 8 in. J EF 31.063 103 in 4
2 2
2
TEF LEF (1000) 2 (8)
U EF 11.497 lb in.
2GJ EF (2)(11.2 106 )(31.063 103 )
Total: U U AB U BC U DE U EF 20.389 in. lb
2U (2)(20.389)
A 54.4 103 rad A 3.12
TA 750

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1861
PROBLEM 11.69
200 mm TB
70 mm
The 20-mm-diameter steel rod CD is welded to the 20-mm-
B
diameter steel shaft AB as shown. End C of rod CD is touching the
D rigid surface shown when a couple TB is applied to a disk attached
A
to shaft AB. Knowing that the bearings are self aligning and exert
no couples on the shaft, determine the angle of rotation of the disk
when TB 400 N m. Use E 200 GPa and G 77.2 GPa.
(Consider the strain energy due to both bending and twisting in
C
shaft AB and to bending in arm CD.)
300 mm

SOLUTION
TB
M AB 0: rCD FC TB FC
rCD
400
FC 1333.3 N,
300 103
FD 1333.3 N
Bending of rod CD:
4
d
I
42
4
20

4 2
7.854 103 mm 4
7.854 109 m 4
M FC x
LCD ( FC x)2 F 2 L3
U 0 C CD
2 EI 6 EI
(1333.3) 2 (300 103 )3
5.093 J
(6)(200 109 )(7.854 109 )
Bending of shaft ADB:
FDb
M B 0: FA LAB FDb 0 FA
L AB
FD a
M A 0: FA LAB FDb 0 FA
LAB

a FDb FD2a 2b 2
2 2
1 b FD a
U 0 dx 0 dx
2 EI L LAB 6 EILAB
AB

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1862
PROBLEM 11.69 (Continued)

4
d 3 4 9 4
I 7.854 10 mm 7.854 10 m
42
LAB (270 103 ) m
(1333.3)2 (70 103 )2 (200 103 )2
U 0.137 J
(6)(200 109 )(7.854 109 )(270 109 )
Torsion: Only portion DB carries torque. J 2 J 15.708 109 m 4
TB2 LDB (400)2 (200 103 )
U 13.194 J
2GJ (2)(77.2 109 )(15.708 109 )
Total: U 5.093 0.137 13.194 18.424 J
1
TB B U
2
2U (2)(18.424)
B
TB 400
92.1 103 rad B 5.28

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1863
PROBLEM 11.70
T'
The thin-walled hollow cylindrical member AB has a noncircular
cross section of nonuniform thickness. Using the expression given in
ds t
Eq. (3.50) of Sec. 3.10 and the expression for the strain-energy
A density given in Eq. (11.17), show that the angle of twist of member
AB is
B
x
TL ds
L

4A 2 G t
T where ds is the length of a small element of the wall cross section and
A is the area enclosed by the center line of the wall cross section.

SOLUTION
T
From Eq. (3.53),
2t A
Strain energy density:
2 T2
u
2G 8Gt 2 2
L
U 0
ut ds dx

L T2 ds T 2L ds
0 8G2 t
dx
8G 2 t

1 T 2L ds TL ds
Work of torque: T
2 8G 2 t 4G 2 t

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1864
P A B PROBLEM 11.71

3
l
Each member of the truss shown has a uniform cross-sectional area A. Using the
4
method of work and energy, determine the horizontal deflection of the point of
C D application of the load P.

SOLUTION

Members AB and BD are Zero force members.


4 5
Joint A: Fx 0: FAD P 0 FAD P
5 4
3 3
Fy 0: FAC FAD 0 FAC P
5 4

Member F L F2 L
AB 0 l 0
3
BD 0 l 0
4
5 5 125 2
AD P l Pl
4 4 64
CD P l P2 l
3 3 27 2
AC P l Pl
4 4 64
27 2
Pl
8

4 5
Joint D: Fx 0: P FCD 0
5 4
FCD P
2
F L 1
U F 2 L
2 EA 2 EA
27 P 2l 1
Work of P P U
16 EA 2
2U 27 Pl Pl
3.38
P 8 EA EA

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1865
A B P PROBLEM 11.72

3
l
Each member of the truss shown has a uniform cross-sectional area A. Using the
4
method of work and energy, determine the horizontal deflection of the point of
C D application of the load P.

SOLUTION

Members AB, AC and CD are zero force members.


4 5
Joint B: Fx 0: P FBC 0 FBC P
5 4
3 3
Fy 0: FBD FBC 0 FBD P
5 4
F 2L 1
U F 2 L
2 EA 2 EA
19 P 2l

16 EA
1
Work of P P U
2
2U 19 Pl

P 8 EA

Member F L F2 L
AB 0 l 0
3
AC 0 l 0
4
CD 0 l 0
5 5 125 2
BC P l Pl
4 4 64
3 3 27 2
BD P l Pl
4 4 64
19 2
Pl
8
Pl
2.38
EA

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1866
20 kips PROBLEM 11.73
B Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has a uniform
2.5 ft cross-sectional area of 5 in2. Using E 29 106 psi, determine the
D vertical deflection of joint B caused by the application of the 20-kip
A
C
load.

6 ft 6 ft

SOLUTION
RA RB 10 kips
LAC LCD 6 ft 72 in.
LBC 2.5 ft 30 in.

LAB LBC 62 2.52 6.5 ft 78 in.


Equilibrium of joint A.
2.5
Fy 0: FAB 10 0 FAB 26 kips
6.5
6
Fx 0: FAB FAB 0 FAC 24 kips
6.5
Equilibrium of joint C. FBC 0, FCD 24 kips
By symmetry, FBD FAB 26 kips

F 2L 1
Strain energy: U F 2L
2 EA 2 EA
Member F (kips) L (in.) F 2 L (kip 2 in.)
AB 26 78 52,728
AC 24 72 41,472
BC 0 30 0
CD 24 72 41,472
BD 26 78 52,728
188,400

188,400
U 0.64966 kip in.
(2)(29 103 )(5)
Vertical deflection of point B.
1
P B U
2
2U (2)(0.64966)
B B 0.0650 in.
P 20

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1867
B D 60 kN PROBLEM 11.74
0.5 m Each member of the truss shown is made of steel. The cross-sectional
A
C
area of member BC is 800 mm 2 and for all other members the cross-
sectional area is 400 mm2. Using E 200 GPa, determine the
1.2 m 1.2 m
deflection of point D caused by the 60-kN load.

SOLUTION

Entire truss: M A 0: 2.4 RD (0.5)(60) 0 RD 12.5 kN

0.5
Joint D: Fy 0: 12.5 FCD 0 FCD 32.5 kN
1.3
1.2
Fx 0: 60 FBD FCD 0 FBD 30 kN
1.3
1.2
Joint B: Fx 0: 30 FAB 0 FAB 32.5 kN
1.3
0.5
Fy 0: FAB FBC 0 FBC 12.5 kN
1.3
1.2
Joint C: Fx 0: FAC (32.5) 0 FAC 30 kN
1.3
F 2L 1 F 2L
U
2 EA 2 E A

Member F (kN) L (m) A (106 m 2 ) F 2 L/A (N 2 /m)


CD 32.5 1.3 400 3.4328 1012
BD 30 1.2 400 2.7 1012
AB 32.5 1.3 400 3.4328 1012
BC 12.5 0.5 800 0.0977 1012
AC 30 1.2 400 2.7 1012
12.3633 1012
E 200 109 Pa
12.3633 1012
U 30.908 J
(2)(200 109 )
Work-energy:
1 2U (2)(30.908)
P U 3
1.030 103 m
2 P 60 10
1.030 mm

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1868
6 ft 6 ft PROBLEM 11.75
A B C
Each member of the truss shown is made of steel
and has a cross-sectional area of 5 in2. Using
2.5 ft 15 kips
E 29 106 psi, determine the vertical deflection of
point C caused by the 15-kip load.
E D

SOLUTION

Members BD and AE are zero force members.


For entire truss, M A 0: 2.5 RE (12)(15) 0 RE 72 kips

For equilibrium of joint E, FED RE 72 kips


Joint C: 2.5
Fy 0: FCD 15 0 FCD 39 kips
6.5
6
Fx 0: FCD FBC 0 FBC 36 kips
6.5
Joint D: Fx 0: Joint B: Fx 0:
6 FAB FBC 0
72 ( FAD 39) 0
6.5 FAB 36 kips
FAD 39 kips
F 2L 1
Strain energy: Um F 2 L
2 EA 2 EA
Member F (kips) L (in.) F 2 L (kip 2 in.)
AB 36 72 93,312
BC 36 72 93,312
CD 39 78 118,638
DE 72 72 373,248
BD 0 30 0
AE 0 30 0
AD 39 78 118,638
797,148
3 2
Data: E 29 10 ksi A 5 in
797,148
Um 2.7488 kip in.
(2)(29 103 )(5)
1 2U m (2)(2.7488)
Pm m U m m m 0.366 in.
2 Pm 15

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1869
480 mm 480 mm PROBLEM 11.76
A
The steel rod BC has a 24-mm diameter and the steel cable ABDCA has a
360 mm 12-mm diameter. Using E 200 GPa, determine the deflection of joint D
C caused by the 12-kN load.
B
360 mm

12 kN

SOLUTION

Owing to symmetry, FAB FBD FDC FCA


U AB U BD U DC U CA
2 2
FBD LBD FBC LBC
U 4U BD U BC 4
2 EABD 2 EABC

Let P be the load at D.


1 U FBD 2 LBD FBC 2 LBC
P D U D 4
2 P EABD P EABC P

Joint D: Fy 0: Joint B: Fx 0:
3 4
2 FBD P 0 FBC (2) FBD 0
5 5
5 8 4
FBD P FBC FBD P
6 5 3

2 2
5 PLBD 4 PLBC P 25 LBD 16 LBC
D 4
6 EABD 3 EABC E 9 ABD 9 ABC

Data: P 12 103 N E 200 109 Pa



LBD 600 103 m ABD (12)2 113.097 mm 2 113.097 106 m 2
4

LBC 960 103 m ABC (24)2 452.39 mm 2 452.39 106 m 2
4

12 103 25 600 103 16 960 103 3


D 6
1.111 10 m D 1.111 mm
200 109 9 113.097 10 9 452.39 106

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1870
P PROBLEM 11.77
M0
B
A Using the information in Appendix D, compute the work of the loads as
they are applied to the beam (a) if the load P is applied first, (b) if the
L couple M is applied first.

SOLUTION

From Appendix D, Case 1,


PL3 PL2
yAP AP
3EI 2 EI
From Appendix D, Case 3,
M 0 L2 M0L
yAM AM
2 EI EI

(a) First P, then M0.


U A1 A2 A3
1 1
Py AP Py AM M 0 AM
2 2
P 2 L3 PM 0 L2 M 02 L
U
6 EI 2 EI 2 EI
(b) First M0, then P.
U A4 A5 A6
1 1
Py AP M 0 AP M 0 AM
2 2
P 2 L3 M 0 PL2 M 02 L
U
6 EI 2 EI 2 EI

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1871
P PROBLEM 11.78
M0
B
C Using the information in Appendix D, compute the work of the loads as
A they are applied to the beam (a) if the load P is applied first, (b) if the
L/2 L/2 couple M is applied first.

SOLUTION

Appendix D, Cases 1 and 3,


P( L/2)3 PL3 P( L/2)2 PL2
yBP CP
3EI 24 EI 2 EI 8EI
2
M ( L/2) M L2 M L
yBM 0 0 BM 0
2 EI 8 EI EI

(a) First P, then M0.


U A1 A2 A3
1 1
PyBP PyBM M 0CM
2 2
P 2 L3 PM 0 L2 M 02 L
U
48EI 8EI 2 EI
(b) First M0, then P.
U A4 A5 A6
1 1
PyBP M 0CP M 0CM
2 2
P 2 L3 M 0 PL2 M 02 L
U
48EI 8 EI 2 EI

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1872
P P
PROBLEM 11.79

A B For the beam and loading shown, (a) compute the work of the loads as they
C are applied successively to the beam, using the information provided in
Appendix D, (b) compute the strain energy of the beam by the method of
L/2 L/2
Sec. 11.2A and show that it is equal to the work obtained in part a.

SOLUTION

(a) Label the forces PB and PC .


Using Appendix D, Case 1,
PB ( L/2)3 1 PB L3
BB
3EI 24 EI
L 1 PB L3 L PB ( L /2) 2
CB BB B
2 24 3EI 2 2 EI
1 1 P L3 5 PB L3
B
24 16 EI 48 EI
1 PC L3
CC
3 EI
P L L 5 PC L3
2 3
PC
BC (3Lx 2 x3 ) C 3L
6 EI 6 EI 2 2 48 EI

Apply PB first, then PC .


U A1 A2 A3
1 1
U PB BB PB BC PC CC
2 2
1 PB L3 5 PB PC L3 1 PC2 L3

48 EI 48 EI 6 EI
1 5 1 P 2 L3 7 P 2 L3
with PB PC P, U U
48 48 6 EI 24 EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1873
PROBLEM 11.79 (Continued)

L L
(b) Over AB: M Pv P v P 2v
2 2
L M2 P2 2 2 1
U AB L/2 2 EI
dv
2 EI
L/2
4v 2 Lv L2 dv
4

P2 4 L
3
1 2 L 1 2
2
L
3
L 2L L L L
2 EI 3 2 2 2 4 2

P2 2 3
7 3 3 3 1 3 13 P L
L L L
2 EI 6 4 8 48 EI
3
L/2 M2 P2 L/2 P2 1 L

2
Over BC: M Pv U BC dv v dv
0 2 EI 2 EI 0 2 EI 3 2
P 2 L3

48EI
2 3
13 1 P L 7 P 2 L3
Total: U U AB U BC U
48 48 EI 24 EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1874
PROBLEM 11.80
M0 M0
C For the beam and loading shown, (a) compute the work of the loads as
they are applied successively to the beam, using the information
A B
provided in Appendix D, (b) compute the strain energy of the beam by
L/2 L/2 the method of Sec.11.2A and show that it is equal to the work obtained
in part a.

SOLUTION
(a) Label the applied couples M A and M B . Apply M A at point A
first. Note that M B 0 during this phase.
From Appendix D,
M AL
AA
EI
1 M 2 AL
U1 M B AA
2 2 EI
Now apply M B at point B. Note that M A remains constant
during this second phase.
From Appendix D,
M B ( L/2) M L
BB B
EI 2 EI
Since the curvature of portion AB does not change as M B is
applied,
M BL
AB BB
2 EI
1
U2 M B BB M A AB
2
M B2 L M AM B

4EI 2 EI
Total strain energy:
M A2 L M B 2 L M AM B L
U U1 U 2
2 EI 4 EI 2 EI
Set M A M B M 0.

5M 0 2 L
U
4EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1875
PROBLEM 11.80 (Continued)

(b) Bending moment diagram.


L
Over portion AB: 0 x
2
M M 0
L /2 M 02 M 2L
U AB 0 2 EI
dx 0
4 EI
L
Over portion BC: x L
2
M 2 M 0
L(2M 0 ) 2 M 2L
U BC L/ 2 2 EI
dx 0
EI
Total strain energy:
U U AB U BC

5M 0 2 L
U
4EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1876
P P PROBLEM 11.81
D E
A B For the beam and loading shown, (a) compute the work of the loads as they
are applied successively to the beam, using the information provided in
L L L
Appendix D, (b) compute the strain energy of the beam by the method of
4 2 4 Sec. 11.2A and show that it is equal to the work obtained in part a.

SOLUTION

(a) Label the forces PD and PE .


Using Appendix D, Case 5,

P a 2 b 2 PE 4 4
2 2
3L L
3 PE L3
EE E
3EIL 3EIL 256 EI
Pb PE L4 2 L 2 L L 3 7 PE L3
DE E [( L2 b 2 ) x x3 ] L
6 EIL 6 EIL 4 4 4 768 EI

3 PD L3 7 PD L3
Likewise, DD and ED
256 EI 768 EI

Let PD be applied first.

U A1 A2 A3
1 1
U PD DD PD DE PE EE
2 2
2 3
3 PD L 7 PD PE L3 3 PE2 L3

512 EI 768 EI 512 EI
with PD PE P

1 P 2 L3 P 2 L3
U U
48 EI 48 EI

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1877
PROBLEM 11.81 (Continued)

(b) Reactions: RA RB P

L
Over portion AD: 0 x 4 : M Px

3
L/4 M2 P2 L/4 P2 1 L 1 P 2 L3

2
U AD dx x dx
0 2 EI 2 EI 0 2 EI 3 4 384 EI

M 2 L2
2
PL P 2 L2 1 L P 2 L3
Over portion DE: M U DE
4 2 EI 2 EI 16 2 64 EI

1 P 2 L3
Over portion EB: By symmetry, U EB U AD
384 EI

1 1 1 P 2 L3 1 P 2 L3
Total: U U AB U DE U EB U
384 64 384 EI 48 EI

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on a website, in whole or part.

1878
PROBLEM 11.82
M0 M0
For the beam and loading shown, (a) compute the work of the loads
A B as they are applied successively to the beam, using the information
provided in Appendix D, (b) compute the strain energy of the beam
L by the method of Sec. 11.2A and show that it is equal to the work
obtained in part a.

SOLUTION

(a) Label the couples M A and M B .


Using Appendix D, Case 7.
M AL M AL M BL M BL
AA BA BB AB
3EI 6EI 3EI 6 EI
Apply MA first, then M B .
U A1 A2 A3
1 1
U M A AA M A AB M B BB
2 2
1 M A2 L 1 M AM B L 1 M B2 L

6 EI 6 EI 6 EI
With M A M B M0
1 M 02 L M 02 L
U U
2 EI 2EI
(b) Bending moment: M M0
L M2 M 2L M 02 L
U 0 dx 0 U
2 EI 2 EI 2EI

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1879
w PROBLEM 11.83

A For the prismatic beam shown, determine the deflection of point D.


D B

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point D.


M2 L
U
0 2 EI
dx

U 1 L M
D
Q EI 0
M
Q
dx

L 1 M
Over portion AD: 0 x 2 M wx 2 0
2 Q

L 1 L M L
Over portion DB: 2 x L M wx 2 Q x x
2 2 Q 2

1 L/2 1 2 1 L 1 2 L
Set Q 0. D
EI 0
2 wx (0) dx EI
2 wx x 2 dx
L/2

w L 3 L 2

2 EI x 2 x dx
L/2
w 1 4 1 L 4 L 1 3 L 1 L 3
L L
2 EI 4 4 2 2 3 2 3 2

1 1 1 1 1 wL4 17 wL4 wL4


D 0.0443
2 4 64 6 48 EI 384 EI EI

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on a website, in whole or part.

1880
P PROBLEM 11.84

A For the prismatic beam shown, determine the deflection of point D.


D B
L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point D.


M2
L
U 0 2 EI
dx

U L M M 1 L M
D
Q

0 EI Q
dx
EI 0
M
Q
dx

L M
Over portion AD: 0 < x < 2 M Px, 0
Q
L L M L
Over portion DB: 2 x L M Px Q x ,
2 Q
x
2

1 L/2 1 L L
Set Q 0. D
EI 0
( Px)(0)dx
EI L/2
( Px) x dx
2

P L 2 L

EI x 2 x dx
L/2
P 1 3 1 L 3 L 1 2 L 1 L 2
L L
EI 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 PL
3
5 PL3
D
3 24 4 16 EI 48EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1881
w PROBLEM 11.85
D
A B For the prismatic beam shown, determine the deflection of point D.
E

L/2 L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point D.


1 1
Reactions: RA Q, RB wL Q
2 2
U
U U AD U DE U EB D
Q
U AD
Over portion AD, with Q 0 M 0 0
Q
2
1 L
Over portion DE, M RBv w v
2 2
2
1 L 1
wLv w v Qv
2 2 2
M 1 1 L2 2
v U DE M dv Set Q 0
Q 2 2 EI 0
U DE 1 L2 M
M Q dv
Q EI 0

1 L2 L 1
2
1
wLv w v v dv
EI 0 2 2 2

w L2 2 1 3 2 1 2
Lv 2 v Lv 4 L v dv
2EI 0

w 11 L 1 2 1 L
3 4 3 2
1 L 1 L
L L L
2EI 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 wL4 1 wL4

2 24 128 48 64 EI 768 EI
1 M U EB
Over portion EB, M wu 2 0 0
2 Q Q
U AD U DE U EB 1 wL4 1 wL4
D 0 0
Q Q Q 768 EI 768 EI

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1882
w PROBLEM 11.86

A For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point D.


D B

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add couple M 0 at point D.

L M2
U 0 2 EI
dx

U L M M 1 L M
D
M0
0 EI M 0
dx
EI 0
M
M0
dx

L 1 M
Over portion AD: 0 x 2 M wx 2 0
2 M0

L 1 M
Over portion DB: 2 x L M wx 2 M 0 1
2 M0

1 L 1 2 1 L 1 2
Set M 0 0. D
EI wx (0)dx EI
L/2 2 2 wx (1)dx
L/2
w L w 1 3 1 L 3

2 EI L/2
x 2 dx
2 EI
L
3 3 2

1 1 wL3 7 wL3
1 D
6 8 EI 48EI

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1883
P PROBLEM 11.87

A For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point D.


D B
L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add couple M 0 at point D.

L M2
U 0 2 EI
dx

U L M M 1 L M
D
M0
0 EI M 0
dx
EI 0
M
M0
dx

L M
Over portion AD: 0 x 2 M Px
M0
0

L M
Over portion DB: 2 x L M Px M 0
M0
1

1 L 1 L
Set M 0 0. D
EI L/2
( Px)(0)dx
EI L/2
( Px)(1)dx

P L P 1 1L
2

EI L/2
x dx
EI
L2
2 2 2

1 1 PL
2
3PL2
D
2 8 EI 8 EI

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1884
w PROBLEM 11.88
D
A B For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point D.
E

L/2 L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add couple M0 at point D.


M0 M0
Reactions: RA RE wL
L L
U
U U AD U DE U EB , D
M 0
M0 U AD
Over portion AD, M x 0 with M 0 0 0
L M 0
2 2
1 L 1 L M
Over portion DE, M RBv w v wLv w v 0 v
2 2 2 2 L
M 1 1 L2 2
v, U DE M dv Set M 0 0
M 0 L 2EI 0

1 L2 L 1
2
U DE 1 L2 M 1
M dv wLv w v v dv
M 0 EI 0 M 0 EI 0 2 2 L

w L2 1 1
0
Lv 2 v3 Lv 2 L2v dv
EIL 2 4

w 11 L 1 1 L
3 4 3 2
L L L2
1 L 1 L

EIL 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 2

1 1 1 1 wL3 1 wL3

24 128 48 64 EI 384 EI
1 M U EB
Over portion EB, M wu 2 0 0
2 M 0 M 0

U AD U DE U EB 1 wL3 1 wL3
D 0 0
M 0 M 0 M 0 384 EI 384 EI

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1885
P PROBLEM 11.89

A B
For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point A.
D

a b
L

SOLUTION

Add couple M A at point A.


Pb M A Pa M A
Reactions: RA , RB
L L L L
LM2 1 a 2 1 b 2
U 0 dx M dx 2EI 0 M dv
2EI 2 EI 0
U 1 a M 1 b M
A M dx M dv
M A EI 0
M A EI 0
M A
x Pbx M x
Over portion AD (0 x a), M M A RA x M A 1 , 1
L L M A L
Pav M Av M v
Over portion DB (0 v b), M RBv ,
L L M A L
1 a Pbx x 1 b Pav v
Set M A 0 A 1 dx dv
EI 0 L L EI 0 L L
P 1 1 1
2
bLa 2 ba3 ab3
EIL 2 3 3
Pab
A 2
(3La 2a 2 2b 2 )
6EIL

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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1886
M0 PROBLEM 11.90
C
A B
For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point B.

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add couple M B at point B as shown.


1
Reactions. RA (M 0 M B )
L
M2 L
Strain energy. U 0 dx
2EI
U
Slope at point B. B
M B
x
M RA x M 0 (M 0 M B ) M0
L
M X x
With M B 0 M M 0 1
M B L L
U L M M
0 dx
M A EI M B
M0 L x x
0
1 dx
EI L L
M0 L
( x L) x dx
EIL2 0
M0 L 2
( x Lx) dx
EIL2 0
L
M x3 Lx 2 M L
0 0
EI 3 2 6 EI
0

M 0L M 0L
B B
6 EI 6 EI

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1887
1.5 kips 1.5 kips PROBLEM 11.91

A
For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection of
B C point B. Use E 29 106 psi.
S8 3 13

5 ft 5 ft

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point B.


Units: forces in kips, lengths in ft
E 29 103 ksi
I 39.6 in 4
EI (29 103 )(39.6)
1.148 106 kip in 2
7975 kip ft 2
M2 5 5 M
2
U 0 dx 0 dv
2 EI 2EI
U 1 5 M 5 M
B 0 M dx 0 M dv
Q EI Q Q
M 5 M
Over AB: M 1.5 x, 0 0 M dx 0
Q Q
M
Over BC: M 1.5(v 5) 1.5v Qv 3v 7.5 Qv; v
Q
5M 5 2 3 1 2 1
0 Q dv 0 (3v 7.5v) dv (3) 3 (5) (7.5) 2 (5) 218.75

1 218.75
B 0 143.75 27.43 103 ft B 0.329 in.
EI 7975

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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1888
1.5 kips 1.5 kips PROBLEM 11.92

A
For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection of
B C point A. Use E 29 106 psi.
S8 3 13

5 ft 5 ft

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point A.


Units: forces in kips, length in ft
E 29 103 ksi, I 39.6 in 4
EI (29 103 )(39.6)
1.148 106 kip in 2
7975 kip ft 2
M2 10
U 0 dx
2 EI
U 1 10 M
A M Q dx
Q EI 0
M
Over portion AB: 0 x 5, M 1.5 x Qx x
Q
5 M 5 5 2 3 1
0 M Q dx 0 (1.5x)( x) dx 1.5 0 x dx (1.5) 3 (5) 62.5

Over portion BC: 5 x 10 M 1.5 x 1.5( x 5) Qx
M
M 3x 7.5 Qx x
Q
10 M 10 2 3 13 2 2 1
0 M Q dx 5 (3x 7.5x) dx (3) 3 (10 5 ) (7.5) 2 (10 5 )

593.75
1 656.29
A 62.5 593.75 82.29 103 ft A 0.987 in.
EI 7975

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1889
8 kN 18 kN/m PROBLEM 11.93
A For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection at
B C
W250  22.3 point B. Use E 200 GPa.
1m 1.5 m

2.5 m

SOLUTION

Add force Q at point B.


Units: Forces in kN; lengths in m.
M
Over AB: M 8 x 0
Q
1 M
Over BC: M 8(v 1) (18)v 2 Qv v
2 Q

E 200 109 Pa, I 28.7 106 mm 4 28.7 106 m 4


EI (200 109 )(28.7 106 ) 5.74 106 N m 2 5740 kN m 2

1 M2 1.5 M2
U 0 2EI
dx 0 2 EI
dv

U 1 1 M 1.5 M
B
Q EI 0
M
Q
dx 0
M dv
Q
1 1.5 1 1 1.5 3
0
EI 0 8(v 1) (18)v 2 (v)dv
2 EI 0
(9v 8v 2 8v)dv

1 9 8 8 2 29.391 29.391
4 3
(1.5) (1.5) (1.5) 5.12 103 m
EI 4 3 2 EI 5740

B 5.12 mm

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1890
5 kN/m 40 mm PROBLEM 11.94

A 80 mm For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection at


B C point B. Use E 200 GPa.
4 kN

0.6 m 0.9 m

SOLUTION

M2 a L M2
U
0 2 EI
dx a 2 EI
dx

U
B
P
a M M L M M
0 EI P
dx a EI P
dx

Portion AB: (0 x a )

1 M
M wx 2 0
2 P
a M M
0 EI P
dx 0

Portion BC: (a x L)

1
M wx 2 P( x a)
2
M
( x a)
P
L M M w L P L
a EI P
dx
2 EI a
x 2 ( x a )dx
EI a
( x a )2 dx

w L P b

2 EI a
( x3 ax 2 )dx
EI 0
v 2 dv

w L4 aL3 a 4 a 4 Pb3

2 EI 4 3 4 3 3EI
w L4 aL3 a 4 Pb3
B 0
2 EI 4 3 12 3EI

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1891
PROBLEM 11.94 (Continued)

Data: a 0.6 m, b 0.9 m, L a b 1.5 m


w 5 103 N/m
P 4 103 N
1
I (40)(80)3 1.70667 106 mm 4
12
1.70667 106 m 4
EI (200 109 )(1.70667 106 ) 341,333 N m 2
5 103 (1.5) 4 (0.6)(1.5)3 (0.6)3 (4 103 )(0.9)3
B 0
(2)(341,333) 4 3 12 (3)(341,333)
7.25 103 m

B 7.25 mm

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1892
160 kN PROBLEM 11.95
W310  74
C
A B For the beam and loading shown, determine the slope at end A. Use
E 200 GPa.
2.4 m 2.4 m

4.8 m

SOLUTION

Add couple M A at point A.


Units: Forces in kN; lengths in m.
E 200 109 Pa, I 163 106 mm 4 163 106 m 4
EI (200 109 )(163 106 ) 32.6 106 N m 2 32,600 kN m 2
MA MA
Reactions: RA 80 RB 80
4.8 4.8

2.4 M2 2.4 M
2
U UAB UBC
U UAB UBC 0 dx 0 dv A
2EI 2EI M A M A M A

MA M x
Over AB: M M A RA x M A 80 x x 1
4.8 M A 4.8

U AB 1 2.4 x 1 2.4
Set M A 0.
M A EI 0
(80 x) 1
4.8
dx
EI 0
(80 x 16.6667 x 2 )dx

1 1 2 1 3 153.6
(80) (2.4) (16.6667) (2.4)
EI 2 3 EI

MA M 1
Over BC: M RBv 80v v, v
4.8 M A 4.8

U BC 1 2.4 1 16.6667 2.4


Set M A 0.
M A

EI 0
(80v)
4.8
v dv
EI 0
v 2 dv

(16.6667)(2.4)3 76.8

3EI EI
1 230.4
A {153.6 76.8} A 7. 07 103 rad
EI 32,600

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1893
90 kN 90 kN PROBLEM 11.96
D E
A B For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection at
S250  37.8 point D. Use E 200 GPa.
2m
0.6 m 0.6 m

SOLUTION

Units: Forces in kN, lengths in m.


E 200 109 Pa = 200 106 kN/m 2
I 51.2 106 mm 4 51.2 106 m 4
EI (200 106 )(51.2 106 ) 10,240 kN m 2
Let Q be the force applied at D. It will be set equal to 90 kN later.
Reactions:
M B 0: 3.2 A 2.6Q (0.6)(90) 0
A 16.875 0.8125Q

M A 0: 3.2 B 0.6Q (2.6)(90) 0


B 73.125 0.1875Q
Strain energy:
1 3.2
U
2 EI 0
M 2 dx

Deflection at point D: (formula)


U 1 3.2 M
D
Q EI 0
M
Q
dx

Over portion AD: (0 x 0.6 m)


M (16.875 0.8125Q) x
M
0.8125 x; Set Q 90 kN.
Q
M 90 x
0.6
0.6 M 0.6 x3
0
M
Q
0
(90 x )(0.8125 x ) 73.125
3 0
5.265 kN m3

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1894
PROBLEM 11.96 (Continued)

Over portion DE: (0.6 m x 2.6 m)


M (16.875 0.8125 Q ) x Q ( x 0.6)
16.875 x 0.1875Qx 0.6Q
M
0.1875 x 0.6; Set Q 90 kN.
Q
M (0.6)(90) 54 kN m
2.6 M 2.6
0.6
M
Q
dx 0.6
(54)(0.1875 x 0.6)dx
2.6
x2 2.6
10.125 32.4 x 0.6 32.4 kN m3
2 0.6
Over portion ED: (2.6 m x 3.2 m; 0 v 0.6 m)
M Bv (73.125 0.1875Q)v
M
0.1875 v Set Q 90 kN.
Q
M 90 v
3.2 M 0.6 M 0.6

2.6
M
Q
dx
0
M
Q
dv
0
(90v)(0.1875v)dv
0.6
v3
16.875 1.215 kN m3
3 0
Deflection at point D: (calculated)
5.265 32.4 1.215 38.88
D 3.797 103 m
EI 10,240
D 3.80 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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1895
3 ft
8 kips PROBLEM 11.97

A
C D
B For the beam and loading shown, determine the slope at end A. Use
S8  18.4
E 29 106 psi.
6 ft 3 ft

SOLUTION

Units: Forces in kips; lengths in ft.


E 29 103 ksi I 57.5 in 4
EI (29 103 )(57.5) 1.6675 106 kip in 2 11,580 kip ft 2
Add couple M A at end A.
MA M
Reactions: RA 4 , RB 12 A
6 6
U UAD UDB
U UAD UDB A
MA MA MA
MA
Over AD: (0 x 6) M M A RA x M A 4 x x
6
M x
1 Set M A 0.
M A 6
UA D 1 6 x 1 6 2 1 62 2 63

M A EI 0
(4 x) 1 dx
6 EI
0
4 x x 2 dx
3
(4)
EI

2 3 3
24

EI
M U DB
Over DB: (0 u 3) M 8u 0 0
MA MA
24 24
A 0 0 A 2.07 103 rad
EI 11,580

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1896
3 ft
8 kips PROBLEM 11.98

A
C D
B For the beam and loading shown, determine the deflection at point C.
S8  18.4
Use E 29 106 psi.
6 ft 3 ft

SOLUTION

Units: Forces in kips; lengths in ft.


E 29 103 ksi I 57.5 in 4
EI (29 103 )(57.5) 1.6675 106 kip in 2 11,580 kip ft 2

Add force Q at point C.


1 1
Reactions: RA 4 Q , RD 12 Q
2 2
U UAC UCD UDB
U UAC UCD UDB C
Q Q Q Q
1 M 1
Over AC: (0 x 3) M 4 Q x x Set Q 0.
2 Q 2
UAC 1 3 1 2 3 2 (2)(3)3 18
Q

EI 0
(4 x) x dx
2 EI 0
x dx
3EI
EI

1 1
Over CD: (0 v 3) M RB v 8(v 3) 12v Q 8v 24 4v 24 Qv
2 2
M 1
v Set Q 0.
Q 2
UCD 1 3 1 1 3 1 (3) 2 (3)3
Q

EI 0
(24 4v) v dv
2 EI 0
(12v 2v 2 )dv
EI


(12)
2
(2)
3

36

EI
M U DB
Over DB: (0 u 3) M 8u 0 0
Q Q
18 36 54
C 0 4.663 103 ft C 0.0560 in.
EI EI 11,580

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1897
B PROBLEM 11.99
P
1
A
2 l For the truss and loading shown, determine the horizontal and vertical deflection of
C
joint C.
1
2 l D A

SOLUTION

Add horizontal force Q at point C.


5
From geometry, LBC LCD
2
Equilibrium of joint C.
2
Fx 0: ( FBC FCD ) Q 0
5
1
Fy 0: ( FBC FCD ) P 0
5
Solving simultaneously,
5 5 5 5
FBC P Q FCD P Q
2 4 2 4

Fi 2 Li
Strain energy: U
2 EAi
U 1 F L F
Deflections. Horizontal: xC i i i
Q E Ai Q
U 1 F L F
Vertical: yC i i i
P E Ai P

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1898
PROBLEM 11.99 (Continued)

In the table, Q is set equal to zero in the last two columns.

Fi Li Fi Fi Li Fi
Fi Li Ai Fi / P Fi / Q
A P A Q

5 5 5 5 5 5 P 5 P
BC P Q A 5 5
2 4 2 2 4 8 A 16 A
5 5 5 5 5 5 P 5 P
CD P Q A 5 5
2 4 2 2 4 8 A 16 A
5 P
5 0
4 A
1 Fi Li Fi
xC 0 xC 0
E A Q
1 Fi Li Fi 5 P P
yC 5 yC 2.80
E Ai P 4 EA EA

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1899
B 2A D PROBLEM 11.100
A A 1
2 l For the truss and loading shown, determine the horizontal and vertical
C
deflection of joint C.
l l
P

SOLUTION

Add horizontal force Q at point C.


5
From geometry, LBC LCD l
2

Equilibrium of joint C.
2 2
Fx 0: FBC FCD Q 0
5 5
1 1
Fy 0: FBC FCD P 0
5 5
Solving simultaneously,
5 5 5 5
FBC P Q FCD P Q
2 4 2 4

Equilibrium of joint D.
2 5 5
Fx 0: FBD P Q 0

5 2 4
Q
FBD P
2
Fi 2 Li
Strain energy: U
2 EAi
U 1 Fi Li Fi
Deflections. Horizontal: xC
Q E Ai Q
U 1 Fi Li Fi
Vertical: yC
P E Ai P

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on a website, in whole or part.

1900
PROBLEM 11.100 (Continued)

In the table, Q is set equal to zero in the last two columns.

Fi Li Fi Fi Li Fi
Fi Li Ai Fi /P Fi /Q
Ai P Ai Q

5 5 5 5 5 5 Pl 5 Pl
BC P Q l A 5 5
2 4 2 2 4 8 A 16 A
5 5 5 5 5 5 Pl 5 Pl
CD P Q l A 5 5
2 4 2 2 4 8 A 16 A
1 1 Pl 1 Pl
BD P Q 2l 2A 1
2 2 A 2 A
5 Pl 1 Pl
4 5 1
A

2 A

1 Fi Li Fi Pl Pl
xC xC
E Ai Q 2 EA 2 EA
1 Fi Li Fi 5 Pl Pl
yC 5 1 yC 3.80
E Ai P 4 EA EA

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1901
B PROBLEM 11.101
4 in2
2.5 ft Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has the
3 in2
C 48 kips
cross-sectional area shown. Using E 29 106 psi, determine
the deflection indicated.
2.5 ft Vertical deflection of joint C.
6 in2 80 kips

D
6 ft

SOLUTION

12 12
Joint C: Fx 0: FBC FCD Q 0
13 13
13
FBC FCD Q (1)
12
5 5
Fy 0: FBC FCD P 0
13 13
13
FBC FCD P (2)
5
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously,
13 13
FBC P Q
10 24
13 13
FCD P Q
10 24
5
Joint D: Fy 0: FCD FBD 0
13
5 1 5
FBD FCD P Q
13 2 24

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1902
PROBLEM 11.101 (Continued)

Lengths of members: LBC 78 in.


LCD 78 in.
LBC 60 in.
F 2L
U
2 EA
U FL F 1 FL F
P
P EA P E A P

F FL F
Member F L (in.) A (in 2 )
P A P
13 13 13
BC P Q 78 4 32.955P 13.73125Q
10 24 10
13 13 13
CD P Q 78 6 21.97 P 9.15417Q
10 24 10
1 5 1
BD P Q 60 3 5.00 P 2.08333Q
2 24 2
59.975P 2.49375Q

Further data: E 29 106 psi


29,000 ksi
P 80 kips
Q 48 kips
(59.975)(80) (2.49375)(48)
P 0.1613 in.
29,000

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1903
B PROBLEM 11.102
4 in2
2.5 ft Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has the
3 in2
C 48 kips
cross-sectional area shown. Using E 29 106 psi, determine
the deflection indicated.
2.5 ft Horizontal deflection of joint C.
6 in2 80 kips

D
6 ft

SOLUTION

Joint C:
12 12
Fx 0: FBC FCD Q 0
13 13
13
FBC FCD Q (1)
12
5 5
Fy 0: FBC FCD P 0
13 13
13
FBC FCD P (2)
5
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously,
13 13
FBC P Q
10 24
13 13
FCD P Q
10 24
Joint D:
5
Fy 0: FCD FB 0
13
5 1 5
FBD FCD P Q
13 2 24

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1904
PROBLEM 11.102 (Continued)

Lengths of members: LBC 78 in.


LCD 78 in.
LBC 60 in.
F 2L
U
2 EA
U FL F 1 LF F
P
Q EA P E A Q

F FL F
Member F L (in.) A (in 2 )
Q A Q
13 13 13
BC P Q 78 4 13.73125P 5.72135Q
10 24 24
13 13
P Q 13
CD 10 24 78 6 9.15467 P 3.81424Q
24

1 5 5
BD P Q 60 3 2.08333P 0.86806Q
2 24 24
2.49325P 10.40365Q

Further data: E 29 106 psi


29,000 ksi
P 80 kips
Q 48 kips
(2.49325)(80) (10.40365)(48)
Q 0.01034 in.
29,000

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1905
1.6 m PROBLEM 11.103
A
Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has a cross-sectional
1.2 m area of 500 mm 2 . Using E 200 GPa, determine the vertical deflection of
joint B.
B

1.2 m

C
D
4.8 kN
2.5 m

SOLUTION

Find the length of each member as shown.


Add vertical force Q at joint B.

U F 2L 1 F
B F L
Q Q 2 EA EA Q

4
Joint C: Fy 0: FCB 4.8 0 FCB 6.0 kN
5
3
Fx 0: FCB FCD 0 FCD 3.6 kN
5
4 4
Joint B: Fx 0: FAB FBD 3.6 0
5 5
3 3
Fy 0: FAB FBD 4.8 Q 0
5 5
Solving simultaneously, FAB 6.25 0.8333Q kN
FBD 1.75 0.8333Q kN
3
Joint D: Fy 0: FBD FAD 0
5
3
FAD FBD 1.05 0.5 Q
5

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1906
PROBLEM 11.103 (Continued)

with Q 0
Member F (103 N) F/ Q L (m) F ( F/ Q) L (103 N m)
AB 6.25 0.8333Q 0.8333 2.0 10.4167
AD 1.05 0.5Q 0.5 2.4 1.26
BD 1.75 0.8333Q 0.8333 2.0 2.9167
BC 6.0 0 1.5 0
CD 3.6 0 2.5 0
14.593
1
B F ( F / Q) L
EA
14.593 103

(200 109 )(500 106 )
145.9 106 m
B 0.1459 mm

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1907
1.6 m PROBLEM 11.104
A
Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has a cross-sectional
1.2 m area of 500 mm 2 . Using E 200 GPa, determine the horizontal deflection
of joint B.
B

1.2 m

C
D
4.8 kN
2.5 m

SOLUTION

Find the length of each member as shown.


Add horizontal force Q at joint B.

U F 2L 1 F
B F L
Q Q 2 EA EA Q
4
Joint C: Fy 0: FCB 4.8 0 FCB 6.0 kN
5
3
Joint B: Fx 0: FCB FCD 0 FCD 3.6 kN
5
4 4
Fx 0: FAB FBD 3.6 Q 0
5 5
3 3
Fy 0: FAB FBD 4.8 0
5 5
Solving simultaneously, FAB 6.25 0.625Q kN
FBD 1.75 0.625Q kN
3
Joint D: Fy 0: FBD FAD 0
5
3
FAD FBD 1.05 0.375Q
5

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1908
PROBLEM 11.104 (Continued)

F ( F/ Q) L
Member F (103 N) F/ Q L (m) (103 N m)
AB 6.25 0.625Q 0.625 2.0 7.8125
AD 1.05 0.375Q 0.375 2.4 0.9450
BD 1.75 0.625Q 0.625 2.0 2.1875
BC 6.0 0 1.5 0
CD 3.6 0 2.5 0
4.680
1
B F ( F / Q) L
EA
4.680 103

(200 109 )(500 106 )
46.8 106 m
B 0.0468 mm

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1909
P PROBLEM 11.105

A A uniform rod of flexural rigidity EI is bent and loaded as shown. Determine


(a) the vertical deflection of point A, (b) the horizontal deflection of point A.
L

60

B
C
L

SOLUTION

Add horizontal force Q at point A.


1 3
Over AB: M Pv Qv
2 2
M 1 M 3
v v
P 2 Q 2
L M2
UAB 0 2 EI
dx
Set Q 0.
UAB 1 L M 1 L 1 1 1 PL3
P

EI 0
M
P
dv
EI
0 2
Pv v dv
2 12 EI
UAB 1 L M 1 L 1 3 3 PL3
Q

EI 0
M
Q
dv
EI
0 2
Pv 2

dv
12 EI
L 3 M L M 3
Over BC: M P x QL, x , L
2 2 P 2 Q 2
L M2
UBC
0 2 EI
dx
Set Q 0.
L
2 3
UBC 1 L M 1 L L P L 1 PL3
P

EI 0
M
P
dx
EI 0
P x dx
2
3EI
x
2

12 EI
0
L
2
UBC 1 L M 1 L L 3 3P L
Q

EI 0
M
Q
dx
EI 0
P x


2 2
L dx
4 EI
x
2
0
0

(a) Vertical deflection of point A.


UAB UBC PL3
P P
P P 6 EI
(b) Horizontal deflection of point A.
UAB UBC 3 PL3 PL3
Q Q 0.1443
Q Q 12 EI EI

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1910
PROBLEM 11.106
A
For the uniform rod and loading shown, and using Castiglianos theorem, determine the
deflection of point B.

SOLUTION

Use polar coordinate .

Calculate the bending moment M ( ) using free body BJ.

M J 0: Px M 0
M Px PR sin

L M2
Strain energy: U 0 2EI
ds

( PR sin ) 2
U 0 2 EI
( Rd )

P 2 R3

2EI 0
sin 2 d

P 2 R3 1 cos 2

2EI 0 2
d

1
P2 R2 1
sin 2
2EI
2 0 4 0
P R 2

4EI
U PR3
By Castiglianos theorem,
P 2EI

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1911
P PROBLEM 11.107

For the beam and loading shown, and using Castiglianos theorem, determine
B (a) the horizontal deflection of point B, (b) the vertical deflection of point B.

R
A

SOLUTION

Add horizontal force Q at point B.


Use polar coordinate .
/2 M2
U 0 2EI
Rd

Bending moment.
M J 0: M Pa Qb 0
M Pa Qb
PR sin QR (1 cos )
M M
R sin R (1 cos )
P Q
Set Q 0.
U 1 /2 M 1 /2
(a) Q
Q EI 0
M
Q
Rd
EI 0
PR sin R (1 cos ) Rd

/2
PR3 /2 PR3 1

EI 0
(sin sin cos )d
EI
( cos sin 2 )
2 0

PR3 1 1
cos cos 0 sin 2 sin 2 0
EI 2 2 2 2
PR3 1 PR3
0 1 0 Q
EI 2 2EI
U 1 /2 M 1 /2
(b) P
P EI 0
M
P
Rd
EI 0
PR sin R sin Rd

PR3 /2 PR3 /2 1

EI 0
sin 2 d
EI 0 2
(1 cos 2 )d
/2
PR3 1 1 PR3 1 1 1 1
sin 2 0 sin sin 0
EI 2 2 0 EI 2 2 2 2 2
PR3 PR3
0 0 0 P
EI 4 4 EI

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1912
l PROBLEM 11.108
P
C
B Two rods AB and BC of the same flexural rigidity EI are welded together at B. For
the loading shown, determine (a) the deflection of point C, (b) the slope of
l
member BC at point C.

SOLUTION

Add horizontal force Q and couple M C at C.

M A 0: RC l M C ( P Q)l 0
MC
RC P Q
l
Fx 0: P Q RAx 0 RAx P Q
M M
Member AB: M RAx y ( P Q) y, y, 0
Q MC
l M2
U AB 0 2EI
dy

Set Q 0 and M C 0.
UAB 1 l M 1 l 1 Pl 3
Q

EI 0
M
Q
dy
EI 0
( Py )( y )dy
3 EI
UAB 1 l M

M C EI 0
M
MA
dx 0

M
Member BC: M M C RC x M C P Q C x
l
M M x
x, 1
Q MC l
l M2
UBC 0 2EI
dx

Set Q 0 and M C 0.
UBC 1 l M 1 l 1 Pl 3
Q

EI 0
M
Q
dx
EI 0
( Px) x dx
3 EI
U 1 l M 1 l x

M A EI 0
M
MA
dx
EI 0
( Px) 1 dx
l
P l x2

EI 0
x dx
l
2
P 1 2 1 2 1 Pl
2 l l
EI 3 6 EI

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
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1913
PROBLEM 11.108 (Continued)

UAB UBC 2Pl 3


(a) Deflection at C. C C
Q Q 3EI
UAB UBC Pl 2
(b) Slope at C. C C
MA MC 6EI

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1914
P PROBLEM 11.109
B C
Three rods, each of the same flexural rigidity EI, are welded to form the
frame ABCD. For the loading shown, determine the deflection of point D.
L

A D

SOLUTION

Add dummy force Q at point D as shown.


Statics M A 0: DL PL 0 D P

Fx 0: Ax P Q 0 Ax ( P Q)
Fy 0: Ay D 0 Ay P
U U AB U BC U CD
U
By Castiglianos theorem, D
Q
U AB U BC U CD
D
Q Q Q
M
Member AB: M ( P Q) y y
Q
Set Q0 M Py

L M 2dy
U AB 0
2EI
U AB L M M p L 2 PL3
0 dy y dy
Q EI Q EI 0 3EI
Member BC:
M
M Px QL L
Q
Set Q 0 M Px
L M 2dx
U BC 0
2EI
U BC L M M PL L PL3
0 dx x dx
Q EI Q EI 0 2EI

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1915
PROBLEM 11.109 (Continued)

M
Member CD: M Qy y
Q
Set Q0 M 0
L M 2dy U CD L M M
U CD 0 0 dy 0
2 EI Q EI Q
PL3 PL3 5PL3
D 0
3EI 2EI 6EI

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1916
P PROBLEM 11.110
B C
Three rods, each of the same flexural rigidity EI, are welded to form the
frame ABCD. For the loading shown, determine the angle formed by the
L frame at point D.

A D

SOLUTION

Add couple M 0 at point D.

Statics: M A 0: M 0 DL PL 0
M0
DP
L
Fx 0: Ax P 0 Ax P
M0
Fy 0: Ay D 0 Ay P
L
Strain energy: U UAB UBC UCD

U
By Castiglianos theorem, D
M0
U AB U BC U CD
D
M0 M0 M0
M L M2
Member AB: M Py
M0
0 UAB 0 2EI
dy

UAB L M M

M0

0 EI M
0
dy 0

M0x
Member BC: M M 0 Dx M 0 Px
L
M x
Set M 0 0 M Px 1
M 0 L
L M2
UBC 0 2 EI
dx

UBC L M M P L x PL2
M0
0 EI M 0
dx
EI 0
x 1 dy
L 6 EI

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1917
PROBLEM 11.110 (Continued)

M
Member CD: M M0 1
M0

Set M 0 0 M 0
L M2 U L M M
U 0 2EI
dy
M0
0 EI M 0
dx 0

2
PL PL2
D 0 0 D
6 EI 6 EI

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on a website, in whole or part.

1918
P PROBLEM 11.111
C
B
Determine the reaction at the roller support and draw the bending moment
A diagram for the beam and loading shown.

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION
Remove support B and add reaction RB as a load.

M2
L/2 L /2 M2
U U AC U CB
0 2 EI
du 0 2EI
dv

U U AB U CB
yB 0
RB RB RB
L M L
Over AC: M RB u Pu , u
2 RB 2

U AB 1 L/2 L L
RB

EI 0
RB u Pu u du
2 2
2
RB L/2
L P L/ 2 L

EI0
u 2 dv
EI 0
u u du
2
R L P 1 L 3 L 1 L 2
3
B L3
3EI 2 EI 3 2 2 2 2

7 RB L3 5 PL3

24 EI 48 EI
M
Over CB: M RB v v
RB
3
U CB 1 L/2 RB L 1 RB L3
RB

EI 0
( RB v)v dv
3EI 2


24 EI

7 1 RB L3 5 PL3 5
yB 0 RB P
24 24 EI 48 EI 16

L 5
M C RB MC PL
2 32
L 5 1 3
M A RB L P PL MA PL
2 16 2 16

MB 0

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1919
M0 PROBLEM 11.112
B
A Determine the reaction at the roller support and draw the bending-moment
diagram for the beam and loading shown.
L

SOLUTION

Remove support B and add reaction RB as a load.


M2L
U 0 dv
2EI
U 1 L M
yB M R dv 0
RB EI 0 B
M
M RBv M 0 v
RB
1 L
yB ( RBvM 0 ) v dv
EI 0
R L M L
B 0 v 2dv 0 0 v dv
EI EI
RB L3 M 0 L2 3 M0
0 RB
3EI 2 EI 2 L
3 1
M A RB M 0 M 0 M 0 M 0
2 2

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1920
M0 PROBLEM 11.113
A
D B
Determine the reaction at the roller support and draw the bending moment
a b diagram for the beam and loading shown.
L

SOLUTION

Remove support A and add reaction RA as a load.


M2 L
U
0 2EI
dx

U 1 L M
A
RA EI 0
M
RA
dx 0

M
Portion AD: (0 x a ) M RA x x
RA
U AD 1 a RA a 3
RA

EI 0
( RA x)( x) dx
3EI
M
Portion DB: (a x L) M RA x M 0 x
RA
U DB 1 L 1 1 1 2

3 3 2
( RA x M 0 )( x) dx RA ( L a ) M 0 ( L a )
RA EI a EI 3 2
U AD U DB 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2
A 2
RA a L a M 0 ( L a ) 0
RA RA EI 3 3 3 2
3 M 0 ( L2 a 2 ) 3 M 0b ( L a)
RA RA
2 L3 2 L3
MA 0
3 M 0 ab ( L a)
M D RA a M D
2 L3
3 M 0 ab( L a )
M D M D M 0 M D M0
2 L3
3 M 0 b( L a )
M B RA L M 0 MB M0
2 L2
1
Bending moment diagram drawn to scale for a L.
3
By singularity functions,

M 3M 0b( L a ) x/2 L3 M 0 L a 0

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1921
w PROBLEM 11.114
C
A Determine the reaction at the roller support and draw the bending moment
B diagram for the beam and loading shown.

L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Remove support A and add reaction RA as a load.


M2
L L M2
U 02 dx 02 dv
2 EI 2EI
U 1 L2 M 1 L2 M
A M dx M R dv 0
RA EI 0
RA EI 0 A

L M
Portion AC: O x M RA x x
2 RA
U AC 1 L2 RA L3
A( R x )( x ) dx
RA EI 0 24 EI
L
Portion CB: 0 v
2
L 1 M L
M RA v wv 2 v
2 2 RA 2
U CB 1 L L 1 L
R v wv 2 v dv
0 A
RA EI 2 2 2

1 L L
2
1 L
3 L 2
RA 0 v dv w 02 v v dv
2
EI 2 2 2

RA 1 3 1 L 1 L 4 L 1 L 3
3
w
L
EI 3 3 2 2 EI 4 2 2 3 2

1 1 RA L3 7 wL4

3 24 EI 384 EI
U AC U CB 1 RA L3 7 wL4
A 0
RA RA 3 EI 384 EI
7
RA wL
128

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1922
PROBLEM 11.114 (Continued)

7
Bending moments. Over AC: M wLx
128
7
MC wL2 0.02734wL2
256
7 L 1
Over CB: M wL v wv 2
128 2 2
2
7 1 L 9
MB wL2 w wL2
128 2 2 128
M B 0.07031wL2
dM 7 7
wL wvm 0 vm L
dv 128 128
2
7 7 L 1 7
Mm wL L w L
128 128 2 2 128
945
wL2 0.02884wL2
32,768
7
or M wLx w x L /2 2 /2
128

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1923
P PROBLEM 11.115
D B
A Determine the reaction at the roller support and draw the bending moment
diagram for the beam and loading shown.
L 2L
3 3

SOLUTION

Remove support A and add reaction RA as a load.

M2 L
U
0 2 EIdx

U 1 L M
A
RA EI 0
M
RA
dx

L M
Portion AD: 0 x M RA x x
3 RA
U AD 1 L /3 M 1 L /3

RA

EI 0
M
RA
dx
EI 0
( RA x)( x) dx

3
RA L 1 RA L3

3EI 3 81 EI
L L
Portion DB: x L M RA x P x
3 3
M
x
RA
U DB 1 L M 1 L L

RA
M
EI L/3 RA
dx EI 3
RA P x x dxL/3

R L 2 P L 2 L
A
EI L/3
x dx
EI L/3
x x dx
3
R 3 L 3 P 1 3 L 3 L 2 L 2
A L L L
3EI 3 EI 3 3 6 3
3 3
1 1 R L 1 1 1 1 PL
A
3 81 EI 3 81 6 54 EI
U AD U DB 1 1 1 RA L3 14 PL3
A
RA RA 81 3 81 EI 81 EI
1 RA L3 14 PL3

3 EI 81 EI
0
14
RA P
27

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1924
PROBLEM 11.115 (Continued)

L 14
Bending moments: M D RA PL M D 0.1728PL
3 81

2L 4
M B RA L P PL M B 0.1481PL
3 27

14
By singularity functions, M Px P x L/31
27

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1925
w PROBLEM 11.116
B
A C For the uniform beam and loading shown, determine the reaction at each
support.
L/2 L

SOLUTION

Remove support A and add reaction RA as a load.


L 1
M B 0 RA wL2 RC L 0
2 2
1 1
RC RA wL
2 2
L M2 L M
2
U U AB U BC 02 dx 0 dv
2 EI 2 EI
U U AB U BC
A 0
RA RA RA

M
Portion AB: M RA x, x
QA
3
U AB 1 L2 M 1 L2 RA L 1 RA L3
M dx ( R A x )( x ) dx
RA EI 0 RA EI 0 3EI 2 24 EI
1 2 1 1 1
Portion BC: M RC v wv RAv wLv wLv 2
2 2 2 2
M 1
v
RA 2
U BC 1 L 1 1 1
RAv w( Lv v 2 ) v dv
RA EI 0 2 2 2
1 L
RAv w( Lv v ) dv
2 2 3

4EI 0
1 L3 L4 L4 RA L3 wL4
RA w
4EI 3 3 4 12 EI 48EI
U AB U BC 1 1 R L3 wL4
A A 0
RA RA 24 12 EI 48EI
1 1
RA wL RA wL
6 6
1 1 1 5
RC wL wL RC wL
2 6 2 12

Fy 0: RA RB RC wL 0
1 5 3
wL RB wL wL 0 RB wL
6 12 4

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1926
PROBLEM 11.117
D C E
  Three members of the same material and same cross-sectional area are used to
l support the load P. Determine the force in member BC.

SOLUTION

Detach member BC at support C.


Add reaction RC as a load.

F 2L U FL F
U yC 0
2 EA RC EA RC

Joint C: FBC RC

Joint B: Fx 0: FBE sin FBD sin 0 FBE FBD

Fy 0: FBD cos FBE cos RB P

P RB
FBD FBE
2cos

Member F F/ RB L ( FL/EA) ( F/ RB )
BD ( P RB )/2cos 1/2 cos l/ cos ( RB P)l/4 EA cos3
BE ( P RB )/2cos 1/2 cos l/ cos ( RB P)l/4 EA cos3
BC RB 1 l RB l/EA

yB Pl/2 EA cos3 RB l/2 EA cos3 RB l/EA 0

P P
RB FBC RB FBC
1 2cos3 1 2 cos3

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1927
PROBLEM 11.118
C

Three members of the same material and same cross-sectional area are
R E
used to support the load P. Determine the force in member BC.
f
D
B

SOLUTION

LBD LCB LBE R


A Constant
E Constant

Joint E: Fx 0: FBE cos FBD 0


FBE FBD / cos
Fy 0: FBC ( FBD / cos )sin P 0; FBC P FBD tan
Fi Li Fi L Fi
xB FL 0
EAi FBD AE FBD
Fi
We have Fi 0
FBD

Fi Fi /FBD Fi Fi /FBD

BD FBD 1 FBD

P FBD tan tan P tan FBE tan 2


BC

1
BE FBD / cos FBD / cos 2
cos

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1928
PROBLEM 11.118 (Continued)

Fi 1
Fi FBD 1 tan 2 P tan 0
FBD cos 2
sin
tan cos sin cos
FBD P
1 sin
2
1 cos sin 2 1
2
1 tan 2 1
cos 2 cos cos 2
2

P P
FBD sin cos sin 2
2 4
FBC P FBD tan
1 sin
P sin cos
2 cos
1
P 1 sin 2
2
11 7
2
FBC P 1 P
2 2 8

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1929
PROBLEM 11.119
B
D
308 Three members of the same material and same cross-sectional area are
l used to support the load P. Determine the force in member BC.

A C

l
P

SOLUTION

Cut member BC at end B and replace member force FBC by load FB acting on
member BC at B.
U F 2L 1 F
B F L0
FB FB EA EA FB
3
Joint C: Fy 0: FCD FBC P 0
2
2 2
FCD P FB
3 3
1
Fx 0: FAC FCD 0
2
1 1
FAC P FB
3 3

Member F F/ FB L F ( F/ FB ) L
AC FB 1 l FB l
1 1 1 1 1
BC P FB l Pl FB l
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 8 8
CD P FB l Pl FB l
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 8 4 8
Pl FB l
3 3 3 3

1 8 Pl 4 8 FB l
B 0
3 3 EA 3 3 EA
1
3
8
3 8 3
FB P P 0.652 P
4
3
8
3
84 3
FBC FB FBC 0.652 P

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1930
PROBLEM 11.120
C
D
Three members of the same material and same cross-sectional area are used to
3
4 l support the load P. Determine the force in member BC.

E
B
l
P

SOLUTION

Detach member BC from support C. Add reaction FC as a load.

F 2L 1
U F 2 L
2 EA 2 EA
U 1 F
C F L
FC EA FC

3 5 5
Joint B: Fy 0: FC P FBD 0 FBD P FC
5 3 3
4 4 4
Fx 0: FBE FBD 0 FBE P FC
5 3 3

Member F F/ FC L F ( F/ FC ) L
3 3
BC FC 1 l FC l
4 4
5 5 5 5 125 125
BD P FC l Pl FC l
3 3 3 4 36 36
4 4 4 16 16
BE P FC l Pl FC l
3 3 3 9 9
21
Pl 6 FC l
4

1 21 7 7
C Pl 6 FC l 0 FC P FBC FC FBC P
EA 4 8 8

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1931
P PROBLEM 11.121
A B Knowing that the eight members of the indeterminate truss shown have the
same uniform cross-sectional area, determine the force in member AB.
3
C
4 l

D E
l

SOLUTION

Cut member AB at end A and replace member force FAB by load FA acting on member AB at end A.

U F 2L 1 F
A F L0
FA FA 2 EA EA FA
4 5
Joint B: Fx 0: FA FBD 0 FBD FA
5 4

3 3
Fy 0: P FBE FBD 0 FBE P FA
5 4
3 5 5
Joint E: Fy 0: FBE FAE 0 FAE P FA
5 3 4

4 4
Fx 0: FAE FDE 0 FDE P FA
5 3
3
Joint D: Fy 0: FAD FBD 0
5
3
FAD FA
4

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1932
PROBLEM 11.121 (Continued)

Member F F/ FA L F ( F/ FA ) L
AB FA 1 l FAl
3 3 3 27
AD FA l FAl
4 4 4 64
5 5 5 5 125 125
AE P FA l Pl FAl
3 4 4 4 48 64
5 5 5 125
BD FA l FAl
4 4 4 64
3 3 3 9 27
BE P FA l Pl FAl
4 4 4 16 64
4 4
DE P FA 1 l Pl FAl
3 3
9 27
Pl FAl
2 4

1 9 27
A Pl FAl 0
EA 2 4
2
FA P
3
2
FAB FA FAB P
3

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1933
A B PROBLEM 11.122

3
C Knowing that the eight members of the indeterminate truss shown have the
4 l same uniform cross-sectional area, determine the force in member AB.

D E
l
P

SOLUTION

Cut member AB at end A and replace member force FAB by load FA acting on member AB at end A.

U F 2L 1 F
A F L0
FA FA 2EA EA FA
5 3
Joint B: FBD FA FBE FA
4 4

3
Joint E: Fy 0: FBE P FAE
5
5 5
FAE P FBE
3 3
5 5
P FA
3 4
4
Fx 0: FAE FDE 0
5
4 4
FDE FAE P FA
5 3
3
Joint D: Fy 0: FAD FDB 0
5
3 3
FAD FDB FA
5 4

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1934
PROBLEM 11.122 (Continued)

Member F F/ FA L F ( F/ FA ) L

AB FA 1 l FAl
3 3 3 27
AD FA l FAl
4 4 4 64
5 5 5 5 125 125
AE P FA l Pl FAl
3 4 4 4 48 64
5 5 5 125
BD FA l FAl
4 4 4 64
3 3 3 27
BE FA l FAl
4 4 4 64
4 4
DE P FA 1 l Pl FAl
3 3
63 27
Pl FAl
16 4

1 63 27
A Pl FAl 0
EA 16 4
7
FA P
12
7
FAB FA FAB P
12

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1935
1.6 m
PROBLEM 11.123
1.2 m
C Rod AB is made of a steel for which the yield strength is Y 450 MPa
B and E 200 GPa; rod BC is made of an aluminum alloy for which
Y 280 MPa and E 73 GPa. Determine the maximum strain energy
A
that can be acquired by the composite rod ABC without causing any
P
14-mm diameter permanent deformations.
10-mm diameter

SOLUTION


AAB (10) 2 78.54 mm 2
4
78.54 106 m 2

ABC (14) 2 153.94 mm 2
4
153.94 106 m 2

Pall Y A for each portion.

AB : Pall (450 106 )(78.54 106 )


35.343 103 N

BC : Pall (280 106 )(153.94 106 )


43.103 103 N

Use the smaller value. P 35.343 103 N


P 2 LAB P 2 LBC (35.343 103 )2 (1.2)
U
2 E AB AAB 2 EBC ABC (2)(200 109 )(78.54 106 )
(35.343 103 ) 2 (1.6)

(2)(73 109 )(153.94 106 )
U 136.6 J

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1936
B PROBLEM 11.124
3 in2
4 ft
Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has the
cross-sectional area shown. Using E 29 106 psi, determine
D C the strain energy of the truss for the loading shown.
20 kips
2
4 in
24 kips

7.5 ft

SOLUTION

LBC 7.52 42 8.5 ft 102 in.


LCD 7.5 ft 90 in.
ABC 3 in 2 , ACD 4 in 2
E 29,000 ksi
Equilibrium at joint C.
4
Fy 0: FBC 24 0 FBC 51 kips
8.5
7.5
Fx 0: FCD (51 kips) 20 kips 0
8.5
FCD 25 kips

Strain energy.
Fi 2 Li F2 L F2 L
U BC BC CD CD
2 EAi 2EABC 2 EACD
(51)2 (102) (25) 2 (90)

(2)(29,000)(3) (2)(29,000)(4)
1.5247 0.2425
U 1.767 in. kip

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1937
A PROBLEM 11.125

The ship at A has just started to drill for oil on the ocean floor at a depth of
5000 ft. The steel drill pipe has an outer diameter of 8 in. and a uniform
5000 ft wall thickness of 0.5 in. Knowing that the top of the drill pipe rotates
through two complete revolutions before the drill bit at B starts to operate
and using G 11.2 106 psi, determine the maximum strain energy acquired
B by the drill pipe.

SOLUTION
(2) (2 ) 4 rad
L 5000 ft 60 103 in.
do
co 4 in. ci co t 3.5 in.
2

J
2
c
4
o
ci4 166.406 in 4

TL GJ
T
GJ L
2
T 2 L GJ L GJ 2
U
2GJ L 2GJ 2L
(11.2 106 )(166.406)(4 ) 2
U U 2.45 106 in. lb
(2)(60 103 )

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1938
PROBLEM 11.126
A
Bronze
E 105 GPa Collar D is released from rest in the position shown and is stopped by a
4m 12-mm diameter small plate attached at end C of the vertical rod ABC. Determine the mass
of the collar for which the maximum normal stress in portion BC is
B Aluminum 125 MPa.
E 70 GPa
2.5 m D 9-mm diameter
0.6 m
C

SOLUTION

Portion BC: m 125 106 Pa


2
ABC (9) 63.617 mm 2 63.617 106 m 2
4
Pm m ABC 7952 N

Corresponding strain energy:


Pm2 LBC (7952)2 (2.5)
U BC 17.750 J
2 EBC ABC (2)(70 109 )(63.617 106 )

AAB (12)2 113.907 mm 2 113.907 106 m 2
4
P2 L (7952) 2 (4)
U AB m AB 10.574 J
2 E AB AAB (2)(105 109 )(113.907 106 )
U m U BC U AB 28.324 J
Corresponding elongation m :

1
Pm m U m
2
2U m (2)(28.324)
m 7.12 103 m
Pm 7952

Falling distance: h 0.6 7.12 103 0.60712 m

Work of weight U m Wh mgh U m

Um 28.324
m m 4.76 kg
gh (9.81)(0.60712)

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1939
1.5 m
PROBLEM 11.127
A B

Each member of the truss shown is made of steel and has a cross-
C sectional area 400 mm 2. Using E 200 GPa, determine the deflection
0.8 m
of point D caused by the 16-kN load.

D E

16 kN

SOLUTION
Equilibrium of entire truss.
M A 0: D 0
Fx 0: Ax 0
Fy 0: Ay 16 kN

Equilibrium of joint A.
From the force triangle,
FACE F 16 kN
AB
17 15 8
FAB 30 kN (compression)
FACE 34 kN (tension)
By symmetry,
FDE 30 kN (compression)
FBCD 34 kN (tension)
Equilibrium of joint B.
8
Fy 0: FACE FBE 0
17
8
(34 kN) FBE 0 FBE 16 kN
17

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1940
PROBLEM 11.127 (Continued)

Members: A 400 mm 2 400 106 m 2


E 200 GPa 200 109 Pa
EA (200 109 )(400 106 ) 80 106 N

Fi 2 Li 1
Strain energy: U Fi 2 Li
2 EA 2 EA

Fi (kN) Li (m) Fi 2 Li
AB 30 1.5 1350
DE 30 1.5 1350
ACE 34 1.7 1965.2
BCD 34 1.7 1965.2
BE 16 0.8 204.8
6835.2 (kN) 2 m
6.8352 109 N 2 m

6.8352 109
U 42.72 N m
(2)(80 106 )
Principle of work and energy:
1
P U ( P 16 kN 16 103 N)
2
1
(16 103 ) 42.72 5.34 103 m
2
Deflection of point D. 5.34 mm

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1941
PROBLEM 11.128

A block of weight W is placed in contact with a beam at some given point D and released. Show that the
resulting maximum deflection at point D is twice as large as the deflection due to a static load W applied at D.

SOLUTION

Consider dropping the weight from a height h above the beam. The work done by the weight is
Work W (h ym )

1 1
Strain energy: U Pm ym kym2
2 2
where k is the spring constant of the beam for loading at point D.
1 2
Equating work and energy, W ( h ym ) kym .
2
1 2 2W
Setting h 0, Wym kym , ym .
2 k
The static deflection at point D due to weight applied at D is
W
st . ym 2 st
k

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1942
C PROBLEM 11.129
50 mm
60 mm
Two solid steel shafts are connected by the gears
A
40 mm shown. Using the method of work and energy,
determine the angle through which end D rotates
when T 820 N m. Use G 77.2 GPa.

B
0.40 m 100 mm D
T

0.60 m

SOLUTION
1
Shaft CD: T 820 N m c d 20 mm 0.020 m
2

J c4 (0.020)4 251.33 109 m 4
2 2
G 77.2 109 Pa, L 0.60 m
T 2L (820)2 (0.60)
U CD 10.397 J
2GJ (2)(77.2 109 )(251.33 109 )
TCD T
Equilibrium of shafts: AB
rC rB
rB 100 mm
TAB TCD (820 N m) 1366.67 N m
rC 60 mm
1
Shaft AB: T 1366.67 N m c d 25 mm 0.025 m
2

J c4 (0.025)4 613.59 106 m 4
2 2
G 77.2 109 Pa, L 0.40 m
2
T L (1366.67) 2 (0.40)
U AB 7.886 J
2GJ (2)(77.2 109 )(613.59 109 )
Total strain energy: U U CD U AB 18.283 J
1 2U (2)(18.283)
T U 0.04459 rad
2 TA 820
2.55

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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on a website, in whole or part.

1943
A PROBLEM 11.130

B The 12-mm-diameter steel rod ABC has been bent into the shape
shown. Knowing that E 200 GPa and G 77.2 GPa, determine
the deflection of end C caused by the 150-N force.
C l 200 mm
l 200 mm

P 150 N

SOLUTION
4
12
J c4 2.0358 103 mm 4
2 2 2
2.0358 109 m 4
1
I J 1.0179 109 m 4
2
Portion AB: bending M Px
LAB M2 P2 LAB
UAB , b 0 2EI
dx
2EI 0
x 2dx

P 2 L3AB (150) 2 (200 103 )3



6 EI (6)(200 109 )(1.0179 109 )
0.14736 J
torsion T PLBC

T 2 LAB P 2 L2BC LAB


UAB , t
2GJ 2GJ
(150) (200 103 ) 2 (200 103 )
2

(2)(77.2 109 )(2.0358 109 )
0.57265 J
Portion BC: M Px
LBC M2 P2 LBC P 2 L3BC
UBC 0 2EI
dx
3EI 0
x 2dx
6 EI
(150) 2 (200 103 )3
0.14736 J
(6)(200 109 )(1.0179 109 )
Total: U UAB, b UAB, t UBC 0.86737 J

1 2U (2)(0.86737)
Work-energy: P U
2 P 150
11.57 103 m 11.57 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
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1944
P P PROBLEM 11.131
D E
A B For the prismatic beam shown, determine the slope at point D.

L/2 L/2 L/2

SOLUTION

Add counterclockwise couple M 0 at point D.


Reactions:
L L
M E 0: AL P P M0 0
2 2
M0
A
L
L L
M A 0: EL P L P M 0 0
2 2
M
E 2P 0
L
Strain energy: U U AD U DE U EB
Slope at point D (formula).
U U AD U DE U EB
D
M 0 M 0 M 0 M 0

L
Portion AD: 0 x
2
M2 L/2
UAD
0 2 EI
dx

M M x
M 0x
L M 0 L
Set M 0 0 so that M 0.

U AD 1 L /2 M
M 0

EI 0
M
M 0
dx 0

L L M2
Portion DE: x L
2
U DE L/ 2 2 EI
dx

L x L
M Ax P x M 0 M 0 1 P x
2 L 2

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1945
PROBLEM 11.131 (Continued)

M x L
1; Set M 0 0 so that M P x .
M 0 L 2

U DE 1 L M P L L x
M 0

EI L/2
M
M 0
dx
EI
L/2
x 2 1 L dx

P 3 L x2 L

EI
x
L/2 2

dx
L 2

P 3 x 2
L L L
x3 Lx

EI 2 2 L /2 3L L / 2 2 L /2

PL2 3 3 1 1 1 1 PL
3

EI 4 16 3 24 2 4 48 EI
L L /2 M2
Portion EB: 0 v
2
U EB 0 2EI
dx

M U EB 1 L/2 M
M Pv
M 0
0
M 0

EI 0
M
M 0
dv 0

PL2
Slope at point D. D 0 0
48EI
PL2
D
48EI

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on a website, in whole or part.

1946
PROBLEM 11.132
L
A disk of radius a has been welded to end B of the solid steel shaft
AB. A cable is then wrapped around the disk and a vertical force P is
A applied to end C of the cable. Knowing that the radius of the shaft is
a and neglecting the deformations of the disk and of the cable, show
that the deflection of point C caused by the application of P is
a

B PL3 Ea 2
C 1 1.5 2 .
3EI GL
C

SOLUTION

Torsion: T Pa

T 2 L P2 a2 L
Ut
2GJ 2GJ
Bending: M Pv

L M 2 dv L P 2 v 2 dv
Ub 0 2 EI
0 2 EI
2 3
P L

6 EI

P 2 a 2 L P 2 L3 1
Total: U P C
2GJ 6 EI 2
2
Pa L PL 3
PL3 3EIa 2
C 1
GJ 3EI 3EI GJL2
PL3 Ea 2
Since J 2I , C 1 1.5 2
3EI GL

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on a website, in whole or part.

1947
B C PROBLEM 11.133

l A uniform rod of flexural rigidity EI is bent and loaded as shown. Determine


(a) the horizontal deflection of point D, (b) the slope at point D.
A P
D

SOLUTION

Add couple M D at point D.

Reactions at A: RAy 0, RAx P , M A M0

M M
Member AB: M M A RA y M D P y y, 1
P MD
l M2
U AB 0 2EI
dy

Set M D 0.
UAB 1 l M 1 l Pl 3
P

EI 0
M
P
dy
EI 0
( Py ) y dy
3EI
UAB 1 l M 1 l Pl 2

M 0 EI 0
M
M0
dy
EI 0
( Py )(1) dy
2EI
M M
Member BC: M M A RAl MD Pl l, 1
P MD
l M2
UBC 0 2 EI
dx

Set M D 0.

UBC 1 l M 1 l Pl 3
P

EI 0
M
P
dx
EI 0
( Pl )(l ) dx
EI
UBC 1 l M 1 l Pl 2

MD EI 0
M
MD
dx
EI 0
( Pl )(1) dx
EI

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1948
PROBLEM 11.133 (Continued)

M M
Member CD: M M D Py y 1
P MD
l M2
UCD 0 2 EI
dy

Set M D 0.
UCD 1 l M 1 l Pl 3
P

EI 0
M
P
dy
EI 0
( Py )( y ) dy
3EI
U CD 1 l M 1 l Pl 2

M D EI 0
M
MD
dy
EI 0
( Py )(1) dy
2 EI

(a) Horizontal deflection of point D.


UAB UBC UCD 1 1 Pl 3 5Pl 3
P 1 P
P P P 3 3 EI 3EI
(b) Slope at point D.
UAB UBC UCD 1 1 Pl 2 2 Pl 2
D 1 D
MD MD MD 2 2 EI EI

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on a website, in whole or part.

1949
D PROBLEM 11.134

0.2-in. diameter The steel bar ABC has a square cross section of side 0.75 in. and is
25 in. subjected to a 50-lb load P. Using E 29 106psi for the rod BD and the
P bar, determine the deflection of point C.

A C
B

30 in.
10 in.

SOLUTION

Assume member BD is a two-force member.


M A 0: 10 FBD (40)(50) 0 FBD 200 lb

ABD (0.2)2 31.416 103 in 2
4
2
FBD LBD (200) 2 (25)
U BD
2 EA (2)(29 106 )(31.416 103 )
0.5488 in. lb
1
Member ABC: I (0.75)(0.75)3 26.367 103 in 4
12
x
Portion AB: M 1500 150 x
10
10 M 2 1502 10 2
UAB
0 2 EI
dx
2 EI 0
x dx
(150) (103 )2

(2)(29 106 )(26.367 103 )(3)
4.904 in. lb
Portion BC: M 50v
30 M2 502 30
UBC 0 2 EI
dv
2 EI 0
v 2dv

(50)2 (30)3
14.713 in. lb
(2)(29 106 )(26.367 103 )(3)
Total: U U BD U AB U BD 20.166 in. lb
1
P C U
2
2U (2)(20.166)
C C 0.807 in.
P 50

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1950
PROBLEM 11.C1

Element n
A rod consisting of n elements, each of which is homogeneous
Element i
Element 1 and of uniform cross section, is subjected to a load P applied at
its free end. The length of element i is denoted by Li and its
diameter by di . (a) Denoting by E the modulus of elasticity of
P the material used in the rod, write a computer program that can
be used to determine the strain energy acquired by the rod and
the deformation measured at its free end. (b) Use this program to
determine the strain energy and deformation for the rods of
Probs. 11.9 and 11.10.

SOLUTION

Enter: P and E
For each element
Enter Ai and Di
Compute:
P
Normal stress: i
Ai
P 2 Li
Strain energy: Ui
2 Ai E
i2
Strain energy density: u
2E
Total strain energy.
Update through n elements.
U U Ui
Total deformation.
1 2U
P U :
2 P
Program Outputs
Problem 11.9
Axial load 8.000 kips Modulus of elasticity 29 106 psi

Length Stress Strain Energy Strain Energy Density


Element in. L in. ksi in. lb lb in./in3
1 24.000 0.022 26.08 86.32 11.72
2 36.000 0.022 18.11 89.92 5.65

Total strain energy 176.24 in. lb


Total deformation 0.0441 in.

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1951
PROBLEM 11.C1 (Continued)

Program Outputs (Continued)

Problem 11.10
Axial load 25.000 kN Modulus of elasticity 200 GPa

Length Stress Strain Energy Strain Energy Density


Element m L mm MPa J kJ/m3
1 0.80 0.497 124.34 6.22 38.65
2 1.20 0.477 79.58 5.97 15.83

Total strain energy 12.1853 J


Total deformation 0.9748 mm

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1952
PROBLEM 11.C2
F 1500 lb 3
6 in. Two 0.75 6-in. cover plates are welded to a
D C h E 4
W8 18 rolled-steel beam as shown. The 1500-lb
A B block is to be dropped from a height h 2 in. onto
the beam. (a) Write a computer program to calculate
W8 18
the maximum normal stress on transverse sections
just to the left of D and at the center of the beam for
a a values of a from 0 to 60 in. using 5-in. increments.
60 in. 60 in. (b) From the values considered in part a, select the
distance a for which the maximum normal stress is as
small as possible. Use E 29 106 psi.

SOLUTION

Compute and enter moments of inertia and section moduli.


For AD and EB: W8 18:
I1 61.9 in 4 S1 15.2 in 3
For DCE: W8 18 plus cover plates:

I 2 61.9 2(6 0.75)(4.445) 2


239.72 in 4
I2
S2
(4.07 0.75)
239.72

4.82
49.7 in 3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ym Pm where influence coefficient. See next page for determination of .

Pm equivalent static load

1 1 ym2
U2 Pm ym
2 2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use.
Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1953
PROBLEM 11.C2 (Continued)

Work done by w is w(h ym )


1 ym2
wh wym
2
or ym2 2 w ym 2 wh
A

Position 1 Position 2

Program solution of
A for ym

Enter L 120 in., h 2 in., W 1500 lb, E 29 106 psi


For a 0 to 60 in., Step 5 in.:
Solve
A for ym , Pm ym / , yst w

1 1
D 1 Pm a/S1 ; c 2 Pm L/S 2
2 4
Print: a, yst , ym , Pm , 1 , 2 , and ( 1 2 )
Repeat with smaller intervals to find a for ( 1 2 ) 0
This is the distance a for max as small as possible.
Determination of : is deflection at c for a unit load at C.

2a L
t A /C A1 A2
3 3
1 a 1 1 a 2a 1 L L L

2 EI1 I1 I 2 2 3 2 4 EI 2 2 3
1 1 1 3
a 3 L 6E
I1 I 2 8 I 2

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on a website, in whole or part.

1954
PROBLEM 11.C2 (Continued)

Program Output
Beam W8 18 with two 6 by 0.75-in. cover plates
h 2 in. W 1500 lb L 120 in.

a ystat ymax Pmax 1 2 1 2


in. in. in. lb ksi ksi ksi
0.00 0.00777 0.1842 35,572 0.00 21.46 21.46
5.00 0.00778 0.1844 35,544 5.85 21.44 15.59
10.00 0.00787 0.1855 35,348 11.63 21.32 9.69
15.00 0.00812 0.1885 34,834 17.19 21.01 3.82
20.00 0.00859 0.1942 33,896 22.30 20.45 1.85

25.00 0.00938 0.2033 32,509 26.73 19.61 7.13
30.00 0.01056 0.2163 30,736 30.33 18.54 11.79
35.00 0.01220 0.2334 28,706 33.05 17.32 15.73
40.00 0.01438 0.2546 26,563 34.95 16.02 18.93
45.00 0.01718 0.2799 24,436 36.17 14.74 21.43
50.00 0.02068 0.3090 22,415 36.87 13.52 23.35
55.00 0.02496 0.3419 20,550 37.18 12.40 24.78
60.00 0.03008 0.3783 18,862 37.23 11.38 25.85
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use smaller increments to seek the smallest maximum normal stress.
18.33 0.00840 0.1919 34,259 20.657 20.665 0.01
18.34 0.00840 0.1920 34,257 20.667 20.664 0.00
18.35 0.00841 0.1920 34,255 20.677 20.663 0.01
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Max. stress small as possible for a 18.34 in.


Smallest max. stress 20.67 ksi

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1955
PROBLEM 11.C3

24 mm The 16-kg block D is dropped from a height h


D onto the free end of the steel bar AB. For the steel
h used all 120 MPa and E 200 GPa. (a) Write
24 mm a computer program to calculate the maximum
A
B allowable height h for values of the length L from
100 mm to 1.2 m, using 100-mm increments.
L (b) From the values considered in part a, select
the length corresponding to the largest allowable
height.

SOLUTION

Enter all 120 MPa, E 200 GPa, d 0.024 m


m 16 kg, g 9.81 m/s 2
I I
I d 4 /12 S d 3 /b
c d/2
For L 100 m to 1200 m, Step 100 mm
L L /1000
yst mgL3 /3EI
M max all S
Pmax M max /L
ymax Pmax L3 /3EI
From Problem 11.69, Page 705,

2h Solve for y
2 y
ym yst 1 1
h max
1 1 st
yst yst 2

Print: L, yst , ymax , Pmax , M max , h
Return

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1956
PROBLEM 11.C3 (Continued)

Program Output
Problem 11.C3
m 16.0 kg d 24 mm 120 MPa G 200 GPa

L ystat ymax Pmax Mmax h


mm mm mm N Nm mm
100 0.00946 0.167 2764.8 276.48 1.301
200 0.07569 0.667 1382.4 276.48 2.269
300 0.25547 1.500 921.6 276.48 2.904
400 0.60556 2.667 691.2 276.48 3.205
500 1.18273 4.167 553.0 276.48 3.173
600 2.04375 6.000 460.8 276.48 2.807
700 3.24540 8.167 395.0 276.48 2.109
800 4.84445 10.667 345.6 276.48 1.076
900 6.89766 13.500 307.2 276.48 0.289
1000 9.46181 16.667 276.5 276.48 1.988
1100 12.59367 20.167 251.3 276.48 4.020
1200 16.35000 24.000 230.4 276.48 6.385
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Use smaller increments to seek the largest height h.
435 0.77883 3.154 635.6 276.48 3.2316
440 0.80599 3.227 628.4 276.48 3.2320
445 0.83378 3.300 621.3 276.48 3.2317

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1957
D m PROBLEM 11.C4
h
The block D of mass m 8 kg is dropped from a height
A B
E h 750 mm onto the rolled-steel beam AB. Knowing that
W150 13.5 E 200 GPa, write a computer program to calculate the maximum
a deflection of point E and the maximum normal stress in the beam
1.8 m for values of a from 100 to 900 mm, using 100-mm increments.

SOLUTION

Enter L 1.8 m, E 200 GPa, h 0.75 m


m 8 kg, g 9.81 m/s 2
I 6.87 106 m 4
S 91.6 106 m 4
For a 100 mm to 900 mm, Step 100 mm
a a /1000
b La
See Prob. 11.71, page 705 yst mga 2b 2 /3EIL
Influence coefficient for E
a 2b 2 /3EIL
for unit load at E
2h
See Prob. 11.69, page 705 ym yst 1 1
yst
Pmax ym /
M max Pmax ab /L
max M max /S
Print: a, yst , ym , Pmax , max
Return
Problem 11.C4
Beam: W150 13.5
I 6.87 106 m 4
S 91.6 106 m3
L 1.8 m
h 750 mm
m 8 kg
g 9.81 m/s 2

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
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1958
PROBLEM 11.C4 (Continued)

a ystat ymax Pmax max


mm mm mm N MPa
100 0.0003 0.6775 173.93 179.33
200 0.0011 1.2757 92.43 179.40
300 0.0021 1.7946 65.75 179.46
400 0.0033 2.2339 52.85 179.51
500 0.0045 2.5936 45.55 179.55
600 0.0055 2.8734 41.13 179.59
700 0.0063 3.0734 38.46 179.61
800 0.0068 3.1934 37.02 179.63
900 0.0069 3.2334 36.56 179.63

Note the small variation in max. This is due to the energy acquired by the mass as it falls through ymax.
See Prob. 11.147, page 731, for a case where energy delivered is constant and max is also constant.

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1959
PROBLEM 11.C5
10-mm diameter

6-mm diameter
The steel rods AB and BC are made of a steel for which
B
A Y 300 MPa and E 200 GPa. (a) Write a computer program to
a C calculate for values of a from 0 to 6 m, using 1-m increments, the
P maximum strain energy that can be acquired by the assembly
6m without causing any permanent deformation. (b) For each value of
a considered, calculate the diameter of a uniform rod of length 6 m
and of the same mass as the original assembly, and the maximum
strain energy that could be acquired by this uniform rod without
causing permanent deformation.

SOLUTION

Enter: Y 300 MPa, E 200 GPa, L 6 m


2
Area AB (0.010 m) , Area BC (0.006 m) 2
4 4
Pm Y Area BC

For a 0 to 6 m, Step 1 m

Pm2 a La
U
2 E Area AB Area BC

For uniform rod of same volume,


vol a (Area AB ) ( L a )(Area BC )
4vol
d
L

Area new d2
4
Pnew Y (Area new )
2
Pnew L
U new
2 E (Area new )
Print: a, U , vol, d , Pnew , U new
Return

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1960
PROBLEM 11.C5 (Continued)

Program Output
Problem 11.C5
Y 300 MPa, Pm 8482 N, L 6 m, E 200 GPa

a U Vol d New P New U


m J m3 mm N J
0.00 38.17 169.65 6.00 8482.30 38.17
1.00 34.10 219.91 6.83 10,995.58 49.48
2.00 30.03 270.18 7.57 13,508.85 60.79
3.00 25.96 320.44 8.25 16,022.12 72.10
4.00 21.88 370.71 8.87 18,535.40 83.41
5.00 17.81 420.97 9.45 21,048.67 94.72
6.00 13.74 471.24 10.00 23,561.95 106.03

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on a website, in whole or part.

1961
PROBLEM 11.C6

A 160-lb diver jumps from a height of 20 in. onto end C of


a diving board having the uniform cross section shown.
2.65 in.
20 in. Write a computer program to calculate for values of a from
B
A
C 10 to 50 in., using 10-in. increments, (a) the maximum
deflection of point C, (b) the maximum bending moment in
a 16 in. the board, (c) the equivalent static load. Assume that the
12 ft divers legs remain rigid and use E 1.8 106 psi.

SOLUTION

Enter: L 12 ft, h 20 in., W 160 lb


E 1.8 106 psi
I (16 in.)(2.65 in.)3 /12
S (16 in.)(2.65 in.)2 /6

ym Pm where influence coefficient. See below for determination of

where Pm equivalent static load.

1 1 ym2
U2 Pm ym
2 2
work w(h ym )
work U 2
1 ym2 Position 2
w(h ym ) A Position 1
2

Program solution of a for ym . Enter


For a 10 in. to 50 in., Step 10 in.
Solve A for ym , Pm ym /

M max M B Pm ( L a)
M max /S
Print a, ym , Pm , M m ,

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Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted
on a website, in whole or part.

1962
PROBLEM 11.C6 (Continued)

Program Output

a ym Pm Max. M
in. in. lb kip in. psi
10 14.622 757.7 101.532 5422
20 13.262 802.6 99.519 5314
30 11.950 855.6 97.536 5208
40 10.683 919.1 95.583 5104
50 9.462 996.4 93.661 5001

Determination of influence of coefficient :

M-Diagram

1 M2
U
2
(1 lb)
2EI
dx
1 a
2
La 2 La

2

2EI


0
a x dx
0
v 2 dv

1 ( L a ) 2 a 3 ( L a )3

EI a 2 3 3
1
( L a) 2 a ( L a )3
3EI

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