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Anime and Manga

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Manga 1
Djinshi 1
History of manga 6
List of manga series by volume count 17
Manga 29
Manga outside Japan 41
Scanlation 49

Manga Companies 54
Chuang Yi 54
Funimation Entertainment 59
Hakusensha 63
Kodansha 67
Shogakukan 69
Shueisha 73
Tokyopop 79
Viz Media 87

Anime 101
Anime 101
Fandub 109
Fansub 110
History of anime 119
List of anime companies 127
List of anime series by episode count 131

Demographic groups 135

Josei manga 135
Kodomo anime and manga 138
Seinen manga 138
Shjo manga 139
Shnen manga 146

Genre 147
Harem 147
Magical girl 148
Magical girlfriend 151
Mecha anime 154
Sentai 155
Yaoi 156
Yuri 172

Selected biographies 182

Go Nagai 182
Hayao Miyazaki 192
Katsuji Matsumoto 203
Kichi Mashimo 209
Leiji Matsumoto 213
Osamu Tezuka 216
Rakuten Kitazawa 222
Shotaro Ishinomori 225
Toshio Suzuki 227

Year 24 Group 229

Year 24 Group 229
Keiko Takemiya 230
Minori Kimura 232
Moto Hagio 235
Riyoko Ikeda 239
Ryoko Yamagishi 241
Shio Sat 242
Toshie Kihara 245
Yasuko Aoike 246
Yasuko Sakata 248
Yumiko shima 249

Fandom 251
Anime and manga fandom 251
Anime club 255
Anime convention 257
Anime music video 259
Cosplay 263
Otaku 273
Yaoi fandom 276

General 282
Glossary of anime and manga 282
Omake 292

Article Sources and Contributors 293
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 301

Article Licenses
License 302


Djinshi (?, often transliterated as doujinshi) is the Japanese term for self-published works, usually
magazines, manga or novels. Djinshi are often the work of amateurs, though some professional artists participate as
a way to publish material outside the regular industry. The term djinshi is derived from djin (?, literally "same
person", used to refer to a person or persons with whom one shares a common goal or interest) and shi (?, a suffix
generally meaning "periodical publication") . Djinshi are part of a wider category of djin including, but not limited
to, art collections, anime, hentai and games. Groups of djinshi artists refer to themselves as a skuru (?,
circle) . A number of such groups actually consist of a single artist: they are sometimes called kojin skuru
(?, personal circles) .
Djinshi are made by artists or writers who prefer to publish their own materials. Since the 1980s, the main method
of distribution has been through regular djinshi conventions, the largest of which is called Comiket (short for
"Comic Market") held in the summer and winter in Tokyo's Big Sight. At the Convention, over 20 acres (81000 m2)
of djinshi are bought, sold, and traded by attendees. Djinshi creators who based their materials on other creators'
works normally publish in small numbers to maintain a low profile from litigation. This makes a talented creator's or
circle's djinshi a coveted commodity as only the fast or the lucky will be able to get them before they sell out.

The pioneer among djinshi magazines was Morning Bell (), published in the early Meiji period (since
1874). Not a literary magazine in fact, it nevertheless played a big role in spreading the idea of djinshi. First
magazine to publish djinshi novels was Garakuta Bunko (), founded in 1885 by writers Ozaki Ky and
Yamada Bimyo.[1] Djinshi's publication reached its peak in the early Showa era, becoming a mouthpiece for the
creative youth of that time. Created and distributed in small circles of authors or close friends, it contributed
significantly to the emergence and development of shishosetsu genre. During the postwar years the publication of
djinshi as representations different literary schools and new authors gradually decreased, substituted by literary
journals Gunzo, Bungakukai and etc. One notable exception was Bungei Shuto ( lit. Literary Capital),
published in 19331969. Few djinshi magazines survived with the help of official literary journals. Haiku and
tanka magazines remain active till nowadays.
During the 1980s, the content of djinshi shifted from being predominantly original content to being mostly parodic
of existing series.[2] This coincided with the founding of Comiket, the first event dedicated specifically to the
distribution of djinshi.
As of February 1991, there were some doujinshi creators who sold their work through supportive comic book stores.
This practice came to light when three managers of such shops were arrested for having a lolicon doujinshi for
Over the last decade, the practice of creating djinshi has expanded significantly, attracting thousands of creators and
fans alike. Advances in personal publishing technology have also fueled this expansion by making it easier for
djinshi creators to write, draw, promote, publish, and distribute their works. For example, some djinshi are now
published on digital media. Furthermore, many djinshi creators are moving to online download and
print-on-demand services, while others are beginning to distribute their works through American channels such as
anime shop websites and specialized online direct distribution sites. In 2008, a white paper on the otaku industry was
published, this estimated that gross revenue from sales of djinshi in 2007 were 277.3 billion yen, or 14.9% of total
Djinshi 2

otaku expenditure on their hobby.[4]

John Oppliger of AnimeNation stated that creating djinshi is largely popular with Japanese fans however not with
Western fans. Oppliger claimed that because Japanese natives grow up with animation and manga "as a constant
companion", Japanese fans "are more intuitively inclined" to create or expand on existing manga and anime in the
form of djinshi .[5] Because Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience as most Western fans
cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, and are "encouraged by social
pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence", most Western fans participate in
utilizing and rearranging existing work into anime music videos.[6]
In Western cultures, djinshi is often perceived to be derivative of existing work, analogous to fan fiction and almost
completely pornographic. This is partly true: djinshi are often, though not always, parodies or alternative storylines
involving the worlds of popular manga, game or anime series, and can often feature overtly sexual material.
However, there are also many non sexually explicit djinshi being created as well. The Touhou series for example, is
notable for the large amount of djinshi being produced for it that are not pornographic in nature.[7] [8] Groups
releasing adults only themed materials during the annual Touhou only event Reitaisai in 2008 were estimated at
roughly 10%.[8]

Categories of djinshi
Like their mainstream counterparts, djinshi are published in a variety of genres and types. However, due to the
target audience, certain themes are more prevalent, and there are a few major division points by which the
publications can be classified. It can be broadly divided into original works and aniparoworks which parody
existing anime and manga franchises.[9]
As in fanfics, a very popular theme to explore is non-canonical pairings of characters in a given show (for djinshi
based on mainstream publications). Many such publications contain yaoi or yuri (hentai involving two or more males
resp. females) motives, either as a part of non-canon pairings, or as a more direct statement of what can be hinted by
the main show.
A major part of djinshi, whether based on mainstream publications or original, contains sexually explicit material,
due to both the large demand for such publications and absence of restrictions official publishing houses have to
follow. Indeed, often the main point of a given djinshi is to present an explicit version of a popular show's
characters. Such works may be known to English speakers as "H-djinshi", in line with the former Japanese use of
letter H to denote erotic material. The Japanese usage, however, has since moved towards the word ero,[10] and so
ero manga () is the term almost exclusively used to mark djinshi with adult themes. Sometimes they will
also be termed "for adults" ( seijin muke) or 18-kin (18) (an abbreviation of 18 "forbidden to
minors less than 18 years of age"). To differentiate, ippan (, , "general", from the general public it is suitable
for) is the term used for publications absent of such content.
Most djinshi are commercially bound and published by djinshi-ka (djinshi authors) who self-publish through
various printing services. Copybooks, however, are self-made using xerox machines or other copying methods. Few
are copied by drawing by hand.
Not all category terms used by English-language fans of djinshi are derived from Japanese. For example, an AU
djinshi is one set in an alternate universe.[11]
Djinshi 3

Comiket is the world's largest comic convention. It is held twice a year (summer and winter) in Tokyo, Japan. The
first CM was held in December 1975, with only about 32 participating circles and an estimated 600 attendees. About
80% of these were female, but male participation in Comiket increased later.[2] In 1982, there were fewer than
10,000 attendees, this increased to over 100,000 attendees as of 1989. This rapid increase in attendance enabled
doujinshi authors to sell thousands of copies of their works, earning a fair amount of money with their hobby.[12]
Attendance has since swelled to over half a million people. Many attendants come to exchange and/or sell their
In 2009, Meiji University opened a djin manga library, named Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library to honour
its alumni in its Surugadai campus. It contains Yonezawa's own djinshi collection, comprising 4137 boxes, and the
collection of Tsuguo Iwata, another famous person in the sphere of djinshi.[13]

Copyright issues
Despite being in direct conflict with the Japanese copyright law as many djinshi are derivative works and djinshi
artists rarely secure the permission of the original creator, Comiket is still permitted to be held twice a year and holds
over half-a-million people attending each time it convenes.[14] However, the practice of djinshi can be beneficial to
the commercial manga market by creating an avenue for aspiring manga artists to practice,[15] and talented doujinshi
creators are contacted by publishers.[16] This practice has existed since the 1980s.[17] Salil Mehra, a law professor at
Temple University, hypothesizes that because djinshi market actually causes the manga market to be more
productive, the law does not ban djinshi as the industry would suffer as a result.
There are two notable instances of legal action over djinshi. In 1999, the author of an erotic Pokemon manga was
prosecuted by Nintendo. This created a media furor as well as an academic analysis in Japan of the copyright issues
around djinshi. At this time, the legal analysis seemed to conclude that djinshi should be overlooked because they
are produced by amateurs for one-day events and not sold in the commercial market.[18] In 2006, an artist selling an
imagined "final chapter" for the series Doraemon, which was never completed, was given a warning by the estate of
author Fujiko F. Fujio. His creation apparently looked confusingly similar to a real Doraemon manga. He ceased
distribution of his djinshi and sent compensation to the publisher voluntarily. The publisher noted at this time that
djinshi were not usually a cause of concern for him. The Yomiuri Shinbun noted, "Fanzines don't usually cause
many problems as long as they are sold only at one-day exhibitions," but quoted an expert saying that due to their
increasing popularity a copyright system should be set up.[19]

Notable djinshi artists

Yoshitoshi ABe has published some of his original works as djinshi, such as Haibane Renmei. He cited the
reason as, essentially, not wanting to answer to anyone about his work, especially because he saw it as so open
Ken Akamatsu, creator of manga such as Love Hina and Negima, continues to make djinshi which he sells at
Comiket under the pen-name Awa Mizuno.
Kiyohiko Azuma, creator of Azumanga Daioh and Yotsuba& started out doing doujinshi.[20]
Nanae Chrono, creator of the manga Peacemaker Kurogane, has published multiple Naruto djinshi, most of a
yaoi nature.
Kazushi Hagiwara, creator of Bastard!!, and his group Studio Loud in School have published popular
Bastard!!-related doujinshi such as Wonderful Megadeth!, as well as various Capcom-related doujinshi.
Djinshi 4

Masaki Kajishima, creator of Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki, has long used the djinshi format to produce additional
information about the series he has created, primarily Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki and Tenchi Muyo! GXP. These
djinshi can either be completely filled with his work, or he will contribute a work to the djinshi title.
Kajishima's djinshi works break down into one (or more) types of works: manga-style (where he illustrates a
new story, usually with limited text), interviews, early drafts of scripts for the series (giving fans great insight into
the creative process), storyboards drawn by Kajishima that ultimately were not animated, story notes (or short
stories) giving further little details of various characters, situations, or places in Kajishima's World of Tenchi. As
of this writing, Kajishima does two djinshi titles a year under the circle names "Kajishima Onsen" and
"Kamidake Onsen". He has also used these to communicate with fans about his current projects, namely the Saint
Knight's Tale spinoff anime featuring Tenchi's half-brother and the GXP novels.
Kazuhiko Kat, also known as Monkey Punch, creator of Lupin III began as a djinshi artist.
Kodaka Kazuma, creator of Kizuna, Rotten Teacher's Equation (Kusatta Kyshi no Hteishiki), Love Equation
(Renai Hteishiki) and Border among others, has published several parody yaoi djinshi as K2 Company of
Prince of Tennis and Fullmetal Alchemist, as well as an original djinshi series called 'Hana to Ryuu' (Flower and
Rikdo Koshi, creator of the manga Excel Saga, originally started out as a djinshi artist.
Yun Kouga, a longtime published manga artist and creator of two well-known BL series, Earthian and Loveless
published djinshi for series such as Gundam Wing.
Sanami Matoh, author of FAKE, has published parody yaoi djinshi (mostly of One Piece) and original djinshi
as East End Club.
Maki Murakami, creator of Gravitation and Gamers' Heaven. Her circle Crocodile Ave. created Remix
Gravitation AKA Rimigra and Megamix Gravitation, which were extremely sexually graphic.[21]
Minami Ozaki, creator of the boylove manga Zetsuai, is an extremely prolific doujinshi creator who has authored
numerous yaoi publications, most notably featuring characters from the soccer manga, Captain Tsubasa.
Yukiru Sugisaki, author of D.N.Angel and The Candidate for Goddess, started as a djinka. She released djinshi
about King of Fighters, Evangelion, etc.; all were gag djinshi.
Rumiko Takahashi, Began drawing doujinshi before being discovered.
Yoshihiro Togashi, creator of YuYu Hakusho and Hunter x Hunter, has authored doujinshi such as Church!.
Hajime Ueda, the creator of QKo-chan and the comic adaptation of FLCL.
Nobuteru Yki sells djinshi based on his animated works under his pen-name "The Man in the High Castle".

07th Expansion, creators of both Higurashi no Naku Koro ni and Umineko no Naku Koro ni.
Clamp started out as a djinshi group of 11 known as Clamp Cluster.

[1] An article "" from encyclopedia .
[2] Wilson, Brent; Toku, Masami. "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy (http:/ / www. csuchico. edu/ ~mtoku/
vc/ Articles/ toku/ Wil_Toku_BoysLove. html) 2003
[3] Orbaugh, Sharalyn (2003). "Creativity and Constraint in Amateur Manga Production". US-Japan Women's Journal 25: 104124.
[4] http:/ / www. inside-games. jp/ news/ 258/ 25855. html
[5] Oppliger, John (2005-06-23). "Ask John: Why Hasnt Doujinshi Caught on Outside of Japan?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2005/
06/ 23/ ask-john-why-hasnt-doujinshi-caught-on-outside-of-japan/ ). AnimeNation. . Retrieved 2009-09-08.
[6] Oppliger, John (2003-09-08). "Ask John: Why Are Anime Music Videos so Popular?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2003/ 09/ 08/
ask-john-why-are-anime-music-videos-so-popular/ ). AnimeNation. . Retrieved 2009-09-08.
[7] (http:/ / www. takamagahara. info/ touhou_event_archives/ circlelist. cgi?reitaisai7)
[8] Why is there not much demand for adult touhou djinshi? (Japanese) (http:/ / d. hatena. ne. jp/ GilCrows/ 20080602/ p1)
[9] Sabucco, Veruska "Guided Fan Fiction: Western "Readings" of Japanese Homosexual-Themed Texts" in Berry, Chris, Fran Martin, and
Audrey Yue (editors) (2003). Mobile Cultures: New Media in Queer Asia. Durham, North Carolina; London: Duke University Press. ISBN
Djinshi 5

0-8223-3087-3. pp.70-72
[10] Article on the term "hentai" explains the differences between Japanese and English usage.
[11] elfgrove (Fri May 16, 2008, 2:00 PM). "Princess Tutu Doujinshi" (http:/ / elfgrove. deviantart. com/ journal/ 14820980/ ). deviantART:
elfgrove's Journal: Princess Tutu Doujinshi. . Retrieved 2 September 2011. "The story is an AU Swan Lake set after the Princess Tutu anime
series... F.A.Q... What does AU mean? Alternate Universe."
[12] Mizoguchi Akiko (2003). "Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions". U.S.-Japan
Womens Journal, 25: 49-75.
[13] "Dojin Manga Library "Yoshihiro Yonezawa Memorial Library" opening this Summer" (http:/ / en. gigazine. net/ index. php?/ news/
comments/ 20090316_yonezawa_lib/ ). en.gigazine.net. April 2, 2009. . Retrieved 2009-05-13.
[14] Lessig, Lawrence (March 25, 2004). "Chapter One: Creators" (http:/ / www. authorama. com/ free-culture-4. html). [[Free Culture
(book)|Free Culture (http:/ / www. authorama. com/ book/ free-culture. html)]]. Authorama.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-08.
[15] http:/ / www. corneredangel. com/ amwess/ papers/ copyright_comics_japan. pdf
[16] Brient, Herv, ed (2008). "Entretien avec Hisako Miyoshi" (in French). Homosexualit et manga : le yaoi. Manga: 10000 images. Editions
H. pp.1719. ISBN978-2-9531781-0-4.
[17] McLelland, Mark. Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? (http:/ / blogs. arts. unimelb. edu. au/ refractory/ 2006/ 12/ 04/
why-are-japanese-girls-comics-full-of-boys-bonking1-mark-mclelland) Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol.10, 2006/2007
[18] John Ingulsrud and Kate Allen. Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse. p. 49.
[19] Fukuda Makoto, Doraemon Fanzine Ignites Copyright Alarms (http:/ / www. nationmultimedia. com/ 2007/ 07/ 08/ lifestyle/
lifestyle_30039868. php), Daily Yomiuri, June 17, 2007, 22. See also Ingulsrud and Allen, p.49.
[20] http:/ / www. suruga-ya. jp/ database/ ZHORE391. html
[21] Cha, Kai-Ming (2007) Sex & Silliness: Maki Murakamis Gravitation (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6474900. html)
Publishers Weekly

External links
Doujinshi Online (http://www.doujinshi-online.com/): Reference site with circle/artist listings
Passion (http://www.witch-hunter.net/passion/): Popular djinshi fanlisting site
Doujinshi DB (http://doujinshi.mugimugi.org/): Huge user-submitted database of djinshi artists, circles, and
books, including name translations
Ultimate Anime Doujinshi (http://www.ultimateanimeshop.com/): U.S. djinshi site with search page listing
information on several thousands djinshi and large
Nippon Fanifesto! A Tribute to DIY Manga (http://schulzlibrary.wordpress.com/2010/05/18/
nippon-fanifesto-a-tribute-to-diy-manga/)an illustrated essay explaining djinshi and their diversity
Search in Flutter Scape (http://www.flutterscape.com/search?s=dojin/): You can buy many Dojinshies in this
History of manga 6

History of manga
The History of manga is said to originate
from scrolls dating back to the 12th century,
however whether these scrolls are actually
manga is still disputed, though its believed
they represent the basis for the right-to-left
reading style. Other authors report origins
closer to the 18th century. Manga is a
Japanese term that generally means
"comics" or "cartoon", literally "whimsical
sketches." Historians and writers on manga
history have described two broad and
complementary processes shaping modern
Image of bathers from the Hokusai manga.
manga. Their views differ in the relative
importance they attribute to the role of
cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese
culture and art.

The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (19451952), and stresses
that manga was strongly shaped by United States cultural influences, including U.S. comics brought to Japan by the
GIs and by images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[1] [2] According to
Sharon Kinsella, the booming post-war Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in
which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.[1]

Before World War II

All writers like Takashi Murakami have also stressed events after WWII, but Murakami sees Japan's staggering
defeat and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese
artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its previously virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and
cute (kawaii) images.[3] However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural
transnationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartooning, film, television,
music, and related popular arts, which was, for Tatsumi the crucible in which modern manga have developed.[4]
For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to the flow of cultural and
subcultural material from one nation to another.[3] [4] In their usage, the term does not refer to international corporate
expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-border international personal friendships, but to ways in which
artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditions influence each other across national boundaries.[3] [4] An example of
cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of Star Wars films in the United States, their transformation into manga by
Japanese artists, and the marketing of Star Wars manga to the United States.[5] Another example is the transfer of
hip-hop culture from the United States to Japan.[6] Wong also sees a major role for trans-nationalism in the recent
history of manga.[7]
History of manga 7

However, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and

aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. They include
Frederik L. Schodt,[2] [8] Kinko Ito,[9] and Adam L. Kern.[10] [11]
Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated
picture scrolls like Chj-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in
sequential images with humor and wit.[2] Schodt also stresses
continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and
shunga woodblock prints and modern manga (all three fulfill
Eisner's criteria for sequential art).[12] While there are disputes
over whether Chj-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first
Japanese wood block illustration from 19th century
manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period.
However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co-founder and
director, contends there in no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga.[13] Whether or not these scrolls are among
the first manga they are credited for being the origin of the right-to-left style of reading in manga and Japanese

Schodt also sees a particularly significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists
displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street.[2] Torrance has pointed to
similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, and argues that the
development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words
and pictures.[15] Kinko Ito also roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its
post-World War II history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly
developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has steadily produced new genres and markets, e.g., for
girls' (shjo) manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics (redisu) in the 1980s.[9]
Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, illustrated picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first
comic books.[10] These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes.[10]
Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi
nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium.[11] The
first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798,
which, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades.[16]

Similarly, Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the U.S.A.
occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art ultimately derives from Japan's long
history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was
stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-War Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a
common written language. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga.[18]
Thus, these scholars see the history of manga as involving historical continuities and discontinuities between the
aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-World War II innovation and trans-nationalism.

After World War II

Modern manga originates in the Occupation (19451952) and post-Occupation years (1952-early 1960s), when a
previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan was rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure.[2] [19]
Although U.S. Occupation censorship policies specifically prohibited art and writing that glorified war and Japanese
militarism,[2] those policies did not prevent the publication of other kinds of material, including manga. Furthermore,
the 1947 Japanese Constitution (Article 21) prohibited all forms of censorship.[20] One result was the growth of
artistic creativity in this period.[2]
History of manga 8

In the forefront of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much of the future history of
manga. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom (Astro Boy in the United States; begun in 1951) and Machiko
Hasegawa's Sazae-san (begun in 1946).
Astro Boy was both a superpowered robot and a naive little boy.[21] Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had
such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programming could make him so deeply
affiliative.[21] Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent a Japanese sociality and community-oriented
masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship and militaristic obedience enforced during the previous
period of Japanese imperialism.[21] Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and
elsewhere as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renunciation of war, as also seen in Article 9 of the
Japanese constitution.[20] [21] Similar themes occur in Tezuka's New World and Metropolis.[2] [21]
By contrast, Sazae-san (meaning "Ms. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa, a young woman
artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men and especially women rendered homeless by the
war.[2] [22] Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life, but, like Astro Boy, she too is highly affiliative and is
deeply involved with her immediate and extended family. She is also a very strong character, in striking contrast to
the officially sanctioned Neo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the "good wife, wise
mother" (rysai kenbo, ; ) ideal taught by the previous military regime.[23] [24] [25]
Sazae-san faces the world with cheerful resilience,[22] [26] what Hayao Kawai calls a "woman of endurance."[27]
Sazae-san sold more than 62 million copies over the next half century.[28]
Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are
like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to
close-up shots.[2] More critically, Tezuka synchronised the placement of panel with the reader's viewing speed to
simulate moving pictures. Hence in manga production as in film production, the person who decide the allocation of
panels (Komawari) is credited as the author while most drawing are done by assistants. This kind of visual
dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[2] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience
also came to characterize later shjo manga.[22] [26] [29]
Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two
main marketing genres, shnen manga aimed at boys and shjo manga aimed at girls.[2] [30] Up to 1969, shjo manga
was drawn primarily by adult men for young female readers.[2] [31]
Two very popular and influential male-authored manga for girls from this period were Tezuka's 1953-1956 Ribon no
Kishi (Princess Knight or Knight in Ribbons) and Matsuteru Yokoyama's 1966 Mahtsukai Sarii (Little Witch
Sally).[2] Ribon no Kishi dealt with the adventures of Princess Sapphire of a fantasy kingdom who had been born
with male and female souls, and whose sword-swinging battles and romances blurred the boundaries of otherwise
rigid gender roles.[2] Sarii, the pre-teen princess heroine of Mahtsukai Sarii,[32] came from her home in the magical
lands to live on Earth, go to school, and perform a variety of magical good deeds for her friends and schoolmates.[33]
Yokoyama's Mahtsukai Sarii was influenced by the U.S. TV sitcom Bewitched,[34] but unlike Samantha, the main
character of Bewitched, a married woman with her own daughter, Sarii is a pre-teenager who faces the problems of
growing up and mastering the responsibilities of forthcoming adulthood. Mahtsukai Sarii helped create the now
very popular mah shjo or "magical girl" sub-genre of later manga.[33] Both series were and still are very popular.[2]

Shjo manga
In 1969, a group of women manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnificent 24s) made their
shjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born).[35] [36]
The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi[22] and
they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga.[2] [22] Thereafter, shjo manga would be drawn
primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women.[2] [30] [31]
History of manga 9

In 1971, Ikeda began her immensely popular shjo manga Berusaiyu no Bara (The Rose of Versailles), a story of
Oscar Franois de Jarjayes, a cross-dressing woman who was a Captain in Marie Antoinette's Palace Guards in
pre-Revolutionary France.[2] [22] [37] [38] In the end, Oscar dies as a revolutionary leading a charge of her troops
against the Bastille. Likewise, Hagio Moto's work challenged Neo-Confucianist limits on women's roles and
activities [23] [24] [25] as in her 1975 They Were Eleven, a shjo science fiction story about a young woman cadet in a
future space academy.[39]
These women artists also created considerable stylistic innovations. In its focus on the heroine's inner experiences
and feelings, shjo manga are "picture poems"[40] with delicate and complex designs that often eliminate panel
borders completely to create prolonged, non-narrative extensions of time.[2] [22] [30] [31] [41] All of these innovations
strong and independent female characters, intense emotionality, and complex design remain characteristic of
shjo manga up to the present day.[29] [37]

Shjo manga and Ladies' Comics from 1975 to today

In the following decades (1975present), shjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously
evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[42] Major subgenres have included romance, superheroines, and
"Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu , redikomi , and josei ), whose
boundaries are sometimes indistinguishable from each other and from shnen manga.[8] [22]
In modern shjo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[43]
Japanese manga/anime critic Eri Izawa defines romance as symbolizing "the emotional, the grand, the epic; the taste
of heroism, fantastic adventure, and the melancholy; passionate love, personal struggle, and eternal longing" set into
imaginative, individualistic, and passionate narrative frameworks.[44] These romances are sometimes long narratives
that can deal with distinguishing between false and true love, coping with sexual intercourse, and growing up in a
complex world, themes inherited by subsequent animated versions of the story.[30] [43] [45] These "coming of age" or
bildungsroman themes occur in both shjo and shnen manga.[46] [47]
In the bildungsroman, the protagonist must deal with adversity and conflict,[47] and examples in shjo manga of
romantic conflict are common. They include Miwa Ueda's Peach Girl,[48] [49] Fuyumi Soryo's Mars,[50] and, for
mature readers, Moyoco Anno's Happy Mania,[31] [51] Yayoi Ogawa's Tramps Like Us, and Ai Yazawa's Nana.[52]
In another shjo manga bildungsroman narrative device, the young heroine is transported to an alien place or
time where she meets strangers and must survive on her own (including Hagio Moto's They Were Eleven,[54] Kyoko
Hikawa's From Far Away,[55] Y Watase's Fushigi Ygi: The Mysterious Play, and Chiho Saito's The World Exists
For Me[56] ).
Yet another such device involves meeting unusual or strange people and beings, for example, Natsuki Takaya's
Fruits Basket[57] one of the most popular shjo manga in the United States[58] whose orphaned heroine Tohru
must survive living in the woods in a house filled with people who can transform into the animals of the Chinese
zodiac. In Harako Iida's Crescent Moon, heroine Mahiru meets a group of supernatural beings, finally to discover
that she herself too has a supernatural ancestry when she and a young tengu demon fall in love.[59]
With the superheroines, shjo manga continued to break away from neo-Confucianist norms of female meekness and
obedience.[8] [30] Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishjo Senshi Sramn: "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon") is a
sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and
emotional, dutiful and ambitious.[60] [61] The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor Moon became
internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[60] [62] Another example is CLAMP's Magic Knight
Rayearth, whose three young heroines, Hikaru, Umi, and Fuu, are magically transported to the world of Cephiro to
become armed magical warriors in the service of saving Cephiro from internal and external enemies.[63]
The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together,[64] like
the Sailor Senshi in Sailor Moon, the Magic Knights in Magic Knight Rayearth, and the Mew Mew girls from Mia
Ikumi's Tokyo Mew Mew.[65] By today, the superheroine narrative template has been widely used and parodied
History of manga 10

within the shjo manga tradition (e.g., Nao Yazawa's Wedding Peach[66] and Hyper Rune by Tamayo Akiyama[67] )
and outside that tradition, e.g., in bishjo comedies like Kanan's Galaxy Angel.[68]
In the mid-1980s and thereafter, as girls who had read shjo manga as teenagers matured and entered the job market,
shjo manga elaborated subgenres directed at women in their 20s and 30s.[42] This "Ladies Comic" or redisu-josei
subgenre has dealt with themes of young adulthood: jobs, the emotions and problems of sexual intercourse, and
friendships or love among women.[42] [69] [70] [71] [72]
Redisu manga retains many of the narrative stylistics of shjo manga but has been drawn by and written for adult
women.[73] Redisu manga and art has been often, but not always, sexually explicit, but sexuality has
characteristically been set into complex narratives of pleasure and erotic arousal combined with emotional risk.[8] [69]
Examples include Ry Ramiya's Luminous Girls,[74] Masako Watanabe's Kinpeibai[75] and the work of Shungicu
Uchida[76] Another subgenre of shjo-redisu manga deals with emotional and sexual relationships among women
(akogare and yuri),[77] in work by Erica Sakurazawa,[78] Ebine Yamaji,[79] and Chiho Saito.[80] Other subgenres of
shjo-redisu manga have also developed, e.g., fashion (oshare) manga, like Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss[81] [82] and
horror-vampire-gothic manga, like Matsuri Hino's Vampire Knight,[83] Kaori Yuki's Cain Saga,[84] and Mitsukazu
Mihara's DOLL,[85] which interact with street fashions, costume play ("cosplay"), J-Pop music, and goth subcultures
in complex ways.[86] [87] [88]
By the start of the 21st century, manga for women and girls thus represented a broad spectrum of material for pre-
and early teenagers to material for adult women.

Shnen, seinen, and seijin manga

Manga for male readers can be characterized in different ways. One is by the age of its intended audience: boys up to
18 years old (shnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga).[89] Another approach is by content,
including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit
sexuality.[90] [91] Japanese uses different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen" for "youth, young
man" and for "adult, majority"the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also
called seijin ("adult," ) manga.[92] [93] Shnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.
Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II.[94] From the 1950s on, shnen
manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and space travel, and
heroic action-adventure.[95] Shnen and seinen manga narratives often portray challenges to the protagonists
abilities, skills, and maturity, stressing self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrifice in the cause of duty, and
honorable service to society, community, family, and friends.[94] [96]
Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man did not become popular as a
shnen genre.[94] An exception is Kia Asamiya's Batman: Child of Dreams, released in the U.S. by DC Comics and
in Japan by Kodansha. However, lone heroes occur in Takao Saito's Golgo 13 and Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf
and Cub. Golgo 13 is about an assassin who puts his skills to the service of world peace and other social goals,[97]
and Ogami Itto, the swordsman-hero of Lone Wolf and Cub, is a widower caring for his son Daigoro while he seeks
vengeance against his wife's murderers. However, Golgo and Itto remain men throughout and neither hero ever
displays superpowers. Instead, these stories "journey into the hearts and minds of men" by remaining on the plane of
human psychology and motivation.[98]
Many shnen manga have science fiction and technology themes. Early examples in the robot subgenre included
Tezukas Astro Boy (see above) and Fujiko F. Fujios 1969 Doraemon, about a robot cat and the boy he lives with,
which was aimed at younger boys.[99] The robot theme evolved extensively, from Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956
Tetsujin 28-go to later, more complex stories where the protagonist must not only defeat enemies, but learn to master
himself and cooperate with the mecha he controls.[100] Thus, in Neon Genesis Evangelion by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto,
Shinji struggles against the enemy and against his father, and in Vision of Escaflowne by Katsu Aki, Van not only
makes war against Dornkirks empire but must deal with his complex feelings for Hitomi, the heroine.
History of manga 11

Sports themes are also popular in manga for male readers.[94] These stories stress self-discipline, depicting not only
the excitement of sports competition but also character traits the hero needs to transcend his limitations and to
triumph.[94] Examples include boxing (Tetsuya Chibas 1968-1973 Tomorrow's Joe[101] and Rumiko Takahashi's
1987 One-Pound Gospel) and basketball (Takehiko Inoues 1990 Slam Dunk[102] ).
Supernatural settings have been another source of action-adventure plots in shnen and some shjo manga in which
the hero must master challenges. Sometimes the protagonist fails, as in Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata's Death
Note, where protagonist Light Yagami receives a notebook from a Death God (shinigami) that kills anyone whose
name is written in it, and, in a shjo manga example, Hakase Mizuki's The Demon Ororon, whose protagonist
abandons his demonic kingship of Hell to live and die on earth. Sometimes the protagonist himself is supernatural,
like Kohta Hirano's Hellsing, whose vampire hero Alucard battles reborn Nazis hellbent on conquering England, but
the hero may also be (or was) human, battling an ever-escalating series of supernatural enemies (Hiromu Arakawa's
Fullmetal Alchemist, Nobuyuki Anzai's Flame of Recca, and Tite Kubo's Bleach).
Military action-adventure stories set in the modern world, for example, about World War II, remained under
suspicion of glorifying Japans Imperial history[94] and have not become a significant part of the shnen manga
repertoire.[94] Nonetheless, stories about fantasy or historical military adventure were not stigmatized, and manga
about heroic warriors and martial artists have been extremely popular.[94] Some are serious dramas, like Sanpei
Shirato's The Legend of Kamui and Rurouni Kenshin by Nobuhiro Watsuki, but others contain strongly humorous
elements, like Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball.
Although stories about modern war and its weapons do exist, they deal as much or more with the psychological and
moral problems of war as they do with sheer shoot-'em-up adventure.[94] Examples include Seiho Takizawa's Who
Fighter, a retelling of Joseph Conrad's story Heart of Darkness about a renegade Japanese colonel set in World War
II Burma, Kaiji Kawaguchi's The Silent Service, about a Japanese nuclear submarine, and Motofumi Kobayashi's
Apocalypse Meow, about the Vietnam War told in talking animal format. Other battle and fight-oriented manga are
complex stories of criminal and espionage conspiracies to be overcome by the protagonist, such as City Hunter by
Hojo Tsukasa, Fist of the North Star by Tetsuo Hara, and in the shjo manga From Eroica with Love by Yasuko
Aoike, a long-running crime-espionage story combining adventure, action, and humor (and another example of how
these themes occur across genres).
For manga critics Koji Aihara and Kentaro Takekuma,[103] such battle stories endlessly repeat the same mindless
themes of violence, which they sardonically label the "Shonen Manga Plot Shish Kebob", where fights follow fights
like meat skewered on a stick.[104] Other commentators suggest that fight sequences and violence in comics serve as
a social outlet for otherwise dangerous impulses.[105] Shnen manga and its extreme warriorship have been parodied,
for example, in Mine Yoshizaki's screwball comedy Sgt. Frog (Keroro Gunso), about a platoon of slacker alien frogs
who invade the Earth and end up free-loading off the Hinata family in Tokyo.[106]

Sex and women's roles in manga for males

In early shnen manga, men and boys played all the major roles, with women and girls having only auxiliary places
as sisters, mothers, and occasionally girlfriends. Of the nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009, only
one is female, and she soon vanishes from the action. Some recent shnen manga virtually omit women, e.g., the
martial arts story Baki the Grappler by Itagaki Keisuke and the supernatural fantasy Sand Land by Akira Toriyama.
However, by the 1980s, girls and women began to play increasingly important roles in shnen manga, for example,
Toriyama's 1980 Dr. Slump, whose main character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale Norimaki.
The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably since Arale. One class is the pretty
girl (bishjo).[107] Sometimes the woman is unattainable, but she is always an object of the hero's emotional and
sexual interest, like Belldandy from Oh My Goddess! by Ksuke Fujishima and Shao-lin from Guardian Angel
Getten by Minene Sakurano.[108] In other stories, the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negima by
Ken Akamatsu and Hanaukyo Maid Team by Morishige.[109] The male protagonist does not always succeed in
History of manga 12

forming a relationship with the woman, for example when Bright Honda and Aimi Komori fail to bond in Shadow
Lady by Masakazu Katsura. In other cases, a successful couple's sexual activities are depicted or implied, like
Outlanders by Johji Manabe.[110] In still other cases, the initially naive and immature hero grows up to become a
man by learning how to deal and live with women emotionally and sexually, like Yota in Video Girl Ai by Masakazu
Katsura, Train Man in Train Man: Densha Otoko by Hidenori Hara, and Makoto in Futari Ecchi by Katsu Aki.[111]
In poruno- and eromanga (seijin manga), often called hentai manga in the U.S., a sexual relationship is taken
for granted and depicted explicitly, as in work by Toshiki Yui [113] and in Were-Slut by Jiro Chiba and Slut Girl by
Isutoshi.[114] The result is a range of depictions of boys and men from naive to very experienced sexually.
Heavily armed female warriors (sent bishjo) represent another class of girls and women in manga for male
readers.[115] Some sent bishjo are battle cyborgs, like Alita from Battle Angel Alita by Yukito Kishiro, Motoko
Kusanagi from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, and Chise from Shin Takahashi's Saikano. Others are human,
like Attim M-Zak from Hiroyuki Utatane's Seraphic Feather, Johji Manabe's Karula Olzen from Drakuun, and Alita
Forland (Falis) from Sekihiko Inui's Murder Princess.[116]
With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes
appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations.[93] These depictions
range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism
(SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape.[117] In some cases, rape and lust murder themes came to the forefront,
as in Urotsukidoji by Toshio Maeda[118] and Blue Catalyst from 1994 by Kei Taniguchi,[119] but these extreme
themes are not commonplace in either untranslated or translated manga.[93] [120]

Gekiga literally means "drama pictures" and refers to a form of aesthetic realism in manga.[121] [122] Gekiga style
drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in, day-out grim
realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[121] [123] Gekiga arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly
from left-wing student and working class political activism[121] [124] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of
young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[125] [126] Examples include Sampei Shirato's
1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeich), the story of Kagemaru, the leader of
a peasant rebellion in the 16th century, which dealt directly with oppression and class struggle,[127] and Hiroshi
Hirata's Satsuma Gishiden, about uprisings against the Tokugawa shogunate.[128]
As the social protest of these early years waned, gekiga shifted in meaning towards socially conscious, mature drama
and towards the avant-garde.[122] [126] [129] Examples include Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub[130] and Akira,
an apocalyptic tale of motorcycle gangs, street war, and inexplicable transformations of the children of a future
Tokyo. Another example is Osamu Tezuka's 1976 manga MW, a bitter story of the aftermath of the storage and
possibly deliberate release of poison gas by U.S. armed forces based in Okinawa years after World War II.[131]
Gekiga and the social consciousness it embodies remain alive in modern-day manga. An example is Ikebukuro West
Gate Park from 2001 by Ira Ishida and Sena Aritou, a story of street thugs, rape, and vengeance set on the social
margins of the wealthy Ikebukuro district of Tokyo.[132]
History of manga 13

[1] Kinsella, Sharon 2000. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN
[2] Schodt, Frederik L. 1986. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0870117527.
[3] Murakami, Takashi (2005). Little Boy: the Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. New York: Japan Society. ISBN0-913304-57-3
[4] Tatsumi, Takayumi (2006). Full Metal Apache: Transactions between Cyberpunk Japan and Avant-Pop America. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press. ISBN0-8223-3774-6
[5] "Phantom Goes Manga" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071011120029/ http:/ / starwars. com/ eu/ lit/ comics/ news20000105. html).
StarWars.com. January 5, 2000. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. starwars. com/ eu/ lit/ comics/ news20000105. html) on
2007-10-11. . Retrieved 2007-09-18.
[6] Condry, Ian (2006). Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Path of Cultural Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN0-8223-3892-0
[7] Wong, Wendy Siuyi (2006). "Globalizing manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and beyond" (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/ Books/ L/
lunning_mechademia1. html). Mechademia: an Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts 1: 2345. . Retrieved 2007-09-14
[8] Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235.
[9] Ito, Kinko. 2004. "Growing up Japanese reading manga." International Journal of Comic Art, 6:392-401.
[10] Kern, Adam. 2006. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyoshi of Edo Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press. ISBN 0674022661.
[11] Kern, Adam. 2007. "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook?" International Journal of Comic Art, 9:1-486.
[12] Eisner, Will. 1985. Comics & Sequential Art. Tamarac, Fl: Poorhouse Press. ISBN 0-9614728-0-2.
[13] "Yomiuri Newspaper Discusses History's First Manga" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-01-03/ yomiuri-first-manga).
Yomiuri Shimbun. Anime News Network. 2008-01-03. . Retrieved 2009-01-20.
[14] Aoki, Deb. "Manga 101: The Pre-History of Japanese Comics" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ b/ 2007/ 03/ 25/
manga-101-the-pre-history-of-japanese-comics. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-16.
[15] Torrance, Richard. 2005. "Literacy and literature in Osaka, 1890-1940." Journal of Japanese Studies, 31(1):27-60. Web version: http:/ /
muse. jhu. edu/ login?uri=/ journals/ journal_of_japanese_studies/ v031/ 31. 1torrance. html Accessed 2007-09-16.
[16] Bouquillard, Jocelyn and Christophe Marquet. 2007. Hokusai: First Manga Master. New York: Abrams.
[17] Kern, 2006, op. cit., pp. 139-144, Figure 3.3.
[18] Inoue, Charles Shir. 1996. "PictocentrismChina as a source of Japanese modernity." In Sumie Jones, editor. 1996. Imaging/Reading
Eros. Bloomington, IN: East Asian Studies Center, Indiana University. pp. 148-152. ISBN 0965328104.
[19] This section draws primarily on the work of Frederik Schodt (1986, 1996, 2007) and of Paul Gravett (2004). Time-lines for manga history
are available in Mechademia, Gravett, and in articles by Go Tchiei 1998.
[20] The Japanese constitution is in the Kodansha encyclopedia "Japan: Profile of a Nation, Revised Edition" (1999, Tokyo: Kodansha) on pp.
692-715. Article 9: page 695; article 21: page 697. ISBN 4-7700-2384-7.
[21] Schodt, Frederik L. (2007). The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution. Berkeley, CA: Stone
Bridge Press. ISBN978-1933330549
[22] Gravett, Paul. 2004. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. NY: Harper Design. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. p. 8.
[23] Uno, Kathleen S. 1993. "The death of 'Good Wife, Wise Mother'." In: Andrew Gordon (editor) Postwar Japan as History. Berkeley, CA:
University of California. pp. 293-322. ISBN 0520074750.
[24] Ohinata, Masami 1995 "The mystique of motherhood: A key to understanding social change and family problems in Japan." In: Kumiko
Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future. New York:
The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. 199-211. ISBN 978-1558610941.
[25] Yoshizumi, Kyoko 1995 "Marriage and family: Past and present." In: Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese
Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp.
183-197. ISBN 978-1558610941.
[26] Lee, William (2000). "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese
Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0765605610.
[27] Kawai, Hayao. 1996. The Japanese Psyche: Major Motifs in the Fairy Tales of Japan. Woodstock, CT: Spring Publications. Chapter 7, pp.
[28] Hasegawa, Machiko; Schodt, Frederik L. (1997). "Forward". The Wonderful World of Sazae-San. Tokyo: Kodansha International (JPN).
[29] Sanchez, Frank (1997-2003). "Hist 102: History of Manga." http:/ / www. animeinfo. org/ animeu/ hist102. html. AnimeInfo. Accessed on
[30] Toku, Masami, editor. 2005. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" Chico, CA: Flume Press/California State University Press. ISBN 1-886226-10-5.
See also http:/ / www. csuchico. edu/ pub/ cs/ spring_06/ feature_03. html. Accessed 2007-09-22.
[31] Thorn, Matt (JulySeptember 2001). "Shjo MangaSomething for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/
index. html). The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). . Retrieved 2007-09-22
[32] Sarii is the Japanese spelling and pronunciation of the English-language name "Sally." The word mahtsukai literally means "magic
operator," someone who can use and control magic. It does not mean "witch" or "magical girl" (which is mah shjo in Japanese), because
History of manga 14

tsukai is not a gendered word in Japanese. This use of an English-language name with a Japanese descriptive word is an example of
transnationalism in Tatsumi's sense.
[33] Yoshida, Kaori (2002). Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime (http:/ / journals2. iranscience.
net:800/ mcel. pacificu. edu/ mcel. pacificu. edu/ aspac/ home/ papers/ scholars/ yoshida/ yoshida. php3). Western Washington University. .
Retrieved 2007-09-22.
[34] Johnson, Melissa (June 27, 2006). "Bewitched by Magical Girls" (http:/ / www. fpsmagazine. com/ feature/ 060627magicalgirls. php). FPS
Magazine. . Retrieved 2007-09-22.
[35] Gravett, 2004, op. cit., pp.78-80.
[36] Lent, 2001, op. cit., pp. 9-10.
[37] Tchiei, Go (1998). "Shojo Manga: A Unique Genre" (http:/ / www. dnp. co. jp/ museum/ nmp/ nmp_i/ articles/ manga/ manga6-1. html). .
Retrieved 2007-09-22.
[38] Shamoon, Deborah. 2007. "Revolutionary romance: The Rose of Versailles and the transformation of shojo manga." Mechademia: An
Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and Fan Arts. 2:3-17.
[39] Hagio Moto 1975/1996 "They Were Eleven." In: Matt Thorn (editor) Four Shojo Stories. San Francisco: Viz Media. ISBN 1569310556.
Original story published 1975; U.S. edition 1996.
[40] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p 88.
[41] McCloud, Scott. 1993. Understanding Comics. New York: Paradox Press. pp. 77-82.
[42] gi, Fusami 2004. "Female subjectivity and shjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics."
Journal of Popular Culture, 36(4):780-803.
[43] Drazen, Patrick 2003. Anime Explosion!: the What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge.
[44] Izawa, Eri 2000 ." The romantic, passionate Japanese in anime: A look at the hidden Japanese soul (http:/ / www. mit. edu/ afs/ athena. mit.
edu/ user/ r/ e/ rei/ WWW/ manga-romanticism. html)." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular
Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 138-153. ISBN 978-0765605610. Accessed 2007-09-23.
[45] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p. 14.
[46] "The transformation into a superhero is in fact an allegory of becoming an adult." From Graillat, Ludovic 2006-2007 " America vs. Japan:
the Influence of American Comics on Manga (http:/ / www. refractory. unimelb. edu. au/ journalissues/ vol10/ graillat. html)." Refractory: A
Journal of Entertainment Media, volume 10. Accessed 2007-09-23. Literally, in German, bildungs = education and roman = novel, hence a
novel about the education of the protagonist in "the ways of the world."
[47] Moretti, Franco 1987. The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European Culture. London: Verso. ISBN 1859842984.
[48] Beveridge, Chris (2007-05-14). "Peach Girl Vol. #1 (also w/box) (of 6)" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 6116.
php). Anime on DVD. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[49] "Peach Girl Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1041). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[50] "MARS Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1029). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[51] "Happy Mania Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1115). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[52] Aoki, Deb. "Nana by Ai Yazawa - Series Profile and Story Summary" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ mangatitlesaz/ p/ nanaprofile. htm).
About.com. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[53] Bertschy, Zac (December 26, 2005). "NANA G.novel 1" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ review/ nana-gn-1). Anime News
Network. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[54] Randall, Bill. "Three By Moto Hagio" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070808055442/ http:/ / www. tcj. com/ 252/ e_hagio. html). The
Comics Journal. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. tcj. com/ 252/ e_hagio. html) on 2007-08-08. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[55] King, Patrick. "From Far Away Vol. 2" (http:/ / www. animefringe. com/ magazine/ 2005/ 03/ review/ 06. php). Anime Fringe. . Retrieved
[56] "The World Exists for Me Volume 2" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1477/ TheWorldExistsforMe/ 2. html). Tokyopop. . Retrieved
[57] "Fruits Basket Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1194/ FruitsBasket/ 1. html). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[58] "Top 50 Manga Properties for Spring 2007: Fruits Basket." ICv2 Guide to Manga, Number 45, pp. 6, 8.
[59] "Crescent Moon Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1244). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[60] Allison, Anne 2000. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of
Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 259-278. ISBN 978-0765605610.
[61] Grigsby, Mary 1999 "The social production of gender as reflected in two Japanese culture industry products: Sailormoon and Crayon
Shinchan." In: John A. Lent, editor Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad, and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling
Green State University Popular Press. pp. 183-210. ISBN 0879727802.
[62] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p 92.
[63] "Magic Knight Rayearth I Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1017/ MagicKnightRayearthI/ ). Tokyopop. . Retrieved
[64] Poitras, Gilles 2001. Anime Essentials: Everything a Fan Needs to Know. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge. ISBN 1880656531.
[65] "Tokyo Mew Mew Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ shop/ 1114/ TokyoMewMew/ 1. html). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[66] "Wedding Peach" (http:/ / www. viz. com/ products/ products. php?series_id=198). Viz Media. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
History of manga 15

[67] Cooper, Liann (November 20, 2004). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Sugar Rush" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ right-turn-only/
2004-11-20). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[68] "Galaxy Angel" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070707125510/ http:/ / www. broccolibooks. com/ books/ ga/ ga_index. htm). Broccoli
Books. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. broccolibooks. com/ books/ ga/ ga_index. htm) on 2007-07-07. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[69] Ito, Kinko 2002. "The world of Japanese 'Ladies Comics': From romantic fantasy to lustful perversion." Journal of Popular Culture,
[70] Ito, Kinko 2003. "Japanese Ladies' Comics as agents of socialization: The lessons they teach." International Journal of Comic Art,
[71] Jones, Gretchen 2002. "'Ladies' Comics': Japan's not-so-underground market in pornography for women." U.S.-Japan Women's Journal
(English Supplement), Number 22, pp. 3-31.
[72] Shamoon, Deborah. 2004. "Office slut and rebel flowers: The pleasures of Japanese pornographic comics for women." In: Linda Williams
(editor) Porn Studies. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 77-103. ISBN 0822333120.
[73] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp 124-129.
[74] Ry Ramiya (no date) "Luminous Girls." Tokyo: France Shoin Comic House. ISBN 4829682019.
[75] Toku, 2005, op. cit., p. 59.
[76] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp. 173-177.
[77] Bando, Kishiji (no date) " Shoujo Yuri Manga Guide (http:/ / www. yuricon. org/ essays/ symg. html)." Accessed 2007-09-23.
[78] Font, Dillon. "Erica Sakurazawa's Nothing But Loving You" (http:/ / www. animefringe. com/ magazine/ 2003/ 12/ reviews/ 06/ ). Anime
Fringe. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[79] "Fan translations of Ebine Yamaji's yuri mangas [sic]" (http:/ / gaycomicslist. free. fr/ pages/ blogarch. php?month=2006-10). The Gay
Comics List. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[80] Perper, Timothy & Martha Cornog 2006. "In the Sound of the Bells: Freedom and Revolution in Revolutionary Girl Utena." Mechademia:
An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:183-186.
[81] Masanao, Amano 2004. Manga Design. Koln, Germany: Taschen GMBH. pp. 526-529. ISBN 3822825913.
[82] Paradise Kiss: http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1044 Accessed 2007-09-26.
[83] "Vampire Knight by Matsuri Hino" (http:/ / www. shojobeat. com/ manga/ vk/ ). Shojo Beat. . Retrieved 2007-09-26.
[84] Cain by Kaori Yuki: http:/ / www. shojobeat. com/ manga/ gc/ bio. php Accessed 2007-09-26.
[85] DOLL: http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ shop/ 1277/ DollSoftcover/ 1. html Accessed 2007-11-14.
[86] Shoichi Aoki. 2001. Fruits. New York: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0714840831.
[87] Winge, Theresa 2006. "Costuming the imagination: Origins of anime and manga cosplay." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime,
Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:65-76.
[88] Macias, Patrick, Evers, Izumi, and Nonaka, Kazumi (illustrator). 2004.Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno: Tokyo Teen Fashion Subculture
Handbook. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 9780811856904.
[89] Thompson, 2007, op. cit., pp. xxiii-xxiv. See also the opening sections of Un poil de culture - Une introduction l'animation japonaise.
11/07/2007. http:/ / www. metalchroniques. fr/ guppy/ articles. php?lng=fr& pg=437 Accessed 2007-12-25.
[90] Brenner, Robin E. 2007. Understanding Manga and Anime. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited/Greenwood. pp. 31-34.
[91] In another system of classification, shnen, seinen, and seijin mangaindeed, all genres of mangaare defined by the intended audience or
demographic of the magazine where the manga originally appeared, regardless of content of the specific manga. This magazine-of-origin
system is used by the English-language Wikipedia in its Template:Infobox animanga when assigning demographic labels to manga. For a list
of magazine demographics, see http:/ / users. skynet. be/ mangaguide/ magazines. html, but note that that website does not use magazine
audience or demographic for classifying manga, nor is this approach discussed by either Thompson (2007) or Brenner (2007) cited in the
previous two endnotes. Accessed 2007-12-25.
[92] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p. 95. The French Wikipedia manga article uses the terms seinen and seijin to denote manga for adult men: http:/ / fr.
wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Manga. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[93] Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog 2002. "Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U.S." Sexuality
& Culture, volume 6, number 1, pages 3-126 (special issue).
[94] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., chapter 3, pp. 68-87.
[95] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., chapter 3; Gravett, 2004, op. cit., chapter. 5, pp. 52-73.
[96] Brenner, 2007, op. cit., p. 31.
[97] Golgo: http:/ / www. viz. com/ products/ products. php?series_id=411. review: http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ review/
golgo-13-gn-4. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[98] See http:/ / www. darkhorse. com/ reviews/ archive. php?theid=215 for the quoted phrase. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[99] Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp. 216-220.
[100] Schodt, Frederik L. 1988. Robots of the Imagination. In Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics, and the Coming Robotopia.
Chapter 4, pp. 73-90. Tokyo:Kodansha International.
[101] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p. 84-85.
[102] Masanao Amano, editor. 2004. Manga Design. Kln:Taschen. pp. 92-95. ISBN 3-8228-2591-3. http:/ / www. shonenjump. com/ news/
newsroom/ dunk_sj. php; http:/ / comipress. com/ article/ 2006/ 12/ 15/ 1160. Accessed 2007-12-24.
[103] Aihara, Koji and Kentaro Takekuma. 1990/2002. Even a Monkey Can Draw Manga. San Francisco: Viz. pp. 53-63.
History of manga 16

[104] Aihara & Takekuma, 1990/2002. op. cit., illustration on p. 59.

[105] Berek-Lewis, Jason. July 13, 2005. Comics in an Age of Terror. http:/ / www. brokenfrontier. com/ columns/ details. php?id=308 Accessed
[106] Sgt. Frog: http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1214/ SgtFrog/ 2. html ; review: http:/ / eyeonanime. co. uk/ panda. php?mi=7& p=d&
reviewid2=41. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[107] For multiple meanings of bishjo, see Perper & Cornog, 2002, op. cit., pp. 60-63.
[108] Guardian Angel Getten, by Sakurano Minene. Raijin Graphic Novels/Gutsoon! Entertainment, Vols. 1-4, 2003-2004.
[109] Negima, by Ken Akamatsu. Del Rey/Random House, Vols. 1-15, 2004-2007; Hanaukyo Maid Team, by Morishige. Studio Ironcat, Vols.
1-3, 2003-2004.
[110] Outlanders: http:/ / www. angelfire. com/ anime/ mangatemple/ outlanders. html.
[111] Train Man: Densha Otoko, Hidenori Hara. Viz, Vols. 1-3, 2006.
[112] Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog. 2007. "The education of desire: Futari etchi and the globalization of sexual tolerance." Mechademia:
An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and Fan Arts, 2:201-214.
[113] Toshiki Yui: http:/ / lambiek. net/ artists/ y/ yui_toshiki. htm; http:/ / www. yui-toshiki. com/ shed/ . Accessed 2007-12-28.
[114] Slut Girl, by Isutoshi. Eros Comix, Nos. 1-6, 2000; http:/ / www. fantagraphics. com/ cart/ showcat. cgi?Category=Comics+ Erotica&
SubCategory=Mangerotica& PageNo=10; Were-Slut, by Jiro Chiba. Eros Comix, Nos. 1-8, 2001-2002; http:/ / www. fantagraphics. com/ cart/
showcat. cgi?Category=Comics+ Erotica& SubCategory=Mangerotica& PageNo=12. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[115] For the sent bishjo, translated as "battling beauty," see Kotani, Mari. 2006. "Metamorphosis of the Japanese girl: The girl, the hyper-girl,
and the battling beauty." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:162-170. See also William O. Gardner.
2003. Attack of the Phallic Girls: Review of Sait Tamaki. Sent bishjo no seishin bunseki (Fighting Beauties: A Psychoanalysis). Tokyo: ta
Shuppan, 2000. at http:/ / www. depauw. edu/ sfs/ review_essays/ gardner88. htm. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[116] Drakuun: http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080206232322/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ Tokyo/ Towers/ 9607/ manabe/ drakuunindex.
html. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[117] Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog 2003 "Sex, love, and women in Japanese comics." In Robert T. Francoeur and Raymond Noonan,
editors. The Comprehensive International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. New York: Continuum. pages 663-671. Section 8D in http:/ /
kinseyinstitute. org/ ccies/ jp. php. Accessed 2007-12-28.
[118] Clements, Jonathan. 1998. "'Tits and Tentacles': Sex, Horror, and the Overfiend." In McCarthy, Helen & Jonathan Clements. 1998. The
Erotic Anime Movie Guide. Chapter 4, pp. 58-81.
[119] Taniguchi, Kei. 1994. "Blue Catalyst." San Antonio, TX: Emblem (Antarctic Press), Numbers 6-8.
[120] Smith, Toren. 1991. "Miso Horny: Sex in Japanese Comics." The Comics Journal, No. 143, pp. 111-115.
[121] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., pp. 68-73.
[122] Gravett, 2004, op. cit., pp. 38-42.
[123] Gravett, Paul. "Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga" (http:/ / www. paulgravett. com/ articles/ 058_gekiga/ 058_gekiga. htm). . Retrieved
[124] Isao, Shimizu (2001). "Red Comic Books: The Origins of Modern Japanese Manga". In Lent, John A.. Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor
Magazines, and Picture Books. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN978-0824824716
[125] Isao, 2001, op. cit., pp. 147-149.
[126] Nunez, Irma (September 24, 2006). "Alternative Comics Heroes: Tracing the Genealogy of Gekiga." (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/
cgi-bin/ fb20060924a1. html). The Japan Times. . Retrieved 2007-12-19
[127] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., pp. 70-71.
[128] Hirata: http:/ / www. darkhorse. com/ search/ search. php?frompage=userinput& sstring=Hirata& x=11& y=9 Accessed 2007-12-19.
[129] Takeo, Udagawa (2007-10-15). "Home Manga Zombie: Manga Zombie - Preface" (http:/ / comipress. com/ special/ manga-zombie/
manga-zombie-preface). Comi Press. . Retrieved 2007-12-19.
[130] Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p. 72.
[131] Flinn, Tom (2008). "MW". ICv2 (50): pp.1718
[132] Pfaender, Fabien. "IWGP, t.1" (http:/ / www. planetebd. com/ BD/ IWGP-1701. html). planetebd.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-20.

External links
A History of Manga (http://www.dnp.co.jp/museum/nmp/nmp_i/articles/manga/manga1.html)
A complete Hokusai Book, Hokusai Manga Vol 12 in Touch & Turn format (http://www.touchandturn.com/
List of manga series by volume count 17

List of manga series by volume count

The list of manga series by volume count is a list of manga series that span at least 40 tankbon volumes. There are
93 manga series from which 40 series are completed and 53 series are in ongoing serialization. The list also notes the
number of volumes and chapters, the author, the Japanese magazine in which it was originally serialized and its
(frequency), publisher and date of release date of first and last (latest) volume of respective manga volume.

Manga list
This list is incomplete.
Ongoing series are highlighted in light green.

Sr. Chapters Title Author Magazine Latest

No. Volumes (frequency) [1] chapter
Publisher Latest
First volume

1 176 [2] Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Osamu Akimoto Weekly Shnen Jump
1708 September Ongoing
Ken-mae Hashutsujo (weekly) [3]
1976 July 4,
() Shueisha [4] [5]
July 9, 1977 2011

2 [6] Dokaben () Shinji Weekly Shnen Ongoing

165 April 24, 1972
Mizushima Champion (weekly) November
Akita Shoten [7]

3 160 Golgo 13 (13) Takao Saito Big Comic Ongoing

(semimonthly) [8]
Shogakukan June 21,

4 113 [10] Cooking Papa () Tochi Ueyama Weekly Morning [11] Ongoing
1069 1984
(weekly) January 18,
Kodansha [12]

5 110 Nijitte Monogatari () Kazuo Koike, Weekly Post (weekly) ? ?

Satomi Koue Shogakukan April 27, February 28,
[13] [14]
1981 2005

6 109 Minami no Teiou () Dai Tennouji, Bessatsu Manga Ongoing

Go Rikiya Goraku (monthly) March
Nihon Bungeisha [15]

7 105 Oishinbo () Tetsu Kariya, Big Comic Spirits Ongoing

October 1983
Akira Hanasaki (monthly) November 30,
Shogakukan [16]

8 [17] [18] JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Hirohiko Araki Weekly Shnen Jump Ongoing
102 840 1987
() (weekly) 1987 - 2004 August 10,
Ultra Jump (monthly) [19]
2004 - present

9 [20] [21] Baki the Grappler () Keisuke Itagaki Weekly Shnen Ongoing
102 647 1991
Champion (weekly) February
Akita Shoten [22]
List of manga series by volume count 18

10 98 870 Abu-san () Shinji Big Comic Original Ongoing

Mizushima (semimonthly) May 15,
Shogakukan [23]

11 98 Shizukanaru Don Yakuza Side Story Tatsuo Nitta Weekly Manga Ongoing
November 15,
() Sunday (weekly) [24]
Jitsugyo no Nihon April 6,
Sha [25]

12 96 [2] Fighting Spirit Hajime no Ippo George Weekly Shnen Ongoing

941 1989
() Morikawa Magazine (weekly) February 17,
Kodansha [26]

13 95 Asari-chan () Mayumi Shogakukan no Ongoing

Muroyama Gakushu Zasshi (?) April 26,
Shogakukan [27]

14 [28] [29] Ktar Makaritru! Tatsuya Hiruta Weekly Shnen

94 78 1982 2004
(!) Magazine (weekly) January 20, October 15,
Kodansha [30] [31]
1983 2004

15 92 Haguregumo () George Akiyama Big Comic Original Ongoing

(semimonthly) June 6,
Shogakukan [32]

16 [33] [2] Captain Tsubasa () Yichi Weekly Shnen Jump, 1981 Ongoing
86 499
Takahashi Weekly Young Jump January 1982

17 [34] Patalliro! (!) Mineo Maya Hana to Yume [35] Ongoing

85 1979
(semimonthly) October 20,
Hakusensha [36]

18 [37] Kobo, the Li'l Rascal Masashi Ueda Yomiuri Shimbun April 1, 1982 Ongoing
Soyosha, Houbunsha

19 80 [38] Tsuribaka Nisshi () Jz Yamasaki, Big Comic Original Ongoing

724 1979
Kenichi Kitami (semimonthly) July 29,
Shogakukan [39]

20 78 747 Major (MAJOR-) Takuya Mitsuda Weekly Shnen July 2010

Sunday (weekly) January 13,
Shogakukan [40]

21 75 Nanto Magoroku () Kei Sadayasu Monthly Shnen Ongoing

Magazine (monthly) August 20,
Kodansha [41]

22 75 Zero The Man of the Creation Kei Satomi Super Jump Ongoing
(THE MAN OF THE (semimonthly) September 10,
CREATION) Shueisha [42]

23 75 Marugoshi Keiji () Weekly Manga ? ?

Sunday (weekly) ? March 29,
Jitsugyo no Nihon [43]

24 [44] Tough () Tetsuya Weekly Young Jump Ongoing

74 1993
Saruwatari (weekly) March 18,
Shueisha [45]
List of manga series by volume count 19

25 73 [2] Detective Conan (Case Closed) Gosho Aoyama Weekly Shnen Ongoing
786 February 2,
() Sunday (weekly) 1994 (issue
Shogakukan #5)
June 18,

26 67 Chie the Brat Etsumi Haruki Weekly Manga Action 1978 1997
(weekly) [47]
May 1979 November
Futabasha [48]

27 65 Tsurikichi Sanpei Takao Yaguchi Weekly Shnen 1973 1983

Magazine (weekly) February 18, May 16,
Kodansha [49] [50]
1974 1983

28 [51] Ironfist Chinmi () Takeshi Weekly Shnen

66 1983 2009
Maekawa Magazine (weekly) April 18, November 17,
Kodansha [52] [53]
1984 2009

29 65 Soumubu Soumuka Yamaguchi Roppeita Big Comic Ongoing

( ) (semimonthly) January 30,
Shogakukan [54]

30 64 [2] One Piece Eiichiro Oda Weekly Shnen Jump Ongoing

640 1997
(weekly) December 24,
Shueisha [55]

31 62 635 Emblem Take 2 Weekly Young 1990 2004

(<>TAKE2) Magazine (weekly) July 17, April 30,
Kodansha [56] [57]
1990 2005

32 60 [58] Dear Boys Hiroki Yagami Monthly Shnen Ongoing

240 1989
Magazine (monthly) December 16,
Kodansha [59]

33 60 Sangokushi Yokoyama Comic Tom (monthly) 1971 1986

Mitsuteru Ushio Shuppansha April 20, October 20,
[60] [61]
1974 1988

34 60 Ginga Legend Weed Yoshihiro Weekly Manga [62]

May 1999 September 18,
Takahashi Goraku (weekly) [64]
January 2009
Nihon Bungeisha [63]

35 59 Sunset on Third Street Ryhei Saigan Big Comic Original Ongoing

(semimonthly) September 29,
Shogakukan [65]

36 58 [2] Kindaichi Case Files Yzabur Weekly Shnen [66] Ongoing

459 1992
Kanari, Magazine (weekly) February 17,
Seimaru Amagi, Kodansha [67]
Fumiya Sat

37 58 [68] GodHand Teru Kazuki Weekly Shnen Ongoing

424 2001
Yamamoto Magazine (weekly) July 17,
Kodansha [69]

38 [70] Boys Be... Masahiro Weekly Shnen Finished

58 1991
Itabashi, Magazine (weekly) January 17,
Hiroyuki Kodansha [71]
List of manga series by volume count 20

39 58 242 Wataru ga Pyun! (!) Tsuyoshi Monthly Shnen Jump 1984 2004
Nakaima (monthly) June 10, November 4,
Shueisha [72] [73]
1985 2004

40 [74] [2] Naruto Masashi Weekly Shnen Jump [75] Ongoing

58 563 1999
Kishimoto (weekly) March 3,
Shueisha [76]

41 56 [77] Dreams () Sanbanchi Kawa Weekly Shnen Ongoing

387 ?
Magazine (weekly) November 15,
Kodansha [78]

42 56 Edomae no Shun () Weekly Manga Ongoing

Goraku (weekly) February
Nihon Bungeisha [79]

43 56 Tenpai () Weekly Manga Ongoing

Goraku (weekly) October
Nihon Bungeisha [80]

44 56 558 InuYasha Rumiko Weekly Shnen 1996 2008

Takahashi Sunday (weekly) April 18, February 18,
Shogakukan [81] [82]
1997 2009

45 55 Crest of the Royal Family Chieko Princess (monthly) 1976 Ongoing

Hosokawa Akita Shoten

46 [83] [84] Inochi no Utsuwa () For Mrs. (monthly) 1991 Ongoing

54 204
Akita Shoten

47 54 Alfheim no Kishi () Seika Nakayama Princess (monthly) 1986 2006

Akita Shoten ? December 15,

48 53 Kaze no Daichi Nobuhiro Big Comic Original Ongoing

Sakata, (semimonthly) March 30,
Eiji Kazama Shogakukan [86]

49 51 4P Tanaka-kun (4P) Shichi Santarou, Weekly Shnen 1986 1996

Kawa Sanbanchi Champion (weekly) December August 1996
Akita Shoten 1986

50 51 [2] Bleach Tite Kubo Weekly Shnen Jump [88] Ongoing

471 2001
[87] (weekly) January 5,
Shueisha [89]

51 50 [90] Crayon Shin-chan Yoshito Usui Weekly Manga Action Finished

1126 1990
(weekly) April 11,
Futabasha [91]

52 50 541 Kougyou Aika Volleyboys Hiroyuki Weekly Young 1989 2006

() Murada Magazine (weekly) July 17, April 6,
Kodansha [92] [93]
1989 2006

53 49 [94] Futari Ecchi Katsu Aki Young Animal Ongoing

454 1997
(semimonthly) August 29,
Hakusensha [95]

54 49 Kariage-kun () Masashi Ueda Weekly Manga Action Ongoing

(weekly) December 5,
Futabasha [96]
List of manga series by volume count 21

55 48 Rakudai Ninja Rantar Sb Amako ? ? ?

Asahi Shimbun March October 29,
[97] [98]
1993 2010

56 48 Wild 7 Mikiya Shnen Gah (?) September July 1979

Mochizuki Shnen Gahsha 1969

57 48 308 Be-Bop High School Kiyuchi Weekly Young 1983 2003

Kazuhiro Magazine (weekly) March 17, January 6,
Kodansha [99] [100]
1984 2004

58 48 350 Azumi Y Koyama Big Comic Superior 1994 2008

(semimonthly) January 30, February 27,
Shogakukan [101] [102]
1995 2009

59 48 Dan Doh!! () Nobuhiro Sakata Weekly Shnen 1995 2005

Sunday (weekly)

60 48 Nozomi Witches Toshio Nobe Weekly Young Jump 1986 1996

() (weekly)

61 47 [2] The Prince of Tennis Takeshi Konomi Weekly Shnen Jump Ongoing
431 1999
[103] (weekly), January 7,
Jump Square [104]

62 47 Wangan Midnight Michiharu Big Comic Spirits, Ongoing

Kusunoki Young Magazine January 8,
(weekly) [105]

63 47 429 Chameleon Atsushi Kase Weekly Shnen 1990 1999

Magazine (weekly) August 17, March 16,
Kodansha [106] [107]
1990 2000

64 46 Glass Mask Suzue Miuchi Ongoing

Hana to Yume 1976
(semimonthly), March 20,
Bessatsu Hana to 1976
Yume (monthly)

65 46 Gambling Racer () Makoto Tanaka Weekly Morning 1988 2006

(weekly) May 23, February 23,
Kodansha [110] [111]
1989 2006

66 46 Kattobi Itto () Mosaki Monma Monthly Shnen Jump 1986 1999

(monthly) June 1986 March 1999

67 45 Kaiouki Masatoshi Monthly Shnen Ongoing

Kawahara Magazine (monthly) August 17,
Kodansha [112]

68 [113] [114] Ryrden Yoshito Monthly Shnen Ongoing

45 158 1993
Yamahara Magazine (monthly) December 16,
Kodansha [115]
List of manga series by volume count 22

69 45 825 Doraemon Fujiko F. Fujio 1969 1996

July 31, April 26,
[116] [117]
1974 1996

70 45 Hocho Mushuku () Yasuyuki Weekly Manga 1982 1996

Tagawa Goraku (weekly) September July 1996
Nihon Bungeisha 1982

71 45 6477 Sazae-san Machiko Various 1946 1974

Hasegawa Asahi Sonorama September 20, September 20,
[118] [119]
1994 1994

72 45 Violence Jack Go Nagai Weekly Shnen July 22, 1973 March 23,
Magazine (weekly) 1990

73 44 Kaze Hikaru Koshien Sanbanchi Kawa Monthly Shnen 1990 2006

() Magazine (monthly) July 17, June 16,
Kodansha [120] [121]
1991 2006

74 43 [122] Kaiji Nobuyuki Weekly Young Ongoing

423 1996
Fukumoto Magazine (weekly) September 6,
Kodansha [123]

75 43 [124] Karate Shoukoushi Kohinata Minoru Baba Yasushi Weekly Young Ongoing
390 2000
( ) Magazine (weekly) July 6,
Kodansha [125]

76 43 Karakuri Circus Kazuhiro Fujita Shnen Sunday 1997 2006

(weekly) December 10, August 11,
Shogakukan [126] [127]
1997 2006

77 43 [128] Zipang Kaiji Kawaguchi Weekly Morning

413 2000 2009
(weekly) January 23, December 22,
Kodansha [129] [130]
2001 2009

78 43 Osu!! Karate Bu Koji Takahashi Weekly Young Jump 1985 1996


79 42 [2] Initial D (D) Shuichi Shigeno Weekly Young Ongoing

600 1995
Magazine (weekly) November 6,
Kodansha [131]

80 42 [2] Kenichi: The Mightiest Disciple Syun Matsuena Weekly Shnen Ongoing
410 2002
() Sunday (weekly) August 9,
Shogakukan [132]

81 42 [2] Oh My Goddess! Ksuke Afternoon (monthly) Ongoing

264 September
Fujishima Kodansha 1988
September 23,

82 42 [134] Super Mario-kun Yukio Sawada CoroCoro Comic Ongoing

402 1990
(monthly) July 27,
Shogakukan [135]

83 42 [136] Violinist of Hameln Michiaki Monthly Shnen 1991 ongoing

Watanabe Gangan (monthly), September 22,
Young Gangan 1991
Enix, Square Enix
List of manga series by volume count 23

84 [137] 519 Dragon Ball Akira Toriyama Weekly Shnen Jump

42 1984 1995
(weekly) September 10, August 4,
Shueisha [138] [139]
1985 1995

85 42 Ryuu Ron (-RON-) Motoka Big Comic Original 1991 2006

Murakami (semimonthly) June 29, July 28,
Shogakukan [140] [141]
1991 2006

86 42 Rokudenashi Blues Masanori Morita Weekly Shnen Jump 1988 1997

(weekly) January 1989 April 1997

87 41 Chiisana Koi no Monogatari Chikago Manga Time 1962 2008

() Mitsuhashi (monthly) May 25,
Gakken [142]

88 41 Legendary Gambler Tetsuya Fmei Sai, Weekly Shnen 1997 2004

(-) Yasushi Hoshino Magazine (weekly) December 16, February 17,
Kodansha [143] [144]
1997 2005

89 41 The Chef Shinshou ( Weekly Manga Finished

) Goraku (weekly)
Nihon Bungeisha

90 40 [145] Addicted to Curry () Kazuki Funatsu Weekly Young Jump Ongoing

409 2001
(weekly) July 19,
Shueisha [146]

91 40 Kura no Yado () Nishi Yuuji, Weekly Manga Times Ongoing

Tana Toshinobu (weekly) May 17,
Houbunsha [147]

92 [148] Circuit no kami () Satoshi Ikezawa Weekly Shnen Jump 1975 Finished

93 40 441 33 Eyes Yuzo Takada Weekly Young 1987 2002

Magazine (weekly) October 17, November 6,
Kodansha [149] [150]
1988 2002

[1] The date for the first chapter of a series should generally be the date on the cover of the magazine issue it ran in.
[2] This chapter count includes chapters not yet collected in a tankbon volume.
[3] /759 "Celebrating its 30th Anniversary, Interview..." (http:/ / comipress. com/ news/ 2006/ 09/ 19). ComiPress. June 19, 2006. Archived
(http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zyQejZMv) from the original on July 6, 2011. /759. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
[4] " 1 [Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Ken-mae Hashutsujo 1]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/
search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-852811-5& mode=1) (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5zyRnFJEZ)
from the original on July 6, 2011. . Retrieved April 19, 2009.
[5] " 175 [Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Ken-mae Hashutsujo 175]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/
search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=978-4-08-870234-6& mode=1) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved July 22, 2011.
[6] Dokaben consists of four named series, each covering specific baseball seasons played by the Meikun High School team. The first series,
simply titled Dokaben, is collected in 48 volumes; the second series, Dai Kshien (), is collected in 26 volumes; the third series,
Dokaben Professional Baseball ( ), is collected in 52 volumes; and the fourth series, Dokaben Superstars (
), is ongoing with 39 volumes.
[7] " (1) (): : [Dokaben (1) (Shonen Champion Comics): Shinji Mizushima: Books]"
(http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4253030637) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved June 24, 2009.
[8] "13() [Golgo 13]" (http:/ / www. saito-pro. co. jp/ golgo/ index. htm) (in Japanese). Saito Production. . Retrieved July
11, 2009.
List of manga series by volume count 24

[9] "13 1" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ solc_dtl?isbn=4845800012) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved February 25, 2009.
[10] Chapters as of volume 110.
[11] "Tomomitsu Yamaguchi becomes "Cooking Papa"" (http:/ / www. tokyograph. com/ news/ id-3324). Tokyograph. June 5, 2008. . Retrieved
July 9, 2009.
[12] " (1) [Cooking Papa (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3000044) (in Japanese). Kodansha. .
Retrieved June 24, 2009.
[13] " 1 [Nijitte Monogatari 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091803318) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved August 12, 2009.
[14] " 110 [Nijitte Monogatari 110]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091866905) (in
Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved August 12, 2009.
[15] " (1)/ / [Minami no Teiou (1)/Story by Dai Tennouji/Art by Go Rikiya]" (http:/ / www.
nihonbungeisha. co. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-03744-9. html) (in Japanese). Nihon Bungeisha. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[16] " 1 [Oishinbo 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091807518) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved June 24, 2009.
[17] JoJo's Bizarre Adventure is split into 7 number of shorter series, each of which covers a specific generation of the Joestar family. The first
arc Phantom Blood () contains First 47 chapters collected in 5 tankbon volumes, Second arc Battle Tendency ()
contains 67 chapters collected in 7 tankbon volumes, Third arc Stardust Crusaders () contains 141 chapters
collected in 16 tankbon volumes, Fourth arc Diamond is Unbreakable () contains 180 chapters collected in 18
tankbon volumes, Fifth arc Vento Aureo () contains 157 chapters collected in 17 tankbon volumes, Sixth arc Stone Ocean
() contains 158 chapters collected in 17 tankbon volumes and Seventh arc Steel Ball Run
() is under serialization with 22 tankbon volumes released covering 88 chapters.
[18] Chapters as of volume 102.
[19] "/1| [JoJo's Bizarre Adventure/1|Hirohiko Araki]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/
syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851126-3) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved June 24, 2009.
[20] Baki the Grappler is split into 3 series. The Original Grappler Baki () contains 42 tankbon volumes covering 371
chapters, New Grappler Baki () contains 31 tankbon volumes and covering 276 chapters, and Baki: Son of Ogre () is on-going
series with 29 volumes published.
[21] Chapters as of volume 73.
[22] " (1) (): : [Baki the Grappler (1) (Shonen Champion Comics): Keisuke
Itagaki: Books]" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4253053092) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[23] " 1 [Abu-san 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091800114) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[24] Nitta, Tatsuo (April 6, 1989) (in Japanese). [Shizukanaru Don]. 1. Japan: Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. ISBN978-4-408-16034-4.
[25] "(1) [Shizukanaru Don (1)]" (https:/ / www. j-n. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ product_detail. cgi?code=4-408-16034-2) (in Japanese).
Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. . Retrieved July 11, 2009.
[26] "(1) [Fighting Spirit (1) George Morikawa]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view.
jsp?b=3115321) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[27] " 1 [Asari-chan 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091404014) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[28] Ktar Makaritru! manga is split into three series. The first series Ktar Makaritru! is collected in 59 tankbon volumes, the second
series Shin Ktar Makaritru! (!) is collected in 27 tankbon volumes and the third series Ktar
Makaritru! L (! L) is collected in 8 tankbon volumes.
[29] Chapters as of volume 11.
[30] "!(1) [Ktar Makaritru! (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1728741) (in Japanese).
Kodansha. . Retrieved June 24, 2009.
[31] "!L(8) [Ktar Makaritru! L (8)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=363440X) (in
Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September 19, 2010.
[32] " 1 [Haguregumo 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091800513) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[33] The Captain Tsubasa series includes the original 37 volume manga, the 18 volume Captain Tsubasa: World Youth Saga (
) manga, the 15 volume Captain Tsubasa: Road to 2002 ( ROAD TO 2002) manga, the 12 volume Captain
Tsubasa: Golden-23 ( GOLDEN-23) manga and the 2 volume covering 24 chapters Captain Tsubasa: Kaigai Gekito Hen in
Calcio ( IN CALCIO) manga. A new series started in February 2010, called Captain Tsubasa: Kaigai Gekito Hen
En La Liga ( EN LA LIGA) which is on-going with 2 volumes and 41 chapters published.
[34] This count does not include the four spin-off series related to this series.
[35] " [Maya Mineo]" (http:/ / comich. net/ cr/ ma/ maya_mineo. html) (in Japanese). Comic Holmes. . Retrieved July 10, 2009.
[36] "! 1 [Patalliro! 1]" (http:/ / www. s-book. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592111710) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved July 10,
List of manga series by volume count 25

[37] Kobo, the Li'l Rascal was published for 60 volumes by Soyosha and is currently being published by Houbunsha at a total of 21 volumes.
[38] Chapters as of volume 77.
[39] " 1 [Tsuribaka Nisshi 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091802818) (in
Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved March 23, 2010.
[40] "MAJOR() 1 [Major (Major) 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091234917) (in
Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved July 11, 2009.
[41] "(1) [Nanto Magoroku (1) Kei Sadayasu]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=173573X) (in
Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved July 11, 2009.
[42] "THE MAN OF THE CREATION 1 [Zero The Man of the Creation 1]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put.
cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-858621-2) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved May 21, 2010.
[43] "(75) [Marogoshi Keiji (75) Completed]" (https:/ / www. j-n. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ product_detail. cgi?code=4-408-16727-4)
(in Japanese). Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[44] Tough manga includes the 42-volume High School Exciting Story: Tough () and the still running sequel simply titled
Tough (TOUGH) with 32 tankbon volumes published.
[45] " 1 [High School Exciting Story: Tough 1]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put.
cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-875261-9) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved May 21, 2010.
[46] " 1 [Detective Conan 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091233716) (in
Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved March 23, 2010.
[47] " (1) () () [Chie the Brat Brave Report From Chie-chan (1)
(Action Comics) (Paperback)]" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4575812005) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[48] " (67) () () [Chie the Brat Brave Report From Chie-chan (1)
(Action Comics) (Paperback)]" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4575822957) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[49] "(1)" (http:/ / kc. kodansha. co. jp/ product/ top. php/ 1234600388) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September 26, 2010.
[50] "(65)" (http:/ / kc. kodansha. co. jp/ product/ top. php/ 1234601781) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September 26,
[51] Ironfist Chinmi manga is divided into three series which includes 35 tankbon volumes of Tekken Chinmi (), 20 tankbon
volumes of the Shin Tekken Chinmi () and 11 tankbon volumes of the Tekken Chinmi Legends (Legends) which is
still running.
[52] "1 [Ironfist Chinmi 1]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1736302) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
April 27, 2010.
[53] "Legends 9 [Ironfist Chinmi Legends 9]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3712184) (in Japanese).
Kodansha. . Retrieved September 19, 2010.
[54] " 1 | [Soumubu Soumuka Yamaguchi Roppeita 1 | Big Comics]" (http:/ / www.
shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091812813) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[55] "ONE PIECE 1 [One Piece 1]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872509-3) (in Japanese).
Shueisha. . Retrieved May 21, 2010.
[56] "<>TKE2(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1022156) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[57] "<>TKE2(62)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3613267) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 19, 2010.
[58] Chapters as of volume 56.
[59] "DER BOYS 1 [Dear Boys 1]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3022889) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
May 21, 2010.
[60] " 1" (http:/ / www. usio. co. jp/ html/ books/ shosai. php?book_cd=253) (in Japanese). Ushio Shuppansha. . Retrieved August 30,
[61] " 60" (http:/ / www. usio. co. jp/ html/ books/ shosai. php?book_cd=312) (in Japanese). Ushio Shuppansha. . Retrieved
September 19, 2010.
[62] Takahashi, Yoshihiro (1999). 1. Nihon Bungeisha. p.4. ISBN4-537-09891-0.
[63] " (1)/ [Ginga Densetsu Weed (1) / by Yoshihiro Takahashi]" (http:/ / www. nihonbungeisha. co. jp/
books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09891-4. html). Nihon Bungeisha. . Retrieved June 28, 2010.
[64] Takahashi, Yoshihiro (2009). 60. Nihon Bungeisha. p.208. ISBN978-4-537-12491-0.
[65] " 1" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091800610) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved September 3, 2010.
[66] "Weekly Shnen Magazine Kindaichi Case Files" (http:/ / kc. kodansha. co. jp/ author/ list. php/ 1000000083) (in Japanese). Kodansha. .
Retrieved February 7, 2010.
[67] "(1) [Kindaichi Case Files Volume 1]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3118746) (in
Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved July 21, 2009.
[68] Chapters as of volume 55.
List of manga series by volume count 26

[69] "(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3129993) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved August 30,
[70] Total includes original 32 volume series, 20 volume Second Season, and 6 volume L CO-OP.
[71] "BOYS BE... 1 [Boys Be... 1]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3117510) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved May
21, 2010.
[72] "! 1 [Wataru ga Pyun! 1]" (http:/ / mj. shueisha. co. jp/ comics/ wataru/ #01) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved October
1, 2010.
[73] "! 58 [Wataru ga Pyun! 58]" (http:/ / mj. shueisha. co. jp/ comics/ wataru/ #58) (in Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved
October 1, 2010.
[74] Naruto is split into two parts by a 2 year timeskip; Part I consists of 27 volumes with 244 chapters, and part II contains the remaining 28
volumes and 272 chapters.
[75] "Masashi Kishimoto" (http:/ / www. viz. com/ products/ products. php?& series_id=119& section=profiles). Viz Media. . Retrieved October
11, 2007.
[76] "NARUTO/1" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872840-8) (in Japanese). Shueisha. .
Retrieved October 11, 2007.
[77] Chapters as of volume 51.
[78] "Dreams(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3123421) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
[79] " (1)" (http:/ / www. nihonbungeisha. co. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09897-6. html) (in Japanese). Nihon Bungeisha. .
Retrieved August 30, 2010.
[80] " (1) [Tenpai (1)]" (http:/ / www. nihonbungeisha. co. jp/ books/ pages/ ISBN978-4-537-09877-8. html) (in Japanese). Nihon
Bungeisha. . Retrieved May 27, 2010.
[81] " 1 [InuYasha 1]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_409125201X) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved
September 19, 2010.
[82] " 56 [InuYasha 56]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_9784091215802) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved September 19, 2010.
[83] "Amazon.co.jp: 45 (45) (): : " (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/
4253158854) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved November 14, 2008.
[84] Chapters as of volume 52.
[85] " 54" (http:/ / www. akitashoten. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?key=search& isbn=193544) (in Japanese). Akita
Shoten. . Retrieved September 23, 2010.
[86] " 1" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091824617) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved August 30,
[87] 15 chapters of Bleach were published with negative chapter numbers; these are included in this count. In addition, chapter 88 was split into
two chapters, with the second numbered 88.5; a chapter 0.8 was published at the end of volume 12, after chapter 107; and at the end of volume
23, after chapter 205, two chapters numbered "0. side-A" and "0. side-B" were published; these are also included in this count. As of October
4, 2010, 452 properly numbered chapters and 19 negative or otherwise oddly numbered chapters have been released in total.
[88] "Bleach - Profiles" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5fjmj9RLV). Viz Media. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. viz. com/ products/
products. php?& series_id=33& section=profiles) on April 2, 2009. . Retrieved February 25, 2009.
[89] "BLEACH 1" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5fjtVYUxf) (in Japanese). Shueisha. Archived from the original (http:/ / books.
shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-873213-8) on April 2, 2009. . Retrieved January 1, 2008.
[90] Chapters as of volume 49.
[91] " 1 [Crayon Shin-chan 1]" (http:/ / www. futabasha. co. jp/ booksdb/ book/ bookview/ 4-575-93292-2. html) (in
Japanese). Futabasha. . Retrieved March 24, 2010.
[92] "(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1021575) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[93] "(50)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3614336) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 19, 2010.
[94] Chapters as of volume 47.
[95] " 1 [Futari Ecchi 1]" (http:/ / www. s-book. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592134613) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved
September 3, 2009.
[96] " 1" (http:/ / www. futabasha. co. jp/ booksdb/ book/ bookview/ 4-575-93014-8. html?c=20101& o=date& type=t&
word=) (in Japanese). Futabasha. . Retrieved September 3, 2010.
[97] " (1) [Rakudai Ninja Rantar (1)]" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4022750014) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. .
Retrieved October 19, 2009.
[98] "48 [Rakudai Ninja Rantar 48]" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ 4022750480) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved
October 19, 2009.
[99] "BE-BOP-HIGHSCHOOL(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1020110) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
List of manga series by volume count 27

[100] "BE-BOP-HIGHSCHOOL(48)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3611795) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 27, 2010.
[101] " 1 [Asumi 1]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091835414) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[102] " 48 [Asumi 48]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_9784091823731) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved
September 26, 2010.
[103] The Prince of Tennis is split into two series. The original The Prince of Tennis manga has 42 volumes and 379 chapters, the New Prince of
Tennis has 5 volume and 52 chapters and is still ongoing.
[104] " 1 [Tennis no ji-sama 1]" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-872815-7) (in
Japanese). Shueisha. . Retrieved August 3, 2010.
[105] "MIDNIGHT (1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3233723) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September
24, 2010.
[106] "(1) [Chameleon (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3115925) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[107] "(47) [Chameleon (47)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3128229) (in Japanese). Kodansha. .
Retrieved September 26, 2010.
[108] After the publication of volume 42 of Glass Mask in 2004, the series stopped serialization. In the September 2008 issue of Bessatsu Hana
to Yume, the series began serialization again.
[109] " 1 [Glass no Kamen 1]" (http:/ / www. s-book. net/ plsql/ slib_detail?isbn=4592110919) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. .
Retrieved October 4, 2010.
[110] "(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3000540) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved August
2, 2010.
[111] " (7)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3521354) (in Japanese). Kodansha. .
Retrieved October 7, 2010.
[112] "(1) [Kaiouki (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3336379) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved August
30, 2010.
[113] The original Ryrden () series has 37 volumes covering 158 chapters and the sequel Ryrden: Chugen Ryran-hen (
) with 8 volumes released is still ongoing.
[114] Chapters as of volume 37.
[115] "(1) [Ryrden (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=302413X) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[116] "(TC) 1 [Doraemon 1]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091400019) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved August 30, 2010.
[117] "(TC) 45 [Doraemon 45]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091416659) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved September 26, 2010.
[118] "1" (http:/ / publications. asahi. com/ ecs/ detail/ ?item_id=3268) (in Japanese). Asahi Sonorama. . Retrieved
October 27, 2010.
[119] "45" (http:/ / publications. asahi. com/ ecs/ detail/ ?item_id=3312) (in Japanese). Asahi Sonorama. . Retrieved
October 27, 2010.
[120] "(1) [Kaze Hikaru (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3023354) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[121] "(44) [Kaze Hikaru (44)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3710467) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 24, 2010.
[122] Chapters as of volume 39.
[123] "(1) [Kaiji (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3366081) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved August 30,
[124] Chapters as of volume 38.
[125] " (1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3368831) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[126] " 1 [Karakuri Circus 1]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091253318) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved November 3, 2010.
[127] " 43 [Karakuri Circus 43]" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091205704) (in Japanese).
Shogakukan. . Retrieved November 3, 2010.
[128] Chapters as of volume 42.
[129] "(1) [Zipang (1)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3287319) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[130] "(43) [Zipang (43)]" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3728552) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 24, 2010.
List of manga series by volume count 28

[131] "D(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=323567X) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[132] " 1" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091265715) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. .
Retrieved August 30, 2010.
[133] "(1) " (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=321009X) (in Japanese). Kodansha. .
Retrieved January 17, 2009.
[134] Chapters as of volume 33.
[135] " 1 [Super Mario-kun 1]" (http:/ / skygarden. shogakukan. co. jp/ skygarden/ owa/ sol_detail?isbn=4091417612) (in
Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved August 9, 2009.
[136] Chapters as of volume 37.
[137] In importing Dragon Ball to the United States and Canada, Viz Media split the series to match the split between the Dragon Ball and
Dragon Ball Z anime series, with identical names. The English Dragon Ball consists of 16 volumes and 194 chapters, while Dragon Ball Z
contains the remaining 26 volumes and 325 chapters.
[138] "DRAGON BALL 1" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851831-4) (in Japanese). Shueisha. .
Retrieved August 3, 2009.
[139] "DRAGON BALL 42" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-851090-9) (in Japanese). Shueisha. .
Retrieved September 24, 2010.
[140] "-RON-() 1" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091825915) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved August
30, 2009.
[141] "-RON-() 42" (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ comics/ detail/ _isbn_4091805884) (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved
September 24, 2010.
[142] "41" (http:/ / shop. gakken. co. jp/ shop/ order/ k_ok/ bookdisp. asp?code=1340343100) (in Japanese).
Gakken. . Retrieved October 7, 2010.
[143] " (1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3124932) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
August 30, 2010.
[144] " (41)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3634825) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved
September 24, 2010.
[145] Chapters as of volume 38.
[146] " 1" (http:/ / books. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ search/ syousai_put. cgi?isbn_cd=4-08-876181-2) (in Japanese). Shueisha. .
Retrieved March 16, 2010.
[147] " 1" (http:/ / houbunsha. co. jp/ comics/ detail. php?current=8& p=) (in Japanese). Houbunsha. . Retrieved September 24,
[148] Circuit no kami manga includes the original 19 volume series, and its 21-volume sequel called Circuit no kami II: Modena no Tsurugi
(II ).
[149] "33EYES(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=1021230) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved August 30, 2010.
[150] "33EYES(1)" (http:/ / shop. kodansha. jp/ bc2_bc/ search_view. jsp?b=3610837) (in Japanese). Kodansha. . Retrieved September 24,

Manga 29

Manga (kanji: ; hiragana: ; katakana: ; listen;
English /m/ or /m/) is the Japanese word for "comics" and
consists of comics and print cartoons (sometimes also called komikku
). In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to
refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in
the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan
in the late 19th century.[1] In their modern form, manga date from
shortly after World War II,[2] but they have a long, complex pre-history
in earlier Japanese art.[3]

In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works
in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and
games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery,
horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others.[4] Since the
1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese
publishing industry,[5] representing a 406 billion market in Japan in
2007 (approximately $3.6 billion). Manga have also gained a
significant worldwide audience.[6] In 2008, the U.S. and Canadian The kanji for "manga" from Seasonal Passersby
(Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, by Sant Kyden and
manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga stories are typically
Kitao Shigemasa.
printed in black-and-white,[7] although some full-color manga exist
(e.g. Colorful). In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga
magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the
series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankbon.[8] A manga artist
(mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor
from a commercial publishing company.[2] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even
during its run,[9] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated
films[10] (e.g. Star Wars).

"Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.[11] However,
manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in Taiwan
("manhua"), South Korea ("manhwa"),[12] and China, notably Hong Kong ("manhua").[13] In France, "la nouvelle
manga" has developed as a form of bande dessine (literally drawn strip) drawn in styles influenced by Japanese
manga. In the United States, people refer to what they perceive as manga "styled" comics as Amerimanga, world
manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga). Still, the original term "manga" is primarily used in
English-speaking countries solely to describe comics of Japanese origin.

The Chinese characters used to write the word manga in Japanese can be translated as "whimsical drawings". The
word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Sant Kyden's
picturebook Shiji no yukikai (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga
hyakujo (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (18141834) containing assorted drawings from the
sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[14] Rakuten Kitazawa (18761955) first used the word "manga" in
the modern sense.[15]
Manga 30

History and characteristics

Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern
manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events
following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.
One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (19451952), and stresses that
manga strongly reflect U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and
themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[16] Alternately, other writers such as Frederik L.
Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the
history of manga.[17]
Modern manga originated in the Occupation (19451952) and post-Occupation years (1952early 1960s), while a
previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure. An explosion of
artistic creativity occurred in this period,[18] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and
Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san).
Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere,[19] and the anime adaptation of
Sazae-san continues to run as of 2009, regularly drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like
a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to
close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[20] Hasegawa's focus on
daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shjo manga.[21] Between 1950 and 1969, an
increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres,
shnen manga aimed at boys and shjo manga aimed at girls.[22]
In 1969 a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their
shjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these
artists).[23] The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko
Yamagishi, and they marked the first major entry of female artists into manga.[8] Thereafter, primarily female manga
artists would draw shjo for a readership of girls and young women.[24] In the following decades (1975present),
shjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping
subgenres.[25] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu
, redikomi , and josei ).[26]
Modern shjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of
self-realization.[27] With the superheroines, shjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody
Pichi Pichi Pitch Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which
became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[28] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together
have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor
Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together.[29]
Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shnen
manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga);[30] as well as by content, including action-adventure
often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.[31] The Japanese
use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen" for "youth, young man" and for "adult,
majority"the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult" )
manga.[32] Shnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.
Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shnen
manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and
heroic action-adventure.[33] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings.
Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as
Manga 31

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include
those featuring single pretty girls (bishjo)[35] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and
women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors
(sent bishjo)[36]
With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga
intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations.[37] However, in 2010 the Tokyo
Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict harmful content.[38]
The gekiga style of drawingemotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violentfocuses on the
day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[39] Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's
19591962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeich) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s
partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[40] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of
young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[41]

In Japan, manga constituted an annual 406 billion yen (approximately $3.6 billion USD) publication-industry by
2007.[42] Recently, the manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint
manga into their native languages.
After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the stories together and print them in dedicated book-sized
volumes, called tankbon. These are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes use
higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the
magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have
also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been
reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the
used book market.
Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.[43] In particular, books and
magazines sold to boys (shnen) and girls (shjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in
most bookstores. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male
readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on.
Japan also has manga cafs, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drink
coffee and read manga, and sometimes stay there overnight.
There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. It is internationally drawn by
enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if
available in print.
The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[44]

Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 2040 pages allocated to each
series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their
monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists; these
magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on
low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga magazines also contain
one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years
if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their
name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.[45]
Manga 32

Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyosai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The
magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist.
Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun
Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi,
which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879.[46] Shnen Sekai was the
first shnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back
then. Shnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[47]
In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,[48] Tokyo Pakku was created
and became a huge hit.[49] After Tokyo Pakku in 1905, a female version of Shnen Sekai was created and named
Shjo Sekai, considered the first shjo magazine.[50] Shnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's
manga magazine. The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period. Shnen
Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugy no Nihon
(publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In 1924, Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's
manga magazine after Shnen Pakku.[49] During the boom, Poten (derived from the French "potin") was published in
1908. All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Pakku. It is unknown if there
were any more issues besides the first one.[48] Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured
high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some
of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and
were silent.[49]
Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese
War. Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world.
Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenky in August 1940.[51]

Djinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing
small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention
in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to djinshi. While they most often
contain original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. Some
djinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007,
djinshi sold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD).[42]
Manga 33

International markets
As of 2007 the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades.[52]
"Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics
artists internationally.
Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left.
Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other
publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation,
changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to
confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is
known as "flipping".[53] For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping
goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person
wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is
altered to "YAM"). Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar
asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas
pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the
wrong side.
The reading direction in a traditional
United States
Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[54]
Some U.S. fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.[55] However, anime was initially more
accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[56] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain,
subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankbon-style manga books.[57]
One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an
autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics
(19801982).[58] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone
Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from
Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[59] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics imprint
and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang's F-111
Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995).

In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and
Pokmon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga.[60] Matters changed when
translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and
translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Ksuke Fujishima's Oh My
Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in
Japan.[61] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S.
subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.[53]
Manga 34

The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and
manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell (translated
by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming very popular among
fans.[62] Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon.[63] By
19951998, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23
countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America
and most of Europe.[64] In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing
Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi
A young boy reading Black Cat in a Barnes & Iwaaki's Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Blade in the monthly
Noble bookstore manga magazine MixxZine. Two years later, MixxZine was renamed to
Tokyopop before discontinuing in 2000. Mixx Entertainment, later
renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga
to both young male and young female demographics.[65]

In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the
established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[66] As of 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market
generated $175 million in annual sales.[67] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with
articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.[68]

Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way somewhat different from the U.S. experience. Broadcast anime
in Italy and France opened the European market to manga during the 1970s.[69] French art has borrowed from Japan
since the 19th century (Japonisme),[70] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessine cartooning.[71]
In France, beginning in the mid-1990s,[72] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about
one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.[73] According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of
manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.[69] European publishers marketing manga
translated into French include Glnat, Asuka, Casterman, Kana, and Pika dition, among others.
European publishers also translate manga into German, Italian, Dutch, and other languages. Manga publishers based
in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books. Manga publishers from the United States have a strong
marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House.

Localized manga
A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example,
Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[74] Others
include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair,[75] Ben Dunn's 1987
Ninja High School, Stan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo, and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).
By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad
marketing label of manga.[76] In 2002, I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business,
launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.[77] In 2004 eigoMANGA launched Rumble Pak and
Sakura Pakk anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[78] Simultaneously,
TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[79] TokyoPop is
currently the largest U.S. publisher of original English language manga.[80]
Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frdric Boilet's la nouvelle manga.
Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[81]
Manga 35

The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning
prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher.
Examples of these awards include:
the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga
the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga
the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards)
the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year
the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres)
the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga
the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres)
The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.[82]

[1] Lent 2001, pp.34, Tchiei 1998, Gravett 2004, p.8
[2] Kinsella 2000
[3] Kern 2006, Ito 2005, Schodt 1986
[4] Gravett 2004, p.8
[5] Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1996
[6] Wong 2006, Patten 2004
[7] Katzenstein & Shiraishi 1997
[8] Gravett 2004, p.8, Schodt 1986
[9] Kittelson 1998
[10] Johnston-O'Neill 2007
[11] Merriam-Webster 2009
[12] Webb 2006
[13] Wong 2002
[14] Bouquillard & Marquet 2007
[15] Shimizu 1985, pp.5354, 102103
[16] Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1986
[17] Schodt 1986, Ito 2004, Kern 2006, Kern 2007
[18] Schodt 1986, Schodt 1996, Schodt 2007, Gravett 2004
[19] Kodansha 1999, pp.692715, Schodt 2007
[20] Schodt 1986
[21] Gravett 2004, p.8, Lee 2000, Sanchez 19972003
[22] Schodt 1986, Toku 2006
[23] Gravett 2004, pp.7880, Lent 2001, pp.910
[24] Schodt 1986, Toku 2006, Thorn 2001
[25] gi 2004
[26] Gravett 2004, p.8, Schodt 1996
[27] Drazen 2003
[28] Allison 2000, pp.259278, Schodt 1996, p.92
[29] Poitras 2001
[30] Thompson 2007, pp.xxiiixxiv
[31] Brenner 2007, pp.3134
[32] Schodt 1996, p.95, Perper & Cornog 2002
[33] Schodt 1986, pp.6887, Gravett 2004, pp.5273
[34] Schodt 1986, pp.6887
[35] Perper & Cornog 2002, pp.6063
[36] Gardner 2003
[37] Perper & Cornog 2002
[38] http:/ / www. yomiuri. co. jp/ dy/ national/ T101213003771. htm
[39] Schodt 1986, pp.6873, Gravett 2006
[40] Schodt 1986, pp.6873, Gravett 2004, pp.3842, Isao 2001
Manga 36

[41] Isao 2001, pp.147149, Nunez 2006

[42] Cube 2007
[43] Schodt 1996
[44] Manga Museum 2009
[45] Schodt 1996, pp.101
[46] Eshinbun Nipponchi
[47] Griffiths 2007
[48] Poten
[49] Shonen Pakku
[50] Lone 2007, p.75
[51] Manga no Kuni
[52] Pink 2007, Wong 2007
[53] Farago 2007
[54] Patten 2004
[55] In 1987, "...Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers", Patten 2004, p.259
[56] Napier 2000, pp.239256, Clements & McCarthy 2006, pp.475476
[57] Patten 2004, Schodt 1996, pp.305340, Leonard 2004
[58] Schodt 1996, p.309, Rifas 2004, Rifas adds that the original EduComics titles were Gen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT [sic].
[59] Patten 2004, pp.37, 259260, Thompson 2007, p.xv
[60] Leonard 2004, Patten 2004, pp.5273, Farago 2007
[61] Schodt 1996, pp.318321, Dark Horse Comics 2004
[62] Kwok Wah Lau, Jenny (2003). "4". Multiple modernities: cinemas and popular media in transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple
University Press. pp.78.
[63] Patten 2004, pp.50, 110, 124, 128, 135, Arnold 2000
[64] Schodt 1996, p.95
[65] Arnold 2000, Farago 2007, Bacon 2005
[66] Schodt 1996, pp.308319
[67] Reid 2009
[68] Glazer 2005, Masters 2006, Bosker 2007, Pink 2007
[69] Fishbein 2007
[70] Berger 1992
[71] Vollmar 2007
[72] Mahousu 2005
[73] Mahousu 2005, ANN 2004, Riciputi 2007
[74] Stewart 1984
[75] Crandol 2002
[76] Tai 2007
[77] ANN 2002
[78] ANN May 10, 2006
[79] ANN May 5, 2006
[80] ICv2 2007, Reid 2006
[81] Boilet 2001, Boilet & Takahama 2004
[82] ANN 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan 2007

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Manga 40

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2006-05-05/tokyopop-to-move-away-from-oel-and-world-manga-labels). Anime News Network. May 5, 2006.
Retrieved December 19, 2007.

Further reading
"Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen" (http://comipress.com/news/2007/03/10/1622).
ComiPress. March 10, 2007.
"Un poil de culture - Une introduction l'animation japonaise" (http://www.metalchroniques.fr/guppy/articles.
php?lng=fr&pg=437) (in French). July 11, 2007.

External links
Manga (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Comics/Manga/) at the Open Directory Project
Manga outside Japan 41

Manga outside Japan

Manga, or Japanese comics, have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries,
including Brazil, Korea, mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, France,[1] Germany, Mexico, Argentina,[2] Spain,[3]
Italy, and many more. In the United States, manga comprises a small (but growing) industry, especially when
compared to the inroads that Japanese animation has made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the
United States, VIZ Media, functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha.
VIZ Media has published many popular titles such as Dragon Ball, One Piece, Detective Conan, Neon Genesis
Evangelion, Rurouni Kenshin, Naruto, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Fullmetal Alchemist, Bleach and the various works of Rumiko
Takahashi. The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U.S.

Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan.
When first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process
known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators (such as
Akira Toriyama) did not approve of their work being modified this way, and requested that foreign versions retain
the right-to-left format of the originals. Soon, due to both fan demand and the requests of creators, more publishers
began offering the option of right-to-left formatting, which has now become commonplace in North America.
Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception.
Translated manga often includes notes on details of Japanese culture that foreign audiences may not find familiar.
One company, TOKYOPOP (founded 1997), produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a
highly publicized point-of-difference. They are widely credited with starting a boom in manga sales, particularly
amongst teenage girls. Some critics have complained that their aggressive publishing schedule emphasizes quantity
over quality, and might be responsible for translations which many feel to be of sub-optimal quality. Many also
frown upon the company for their frequent localization changes, including additions such as American slang,
excessive swearing that is not to be found in the Japanese originals of the same titles, and joke rewrites, among
others. The critics tend to admit that their contributions to the success of manga in America have been considerable.


"French exception"
France has a particularly strong and diverse manga market. Many works published in France belong to genres not
well represented outside of Japan, such as to adult-oriented drama, or to experimental and avant-garde works. Early
editors like Tonkam have published Hong-Kong authors (Andy Seto, Yu & Lau) or Korean authors (Kim Jae-hwan,
Soo & Il, Wan & Weol and Hyun Se Lee) in their manga collection during 1995/1996 which is quite uncommon.
Also, some Japanese authors, such as Jiro Taniguchi, are relatively unknown in other western countries but received
much acclaim in France.
In cultural terms, the sheer popularity and diversity of manga in France may result from that country having a
well-established and respected comics-market of its own. Also, an exceptionally reduced number of TV channels in
the 1970s and 1980s may explain the powerful impact the Japanese animation had on the audience: since viewers
had little choice, Japanese animation quickly became mainstream. Since its introduction in the 1990s, manga
publishing and anime broadcasting have become intertwined in France, where the most popular and exploited
shnen, shjo and seinen TV series were imported in their paper version. Therefore, Japanese books ("manga") were
naturally and readily accepted by a large juvenile public who was already familiar with the series and received the
manga as part of their own culture. A strong parallel backup was the emergence of Japanese video games,
Manga outside Japan 42

Nintendo/Sega, which were mostly based on manga and anime series.

Nippon Animation era (1978 1986)

One major reason for the success of manga in France may lie in the fact that its corollary, the Japanese animation,
had previously appeared in that country on public television-channels in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Unlike other
European countries, at this time there were only three TV channels. All of them were public and hosted shows for
children. Shnen and Shjo series like UFO Robot Grendizer, Captain Future, Candy Candy and Captain Harlock
are iconical of this era.
Producer Jean Chalopin quickly contacted some Japanese studios, such as Toei[4] (who did Grendizer); and Tokyo
Movie Shinsha, Studio Pierrot and Studio Junio produced French-Japanese series. Even though made completely in
Japan by character-designers such as Shingo Araki, the first Chalopin production of this type, Ulysses 31 took
thematic inspiration from the Greek Odyssey and graphic influence from Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Ulysses 31 went on sale in 1981, other shows produced by DiC Entertainment followed in 1982, Jayce and the
Wheeled Warriors, Mysterious Cities of Gold, later M.A.S.K., etc. Such series were enough popular to allow the
introduction of licensed products such as tee shirts, toys, stickers, mustard glass, mugs or keshi. Also followed a
wave of anime adaptations of European tales by Studio Pierrot and mostly by the Nippon Animation studio, e.g.
Johanna Spyri's (1974), Waldemar Bonsels's (1975), Hector Malot's (1977), Ccile Aubry's (1980), or Jules Verne's
Around the World with Willy Fog (1983), notable adaptation of American works were Mark Twain's Adventures of
Tom Sawyer (1980) and Alexander Key's Future Boy Conan. Interesting cases are Alexandre Dumas, pre's The
Three Musketeers adapted to Dogtanian and the Three Muskehounds (1981) and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock
Holmes become Sherlock Hound (1984), both turned human characters into anthropomorph animals.
Such anthropomophism in tales comes from old and common storytelling traditions in both Japanese and French
cultures, including the Chj giga emaki (the true origins of manga) of Toba Sj (10531140), and the animal
fables of Jean de La Fontaine (16211695). Changing humans to anthropomorphized dogs reflects a known form of
Cynicism, the European philosophy evident in many modern countries: etymologically speaking, the bite of the
Cynic comes from the fact he is a dog (cyno means "dog" in Greek). The adaptations of these popular tales made
easier the acceptance and assimiliation of semi-Japanese cultural products in countries such as France, Italy or Spain.
The localization including credits removal by Saban or DiC, was such that even today, twenty or thirty years later,
most of French adults who have watched series like Calimero (1974) adapted from an Italian novel, Wanpaku
Omukashi Kum Kum (1975), Barbapapa (1977) adapted from a French novel, or Monchichi (1980) as kids don't
even know they were not local animation but "Japananimation" created in Japan, South Korea, China or North

Toei era (1987 1996)

In 1986 and 1987 three new private or privatized television channels appeared on French airwaves. An aggressive
struggle for audience, especially on children television shows, started between the two public and the two private
channels. After the private channels lost market share, they counter-attacked with a non-Japanese lineup, mostly
American productions such as Hanna-Barbera. This ploy failed, and TF1 remained pre-eminent in children's TV
shows with its Japanese licenses.
In 1991 French theaters showed an anime feature-film for the first time: Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira, a teen-rated, SF
movie supported by manga publisher Glnat but poorly distributed and a limited success. TF1 Video edited the video
(VHS) version for the French market, and Akira quickly became an anime reference. However, Japanese animation
genre became massively exploited by TV shows from the late 1980s onwards, most notably the cult Club Dorothe
show (mostly dedicated to Toei anime and tokusatsu series). In fact, the commercial relationship between the
Japanese studio and the French show producers were so good, that the French presenter was even featured in a Metal
Hero Series episode as guest star.
Manga outside Japan 43

Just as in a Japanese manga series magazine, Club Dorothe audience voted by phone or minitel to select and rank
their favourite series. Top-rank series continued the following week, others stopped, then a hundred of series aired
the show. This imported Japanese marketing method had never previously operated in France, and never has since.
The most popular series were Dragon Ball and later its sequel, Dragon Ball Z, which became number one, and was
nicknamed le chouchou (the favorite") by the show presenter, Dorothe. As the series kept number one for several
months, Dorothe invited Akira Toriyama (Toei Animation), creator of the series, on the TV show studio to
introduce him to the French audience and award him a prize in the name of the TV show.
Saint Seiya became the second anime series to achieve popularity in France. It too belonged to the seinen genre, and
thus showed more violence - directed towards an older audience - than the Nippon Animation studio shnen/shjo
series of the 1970s and 1980s. Notable Toei and non-Toei anime series broadcast by that time on French TV
included Captain Tsubasa, Robotech, High School! Kimengumi and Kinnikuman. This cult TV show ran from 1987
to 1997 and had unpredicted effects and a deep influence on French culture. Not only it created a generation of
Japanophile, but it did set a strong base for a durable and massive exploitation of manga publishing and anime video
(DVD) in the following decade. The reason is most broadcast anime series were adaptations of existing manga, and
that the grown up children would be later able to buy manga and DVD boxsets (TF1 Video and others) of their
favourite childhood series.

Generational conflict around manga (1990 to 1995)

Glnat published the first manga issued in France, Akira, in 1990 supported by the respected newspaper
Libration and by the national TV channel Antenne 2. Followers included Dragon Ball (1993), Appleseed (1994),
Ranma 1/2 (1994) and five others. In the mid-1990s, both anime and manga became a social phenomenon in France,
with different magazines in B5 size like Kameha (Glnat) and later Manga Player (MSE).
At the same time a controversy arose among some parents. In particular, the conservative association Familles de
France started a media polemic about the undesirable contents, such as violence, portrayed in the Club Dorothe, a
kids' TV show. By this time, a generational conflict had arisen between the young fans of "Japanimation" (in use
until anime became mainstream) and the older Japoniaiseries (a pejorative pun for Japonaiseries, literally "Japanese
stuff" and "niaiseries", "simpleton stuff") . Sgolne Royal even published a book, Le Ras le bol des bbs zappeurs
in which Manga are described as decadent dangerous and violent. She hasn't changed her position on that topic yet.
The same adult content controversy was applied to hentai manga, including the notorious, "forbidden", Shin Angel
by U-Jin, published by pioneers such as Samourai Editions or Katsumi Editions and later to magazines. The first
hentai series magazine, "Yoko", featured softcore series like Yuuki's Tropical Eyes. It was first issued in late 1995.
The same year, the noir and ultra-violent series, Gunnm (aka Battle Angel Alita), was serialized in a slim, monthly,
edition. Around the same period a hardcore version of Yoko magazine Okaz was issued.

Anime clearance and manga emergence (1996 to 1998)

In Japan, television broadcasters scheduled series such as Hokuto no ken, Saint Seiya and City Hunter late at night
for a teen and adult audience. French television finally discontinued these edited series, and the Club Dorothe,
broadcast on private channel TF1, started to replace Japanese content with European or American animation series
(imitating their rival public-channel television shows) and with French sitcoms. Even though the French-Belgian
animation studios got rid of serious competition, the show lost its phenomenal audience and stopped in 1997. The
mistake made by the Club Dorothe producers had to do with a cultural view: in France, as in most Western
countries, animation was seen as a genre in its own right, a product dedicated to children not adults. An animation
feature was not considered the same as a live-action film, which is totally different in Japan. Series were massively
licensed to Toei without consideration of age ratings.
In 1996 the production group of Club Dorothe set up a cable/satellite channel dedicated to manga and anime. The
new channel changed its name to Mangas in 1998: the concepts of anime and manga have become intertwined in
Manga outside Japan 44

France, and manga actually became the mainstream generic term to designate the two media. The channel broadcasts
former discontinued series from the Club Dorothe both to nostalgic adults and to new and younger generations.

Cultural integration and revival (1999 to 2005)

In the 2000s anime feature films, and by extension manga, are regarded with more respect than before. In late 1999
respected newspapers such as Le Monde gave critical acclaim to Hiroyuki Okiura's Jin-Roh, and in 2000, Hayao
Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke became a commercial success, probably the biggest for an anime feature.
In 2004, Mamoru Oshii's Innocence: Ghost in the Shell 2 became the first animation finalist in the prestigious
International Film Festival of Cannes, which demonstrates a radical perspective change and a social acceptance of
Japanese anime/manga. Since 2005, contemporary Japanese series such as Naruto, Initial D, Great Teacher Onizuka,
Blue Gender or Gunslinger Girl appeared on new, analog/digital terrestrial (public) and on satellite/broadband
(private) channels. As the highly aggressive competition who raged once between, the sole two or three available
channels no more exists in the new, vast, and segmented French TV offer, the anime is doing a revival in France.

Manga made in France

A surge in the growth of manga publishing circa 1996 coincided with the Club Dorothe show losing its audience -
which eventually led to the show going off the air. Some early publishers like Glnat, adapted manga using the
Western reading direction and its induced work of mirroring each panel and graphical signs, and also using a quality
paper standard to the Franco-Belgian comics , while others, like J'ai Lu, were faithful to the original manga culture
and not only kept the original, inverted, Japanese direction reading but also used a newspaper standard, cheap
quality, paper just like in Japan. The Japanese manga was such an important cultural phenomenon that it quickly
influenced French comics authors. A new "French manga" genre emerged, known as "La nouvelle manga" ("lit. the
new manga") in reference to the French Nouvelle Vague.

Before the 1990s some trial marketing of manga took place in Brazil, including Mai - The extra sensitive girl, Akira
(which was cancelled) and Lone wolf and cub. The Brazilian comic market started in the mid-1990s with Ranma 1/2,
although the publication did not prove successful. It was followed by the Pokmon manga being released by Conrad
in the late 1990s, during the Pokmon boom.
In 2002, Conrad published Saint Seiya and Dragon Ball (both titles already well known, since the equivalent anime
had become highly successful in the 1990s). After the success of these titles, Conrad released not only trendy manga
like One Piece, Vagabond, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Slam Dunk, but also classic manga like Osamu Tezuka
titles (including Adolf and Buddha), Nausica, and less known titles like Bambi and Sade.
In 2003, the Japanese-Brazilian company Japan Brazil Communication (JBC) started publishing manga, releasing
Rurouni Kenshin, Rayearth and Sakura Card Captors. As of 2009 JBC publishes Clamp titles, like X/1999, Tsubasa
Reservoir Chronicle and xxxHolic, and popular titles like Negima!, Fruits Basket, Death Note, Fullmetal Alchemist,
Yu-Gi-Oh, Love Hina and Video Girl Ai, having also taken over the publishing rights for Neon Genesis Evangelion in
the same year.
In 2004, Panini started publishing manga, with the release of Peach Girl and Eden. The editor was criticized because
of bad translation and for releasing flipped titles, but since then started publishing in the original way. As of 2010
Panini publishes the most popular manga in Brazil: Naruto and Bleach, as well as titles like Black Lagoon,
Highschool of the Dead, Full Metal Panic! and Welcome to the N.H.K..
Originally, Brazilian manga appeared with about half the size of a tankoubon (about 100 pages of stories and two to
eight pages of extras), but as of 2009 most manga is released in the original format, with the exception of the ones
published by JBC.
Manga outside Japan 45

Shjo-manga fans criticized publishing houses for ignoring shjo manga with only Peach Girl, CLAMP titles, Fruits
Basket, Angel Sanctuary and Fushigi Yuugi available in this genre until 2006. However, in 2006 several of shjo
manga series were started: MeruPuri, Kare Kano, Gravitation, Bijinzaka and Zettai Kareshi are currently being
published with titles like Vampire Knight, Paradise Kiss, Nana, Princess Princess, among others already licensed.

Although the German-language areas support a relatively small comic market and usually react slowly in comparison
to other European countries, manga created a new boom.
A volume of Barefoot Gen was licensed in Germany in the 1980s, as was Japan Inc., published by small presses.
Akira's first volume was not very popular. Paul Malone attributes the wider distribution of manga in the late 1990s to
the fledgling commercial television stations showing dubbed anime, which lead to the popularity of manga. Malone
also notes that the native German comics market collapsed at the end of the 1990s.[5] Manga began outselling other
comics in 2000.[6]
With a few other series like Appleseed in the following years, the "manga movement" picked up speed with the
publication of Dragon Ball, the first un-flipped German manga, in late 1996. Today, manga account for
approximately 7075% of all comics published in Germany, with female readers outnumbering male manga fans.
The first German manga magazine, Manga Power by Feest Comics, was launched in 1996. The first issue featured
Ranma 1/2, Hellhounds Panzer Cops (based on the American edition of Kerberos Panzer Cops), and AD Police.

Manga has become one of fastest-growing consumer industries, and Indonesia is now one of the biggest manga
markets outside of Japan. Manga in Indonesia is published by Elex Media Komputindo, Acolyte, Level Comic,
M&C and Gramedia, and has greatly influenced Indonesia's original comic industry.
The wide distribution of scanlations actually contributes to the growth of publication of bootleg manga, which is
printed in lower quality. One of the most notable publisher is Seventh Heaven which publishes bootleg version of
One Piece. Many popular titles, such as Bleach, Loki, Magister Nagi, Rose Hip Zero, and Kingdom Hearts, have
been pirated, which draws controversy toward manga readers in Indonesia.
Some people support the piracy because the local publishers do not publish the demanded popular titles, but legal
manga supporters argue that the bootleg releases risk the local publisher to publish the manga because the original
Japanese licensor will see this as negative stance of manga market in Indonesia. Most of the bootlegs are also sold
with the same or even higher price than the legal version.

In Australia and New Zealand, many popular Japanese- and Chinese-language manga and anime are distributed by
Madman Entertainment.

Comics never gained high popularity in Russia, only few Marvel's titles being a moderate success.[7] Russian readers
traditionally considered them children's literature, so the manga market developed late.[8] [9] A strong movement of
anime fans helped to spread manga.[10] The general director of Egmont Russia Lev Yelin commented that the most
popular manga series in Japan are comics which "contain sex and violence", so they probably won't be published in
Russia.[9] A representative of Sakura Press (the licensor and publisher of Ranma , Gunslinger Girl and some other
titles) noted that although this niche is perspective, it's hard to advance on the market, because "in Russia comics are
considered children's literature".[9] It is also impossible for publishers to predict the success or failure of any specific
Manga outside Japan 46

title.[10] On the contrary, Rosmen's general director Mikhail Markotkin said the whole popularity of comics doesn't
matter, as only artistic talent and good story make a successful project, and only such manga "will work" on the
The first officially licensed and published manga series in Russia was Ranma .[11] Sakura Press released the first
volume in 2005.[10] Since then several legal companies appeared, including Comics Factory and Comix-ART.
Comix-ART, which is working in collaboration with Eksmo, one of the largest publishing houses in Russia,[12] [13]
was the first company to publish Original English-language manga (usually called "manga" or just "comics"), such
as Bizenghast, Shutterbox and Van Von Hunter.

The company Chuang Yi publishes manga in English and Chinese in Singapore; some of Chuang Yi's
English-language titles are also imported into Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines.

In Thailand, before 1992, almost all available manga were fast, unlicensed, poor quality bootlegs. However, due to
copyright laws, this has changed and copyrights protect nearly all published manga. Thailand's prominent manga
publishers include Nation Edutainment, Siam Inter Comics, Vibulkij, and Bongkoch.
Many parents in Thai society are not supportive of manga. In October 2005, there was a television programme
broadcast about the dark side of manga with exaggerated details, resulted in many manga being banned. The
programme received many complaints and issued an apology to the audience.

United States
The growth of manga translation and publishing in the United States has been a slow progression over several
decades. The earliest manga-derived series to be released in the United States was a redrawn American adaptation of
Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy published by Gold Key Comics starting in 1965. The first manga to be published in the
US with its original artwork intact was a ten-page story by Shinobu Kaze, "Violence Becomes Tranquility", which
appeared in the March 1980 issue of Heavy Metal.[14] In December 1982 the San Francisco-based publisher
Educomics released a colorized and translated version of Keiji Nakazawa's I Saw It. Four translated volumes of
Nakazawa's major work Barefoot Gen were also published in the early 1980s by New Society Publishers.[15] Short
works by several Garo-affiliated artists including Yoshiharu Tsuge and Terry Yumura appeared in May 1985 in
RAW's no. 7 "Tokyo Raw" special.
In 1987, Viz Comics, an American subsidiary of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha, began
publishing translations of three manga series - Area 88, Mai the Psychic Girl, and The Legend of Kamui - in the U.S.
in association with the American publisher Eclipse Comics. Viz went on to bring English translations of popular
series such as Ranma and Nausica of the Valley of the Wind in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Some other
American publishers released notable translations of Japanese comics in this period, such as First Comics'
serialization of Lone Wolf and Cub which started in May 1987. However, the first manga to make a strong
impression on American audiences was Katsuhiro Otomo's Akira, which was brought to the United States in
colorized form in 1988 by Epic Comics, a division of Marvel.[16]
Throughout the 1990s, manga slowly gained popularity as more was released for the US market. Viz Media, Dark
Horse and Mixx (now Tokyopop) were all significant contributors to the growing pool of translated manga. Both
Mixx and Viz published manga anthologies: MixxZine (19971999) ran serialized manga such as Sailor Moon,
Magic Knight Rayearth and Ice Blade, while Viz's Animerica Extra (19982004) featured series including Fushigi
Yugi, Banana Fish and Utena: Revolutionary Girl. In 2002 Viz began publishing a monthly American edition of the
famous Japanese "phone book"-style manga anthology Shnen Jump featuring some of the most popular manga titles
Manga outside Japan 47

from Japan, including Dragon Ball Z, Naruto, Bleach and One Piece. Its circulation far surpassed that of previous
American manga anthologies, reaching 180,000 in 2005.[17] Also in 2005, Viz launched Shojo Beat, a successful
counterpart to Shonen Jump aimed at female readers.
In 2002, Tokyopop introduced its "100% Authentic Manga" line, which featured unflipped pages and were smaller in
size than most other translated graphic novels. This allowed them be retailed at a price lower than that of comparable
publications by Viz and others. The line was also made widely available in mainstream bookstores such as Borders
and Barnes & Noble, which greatly increased manga's visibility among the book-buying public.[18] After Tokyopop's
success, most of the other manga companies switched to the smaller unflipped format and offered their titles at
similar prices.
As of 2010 a large number of small companies in the United States publish manga. Several large publishers have
also released, or expressed interest in releasing manga. Del Rey translated and published several Japanese series
including xxxHolic, Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle and, Negima!: Magister Negi Magi, while Harlequin has brought
its Ginger Blossom line of manga, originally released only in Japan, to the United States as well.

Other distribution methods

Another popular form of manga distribution outside of Japan involves Internet scanlations (or scanslations).
Typically, a small group of people scan the original version of a series with no current license in the language which
they wish to translate it to, translate it, and freely distribute it; usually through the use of IRC or BitTorrent. Most
scanlation groups request that downloaders cease distribution and purchase official copies in the event that their
projects become licensed, though it is a common concern that readers will continue to use these unauthorized copies.
Many readers prefer scanlations due to the frequent changes found in official translations, though scanlations are
more likely to have some unintentional mistakes due to the varying degrees of skill employed by the unpaid
translators. Some scanlators do make edits, though it is rare, especially compared to the official manga translation

Manga influences
Manga has proved so popular that it has led to other companies such as Antarctic Press, Oni Press, Seven Seas
Entertainment and TOKYOPOP, as well as long-established publishers like Marvel and Archie Comics, to release
their own manga-inspired works that apply the same artist stylings and story pacing commonly seen in Japanese
manga. One of the first of these such works came in 1985 when Ben Dunn, founder of Antarctic Press, released
Mangazine and Ninja High School.
While Antarctic Press actively refers to its works as "American Manga", it does not source all of these
manga-inspired works from the United States. Many of the artists working on Seven Seas Entertainment series such
as Last Hope and Amazing Agent Luna are Filipino and TOKYOPOP has hired a variety of Korean and Japanese
artists to work on titles such as Warcraft and Princess Ai. Many of these works have been classified on the Internet
with titles such as OEL Manga, MIC, and World Manga, although none of these terms have actually been used by
manga companies to describe these works on the books themselves.
In Germany, as manga began outselling domestic comics in 2000, German publishers began supporting German
creators of manga-styled comics. Jrgen Seebeck's Bloody Circus was not popular amongst German manga readers
due to its European style, and other early German manga artists were affected by cancellations. After this, German
publishers began focussing on female creators, due to the popularity of shjo manga, leading to what Paul Malone
describes as a "home-grown shjo boom", and "more female German comics artists in print than ever before".
However, to seem genuinely manga-influenced, stylistic conventions such as sweatdrops are employed to ensure
"authenticity", original German works are flipped to read in a right-to-left style familiar to manga readers, author's
afterwords and sidebars are common, and many German manga take place in Asia.[6]
Manga outside Japan 48

The Arabic language manga "Canary 1001" is by a group calling themselves Amateam, whose director is Wahid
Jodar, from the United Arab Emirates.[19] [20] Another Arab language manga is Gold Ring, by Qais Sedeki, from
2009, also from the United Arab Emirates.[21] [22] [23] Both groups of artists use the word "manga" for their work.[19]

In May 2010, Glenat Spain introduced their new line of works known as Linea Gaijin[24] which showcases the works
of several Spanish and Latin American comic book artists. This is an effort on the part of Glenat to bring fresh new
content and breed a new generation of manga-insipired artists that grew up reading manga. The line began with
tittles such as Bakemono, Dos Espadas, and Lettera that were shown on the Salon de Manga de Barcelona[25] in
October 2010, but it would later introduce other works as well.
Many Western webcomics are influenced to varying degrees by manga. Some, like Megatokyo, follow traditional
manga artwork and plotlines closely. Others, like Sinfest or Girly, incorporate Western techniques and do not follow
traditional Japanese manga story elements.

[1] Kana (http:/ / www. mangakana. com/ ), (French)
[2] Editorial Ivrea Argentina (http:/ / editorialivrea. com/ ARG/ home. htm), (Spanish)
[3] Norma Editorial (http:/ / www. normaeditorial. com/ ), (Spanish)
[4] The Attic of ITAF (http:/ / j. knoertzer. free. fr/ chalopin. htm), Accessed 2009-03-10 (French)
[5] Malone, Paul M. (2010), "From BRAVO to Animexx.de to Export", in Levi, Antonia; McHarry, Mark; Pagliassotti, Dru, Boys' Love Manga:
Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre, McFarland & Company, pp.2324, ISBN9780786441952
[6] http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue20/ malone. htm
[7] Zlotnitsky, Dmitry (May 2007). " : [Gate of the Worlds: Science fiction comics]" (http:/ / www. mirf.
ru/ Articles/ art1956. htm) (in Russian). 45. Mir Fantastiki. . Retrieved 14 February 2010.
[8] " Culture of manga and anime in Russia (http:/ / www. echo. msk. ru/ programs/ razvorot/ 512241-echo/ )" (in Russian). Interview with
Satoshi Endo (May 5, 2008). Echo of Moscow. Retrieved on 2008-11-26.
[9] Anastasia Vasilyeva, Olga Goncharova (March 13, 2007). "The adventures of manga in Russia: Kodansha International is looking for
partners" (http:/ / www. rbcdaily. ru/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ media/ 268001) (in Russian). RBK Daily. . Retrieved 2008-11-19.
[10] Olgerd, O.; Kunin A. (May 8, 2010). " . : .
[Round table for publishers and readers. The fate of the manga in Russia. Manga as part of visual culture.]"
(http:/ / chedrik. ru/ up2/ content/ view/ 211/ 40/ ) (in Russian). Chedrik Chronicles. . Retrieved 10 June 2010.
[11] "About Sakura Press" (http:/ / www. sakura-press. ru/ about/ ) (in Russian). Sakura Press official website. . Retrieved 22 December 2009.
[12] Anastasia Vasilyeva (October 4, 2007). "Eksmo Consolidates the Market" (http:/ / www. rbcdaily. ru/ 2007/ 10/ 04/ media/ 296566) (in
Russian). RBK Daily. . Retrieved 2008-11-19.
[13] "Top 20 Russian Publishers" (http:/ / rating. rbc. ru/ article. shtml?2006/ 04/ 10/ 12577784) (in Russian). RBK Daily. April 10, 2006. .
Retrieved 2008-11-19.
[14] Frederik Schodt, Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics (New York: Kodansha International, 1983), 154, 158.
[15] http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6287306. html
[16] akira2019.com (2005). "Marvel/Epic Comics: Akira Coloured Comic Book" (http:/ / www. akira2019. com/ comics_marvel_epic. htm).
akira2019.com. . Retrieved 29 May 2007.
[17] Viz Media LLC (2005). "Viz Media Announces Anniversarry Edition of Shonen Jump" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/
press-release/ 2005-12-06/ viz-media-announces-anniversarry-edition-of-shonen-jump). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 29 May 2007.
[18] Tokyopop (2002). "Tokyopop manga Sells Out" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2002-08-01/ tokyopop-manga-sells-out).
Anime News Network. . Retrieved 29 May 2007.
[19] http:/ / amateam. deviantart. com/
[20] http:/ / www. deviantart. com/ print/ 13298972/ ?itemtypeids=
[21] Nitin Nair 2009 "Manga: Qais Sedeki's graphic obsession."http:/ / gulfnews. com/ arts-entertainment/ books/
manga-qais-sedeki-s-graphic-obsession-1. 504820
[22] http:/ / www. pageflip. ae/ profile. html
[23] http:/ / www. goldring. ae
[24] Linea Gaijin Glenat (http:/ / www. gaijin. es/ ), (Spanish)
[25] Linea Gaijin released (http:/ / www. edicionesglenat. es/ noticia. aspx?pId=771), (Spanish)
Manga outside Japan 49

External links
800 Anime/Sentai series broadcast in France from the 1970s up to 2000s (http://albator.com.fr/AlWebSite/
Anime series broadcast in Italy (http://www.siglandia.net/borsino 45 italiani.htm)
Japanimation? The uncredited studios list (http://xoomer.alice.it/fedgrame/co-productions.htm)
Mangajima.com (http://www.mangajima.com) (French)

Scanlation (also scanslation) is the scanning, translation and editing of a graphic novel from a foreign language into
a different language. Scanlation is done as an amateur work and is nearly always done without express permission
from the copyright holder. The word scanlation is a portmanteau of scan and translation. The term is most often used
for Japanese graphic novels (manga), Korean graphic novels (manhwa), and Chinese graphic novels (manhua).
Scanlations may be viewed at websites or as sets of image files downloaded via the Internet.

Scanlations got their start due to a lack of translated Japanese manga releases outside of Japan. Manga fans
cooperated and shared translation efforts since importing manga directly from Japan was often expensive, and a
knowledge of the language was required to understand the originals. Similar to video fansubbing, scanlation began
as small individual efforts between fans connected by telephone modems and postal mail. With the advent of the
Internet, both the size of audience served as well as the methods used in both scanlation and distribution of scanlated
works changed dramatically.
Scanlation is older than its anime counterpart, fansubbing. Manga fans coordinated, translated and shared efforts via
postal mail well before fansubs. The amateur press association (APA) was the first formally organized form of
manga scanlation. Their major period of activity occurred during the late 1970s through the early 90's. The
professional magazine Mangajin resembled scanlation efforts but went beyond that. It used authorized manga
excerpts and professional translations to introduce contemporary Japanese language and culture to an English
audience. Mangajin was first published in 1990.[1] As internet access became more widespread, the popularity of
postal mail APAs declined in favour of internet-based efforts. Eventually, these efforts became more organized and
coalesced into various groups of people forming their own communities. This approach to scanlation became
dominant after the year 2000. Examples of the earliest organized scanlation groups are Mangaproject,
Mangascreener, Manga-Sketchbook, and Omanga.[2]
While early official translations of manga focussed on localising the manga to an Anglophone culture, scanlations
retained the cultural differences, for example, leaving in forms of address, romanising sound effects and
onomatopoeia instead of translating them, and providing the manga unflipped.[3]

Current practices
Many groups have their own webpage as well as an IRC channel. IRC is an important part of the community aspect,
as they allow for real-time interaction between the group staff and the target audience. IRC also allows the groups to
recruit new staff. Releases are often made through IRC rather via a centralized website, as it means the burden of
bandwidth is distributed among multiple users, something especially important given the lack of funding of most
However, some groups do release downloads from their websites, as well as via torrents or download providers such
as MegaUpload or RapidShare. Some sites also exist which do not make their own releases, but instead serve as a
Scanlation 50

repository for releases from other groups: this sort of centralized, direct download approach is popular among users
who are unfamiliar with IRC.

Scanlation is not an easy process. Scanlation team members are often located in different parts of the world. The first
step in scanlation is to obtain the "raws" (original manga) from the country of publication (typically Japan). Since
Japanese manga magazines often use recycled paper, the "cleaner" uses image editing software to fix imperfections
in the "raw" version to produce a "cleaned" version.
Typesetting is the next step. This may seem easy in principle, but it can be quite difficult considering the different
fonts that need to be used for specially formatted text. While many cleaners are also capable of typesetting,
scanlation groups usually have a few dedicated typesetters just in case.
While every department is essential in producing a complete manga release, it is fair to say that the release schedule
of most projects rests in the hands of the translation department. It is usually the case that a project will be fully
cleaned before it is translated, and proofreaders obviously have nothing to work with without a translation.
Therefore, the speed of many projects often depends specifically on the speed of the translator. Ironically, while
many people imagine that most translators live in Japan and fit the same profile, this is actually rarely the case.
Finally, the translated, edited and "cleaned" manga is sent to the group's proofreader. After copyediting, the manga is
finally published on the scanlation group's own website then usually on a larger manga hosting website.

Reason for scanlating

Douglass, Huber and Manovich say that enthusiasm by fans about a particular series, coupled with delays in official
translations lead to the formation of scanlation groups.[4] Scanlators say that they scanlate to promote the series or
the author in their own language, but Hope Donovan suggests that the scanlator's goal is more along the lines of
"self-promotion", and argues that it is prestigious for a scanlator to have many fans.[5]
In addition to the groups who release scanlations of graphic novels which are unreleased outside of their country of
origin, there are groups who release graphic novels which have already been made commercially available. In some
cases, this is due to perceived or actual censorship or shortcomings in the commercial release of the graphic novel.
Another motivation is the quantity of new graphic novel series that are created. Most new anime series are
fansubbed, and many are licensed for distribution by companies around the world. However, the quantity of manga
series which are released in Japan (which has the largest market for graphic novels in the world) and other markets
makes this eventual commercial release unlikely for graphic novels. Scanlators often release projects because they
want to give it wider exposure.
The quality of commercial offerings is a common complaint.[5] Localization is also a common complaint among
supporters of scanlations. Commercial releases often have titles, names, puns, and cultural references changed to
make more sense to their target audience. The act of horizontally 'flipping' the pages of commercial releases has also
received criticism from fans of manga. The reason for this change is that the Japanese language reads from
right-to-left, and Western languages such as English, Spanish, and French read from left-to-right. However, due to
large-scale fan complaints that this 'flipping' has changed the finished product from the original (e.g. A flipped
manga image will keep the speech translations legible, while any graphics such as the wording on clothes or
buildings will be reversed and confusing), this practice has largely diminished.
The cost and speed of commercial releases remains an issue with some fans. Imported graphic novels from the
original countries' markets sometimes cost less than the commercially released version, despite the high cost of
shipping. Despite weekly or monthly serialized releases in the country of origin, translated editions often take longer
to release due to the necessity of translating and repackaging the product before release.
Scanlation 51

Reasons for downloading scanlations

Johanna Draper Carlson says that some readers of scanlations do not wish to spend money, or that they have limited
mobility or funds, or that they are choosy about which series they wish to follow. Carlson feels that the readers of
scanlations "do not care" that scanlations are illegal.[6]
In the yaoi fandom, commercially published explicit titles are often restricted to readers aged 18 or above, and there
is a tendency for booksellers to stock BL, but also insist that more of it is shrink-wrapped and labeled for adult
readers.[7] Andrea Wood has suggested that teenage yaoi fans seek out more explicit titles using scanlations.[8]
Another possible reason is to gain access to graphic novels that would otherwise not be available outside its native
country. Also this practice is common for some manga which are given a release in a country then discontinued due
to lack of popularity or sales in the target area; fans of the manga wanting to see a conclusion or for other reasons
will attempt to find translators as well as scanlators for the manga. Another reason readers may prefer scanlations is
that translations of the works to their native language often change terminology or names to make the works more
commercially available in exchange for loss of cultural meaning.
A more recent phenomenon amongst scanlation readers is the emergence of Ereaders. Software such as Mangle [9]
allows users to more easily read scanlations on their Amazon Kindle. Since most scanlations are distributed as a
series of images, many e-book readers already have the capability to read scanlations without additional software.
Most, if not all, manga is not released in a digital format that is compatible with e-book readers, so downloading
scanlations is the only way to do this.

Legal action
According to a 2009 study, Japanese publishers felt that scanlation was "an overseas phenomenon", and no
"coordinated action" had taken place against scanlation.[10]
Historically, copyright holders have not requested scanlators to stop distribution before a work is licensed in the
translated language. Thus, scanlators usually feel it is relatively 'safe' to scanlate series which have not been
commercially released in their country.
"Frankly, I find it kind of flattering, not threatening... To be honest, I believe that if the music industry had
used downloading and file sharing properly, it would have increased their business, not eaten into it."
Steve Kleckner ,former VP of sales for TOKYOPOP[11]
However, this view is not necessarily shared among the industry, as some Japanese publishers have threatened
scanlation groups with legal action. Since the 1990s, publishers have sent cease and desist letters to various
scanlation groups and websites [12]
Due to manga's popularity steadily increasing in the overseas market, copyright holders felt that scanlators were
intruding on their sales and in 2010, a group of Japanese publishers and US publishers banded together into a
coalition to "combat" scanlations, especially mentioning scanlation aggregator websites. They have threatened to
take legal action against at least thirty, unnamed websites.[13]
So far, the coalition has achieved some degree of success. On July 2010, Scanlation aggregator site OneManga, "one
of the top 1000 sites on the whole internet" announced its closure due to their respect towards the displeasure
expressed by the publishers. As of August 1, 2010 it has officially shut down its online reader.
Scanlation 52

Scanlations are often viewed by fans as the only way to read graphic novels that have not been licensed for release in
their area. According to international copyright law, such as the Berne Convention, scanlations are illegal. However,
since many scanlators stop distributing commercially licensed series[14] and advise fans to buy the official
translation,[14] most groups view their releases as occupying a 'gray area' of legality.
Some licensing companies, such as Del Rey Manga, TOKYOPOP, and VIZ Media, have used the response to
various scanlations as a factor in deciding which manga to license for translation and commercial release.[11]
"And, hey, if you get 2,000 fans saying they want a book you've never heard of, well, you gotta go out and get
Steve Kleckner ,former VP of sales for TOKYOPOP[11]
However, some translators feel differently:
"I know from talking to many folks in the industry that scanlations DO have a negative effect. Many books
that are on the tipping point will never be legally published because of scanlations."
Toren Smith,Translator[15]

[1] Spectrum Nexus: Mangajin
[2] "Happy Belated 6th Birthday" (http:/ / www. omanga. net/ ?type=site& cid=news& nav=one& top=54). Omanga. 8 March 2007. . Retrieved
[3] James Rampant (2010). "The Manga Polysystem: What Fans Want, Fans Get". In Johnson-Woods, Toni. Manga: An Anthology of Global and
Cultural Perspectives. Continuum. pp.221232. ISBN9780826429384.
[4] http:/ / www. imageandnarrative. be/ index. php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 133/ 104
[5] Donovan, Hope (2010), "Gift Versus Capitalist Economies", in Levi, Antonia; McHarry, Mark; Pagliassotti, Dru, Boys' Love Manga: Essays
on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre, McFarland & Company, pp.1819, ISBN9780786441952
[6] Carlson, Johanna Draper (2010-03-22). "Legal Doesnt Matter: More on Scanlation Sites" (http:/ / comicsworthreading. com/ 2010/ 03/ 22/
legal-doesnt-matter-more-on-scanlation-sites/ ). Manga Worth Reading. . Retrieved 16 October 2010.
[7] Pagliassotti, Dru (November 2008) 'Reading Boys' Love in the West' (http:/ / www. participations. org/ Volume 5/ Issue 2/ 5_02_pagliassotti.
htm) Particip@tions Volume 5, Issue 2 Special Edition
[8] Wood, Andrea. (Spring 2006). "Straight" Women, Queer Texts: Boy-Love Manga and the Rise of a Global Counterpublic. WSQ: Women's
Studies Quarterly, 34 (1/2), pp. 394-414.
[9] http:/ / foosoft. net/ mangle/
[10] "'Scanlators' freely translating 'manga,' 'anime'" (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20090310f2. html). The Japan Times Online
(LONDON (Kyodo)). 2009-03-10. . Retrieved 16 October 2010.
[11] Jeff Yang (14 June 2004). "No longer an obscure cult art form, Japanese comics are becoming as American as apuru pai." (http:/ / www.
sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?file=/ g/ archive/ 2004/ 06/ 14/ manganation. DTL). SFGate. . Retrieved 2008-05-05.
[12] "Legal Issues and C&D Letters" (http:/ / insidescanlation. com/ backgrounds/ legal. html). Inside Scanlation. .
[13] Reid, Calvin (June 8, 2010). "Japanese, U.S. Manga Publishers Unite To Fight Scanlations" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/
by-topic/ digital/ copyright/ article/ 43437-japanese-u-s-manga-publishers-unite-to-fight-scanlations. html). Publishers Weekly. . Retrieved 16
October 2010.
[14] "FAQ: Manga Scanslations" (http:/ / www. mangascreener. com/ faq. php). Mangascreener.com. . Retrieved 2008-04-02.
[15] Toren Smith (27 February 2006). "Comment on "The Bard is right again"" (http:/ / mrcaxton. livejournal. com/ 11270.
html?thread=25350#t25350). LiveJournal. . Retrieved 2008-11-25.
Scanlation 53

Further reading
Deppey, Dirk (8 March 2005). "Scanlation Nation: Amateur Manga Translators Tell Their Stories" (http://web.
archive.org/web/20060505014917/http://www.tcj.com/269/n_scan.html). The Comics Journal #269.
Archived from the original (http://www.tcj.com/269/n_scan.html) on 2006-05-05. Retrieved 2005-07-13.
Dirk Deppey. "A Comics Reader's Guide to Manga Scanlations" (http://www.tcj.com/index.
php?option=com_content&task=view&id=430&Itemid=70). The Comics Journal. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
Donovan, Hope (2010), "Gift Versus Capitalist Economies", in Levi, Antonia; McHarry, Mark; Pagliassotti, Dru,
Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre, McFarland &
Company, pp.1122, ISBN9780786441952
Between fan culture and copyright infringement: manga scanlation (http://mcs.sagepub.com/content/31/6/

Manga Companies

Chuang Yi
Chuang Yi

Industry Publishing

Founded 1990

Headquarters Singapore

Area served Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, India

Products Comics

Website [1]

Chuang Yi Publishing Pte Ltd. (Simplified Chinese: , Pinyin: Chungy, meaning "creative arts") is a
publishing company based in Singapore that specializes in producing domestic and imported comics and
comics-related merchandise, in English and simplified Chinese. Chuang Yi distributes all or some of its products in
Singapore, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. Distribution to Australia and New Zealand occurs through Madman
Entertainment and uses Australian English translations.[2]

Chuang Yi Publishing was founded in 1990 as a distributor of Japanese comics published in simplified Chinese. It
had early success with Dragon Ball and Slam Dunk, and soon began importing titles from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and
South Korea.
In 1995, Chuang Yi set up its first branch office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and launched two Japanese comic
series in Malay. In 1998 and 1999, Chuang Yi published its first TV-drama-to-comic adaptations of Legend of the
Eight Immortals and Liang Po Po. Chuang Yi expanded into the English-language market in 2000 with the launch of
its Pokmon series, and two Taiwanese comics began serialization in local newspapers. In 2003, Chuang Yi secured
licensing rights to distribute its comics to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines, and in 2004 branched into the
magazine market including licensing of several Disney titles. Chuang Yi began distribution of sticker collectibles
from Panini Comics and Topps UK in 2004 and 2005, and in 2006 began distribution of comics in India.[3] In 2007,
the company secured the rights to develop stationery merchandise for Pokmon and Disney products, and began
exclusive distribution of DC Comics and Marvel Comics products to Singapore and Malaysia.[4]
Chuang Yi 55

Manga published by Chuang Yi Publishing in Chinese

20th Century Boys (20)
21st Century Boys (21)
Absolute Boyfriend ()
Air Gear
Blaue Rosen ()
Bleach ()
Bloody Monday
Death Note ()
Detective Conan ()
Dragonball ()
Eyeshield 21
Fairy Tail
Fruits Basket ()
Fullmetal Alchemist ()
Flame of Recca ()
Hayate the Combat Butler ()
Hikaru no Go ()
Katekyo Hitman Reborn (HITMAN REBORN!)
Kekkaishi ()
Kindaichi Case Files ()
Konjiki no Gash!! ()
Initial D (D)
Love Celeb ()
MR Omega
Monster Soul
Naruto ()
Negima!: Magister Negi Magi ()
Ninkuu ()
One Piece
Ouran High Host Club (Ouran High School Host Club in North America, ran Kk Hosuto Kurabu in Japan)
Prince of Tennis ()
Samurai Deeper Kyo ( Kyo)
Special A
Shaman King ()
The Gentlemen's Alliance
To Love-Ru (To Love)
Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle (TSUBASA)
Vampire Knight ()
Chuang Yi 56

xxxHolic ( XXX HOLIC)
Yankee-kun to Megane-chan ()

Manga published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English

.hack//Legend of the Twilight
Absolute Boyfriend ("Zettai Kareshi")
Astro Boy (Akira Himekawa's series)
Ballad of a Shinigami
Battle B-Daman
Blaue Rosen (Japanese title: Ai wo Utau yori Ore ni Oborero)
Because You Smile when I Sing
Bio Booster Armor Guyver
Bloody Monday
Boys Est
Captive Hearts
Chrono Crusade
Crush Gear Turbo
Fairy Cube
FIGHT! Crush Gear Turbo
Flunk Punk Rumble (Yankee-kun to Megane-chan)
Fruits Basket
Fullmetal Alchemist
Full Metal Panic! Sigma
Fushigi Ygi (Including Fushigi Ygi Genbu Kaiden)
Fushigiboshi no Futagohime
Girls Bravo
Gundam Seed
Hamtaro Handbook
Hoshi wa Utau
Kingdom Hearts
Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories
Kingdom Hearts II
La Corda D'Oro
Land of the Blindfolded
Love Hina
Chuang Yi 57

The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya

Metal Fight Beyblade
Midori Days
Mon Colle Knights
Monochrome Factor
My Fair Lady known in North America as The Wallflower and Yamato nadeshiko Shichihenge in Japan
Negima! Magister Negi Magi
Neon Genesis Evangelion
Ouran High School Host Club
Phantom Dream
Pokmon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu
Pokmon Adventures
Magical Pokmon Journey
Ash & Pikachu
Phantom Thief Pokmon 7
Pokmon Gold & Silver The Golden Boys
Pokmon Pocket Monsters
Pokmon Ruby-Sapphire
Pokmon Jirachi Wish Maker
Pokmon Destiny Deoxys
Pokmon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew
Pokmon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea
Pokmon Battle Frontier
S A: Special A
Saiyuki: Reload
Slam Dunk
Solar Boy Django
Speed Grapher
SuperPsychic Nanaki (Chshinri Gensh Nryokusha Nanaki)
Tenchi Muyo!
There, Beyond The Beyond (Sono Mukou-no Mukougawa)
The Girl Who Leapt Through Time
The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya
The Mythical Detective Loki
The Mythical Detective Loki Ragnarok
Tokyo Mew Mew
Trinity Blood
Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle
Chuang Yi 58

Tsubasa: Those with Wings

Twin Princesses of the Wonder Planet
Vampire Knight
Venus in Love
Wild Adapter
Wings of Desire
World Embryo
Young Guns
Super Yo-Yo
Zatch Bell! (Konjiki no Gash!!) [5]
Zig Zag

Other comic magazines published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English

Disney Fairies
Disney Princess
Monster Allergy
Winnie the Pooh and Friends
Winx Club (up to issue #39; MediaCorp has handled Winx from #40 onwards)

Manhwa published by Chuang Yi Publishing in English

Ragnarok: Into The Abyss

[1] http:/ / www. chuangyi. com. sg/
[2] "New Madman Manga for 2005" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ new-madman-manga-for-2005_article_84761. html). Mania (archived from
Anime on DVD.com). 2005-01-04. . Retrieved 2008-07-21.
[3] "Japanese Manga Comics to debut in India courtesy Chuang Yi and Sterling Publishers" (http:/ / www. techshout. com/ features/ 2007/ 07/
japanese-manga-comics-to-debut-in-india-courtesy-chuang-yi-and-sterling-publishers/ ). Tech Shout!. 2007-06-07. . Retrieved 2008-07-21.
[4] "Distribution" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080616200735/ http:/ / www. chuangyi. com. sg/ new/ distri. php). Chuang Yi. Archived
from the original (http:/ / www. chuangyi. com. sg/ new/ distri. php) on 2008-06-16. . Retrieved 2008-07-19.
[5] http:/ / www. chuangyi. com. sg/ board/ cgi-bin/ forum/ YaBB. pl?num=1142405427/ 0#0

External links
Official website (http://www.chuangyi.com.sg)
Funimation Entertainment 59

Funimation Entertainment

Type Private

Industry multimedia entertainment

Genre Anime, Japanese cinema, Asian cinema

Founded Fort Worth, Texas, U.S. (1994)

Founder(s) Gen Fukunaga

Headquarters Flower Mound, Texas, United States

Key people Gen Fukunaga Founder/CEO

Owner(s) Independent (1994-2005)

Navarre Corporation (2005-2011)
Funimation Communications (2011-present)

Website [1]

Funimation (formerly known as Funimation Productions and Funimation Entertainment, and usually stylized as
FUNimation) is an American entertainment company. Originally founded in 1994 by Gen Fukunaga, the company
became a subsidiary of Navarre Corporation on May 11, 2005. In April 2011, Navarre sold Funimation to a group of
investors including Gen Fukunaga for $24 million.[2] It is speculated that FUNimation was sold at such a low cost (in
comparison to how much it was originally purchased for, almost 100 million in cash and 15 million in stock in 2005)
because Navarre wanted to continue distributing goods in relation to the products, but not handle the publishing.
Around the same time, the company's trademark ball, star & blue bar were dropped from it's logo as well as the word
"entertainment" dropped from it's name to simply be called "Funimation".[3] Funimation produces, markets, and
distributes anime and other entertainment properties in the United States and international markets. The company is
headquartered in Flower Mound, Texas.[4] Funimation is a portmanteau of the English words fun and animation.

The company was founded in 1994 by Japanese-born businessman Gen Fukunaga.[5] Fukunaga's uncle was one of
the producers for the popular anime series Dragon Ball; he approached Gen about bringing the series over to
America. He proposed that if Fukunaga could start a production company and raise enough money, Toei Animation
would license the rights to the show. Fukunaga met with co-worker Daniel Cocanougher whose family owned a feed
mill in Decatur, Texas and convinced Cocanougher's family to sell their business and serve as an investor for his
company. The company was eventually formed in Fort Worth, Texas as Funimation Productions. By 1998, after two
failed attempts to bring the Dragon Ball franchise to a U.S. audience, it finally found success on Cartoon Network's
action-oriented programming block Toonami, and the Dragon Ball phenomenon quickly grew in the United States as
it had elsewhere. This led Funimation to begin licensing other anime to the U.S.
On May 11, 2005, Funimation was acquired by Navarre Corporation for US$100.4 million in cash and 1.8 million
shares of Navarre stock. As part of the acquisition, the president Fukunaga was retained as head of the company,
transitioning to the position of CEO, and the company's name was changed from Funimation Productions to
Funimation Entertainment 60

Funimation Entertainment.[6] [7]

In 2007 Funimation moved from North Richland Hills, Texas to Flower Mound; the standalone Flower Mound
facility has double the square footage of the space Funimation occupied previous North Richland Hills facility; in the
North Richland Hills facility Funimation shared the building with other tenants.[4] Funimation moved into the
Lakeside Business District with a ten year lease.[8]
According to an interview in February 2008 with Navarre Corporation CEO Cary Deacon, Funimation was in early
stage negotiations to acquire some of the titles licensed through Geneon's USA division, which ceased operations in
December 2007.[9] In July 2008, Funimation confirmed that they had acquired distribution rights to several Geneon
titles, including some that Geneon had left unfinished when they ceased operations.[10]
At Anime Expo 2008, Funimation announced that it had acquired over 30 titles from the Sojitz catalog that had
previously been licensed by ADV Films.[11]
On October 14, 2011, Funimation announced a partnership with Niconico, the English-language version of Nico
Nico Douga, to form the 'Funico' brand for the licensing of anime for streaming and home video release.[12]

Reaction to fansubbing
In 2005, Funimation's legal department began to pursue a more aggressive approach toward protecting their licensed
properties, and started sending "cease and desist" (C&D) letters to sites offering links to fansubs of their titles. This
move was similar to that taken by the now-defunct ADV Films several years before with several of the major torrent
Funimation's legal department served C&D letters for series that had not yet been advertised or announced as
licensed, including Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle, Black Cat, and SoltyRei, with a few known series also mentioned
in the letter.[13] Funimation revealed more licenses on 6 October 2006 when it sent letters to torrent sites demanding
that distribution of xxxHolic's TV series, Mushishi, Ragnarok the Animation, and other series cease.[14]

Sale from Navarre

In the first quarter of 2010, Navarre Corporation reclassified Funimation as "discounted operations" and began
preparations to sell the company. Navarre released a statement in April 2011 confirming that Funimation has been
sold to a group of investors, including Fukunaga, for $24 million.[2] Navarre will remain as exclusive distributor of
Funimation's titles.

Foreign distribution
Funimation does not directly release its properties in non-U.S. (English language-speaking) markets, instead
sublicensing to other companies such as Manga Entertainment in the United Kingdom and Madman Entertainment in
Australia and New Zealand.
Towards the end of 2005, Fullmetal Alchemist (along with Beez Entertainment's Wolf's Rain) became one of the
flagship programs on the relaunch of satellite channel Rapture TV and had only one edit, that of changing the
opening to "Ready Steady Go" (the second opening), instead of the few minor edits the show received for its Adult
Swim airings. YuYu Hakusho has also been acquired for television broadcast in the UK. However, it has not been
announced who has picked it up and who the intended audience is.
Funimation Entertainment 61

Funimation Channel
Funimation Entertainment with OlympuSAT launched the FUNimation Channel, the second 24 hour anime digital
cable network in North America (the first being A.D. Vision's Anime Network). OlympuSAT is the exclusive
distributor and the Funimation Channel is now available to video service providers.
Since its launch in September 2005, FUNimation Channel has expanded into more homes and continues to expand
via digital cable, fiber optics, and DBS systems.
When the channel first launched, it was available to a few cities via UHF digital signals.[15] The service was
temporary as the channel was trying to gain a foothold in the already crowded digital cable landscape. Another
short-term service was the syndication of a FUNimation Channel block to one of OlympuSAT's affiliate networks
Colours TV [16].[17] Both services were discontinued in favor for a more successful expansion on digital cable, fiber
optics and DBS systems.

Alternative distribution
In July 2008, Funimation and Red Planet Media announced the launch of a mobile video-on-demand service for
AT&T and Sprint mobile phone subscribers.[18] Three titles were part of the launch, Gunslinger Girl, Tsukuyomi:
Moon Phase, and The Galaxy Railways, with entire seasons of each made available.
On September 19, 2006, Funimation created an official channel on YouTube where they upload advertisements for
box sets, as well as clips and preview episodes of their licensed series. In September 2008, they began distributing
full episodes of series at Hulu.[19] In December of the same year, Funimation added a video section to their main
website with preview episodes of various series. In April 2009, they began distributing full episodes of series at
Veoh.[20] [21] Full episodes are also available on the YouTube channel as well as on the PlayStation Network (PSN)
Video Store and Xbox Live/Zune Marketplace.

[1] http:/ / www. funimation. com
[2] "Navarre Corporation Announces Sale Of FUNimation Entertainment" (http:/ / www. tradershuddle. com/ 20110404196448/ globenewswire/
Navarre-Corporation-Announces-Sale-of-FUNimation-Entertainment. html). GLOBE NEWSWIRE. 2011-04-04. . Retrieved 2011-04-04.
[3] "Navarre Sells Anime Studio FUNimation" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. usc. edu/ article@apa?navarre_sells_anime_studio_funimation_16622.
aspx). Asia Pacific Arts. 04/08/2011. .
[4] Wethe, David (2007-06-07). "Funimation moving headquarters to Flower Mound" (http:/ / www. accessmylibrary. com/ coms2/
summary_0286-30963771_ITM). Fort-Worth Star Telegram. . Retrieved 2007-06-07.
[5] "Interview with Gen Fukunaga, Part 1" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 6036. html). ICv2. 2004-11-01. . Retrieved 2008-02-08.
[6] "Navarre Corporation Acquires Funimation, and Provides Financial Update and Guidance" (http:/ / ir. navarre. com/ phoenix.
zhtml?c=105157& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=709018& highlight=) (Press release). Navarre Corporation. 2005-05-11. . Retrieved 2006-07-08.
[7] "Navarre Completes Funimation Acquisition" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 6866. html) (Press release). ICv2. 2005-05-12. .
Retrieved 2008-02-08.
[8] "FUNimation Entertainment scripts HQ move" (http:/ / www. flower-mound. com/ econdev/ articles/
FUNimationEntertainmentscriptsHQmove. pdf). Dallas Business Journal. 2007-06-08. . Retrieved 2008-06-20.
[9] "Navarre/FUNimation Interested in Some Geneon Titles" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ home/ 12043. html). ICv2. 2008-02-08. .
Retrieved 2008-02-08.
[10] "FUNimation Entertainment and Geneon Entertainment Sign Exclusive Distribution Agreement for North America" (http:/ / funimation.
com/ f_index. cfm?page=news& id=454) (Press release). funimation.com. 2008-07-03. . Retrieved 2008-07-03.
[11] "Funimation Picks Up Over 30 Former AD Vision Titles" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-07-04/
funimation-picks-up-over-30-former-ad-vision-titles) (Press release). animenewsnetwork.com. 2008-07-04. . Retrieved 2008-07-04.
[12] http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. co. uk/ news/ 2011-10-14/ funimation-niconico-to-jointly-license-anime
[13] "Funimation Enforces Intellectual Property Rights (ANN)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ article. php?id=7979). . Retrieved
[14] "Funimation Sends out Cease & Desist Letters For Multiple Anime (ANN)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ article. php?id=9625). .
Retrieved 2006-10-14.
[15] http:/ / www. mania. com/ navarres-funimation-entertainment-announces-launch-funimation-channel-seattle_article_85177. html service on
UHF signals
Funimation Entertainment 62

[16] http:/ / www. colourstv. org/

[17] http:/ / www. redorbit. com/ news/ technology/ 648247/
navarres_funimation_entertainment_doubles_anime_programming_for_syndicated_anime_block/ index. html syndicated block
[18] "Full Seasons of the Best Anime from FUNimation Channel Launch on JumpInMobile.TV The New Mobile Video-on-Demand Service
from Red Planet Media" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ press-release/ 2008-07-09/
tv-the-new-mobile-video-on-demand-service-from-red-planet-media). Anime News Network. 2008-07-09. . Retrieved 2008-07-09.
[19] Hulu.com Launches Channel for Free, Legal Anime Streams (Update 2) (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-09-23/
[20] Rojas (2009-04-01). "Legal Anime Watching on Veoh.com" (http:/ / blog. funimation. com/ 2009/ 04/ legal-anime-watching-on-veohcom/ ).
The Funimation Update. Funimation Entertainment. . Retrieved 2009-04-04.
[21] "Funimation Adds More Anime to Veoh Video Website" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-04-02/
funimation-adds-anime-to-veoh-streaming-site). ANN News. Anime News Network. 2009-04-02. . Retrieved 2009-04-04.

External links
Funimation (http://www.funimation.com/)
Funimation Channel (http://www.funimationchannel.com/)
Funimation Films (http://www.funimationfilms.com)
Funimation Entertainment (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/company.php?id=6515) at
Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
Hakusensha 63

Hakusensha, Inc.

Type Kabushiki kaisha

Industry Publishing, production

Genre Shnen, Shjo, Seinen, Josei, Yaoi, Yuri

Founded December 1, 1973

Headquarters 101-0063
Chiyoda, Tokyo
Kanda-Awajich 2-2-2

Area served Japan

Key people Sei Aoki

Norikazu Sakaguchi (formerly)

Products Magazines, manga, picture books, light novels, other type of books and drama CDs

Employees [1]
91 (January 2009)

Website [2]

Hakusensha, Inc. ( Kabushiki-gaisha Hakusensha) is a Japanese publishing company. It is

headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo.[1]
The company mainly publishes manga magazines of various genres and is involved in certain series' productions in
their games, original video animation, musical and their animated TV series.


Hakusensha was founded on December 1, 1973 by Shueisha, but is now a separate company although still a part of
the Hitotsubashi Group together with Shueisha and Shogakukan as one of the major members of the keiretsu.
After setting up the company for 5 months, the firm published their
first magazine, a shjo manga magazine titled as Hana to Yume
() and in November that year, they moved from Tky-to,
Chiyoda-ku, Kanda-Jinbch Ichi-chme
(1) to Kanda-Jinbch San-chme

Then in year 1975, the firm changed the frequency of their magazine
from monthly to semi-monthly and in March, they created their first
imprint, Hana to Yume Comics (). In July 1976, Hakusensha's headquarters at their present
they published their second manga magazine, a shjo manga magazine location.
named Hana to Yume LaLa ( LaLa) as a sister magazine to
Hana to Yume that is published bi-monthly. In April 1977, they set up a publication editing department and in July,
they began publishing a seasonal magazine titled Bessatsu Hana to Yume ().
Hakusensha 64

In March 1981, they moved again from Kanda-Jinbch San-chme (3) to Nishi-Kanda San-chme
(3) and in September, they branch out from their usual shjo manga magazines to a shnen genre by
publishing Shnen Jets (). Along with that, the company released their series in Shnen Jets under a
new imprint, Jets Comics () in July 1982. But as of January 2009, the magazine is now defunct
but the imprint is still used to publish their seinen manga series serializing in Young Animal and Young Animal
Arashi as well as certain series serializing in Melody.
3 years later on August, they published a new magazine, specialising under the josei genre, Silky that is published
bi-monthly on even-numbered months. With that, they created an imprint for Silky's series to be published under
Ladies' Comics (). In March 1989, they started publishing a seinen manga magazine called
Animal House. 3 years after Animal House, they published Moe, a monthly magazine for picture books targeted
towards shjo readers. In May that year when Moe was published, Animal House was renamed to Young Animal and
was then published semi-monthly since.
In March 1994, they created another imprint, Hakusensha Bunko (). This imprint are for publishing
manga in the bunkoban format. Moreover, in December 1995, they started publishing another magazine that was
published seasonally, Shsetsu HanaMaru () which is targeted towards the josei readers.
In January 1996, they created another imprint for Shsetsu HanaMaru (),HanaMaru Comics
(). In July that year, they created another imprint, HanaMaru Bunko (). In September,
they published Melody which publishes on odd-numbered months. On the same month, they moved from
Nishi-Kanda San-chme (3) to Kanda-Awajich Ni-chmeHakusensha Biru
(2), their present location.
2 years later on April, they published LaLa DX with a frequency of bi-monthly on odd-numbered months. The
company also began selling their drama CDs under Hakusensha CD Collection (CD) or
abbreviated as HCD.
In June 2001, they published Candy but as of January 2009, the magazine has been discontinued. In May 2005, they
changed their special publication of Young Animal Arashi into a monthly publication. In July 2006, Bessatsu Hana to
Yume was changed to a monthly publication. HanaMaru Black (BLACK), a magazine targeted at readers of
yaoi genre started its publication on May 2008.
Their latest publication, Le Paradis, a manga anthology published triannually will publish its first issue on October
29, 2008.[3] [4]

Media Mix
Besides publishing, the company also release drama CDs of series under their magazines which are, Hana to Yume
Series (), Bessatsu Hana to Yume Series (), LaLa Series
(LaLa), Young Animal Series () and HanaMaru Series ().
Moreover, they are also involved in the productions of games, TV drama, theatrical movies, musicals, radio shows,
TV animation and original video animation.
Series under the company can be read through mobile phones in Japan using the following service portals,
Hakusensha e-Comics (e-) and Hakusensha HanaMaru Bunko (). Hakusensha
e-Comics was started in September 2005 and is operated by both Hakusensha and CharaWeb.[6] This service is
available in two variations and customers will have to pay 315 yen and 512 yen respectively to access this service
every month.[6]
Hakusensha 65

Sony PlayStation Portable manga distribution service

It was announced in the press conference in the 2009 Tokyo Game Show that Hakusensha, together with 11 other
publishing companies in Japan, such as Kodansha, Shueisha, Shogakukan, Square Enix, publishers associated with
Kadokawa Shoten, Bandai Visual and Futabasha will provide nearly 100 titles of manga to supply the service in
PlayStation Store. Hakusensha has yet to be provide details of the supplied titles for the service.
This service is only available for Japanese PlayStation Portable consoles and will start in December 2009.
[8] [9]


Manga magazines
Hana to Yume
Bessatsu Hana to Yume
The Hana to Yume
Shnen Jets (defunct)
Young Animal
Young Animal Arashi
HanaMaru Black
Le Paradis
[5] [10]

Other publications
Shsetsu HanaMaru
[5] [10]

Hakusensha publishes their books and manga under these imprints.
Hana to Yume Comics
Jets Comics
Hakusensha Ladies Comics
HanaMaru Comics
Hakusensha Bunko
HanaMaru Bunko
HanaMaru Novels
HanaMaru Black
Hakusensha 66

Hakusensha organizes contests to offer aspiring manga artist a professional debut as well to be affiliated with their
These contests or awards are Hakusensha Athena Shinjin Taish (, Hakusensha Athena
Newcomers' Awards), Hana to Yume Mangaka Course or else abbreviated as HMC, LaLa Mangaka Scout Course
otherwise known as LMS, LaLa Manga Grand Prix, abbreviated as LMG and Big Challenge Awards, abbreviated as

Radio show
There was previously a radio show hosted by voice actor, Takehito Koyasu and Atsushi Kisaichi called
KoyasuKisaichi no HanaYume Check ni LaLa Shimasho (LaLa) that was
broadcasted by Nippon Cultural Broadcasting. The radio show has ended in March 2002. The radio show was
compiled into 2 CDs and is sold under Hakusensha's drama CD imprint, Hakusensha CD Collection, otherwise
known as HCD.[13] [14]

[1] " Profile" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ profile. html) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.
[2] http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ index. html
[3] "Hakusensha to Launch Rakuen Anthology in October" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-09-15/
hakusensha-to-launch-rakuen-anthology-in-october). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2009-10-02.
[4] "" (http:/ / natalie. mu/ comic/ news/ show/ id/ 21183) (in Japanese). Comic
Natalie. . Retrieved 2009-10-02.
[5] " History" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ history. html) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved
[6] "e-" (http:/ / plusd. itmedia. co. jp/ mobile/ articles/ 0509/ 08/ news098. html)
(in Japanese). ITMedia Inc.. . Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[7] " Media Mix" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ media_mix. html) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved
[8] "Japan's Sony PSP Manga Distribution Service Detailed" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-09-24/
japan-sony-psp-manga-distribution-service-detailed). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2009-09-25.
[9] "PSP PlayStationStore200912
11" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 090924i. html)
(in Japanese). Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.. . Retrieved 2009-09-25.
[10] " Magazines" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ magazines. html) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved
[11] " Books" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ corporate/ books. html) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[12] " !!" (http:/ / www. hakusensha. co. jp/ mangaprize) (in Japanese). Hakusensha. . Retrieved 2009-05-04.
[13] "Amazon.co.jp: LaLa: , , : " (http:/ / www. amazon. co. jp/ dp/ B00005NS3C/ ) (in
Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.
[14] "Amazon.co.jp: HCD LaLaII: , , : " (http:/ / www.
amazon. co. jp/ dp/ B000063L1J/ ) (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. . Retrieved 2009-05-05.
Hakusensha 67

External links
Official Website (http://www.hakusensha.co.jp) (Japanese)
Corporate Website (http://www.hakusensha.co.jp/corporate/index.html) (Japanese)
Official Twitter of Hakusensha (http://twitter.com/#!/hakusensha) (Japanese)

Kodansha Limited ( Kabushiki-gaisha Kdansha),
the largest Japanese publisher, produces the manga magazines
Nakayoshi, Afternoon, Evening, and Weekly Shonen Magazine, as well
as more literary magazines such as Gunz, Shkan Gendai, and the
Japanese dictionary Nihongo Daijiten. The company has its
headquarters in Bunky, Tokyo.[1] As of 2010 the Noma
familyrelatives of the foundercontinues to own Kodansha.

History The head office of Kodansha

Seiji Noma (Noma Seiji) founded Kodansha in 1909 as a spinoff of the

Dai-Nippon Ybenkai (Greater Japan Oratorical Society) and produced the literary magazine Yben as its first
publication. The name Kodansha (taken from "Kdan Club", a now defunct magazine published by the company)
originated in 1911 when the publisher formally merged with the Dai-Nippon Ybenkai. The company has used its
current legal name since 1958. It uses the motto Omoshirokute tame ni naru ("To be interesting and beneficial").
Kodansha Limited owns the Otowa Group, which manages subsidiary companies such as King Records and
Kobunsha, and publishes Nikkan Gendai, a daily tabloid. It also has close ties with The Walt Disney Company, and
officially sponsors Tokyo Disneyland.
The largest publisher in Japan, Kodansha once had an annual revenue of more than 200 billion. Revenues dropped
due to the 2002 recession in Japan and an accompanying downturn in the publishing industry: the company posted a
loss in the 2002 financial year for the first time since the end of the World War II. (The second-largest publisher,
Shogakukan, has done relatively better. In the 2003 financial year, Kodansha had revenues of 167 billion, as
compared to 150 billion for Shogakukan. Kodansha at its peak led Shogakukan by over 50 billion in revenue.)
Kodansha sponsors the prestigious Kodansha Manga Award, which has run in its current form since 1977 (and since
1960 under other names).
Kodansha's headquarters in Tokyo once housed Noma Dj, a kendo practice-hall established by Seiji Noma in
1925. The hall was demolished in November 2007, however, and replaced with a dj in a new building nearby.
The company announced that it was closing its English-language publishing house, Kodansha International, at the
end of April 2011.[2] Their American publishing house, Kodansha Comics USA, will still be open.
Kodansha 68

Relationships with other organizations

The Kodansha company holds ownership in various broadcasters in Japan, and is believed to hold around 20% of the
TBS Group's stock. It also holds shares in Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, along with Kobunsha. In the recent
takeover-war for Nippon Broadcasting System between Livedoor and Fuji TV, Kodansha supported Fuji TV by
selling its stock to Fuji TV.
Kodansha has a somewhat complicated relationship with NHK, Japan's public broadcaster. Many of the manga and
novels published by Kodansha have spawned anime adaptations. Animation such as Cardcaptor Sakura aired in
NHK's Eisei Anime Gekij time-slot, and Kodansha published a companion-magazine to the NHK children's show
Oksan to Issho. The two companies often clash editorially, however. The October 2000 issue of Gendai accused
NHK of staging footage used in a news report in 1997 on dynamite fishing in Indonesia. NHK sued Kodansha in the
Tokyo District Court, which ordered Kodansha to publish a retraction and to pay 4 million in damages. Kodansha
appealed the decision, and reached a settlement where it had to issue only a partial retraction, and to pay no
damages.[3] Gendai's sister magazine Shkan Gendai nonetheless published an article which probed further into the
staged-footage controversy which has dogged NHK.

Japan Foundation: Japan Foundation Special Prize, 1994.[4]

Gunzo, monthly literary magazine

[1] " Company Overview (http:/ / www. kodansha. co. jp/ english/ company/ company. html)." Kodansha. Retrieved on April 5, 2011. "Address:
12-21, Otowa 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8001, Japan"
[2] Kamiya, Setsuko and Mizuho Aoki, " Kodansha International to close doors (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20110304a1.
html)", Japan Times, 4 March 2011, p. 1.
[3] http:/ / engei. s17. xrea. com/ gendai1/ 0001. html
[4] Japan Foundation Special Prize, 1994 (http:/ / www. jpf. go. jp/ e/ about/ award/ index. html)

External links
Kodansha Official Japanese website (http://www.kodansha.co.jp/) (Japanese)
Kodansha Official English Website (http://www.kodansha.co.jp/english/index.html)
Kodansha USA Official Website (http://www.kodanshausa.com/)
Kodansha Comics USA Official Website (http://www.kodanshacomics.com)
Shogakukan 69

Shogakukan Inc

Type Kabushiki gaisha

Industry Publishing

Founded August 8, 1922

Headquarters 101-8001
Tokyo-to, Chiyoda-ku
Hitotsubashi 2-3-1

Area served Japan

Key people Masahiro ga (president)

Products Magazines, manga, picture books, light novels, educational books, reference books, other books

Employees 792(as of June 15, 2010)

Website http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp

Shogakukan ( Shgakukan) is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, literature, manga, non-fiction, DVDs,

and other media in Japan.
Shogakukan founded Shueisha which founded Hakusensha. These are three separate companies, but are together
called the Hitotsubashi Group, one of the largest publishing groups in Japan. Shogakukan is located in the
Shogakukan Building in Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda, Tokyo,[1] and the other two companies are located in the same ward.

Shogakukan in the United States

Shogakukan, along with Shueisha, owns Viz Media, which publishes manga from both companies in the United
Shogakukan's licensing arm in North America was ShoPro Entertainment; it was merged into Viz Media in 2005.
Shogakukan's production arm is Shogakukan Productions Co.,Ltd. (now Shogakukan Shueisha Productions).
In March 2010 it was announced that Shogakukan would partner with the American comics publisher Fantagraphics
to issue a line of manga to be edited by Matt Thorn.[2]
Shogakukan 70

List of magazines published by Shogakukan

Manga magazines

Male oriented manga magazines

Children's manga magazines

CoroCoro Comic
Bessatsu CoroCoro Comic
CoroCoro Ichiban!

Shnen manga magazines

Shnen Sunday
Bessatsu Shnen Sunday (discontinued)
Shnen Sunday Super
Monthly Shnen Sunday

Seinen manga magazines

Big Comic
Big Comic Business
Big Comic Original
Big Comic Spirits
Monthly Big Comic Spirits
Big Comic Special
Big Comic Superior
Monthly Sunday Gene-X
Weekly Young Sunday(discontinued)

Female oriented manga magazines

Shjo manga magazines

Shjo Comic
Shogakukan 71

Josei manga magazines

Petit Comic

Fashion magazines

List of manga published by Shogakukan

7 Seeds
A Cruel God Reigns
Bakus Kydai Let's & Go!!
Dengeki Daisy
Detective Conan
Duel Masters
Esper Mami
H3 School! (Happy Hustle High)
Hayate the Combat Butler
In the Bathroom
Law of Ueki
Law of Ueki Plus
Kami nomi zo Shiru Sekai
Kare First Love
Kaze to Ki no Uta
Kimi no Tonari de Seishunchuu
Kiteretsu Daihyakka
Konjiki no Gash Bell! (Zatch Bell!)
Maison Ikkoku
Midori no Hibi (Midori Days)
Mobile Police Patlabor
O~i! Ryma
Pocket Monsters
Pocket Monster
Pocket Monsters SPECIAL (Pokmon Adventures)
Den-Geki! Pikachu (Pokmon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu)
Pocket Monsters PiPiPi Adventures (Magical Pokmon Journey)
Pokmon Fushigi no Danjon Ginji no Kyjotai (Pokmon Mystery Dungeon: Ginji's Rescue Team)
Prefectural Earth Defense Force
Shogakukan 72

Rekka no Hon (Flame of Recca)
Revolutionary Girl Utena
Rockman EXE (MegaMan NT Warrior)
Selfish Fairy Mirumo de Pon (Mirmo Zibang!)
Sonic the Hedgehog
Sora wa Akai Kawa no Hotori (Red River)
SP: Security Police
Super Mario-Kun
Cirque du Freak
Urusei Yatsura
Yakitate!! Japan

[1] " (http:/ / www. shogakukan. co. jp/ main/ company/ location. html)." Shogakukan. Retrieved on October 1, 2009.
[2] Deppey, Dirk (March 8, 2010). "Journalista reputation-destroying extra: Four years work" (http:/ / www. tcj. com/ manga/
journalista-reputation-destroying-extra-four-years-work). Journalista!. The Comics Journal. . Retrieved 8 March 2010.

New Manga Awards

Shogakukan has awards for amateur manga artist who want to become professional. It allows people to either send in
their manga by mail or bring it in to an editor.

External links
Shogakukan website (http://www.shogakukan.co.jp/english/)
Shogakukan website (http://www.shogakukan.co.jp/) (Japanese)
Shogakukan Productions Co., Ltd. (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/company.
php?id=1017) at Anime News Network's Encyclopedia
Shueisha 73

Shueisha Inc.

Type Kabushiki kaisha

Industry Publishing

Founded 1925 (founded)

1949 (formed)

Headquarters 101-8050
Chiyoda, Tokyo
Hitotsubashi 2-5-10

Area served Japan

Key people Hideki Yamashita (president)

Products Magazines, manga, picture books, light novels, educational books, reference books, other books

Employees 812 (475 men, 337 women) (as of July 2009)

Divisions Viz Media, Shueisha-Shogakukan Productions

Subsidiaries Home-sha

Website [1]

Shueisha Inc. ( Kabushiki Kaisha Sheisha, lit. "Shueisha Publishing Co., Ltd.") is a major
publisher in Japan. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese
publisher Shogakukan. The following year, Shueisha became a separate, independent company. Magazines
published by Shueisha include Weekly Shnen Jump, Weekly Young Jump, Non-no, and Ultra Jump. Shueisha, along
with Shogakukan and Hakusensha, own Viz Media, which publishes manga from both companies in the United
States. It is headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo.[2]
Shueisha 74

In 1925, Shueisha was created by major publishing company
Shogakukan (founded in 1922). A novel called Jinj Shgaku Ichinen
Josei () became the first novel published by
Shueisha in collaboration with Shogakukanthe temporary home of
Shueisha. In 1927, two novels titled Danshi Ehon, and Joshi Ehon
were created. In 1928, Shueisha was hired to edit Gendai Ymoa
Zensh (), a compilation of the author's works.
Gendai Ymoa Zensh continued 12 volumes, some issues being Joshi
Shinjidai ei Shji Ch and Shinjidai ei Shji Ch ().
In the 1930s another novel called Tantei-ki Dan was launched and
Gendai Ymoa Zensh was completed in 24 volumes. In 1931 two
more novels were launched, Danshi Ychien and Joshi Ychien. The
preceding year of 1933 was used to repair the Shueisha building in
Hitotsubashi and moved down three addresses.[3]

After World War II, Shueisha started publishing a manga line called
Omoshiro Book. Omoshiro Book published a picture book called
Shnen ja, which became a huge hit among boys and girls in that Shueisha Jimbocho Building in Chiyoda, Tokyo,
period. The first full volume of Shnen ja was released as Shnen Japan
ja Oitachi Hen, which became an instant best-seller. The first
magazine published by Shueisha was Akaru ku Tanoshi i Shnen-Shjo Zasshi. In September 1949, Omoshiro Book
was made into a magazine with all the contents of the former line. In 1950, a special edition of the magazine was
published under the title "Hinomaru". In addition to Omoshiro Book, a female version was published in 1951: Shjo
Book which featured manga aimed at adolescent girls. The Hitotsubashi building of Shueisha became completely
independent in 1952. In that year, Omoshiro Book ceased publication and Myj began publication as a monthly
magazine. The series of Omoshiro Book were published in bunkoban editions under the Omoshiro Manga Bunko
line.[4] A novel called Yoiko Ychien was published and Omoshiro Book was replaced with another children's manga
magazine called Ynen Book.

In 1955, the success of Shjo Book led to the publication of currently running Ribon. The novel Joshi Ychien
Kobato began publication in 1958. On November 23, a special issue of Myj entitled Weekly Myj was released.
In 1951, another male edition of Shjo Book was released after Omoshiro Book ceased publication, Shnen Book was
made and additionally Shjo Book series were released in bunkoban editions under the Shjo Manga Bunko imprint.
In the 1960s, another spin-off issue of Myj was released called Bessatsu Weekly Myj. Shueisha continues to
publish many novels. A compilation of many Omoshiro Book series was released as Shnen-Shjo Nippon Rekishi
Zensh complete in 12 volumes. Many other books were published including Hirosuke Ynen Dwa Bungaku
Zensh, Hatachi no Sekkei, Dd Taru Jinsei, Shinjin Nama Gekij, and Gaikoku Karakita Shingo Jiten. In 1962,
Shueisha published a female version of Myj entitled Josei Myj and many more novels. In 1963, Shueisha began
publication of the widely successful Margaret with the additional off-shoot Bessatsu Margaret. A novel entitled
Ukiyoe Hanga was released complete in 7 volumes and the picture book Sekai 100 Nin no Monogatari Zensh was
released in the usual 12. In 1964, Kanshi Taikei was released in 24 volumes plus a reprint. Also in that year a line of
novels, Compact Books was made and a line of manga called Televi- Books ("Televi": short for "Television"). In
1965, two more magazines were made Cobalt and the Shnen Book off-shoot Bessatsu Shnen Book.[5]
In 1966, Shueisha began publication of Weekly Playboy, Seishun to Dokusho and Shsetsu Junia. A novel called
Nihonbon Gaku Zensh spawned a great 88 volumes. Another manga magazine was made entitled Young Music.
Deluxe Margaret began publication in 1967 and the additional Maragret Comics and Ribon Comics lines. In 1968
Shueisha 75

the magazine Hoshi Young Sense began publication as spin-off to the short-lived Young Sense. Later in that year
Margaret launched the Seventeen magazine as a Japanese version of the English. Shnen Jump was created in the
same year as a semi-weekly magazine. Another children's manga magazine was created in that year called Junior
Comic and another Ribon spin-off called Ribon Comic. In 1969 the magazine Joker began publication along with
guts. Several other novels were published. The magazine Bessatsu Seventeen began publication. In that year Shnen
Jump became a weekly anthology and correctly changed its title to Weekly Shnen Jump. Following up to the end of
Shnen Book a spin-off of Weekly Shnen Jump started at the same time as it became weekly, Bessatsu Shnen
Jump. The 1970s started with the launch of the novel magazine Subaru and in 1971 the Non-no magazine began
publication and the Ocean life magazine. The novel series Gendai Nippon Bijutsu Zensh spawned 18 volumes and
became a huge seller. In 1972 Roadshow began publication and The Rose of Versailles begins in the Margaret
Comics line gaining massive popularity. In 1973 the Playgirl magazine began publication and the novel series
Zenshaku Kanbun Taikei spawning a huge 33 volumes. In 1974 Weekly Shnen Jump launched Akamaru Jump and
Monthly Shnen Jump was launched to follow after Bessatsu Shnen Jump end. Also Saison de Non-no began its
launch.[6] Shueisha announced that in the summer of 2011, it will launch a new manga magazine titled "Miracle

Magazine Defunct? Medium

Omoshiro Book () Yes Shnen and Shjo manga

Hinomaru () Yes Shnen and Shjo manga

Shjo Book () Yes Shjo manga

Myj () No Popular culture and music

Ynen Book () Yes Children manga

Ribon () No Shjo manga

Weekly Myj () Yes Popular culture and music

Shnen Book () Yes Shnen manga

Bessatsu Myj () Yes Popular culture and music

Josei Myj () Yes Women's fashion

Margaret () No Shjo manga

Bessatsu Margaret () Yes Shjo manga

Bessatsu Shnen Book () Yes Shnen manga

Weekly Playboy () No Men's and Seinen manga

Shsetsu Junai () Yes Novels

Nihonban Gaku Zensh () Yes

Seishun to Dokusho () No Graphics and art

Young Music () Yes Music

Deluxe Maragret ( ) Yes

Bessatsu Young Sense () Yes

Weekly Seventeen () Yes

Joker () Yes

Guts (guts) Yes

Shueisha 76

Weekly Shnen Jump () No

Bessatsu Shnen Jump () Yes

Subaru () No

Non-no () No

Ocean life () Yes

Roadshow () No

Monthly Seventeen () Yes

Play Girl () Yes

Monthly Shnen Jump () Yes

Saison de Non-no (SAISON de nonno) Yes

Weekly Maragaret () Yes

Playboy ()' No

More (MORE) No

Bessatsu Hair Catalog () Yes

Bouquet () Yes

Weekly Young Jump () No

Cosmopolitan () No

Ribon Original () No

You () No

Cobalt (COBALT) No

Non-no More Books (nonno MORE BOOKS) No

Lee () No

Sumuappu () Yes

Dunk (DUNK) Yes

Office You (OFFICE YOU) No

Business Jump () No

Men's Non-no () No

Young You () Yes

Jh Chishiki Imidas ( imidas) Yes

Shsetsu Subaru () No

Monthly Bees Club () Yes

Monthly Tiara () Yes

Super Jump () No

Spur (SPUR) No

Bart () Yes

Tanto (TANTO) Yes

V Jump (V) No

Fresh Jump () Yes

Chorus () No
Shueisha 77

All Natural () Yes

Manga Allman () Yes

Tepee (Tepee) Yes

Telekids () Yes

Maple () Yes

Shueisha Shinsho () No

Ultra Jump () No

Cookie () No

Baila (BAILA) No

Sportiva () No

Maquia (MAQUIA) No

Pinky (PINKY) No

Yomu Ningen Dock Kenk Hyakka ( ) Yes

Uomo (UOMO) No

Monthly Young Jump () No Seinen manga

Jump SQ. (SQ.) No Shnen manga

Shueisha Kanzenban magazines

The major publisher Shueisha has published many Kanzenban magazines. Kanzenban magazines consist of one
series being published in the magazine for roughly a year and then another and so on, unlike normal manga
magazines which have a variety of series. The select series in the magazine has chapters from roughly 3 volumes in
every issue.

Monthly Comic Tokumori

Monthly Comic Tokumori ( Gekkan Kommiku Tokumori) is a seinen Kanzenban magazine[8]
published by Shueisha's subsidiary Home-sha.[9] The magazine currently serializes the samurai-based Nobunaga no
Kyodai Tetsu Fune: Sengoku no Umi o Seisu every month.[9]

Shueisha Original
Shueisha Original ( Sheisha Orijinaru) is a multi-demographic manga magazine published by
Shueisha. The magazine features an individual Kanzenban of a classic Shueisha manga series. Each issue is a
continuation of the last Kanzenban. Shueisha Original has only featured two series which both have run in the
magazine for a long time. The first series was Chibi Maruko-chan from the shjo manga anthology Ribon. Chibi
Maruko-chan ran in the magazine from August 2007 to January 2008. Rokudenashi Blues by Masanori Morita which
ran in Weekly Shnen Jump started on March 2008 and is still currently running in Shueisha Original.
Shueisha 78

Shueisha Remix
Shueisha Remix ( Sheisha Rimikkusu) is a one of many Kanzenban magazines published by
Shueisha. Shueisha Remix magazines are split into four lines: Shueisha Jump Remix, Shueisha Girls Remix, Shueisha
Home Remix and Shueisha International Remix.

[1] http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/
[2] " (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ company_info/ )." Shueisha. Retrieved on October 1, 2009.
[3] " " (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ history/ history1. html). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-11-26.
[4] " " (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ history/ history2. html). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-11-26.
[5] " " (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ history/ history3. html). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-08-12.
[6] " " (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ history/ history4. html). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-12-12.
[7] "Manga powerhouse Shueisha announces new magazine" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. usc. edu/
article@apa?manga_powerhouse_shuseisha_announces_new_magazine_16705. aspx). Asia Pacific Arts. 05/06/2011. .
[8] "" (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ CGI/ magazine/ rack. cgi/ magazine/ tokumori. html?key=detail& zashimei=tokumori&
janru=menc). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-12-25.
[9] "" (http:/ / www. shueisha. co. jp/ home-sha/ manga/ tokumori/ ). Shueisha. . Retrieved 2008-12-25.

External links
Official Shueisha website (http://www.shueisha.co.jp/) (Japanese)
Tokyopop 79


Former type Private

Industry Publication

Genre Manga, Japanese light novels, graphic novels, original English-language manga

Fate Active (Germany publishing division only)

Founded Los Angeles, California, United States (1997)

Founder(s) Stuart J. Levy

Defunct 2011 (US publishing division)

Headquarters Los Angeles, California, United States

Number of locations 2

Area served Germany (active); United States, Japan (previously)

Key people Stuart J. Levy, Founder, CEO, & CCO

John Parker, President & COO
Victor Chin, Vice President of Inventory Control
Bill Josey, General Counsel & Vice President, Business and Legal Affairs
Mike Kiley, Publisher

Revenue [2]
$35 million (2003)

Parent Mixx Entertainment

Website [3]
German division: tokyopop.de

Tokyopop, styled TOKYOPOP, and formerly known as Mixx, is a

distributor, licensor, and publisher of anime, manga, manhwa, and
Western manga-style works. The existing German publishing division
produces German translations of licensed Japanese properties and
original English-language manga, as well as original German-language
manga. Tokyopop's defunct US publishing division previously
published works in English and Japanese. Tokyopop formerly had its
US headquarters in the Variety Building in Los Angeles, California,[4]
and branches in the United Kingdom and Germany. Tokyopop
products are available internationally.

On April 15, 2011 the ComicsBeat website announced that US

publishing operations at Tokyopop would be shutting down on May
31, 2011; the German branch of the company would continue to
publish for the international market.[5] Company president Stu Levy
posted a farewell letter[6] on the American Tokyopop website;
The Variety Building, the location of the
however, this site was redirected to the Tokyopop Facebook page[7] Tokyopop headquarters
beginning in May, 2011.[8]

Tokyopop's official twitter account has recently stated that its "ultimate goal is to start publishing manga again".
With this Stu Levy implies that they might restart publishing manga.[9]
Tokyopop 80

Tokyopop was originally founded in 1997 by Stuart J. Levy.[2] In the late 1990s the company headquarters were in
Los Angeles.[10]
When the company was known as Mixx, it sold MixxZine, a manga magazine. Mixx also sold the shjo manga
anthology Smile. Mixxzine later became Tokyopop before it was discontinued. In 2002, Tokyopop began selling
"unflopped" manga, branding it as "100% Authentic Manga, which permitted Tokyopop to undercut other
companies.[11] Matt Thorn characterises Tokyopop as "cutting corners on everything" in order to bring the price of
manga below $10 per volume, cheap enough for children to buy, and says that this has spread to other US manga
publishing companies.[12] In 2005, Tokyopop began a new, free publication called Manga (originally Takuhai) to
feature their latest releases.
Tokyopop is one of the biggest manga publishers outside of Japan and as such has been attributed with popularizing
manhwa in the United States. Brad Brooks and Tim Pilcher, authors of The Essential Guide to World Comics.
London, said that Tokyopop "published many Korean artists' work, possibly without Western fans even realizing the
strips don't come from Japan. Series like King of Hell by Kim Jae-hwan and Ra In-soo, and the Gothic vampire tale
Model by Lee So-young are both Korean, but could easily be mistaken for manga."[13]
In March 2006, Tokyopop and HarperCollins Publishers announced a co-publishing agreement in which the sale and
distribution rights of some Tokyopop manga and books, under this co-publishing license, would be transferred to
HarperCollins in mid-June 2006. The agreement also enabled Tokyopop to produce original English-language
manga (OEL) adaptations of HarperCollins' books. Meg Cabot's books were the first to be adapted into the manga
format, along with the Warriors series by Erin Hunter.[14] The first line of Tokyopop-HarperCollins OEL manga was
released in 2007 with the goal of publishing up to 24 titles each year.[15]
Tokyopop has released several series based on American games, films, and characters, such as Warcraft,[16] [17] the
Kingdom Hearts video game series, and Jim Henson films.[18] They released the first volume of a series based on the
Hellgate: London video game in April 2008.[19]

2008 restructuring
In June 2008, the company announced that it was being restructured, with its name being changed to Tokyopop
Group, a holding group for several new subsidiaries. The existing Tokyopop operations in the United States would
be split into two subsidiaries: Tokyopop, Inc., and Tokyopop Media. Tokyopop, Inc., consists of the company's
existing publications business, while Tokyopop Media focuses on the company's digital and comics-to-film
works.[20] Tokyopop Media will also manage the Tokypop website, which will continue to promote its
publications.[21] According to Tokyopop representative Mike Kiley, the division into two companies would allow
the company to "set things up in ways that would very clearly and definitively allow those businesses to focus on
what they need to do to succeed. The goals in each company are different and the achievement of those goals is more
realistic, more possible if everyone working in each of those companies is very clearly focused."[21]
During the restructure, Tokyopop laid off 39 positions, equating to 3540% of its total American workforce. Most of
the positions cut were those involved in the direct publication of its books.[20] [21] The publication output from
Tokyopop, Inc., was scaled back. Tokyopop reported that it would be cutting the volumes released per year by
approximately 50%, to an average of 2022 volumes per month.[21] [22] [23]
Tokyopop's Japan division was also to be split, with one unit operating under Tokyopop Media and the other
becoming a subsidiary under the overall Tokyopop Group.[23] In response to Tokyopop's restructuring, declining
sales, and losing 20% of its manga market share, Tokyopop UK cut its publication release schedule from
approximately 25 volumes a month to 20.[24]
In December 2008, citing "dramatically low sales" in the publishing industry as a whole, Tokyopop, Inc., laid off
eight more employees, including three editors, and noted that the company would have to rearrange some of its
Tokyopop 81

upcoming publication schedules.[25] [26]

Loss of Kodansha licenses

Licenses from the Japanese manga publisher Kodansha historically were a large part of Tokyopop's catalog. In the
years leading up to 2009, the number of Kodansha titles licensed by Tokyopop decreased. The final new Kodansha
title was Tokko by Tohru Fujisawa, and the final batch of volumes of Kodansha titles appeared around March 2009.
Around that time Kodansha began to consistently give licenses to its manga to Del Rey Manga. Deb Aoki of
About.com said "Well, more or less. You get the idea. If you're the type who reads the tea leaves of the manga
publishing biz, you kinda sensed that things weren't quite the same as they used to be."[27]
On August 31, 2009, Tokyopop announced that Japanese manga publisher Kodansha was allowing all of its licensing
agreements with both the North American and German divisions of Tokyopop to expire for reasons unknown. Due to
this loss in licensing, Tokyopop was forced to leave several Kodansha series unfinished, including popular series
Rave Master, Initial D, GetBackers, and Life. It also would be unable to reprint any previously published volumes,
rendering all Kodansha-owned Tokyopop releases out-of-print.[28]
Several other titles licensed and published by Tokyopop, including best sellers Cardcaptor Sakura, Chobits, Clover,
and Magic Knight Rayearth, were reacquired by Dark Horse Comics, though two other titles Kodansha licensed to
Dark Horse had since transferred to Random House.[27] [28] Samurai Deeper Kyo was relicensed by competitor Del
Rey Manga, a division of Random House, which published the remaining volumes of the series.[28]
Tokyopop said that it expected the loss of the licenses to have minimal impact on the company economically due to
its diversification of their holdings over the last few years, though they acknowledged the loss would hurt fans of the
ongoing series who face uncertainty about the completion of those titles from other companies. ICv2 reported that
Tokyopop would continue to publish light novels from Kodansha, and that Kodansha appeared to be planning to
publish its own titles through its partnership with Random House.[29]
In an interview with the website Anime Vice, Tokypop Marketing Manager Kasia Piekarz noted that the company
was not entirely surprised by the move, stating, "It wasn't completely unexpected as we haven't licensed anything
new from Kodansha in quite some time. What surprised us most was that they canceled licenses for series that were
almost finished, such as Samurai Deeper Kyo and Rave Master. From a fan and collector's perspective, that doesn't
make sense to us."[30]

Resignations and layoffs

In February 2011, the President and Chief Operating Officer, John Parker, resigned from the company and took the
position of Vice President of Business Development for Diamond. This came shortly after Diamond became
Tokyopop's new distributor, taking the business from Harper Collins. Tokyopop did not name a replacement for
Parker. Parker's departure left only three remaining executives: the founder and CEO, Stuart Levy; Mike Kiley,
Publisher; and Victor Chin, Vice President of Inventory.
On March 1, Tokyopop continued layoffs, removing many high-profile employees such as long-time manga editors
Lilian Diaz-Przyhyl and Troy Lewter. Tokyopop's management also eliminated the position of Director of Sales
Operations. In an interview with ICv2, Stuart Levy revealed that the layoffs were due to Borders Group, Tokyopop's
largest customer, filing bankruptcy in March 2011, no longer carrying Tokyopop stock, and not paying debts that the
company owed to Tokyopop. [31]
Tokyopop 82

North American publishing shutdown

On April 15, 2011, Tokyopop announced that it would close its Los Angeles, CA-based North American publishing
operations on May 31, 2011. According to the release, Tokyopop's film and television projects, as well as European
publishing operations and global rights sales, will not be closing. However, it was later announced via the Tokyopop
facebook pages that the UK branch would cease to operate after May 31st due to their reliance on the importing of
the North American branch's product. [32] Stuart Levy, Tokyopop's founder, also released a personal statement
reaffirming Tokyopop's role in introducing manga to the mainstream North American audience and thanking fans,
creators, and employees for their dedication.[33] On May 24, Tokyopop stated that the manga they licensed would
revert to their original respective owners, who may license the titles to other companies.[34]

Foreign markets

Tokyopop Germany
In the summer of 2004, Tokyopop founded its first foreign branch in Germany, incorporated as Tokyopop GmbH
and headquartered in Hamburg. The first manga and manhwa by Tokyopop Germany were published in November
2004, and the first anime in the fall of 2005. In 2006, Tokyopop GmbH entered a "strategic partnership" with the
Japanese publisher Shueisha, allowing them to publish popular titles such as Death Note, and Bleach.[35] According
to then-sales manager Vincent Lampert, Tokyopop GmbH was the second-largest manga publisher in Germany in
2010.[36] The company has also released a number of original German-language manga, including Gothic Sports,
winner of a 2007 Sondermann award.[37] Tokyopop GmbH continues to operate as a publisher of German-language
manga for the international market after the closure of the US publishing office.

Other overseas markets

Also in 2004, Tokyopop set up a London, UK, office that mainly imports books from the U.S. and distributes them
to bookstores in the United Kingdom. Tokyopop released an anime collection in the United Kingdom market in late
2006, including titles such as Initial D and Great Teacher Onizuka. Vampire Princess Miyu was released on DVD by
MVM Entertainment, and the Toonami television channel aired the first half of Rave Master in early 2005. It was
announced via the official Tokyopop facebook page that because the UK branch mainly imported the North
American branch's translated titles, the UK branch will become defunct. Levy also mentioned that the only branch
left open would be the German office. [38] [39]
Tokyopop also distributes some of their titles to Australia and New Zealand through Funtastic, who recently
acquired Madman Entertainment. In Greece, Tokyopop-owned properties are licensed by Anubis Comics.


Blu Manga
Blu Manga is an imprint under which Tokyopop publishes shnen-ai and yaoi manga titles. The imprint was
launched in 2005. Initially, the company denied that it owned Blu, stating that it was only distributing for another
company. The company also released no editor names nor company contact info, out of fear there would be
backlashes and hate mail from "moral crusaders."[40] In 2006, the company confirmed Blu was their own imprint.[40]
Blu Manga consider that they have "non-girly" branding which has enabled the imprint, in a genre
stereotypically by women for women, to reach out to a male or gay audience.[42] Early titles published by BLU were
Earthian, Love Mode, and Shinobu Kokoro.[43]
Tokyopop 83


Fans critical of possible mishandling of the Initial D property voiced concerns regarding "editorial changes" in the
language localization of the manga and anime.[44] The changes included renaming of several characters and the
removal of one character's involvement in enjo ksai, a practice in Japan where younger women are paid to provide
older men with companionship.[44] [45] In a letter sent to Anime News Network, Tokyopop responded to the
criticisms, noting that they felt the edits were necessary because they were marketing the series to a younger target
audience than it was originally designed for in Japan. They also felt that the series would reach a larger audience if it
had a broader American appeal.[44]
We also know that we have a responsibility to be true to the spirit of the original Japanese version of Initial D.
So, we start having lots of late night sessions about how to present Initial D to the widest possible audience
and yet still retain its core essence... We are passionate about anime and manga, and we believe in helping
spread the word to as many people as we can.
Tokyopop Staff,Anime News Network[44]
The company alleviated some of the concerns by noting that the anime series would receive an "unedited, subtitled,
Japanese language" DVD release. The manga series remained edited except for the first volume, which was
accidentally printed before the editing decisions were made.[44]

Tokyopop Tour
The Tokyopop Tour is a web-based documentary series created to search for "America's Greatest Otaku." The
company developed the idea for the Tour back in 2009. It was to feature a group of Tokyopop Interns, called the
"Otaku Six" and Tokyopop's CEO, Stu Levy. Filming them as they traveled across America. The show was filmed in
summer of 2010 documenting various "otaku" culture hotspots from July 1, 2010, to August 25, 2010.[46] Filming in
over twenty-cities, in order of travel, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Salt Lake City, Denver, Dallas, Kansas City,
Albuquerque, Phoenix, San Diego, Oklahoma, Nashville, Baltimore, Washington D.C., New York City,
Philadelphia, Indianapolis, Louisville, Atlanta, New Orleans, and Chicago. The show was advertised as also a
competition. Applicants were filmed all over the U.S in hopes of gaining the title "America's Greatest Otaku" and to
win a trip to Japan.[47]
The Otaku Six cast mates involved in the web-based documentary series include:'[48] [49] [50]
1. Andre Jeanjacques [51] [52] from San Antonio, TX, One of the Otaku Six [53]
2. Diana Hsu [54] [55] from St. Louis, MO, One of the Otaku Six [56]
3. Dominique Therese Kruse[57] [58] from Anchorage, AK One of the Otaku Six [59] [60]
4. Meera Marie[61] [62] from St. Charles, IL, One of the Otaku Six
5. Stephan Cho[63] [64] from New York, NY, One of the Otaku Six [65]
6. William Sullivan Brown[66] [67] from Seattle, WA, One of the Otaku Six [68]
Tokyopop 84

[1] "Executive Team: Introduction" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ corporate/ about_us/ exec. _team). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2007-12-25.
[2] Jarvis, Michael (2003-10-26). "The Godzilla-Sized Appeal of Japan's Pop Culture" (http:/ / pqasb. pqarchiver. com/ latimes/ access/
430966331. html?dids=430966331:430966331& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current& date=Oct+ 26,+ 2003& author=MICHAEL+
T. + JARVIS& pub=Los+ Angeles+ Times& edition=& startpage=I. 9& desc=Metropolis+ / + Chat+ Room;+ The+ Godzilla-Sized+ Appeal+
of+ Japan's+ Pop+ Culture). Los Angeles Times: p.9. .
[3] http:/ / www. tokyopop. de
[4] " Contact Us (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ corporate/ contact_us)." Tokyopop. Retrieved on April 17, 2011. "TOKYOPOP Variety Building
5900 Wilshire Boulevard 20th Floor Los Angeles, CA 90036-5020" and "(One block east of Fairfax and across the street from the Los
Angeles County Museum of Art.)"
[5] "End of an era: Tokyopop shutting down" (http:/ / www. comicsbeat. com/ 2011/ 04/ 15/ end-of-an-era-tokyopop-shutting-down/ ). The Beat.
. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
[6] Levy, Stu (15 April 2011). "Stu Levy's Personal Message: On Tokyopop's Closing" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 19870. html).
ICv2. . Retrieved 26 September 2011.
[7] "TOKYOPOP" (http:/ / www. facebook. com/ TOKYOPOP/ ). Facebook. . Retrieved 26 September 2011.
[8] "http:/ / www. tokyopop. com" (http:/ / wayback. archive. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ ). The Internet Archive. . Retrieved 26
September 2011.
[9] "http:/ / animenewsnetwork" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2011-10-12/ tokyopop-confirms-intent-to-publish-manga-again).
. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
archive. org/ web/ 20001029221527/ http:/ / www. mixxonline. com/ mixxonline/ company/ press_releases/ pr_990618_sailor_tops. html)"
Mixx Entertainment. June 18, 1999. Retrieved on August 21, 2011. "Mixx Entertainment, Inc. 746 W. Adams Blvd. Los Angeles, CA
[11] http:/ / academinist. org/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 06/ MP03_02_02Noonan_Child. pdf
[12] http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ wordpress/ ?p=495
[13] Brooks, Brad; Pilcher, Tim (2005-10-28). The Essential Guide to World Comics. London: Collins & Brown. ISBN1-84340-300-5.
[14] Wyatt, Edward (2006-03-28). "Comic Book Publisher Switches a Deal to HarperCollins" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 03/ 28/
business/ media/ 28comics. html?scp=3& sq=meg+ cabot& st=nyt). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-05-25.
[15] Crum, Erin (2006-03-27). "HarperCollins Publishers and Tokyopop Announce Innovative Co-Publishing, Sales, and Distribution
Agreement" (http:/ / www. harpercollins. com/ footer/ release. aspx?id=423& b=& year=2006). HarperCollins Publishers. . Retrieved
[16] Fahey, Mike (2008-04-17). "Tokyopop Publishing More Warcraft, StarCraft Manga" (http:/ / kotaku. com/ 380931/
tokyopop-publishing-more-warcraft-starcraft-manga). Kotaku. .
[17] Patty, Shawn (2004-08-05). "TokyoPop to Produce Warcraft Manga Trilogy" (http:/ / www. comicsbulletin. com/ news/ 109173264226099.
htm). ComicsBulletin. .
[18] "Book Info: Return to Labyrinth Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1712). Tokyopop. .
[19] "Book Info: Hellgate: London Volume 1" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ shop/ 2244/ HellgateLondon/ 1). Tokyopop. .
[20] "Tokyopop to Restructure Update" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-06-04/ tokyopop-to-restructure-update). Anime
News Network. 2008-06-04. . Retrieved 2008-06-04.
[21] "Inside the Tokyopop Restructuring" (http:/ / icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 12707. html). ICv2. 2008-06-08. . Retrieved 2008-06-09.
[22] "Tokyopop to Restructure" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-06-03/ tokyopop-to-restructure). Anime News Network.
2008-06-03. . Retrieved 2008-06-03.
[23] "Tokyopop Splits into Two Companies" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 12677. html). ICv2. 2008-06-03. . Retrieved 2008-06-03.
[24] "Tokyopop to Cut Manga Output in United Kingdom" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-06-12/
tokyopop-to-cut-manga-output-in-united-kingdom). Anime News Network. 2008-06-12. . Retrieved 2008-06-12.
[25] "Manga Publisher Tokyopop Lays Off Eight More Staffers" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-12-12/
manga-publisher-tokyopop-lays-off-eight-more-staffers). Anime News Network. 2008-12-12. . Retrieved 2008-12-12.
[26] McDonald, Heidi (2008-12-12). "More layoffs at Tokyopop" (http:/ / pwbeat. publishersweekly. com/ blog/ 2008/ 12/ 12/
more-layoffs-at-tokyopop/ ). The Beat: The News Blog of Comics Culture. Publishers Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-12-12.
[27] Aoki, Deb (2009-09-01). "The Kodansha-TokyoPop Split: Which Manga Are Left in Limbo?" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ b/ 2009/ 09/ 01/
the-kodansha-tokyopop-split-which-manga-are-left-in-limbo. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 20090-09-01.
[28] "Tokyopop Confirms Its Kodansha Manga Licenses Will End" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-08-31/
tokyopop-confirms-its-kodansha-manga-licenses-will-end). Anime News Network. 2009-08-31. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[29] "No More Kodansha Manga for Tokyopop" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 15747. html). ICv2. 2009-09-01. . Retrieved
[30] Manry, Gia (2009-09-01). "Tokyopop Talks Kodansha" (http:/ / www. animevice. com/ news/ tokyopop-talks-kodansha/ 2288/ ). Anime
Vice. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
Tokyopop 85

[31] "Tokyopop discusses the consequence of Borders' bankruptcy on publishers" (http:/ / asiapacificarts. usc. edu/
article@apa?tokyopop_discusses_the_consequence_of_borders_bankruptcy_on_publishers_16492. aspx). Asia Pacific Arts. 03/07/2011. .
[32] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ permalink. php?story_fbid=215312715148557& id=144756362204193
[33] "End of an era: Tokyopop shutting down" (http:/ / www. comicsbeat. com/ 2011/ 04/ 15/ end-of-an-era-tokyopop-shutting-down/ ). Comics
Beat. 04/15/2011. .
[34] Tokyopop: Japanese manga licenses to revert to owners (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2011-05-24/ tokyopop/
[35] Tokyopop GmbH. "Der Verlag" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. de/ ueberuns/ db_ueberuns_impressum. php) (in German). Tokyopop GmbH. .
Retrieved 6 May 2011.
[36] Alt, Andreas. "Zwischen Schwindsucht und Publikumsansturm" (http:/ / www. titel-magazin. de/ artikel/ 35/ 8055/
comics-auf-der-frankfurter-buchmesse. html) (in German). Titel Kulturmagazin. . Retrieved 6 May 2011.
[37] Ponel, Valerie. "Sondermann Award 2007" (http:/ / www. goethe. de/ ins/ ca/ lp/ prj/ grn/ mat/ son/ enindex. htm). Goethe-Institut Kanada. .
Retrieved 6 May 2011.
[38] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ TOKYOPOP?sk=wall& filter=2
[39] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ permalink. php?story_fbid=215105081835987& id=144756362204193
[40] Brill, Ian; Cha, Kai-Ming (2006-10-24). "New Publishers, More Titles at Yaoi-Con 2006" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/
CA6384211. html). PW Comics Week (Publishers Weekly). . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[41] "Tokyopop Confirms Blu Label" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2005-06-08/ tokyopop-confirms-blu-label). Anime News
Network. 2005-06-08. . Retrieved 2009-03-11.
[42] http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue20/ pagliassotti. htm
[43] http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=PGUEAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA84& lpg=PA84& dq=%22The+ Advocate%22+ blu+ manga&
source=bl& ots=_RAFeuzVGi& sig=j6wudDi4T1RzGtTcE4hUV0SycGo& hl=en& ei=nBu2TZGSB4PevQPz0qTFDw& sa=X&
oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CBcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false
[44] "Tokyopop Open Letter Regarding Initial D" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2002-07-13/
tokyopop-open-letter-regarding-initial-d). Anime News Network. 2002-07-13. . Retrieved 2008-04-14.
[45] "Ask John: Is Edited Anime on American TV a Good Thing?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2003/ 08/ 29/
ask-john-is-edited-anime-on-american-tv-a-good-thing/ ). AnimeNation Blog. AnimeNation. 2003-08-29. . Retrieved 2008-04-14.
[46] Publishers Weekly (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/ by-topic/ book-news/ comics/ article/
43131-tokyopop-s-america-s-greatest-otaku-goes-on-the-road. html)
[47] Tokyopop Tour 2010 Official site (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ )
[48] Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
[49] Commercial 2 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=Ib3kCv7TSxU& feature=fvst)
[50] Commercial 3 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=plRNjbFhp9c)
[51] Andre JeanJacques IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4310615/ )
[52] Andre Jeanjacques (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ profile/ AndreJeanjacques)
[53] Andrew Jeanjacques Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
[54] Diana Hsu IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4309821/ )
[55] Diana Hsu (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ profile/ DianaHsu)
[56] Diana Hsu Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
[57] Dominique Kruse IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4311319/ )
[58] Dominique Therese Kruse (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ profile/ DominiqueTKruse)
[59] Dominique Kruse Voice/Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
[60] Dominqiue Kruse Commercial 3 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=plRNjbFhp9c)
[61] Meera Marie IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4310411/ )
[62] Meera Marie (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ profile/ MeeraMarieJogani)
[63] Stephan Cho IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4310238/ )
[64] Stephan Cho (http:/ / tokyopoptour. ning. com/ profile/ StephanCho2010)
[65] Stephan Cho Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
[66] William Sullivan Brown IMBd (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm4311090/ )
[67] Sullivan Brown (http:/ / americasgreatestotaku. com/ profile/ WilliamSullivanBrownWilliam)
[68] William Brown Cast in Commercial 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=H_qBZPVayUI)
Tokyopop 86

External links
TOKYOPOP (http://www.facebook.com/TOKYOPOP) at Facebook
Official website (http://tokyopop.de/) (German)
America's Greatest Otaku (http://americasgreatestotaku.com/)
Official website (http://web.archive.org/*/http://www.tokyopop.com/) (Archive)
Mixx Entertainment (http://wayback.archive.org/web/*/http://www.mixxonline.com) (Archive)
Blu Manga imprint (http://web.archive.org/*/http://blumanga.com) Official site (Archive)
Viz Media 87

Viz Media
VIZ Media

Type Private

Industry publication

Founded San Francisco, California (1986)

Founder(s) Seiji Horibuchi

Headquarters San Francisco, CA, United States

Area served North America, Europe, South America

Key people Hidemi Fukuhara (Vice-president, CEO)

Owner(s) Shogakukan, Shueisha, Shogakukan Productions

Divisions VIZ Pictures, J-Pop Center

Website [1]

VIZ Media, LLC, headquartered in San Francisco, is an anime, manga, and Japanese entertainment company. It was
founded in 1986 as VIZ LLC. In 2005, VIZ LLC and ShoPro Entertainment merged to form the current VIZ Media
LLC, which is jointly owned by Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha, and Shogakukan's licensing division
Shogakukan Productions (ShoPro Japan).[2]


Early history
Seiji Horibuchi, originally from Tokushima Prefecture in Shikoku, moved to California in 1975. After living in the
mountains for almost two years, he moved to San Francisco, where he started a business exporting American cultural
items to Japan, and became a writer of cultural information. He also became interested in publishing Japanese manga
in the United States, though he himself was not a fan of Japanese comics until a visit to Japan in 1985 exposed him
to Katsuhiro Otomo's single-volume title Domu: A Child's Dream. His idea came to fruition after he met Masahiro
Ohga, then managing director of Shogakukan, in 1985 and shared his vision. Shogakukan provided Horibuchi with
$200,000 in startup capital, which Horibuichi used in 1986 to found VIZ Communications.[3]
VIZ Communications released its first titles in 1987, which included
Legend of Kamui, however sales were mediocre due to the specialist
comic market being adverse to venturing into new territory. To
counteract this problem, VIZ expanded into the general publishing
business and began publishing various art related books in 1992. Into
these titles, Horibuchi began publishing manga, calling them graphic
novels so they would be carried by mainstream bookstores. The plan
Viz Media headquarters in San Francisco
worked and after several years, leading booksellers began to have
dedicated shelves for manga titles. Sales also picked up when VIZ
Communications acquired the license for the comedy series Ranma , which became an instant hit.[3]

The company continued to see success when it expanded into the anime distribution market, began publishing
Shonen Jump, an English adaptation of the popular Japanese magazine Weekly Shnen Jump. It also acquired another
huge selling title, InuYasha. In the late 1990s, VIZ began making the push to move into the European and South
Viz Media 88

American markets.[3]

Shueisha co-ownership and mergers: 2000 to present

When Shueisha became a joint owner of VIZ Media in 2002,[4] both Shogakukan and Shueisha began to release
manga exclusively through VIZ. Shueisha's deal with VIZ may have been prompted by competition with Raijin
Comics, a rival manga publisher created in 2002 by editors and artists who had split off from Shueisha, taking their
properties with them. Some exceptions to this exclusivity exist, however: Shueisha permitted DC Comics's
subsidiary CMX Manga to license Tenjho Tenge (although it was later re-licensed and re-released by VIZ Media)
and Kamikaze Kaito Jeanne, permitted Dark Horse Comics to license Gantz, Gate 7, Lady Snowblood, Shadow Lady
and The Monkey King, and permitted Seven Seas Entertainment to license Hayate X Blade. Shueisha also permitted
Tokyopop to license Kodocha, Marmalade Boy and Digimon Next along with Disney Publishing. Shogakukan
permitted Dark Horse Comics to license Crying Freeman (even though it was previously licensed by VIZ), and
permitted Hachette Book Group's subsidary Yen Press to license Azumanga Daioh and Cirque du Freak. In 2003,
possibly in response to Shogakukan and Shueisha's co-ownership of VIZ, Japanese publisher Kodansha formed a
co-venture with Del Rey.[5]
In 2004, VIZ Communications was merged with ShoPro Entertainment, funding company Shogakukan's American
distribution division. Horibuchi became the new company's chairman. In 2005, Horibuchi started a related division,
VIZ Pictures, for releasing selected live-action films in the US to theaters and DVD.[6]
On December 17, 2008, VIZ Media announced that starting on April 1, 2009, Warner Home Video would be
handling the distribution of both its new and existing catalog releases. VIZ itself is still the licensor and will do all
production, while tapping the distribution powerhouse that distributes the works of other major companies such as
BBC, National Geographic, and Cartoon Network. Viz President and CEO Hidemi Fukuhara stated that he believes
the partnership will help the company grow its anime holdings more effectively.[7]
On February 20, 2009, VIZ Media laid off an unknown number of employees in order to help be more streamlined to
face the current economic climate.[8] On May 11, 2010, VIZ Media again laid off a number of workers, 60 this time,
again in order to try and become more streamlined.[9] This time they released a press release claiming that none of
their current product lines would be affected.[10]

Manga ratings
VIZ also has "manga ratings" for their products;
U - Unknown; Rating coming soon. Similar to the Rating Pending rating.
A - All Ages; Suitable for all ages. The Pokmon and Dragon Ball Z manga carry this rating.
T - Teen; 13 years or older. May contain material some people may find inappropriate. The Dragon Ball, One Piece,
Naruto, Bleach and Yu-Gi-Oh! manga have this rating.
T+ - Older teens; Contains material suitable for ages 16 or older. The Death Note, InuYasha and D.Gray-man manga
have this rating.
M - Mature readers; Contains material suitable for ages 18 or older. The Vagabond and Black Lagoon manga have
this rating.
Viz Media 89

VIZ Media was awarded the Manga Publisher of the Year Gem Award by Diamond Comic Distributors in 2007. VIZ
also received an award for Manga Trade Paperback of the Year for its release of the fourteenth volume of the Naruto

Publication style
By 2002 VIZ Communications kept some publications in the original right-to-left format, while in other publications
it mirrored pages from Japan's right-to-left reading format to fit the Western left-to-right reading style. During that
year Dallas Middaugh, the senior marketing manager of VIZ, stated that the left-to-right version of Neon Genesis
Evangelion outsold the right-to-left version of Neon Genesis Evangelion on a three to one basis; Middaugh
concluded that readers wanted "an easy reading experience." Akira Toriyama, creator of Dragon Ball, requested that
his work, labeled as Dragon Ball and Dragon Ball Z in the VIZ versions, be published in the original right-to-left
format. Vagabond was printed in right-to-left to preserve historical accuracy. Middaugh said that younger readers of
Dragon Ball adapted to the right to left format more easily than their parents.[12]
VIZ has censored some of its titles. Some titles, such as Dragon Ball, were published in both censored and
uncensored forms.[13]


VIZ Pictures
In November 2005,[14] Viz Pictures was officially formed as the company's division for releasing live-action
Japanese films as theatrical releases in selected markets. According to Horibuchi, the company will focus on films
that focus on the "Japanese 'kawaii (cute) and cool' pop culture."[6] In 2007, the division released seven films to
theaters, including Train Man: Densha Otoko and Honey and Clover. DVD releases for all VIZ Pictures films are
distributed exclusively by its parent, VIZ Media.[6] On August 4th, 2011, it was announced that Walt Disney Pictures
and VIZ Pictures would be making a film adaption of the Tuxedo Gin manga.

J-Pop Center
In August 2009, VIZ opened a three-story entertainment complex in San Francisco called New People. The center
piece of the complex is a 143-seat movie theater that screens anime and Japanese live action films. The center also
has a cafe, a store selling anime and manga related items, and clothing stores offering Japanese clothing items.[6] [15]

For a list of anime and Japanese films released by VIZ, see the Viz Media category. For manga titles released,
see the Viz Media manga category.

Animerica is a quarterly anime and manga digest that initially started as a monthly magazine featuring reviews of
anime and manga titles, as well as related works. After a preview issue was released in November 1992, the
magazine's first issue was released in February 1993 with a March 1992 cover date.[16] The magazine originally
featured articles and reviews on manga, anime, and related media, as well as manga preview chapters. In 1998,
Animerica Extra was launched as a manga anthology that eventually focused specifically on shjo titles. It was
canceled in 2004.
VIZ changed the magazine's format in April 2005, with the new magazine really being two free publications of the
same name. One is advertising-oriented and created specially for distribution at anime and manga conventions while
Viz Media 90

the other is more general in scope and distributed through retail stores. Both versions have fewer and briefer articles
and a lower page count.[17] The last monthly issue of the original format Animerica had a cover date of June 2005
(Volume 13, No. 6).[18]
Animerica was one of the first professional anime and manga magazines released in the United States, and one of the
most popular in the 1990s. In 2004, it had a circulation of 45,000 readers, but low sales and high competition from
NewType USA resulted in the essential cancellation of the original magazine and its reformatting as a free digest.[19]

Game On! USA

Game On! USA was a gaming magazine focused on Fighting games and RPGs with a secondary focus on any anime
themed games. It was published in May 1996 and ran for 7 monthly issues before being discontinued that same year
in November. The magazine had news and reviews and other articles about classic fighting games like Street
Fighter, Samurai Shodown and Virtua Fighter. Two video game-based manga series, Super Street Fighter II:
Cammy by Masahiko Nakahira, and Samurai Shodown by Kyoichi Nanatsuki and Yuki Miyoshi, were serialized in
the magazine. A one shot story based on Battle Arena Toshinden, illustrated by the game's character designer
Tsukasa Kotobuki was published in the magazine as well.

Manga Vizion
Manga Vizion, sometimes misspelled Manga Vision, is a manga anthology introduced by VIZ in 1995. It is believed
to be the first manga anthology published in the United States. The premiere issue was dated March 1995 and
featured three series: The Tragedy of P, Samurai Crusader: The Kumomaru Chronicles, and Ogre Slayer. It ran for
four years until it was canceled in 1999.

Pulp was a monthly manga anthology introduced by VIZ in 1997. The magazine featured more mature titles,
marketed at adults rather than teenage readers. Some of titles serialized in the magazine included: Uzumaki, Banana
Fish, and Dance Till Tomorrow. The magazine was canceled in 2002.[20]

Shonen Jump
Shonen Jump is a shnen manga anthology that debuted in November 2002, with a January 2003 cover date. Based
on the popular Japanese anthology Weekly Shnen Jump, published by Shueisha, Shonen Jump is retooled for
English readers and the American audience and is published monthly, instead of weekly. It features serialized
chapters from seven manga series, and articles on Japanese language and culture, as well as manga, anime, video
games, and figurines. In conjunction with the magazine, Viz launched new imprints for releasing media related to the
series presented in the magazine, and other shnen works. This includes two new manga imprints, an anime DVD
imprint, a fiction line for releasing light novels, a label for fan and data books, and a label for the release of art
Prior to the magazine's launch, VIZ launched an extensive marketing campaign to promote the magazine and help it
succeed where other manga anthologies in North America have failed.[21] Shueisha purchased an equity interest in
Viz to help fund the venture,[22] and Cartoon Network, Suncoast, and Diamond Distributors became promotional
partners in the magazine.[21] The first issue required three printings to meet demand, with over 300,000 copies sold.
It was awarded the ICv2 "Comic Product of the Year" award in December 2002, and has continued to enjoy high
sales with a monthly circulation of 215,000 in 2008.
Viz Media 91

Shojo Beat
Shojo Beat was a shjo manga magazine VIZ launched in June 2005 as a sister magazine for Shonen Jump.[23] [24] It
featured serialized chapters from six manga series as well as articles on Japanese culture, manga, anime, fashion and
beauty.[24] [25] Viz launched related "Shojo Beat" imprints in its manga, light novel, and anime divisions to
coordinate with the magazine's contents.[26] [27]
Targeted at women ages 1618, the first issue of Shojo Beat launched with a circulation of 20,000 copies.[24] [28] By
2007, average circulation was approximately 38,000 copies. Half of its circulation came from subscriptions rather
than store sales.[28] In May 2009, the magazine was discontinued after 49 issues, with the July 2009 issue being the
last released.[29] Viz stated the "difficult economic climate" was behind the magazine's cancellation, and that it
would continue releasing the magazine's titles, as well as others, using the "Shojo Beat" imprint.[30]

In January 2009, VIZ Media announced plans to launch a Japanese science fiction novel line called Haikasoru. The
first novels were scheduled to be released in the summer of the same year, with four novels: The Lord of the Sands of
Time by Issui Ogawa, ZOO by Otsuichi, All You Need is Kill by Hiroshi Sakurazaka, and Usuper of the Sun by
Hsuke Nojiri.[31] In addition, the imprint released an expanded edition of Kshun Takami's Battle Royale. In 2010,
the imprint release Project Itoh's novel Harmony, which later won a Special Citation Philip K. Dick Award.

Business partnerships
In October 2011, VIZ Media launched the yaoi imprint SuBLime in collaboration with the Japanese yaoi publisher
Libre and its parent company Animate to publish English-language yaoi manga for the print and worldwide digital
market.[32] [33] Although the first slate of books announced under SuBLime are Libre titles, the imprint will
potentially offer titles from other Japanese publishers in the future. [33] VIZ Media's Vice President of Publishing
Leyla Aker stated that SuBLime is not an imprint of VIZ but a partnership between VIZ and Animate. [33]


The following are licensed by VIZ Media:
2001 Nights
20th Century Boys
A, A Prime
A.D. Police: Dead End City
Absolute Boyfriend
Adolf (manga)
Afterschool Charisma
Aishiteruze Baby
Alice 19th
All My Darling Daughters (manga)
The All-New Tenchi Muyo! (manga)
Angel Sanctuary
Aqua Knight
Arata: The Legend
Area 88
Ashen Victor
B.B. Explosion
Viz Media 92

B.O.D.Y. (manga)
Baby and Me
Backstage Prince
Banana Fish
Baron: The Cat Returns
Basara (manga)
Battle Angel Alita
Battle Angel Alita: Last Order
Beast Master (manga)
Beauty is the Beast
Beauty Pop
Beet the Vandel Buster
Benkei in New York
The Big O
Bio Booster Armor Guyver
Biomega (manga)
Black Bird (manga)
Black Cat (manga)
Black Jack (manga)
Black Lagoon
Bleach (manga)
Blood: The Last Vampire 2002
Blue Exorcist
Blue Spring (manga)
Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo
Bokurano: Ours
Boys Over Flowers
Buso Renkin
Butterflies, Flowers
Cactus's Secret
Captive Hearts
Case Closed
Ceres, Celestial Legend
Cheeky Angel
Chicago (manga)
Children of the Sea (manga)
Claymore (manga)
La Corda d'Oro
Earl Cain
Crimson Hero
Cross Game
Viz Media 93

Dance till Tomorrow

Death Note
Dengeki Daisy
Descendants of Darkness
Detroit Metal City
Di Gi Charat
Dogs (manga)
Dr. Slump
Dragon Ball
Dragon Ball Z
Dragon Drive
The Drifting Classroom
Eagle: The Making of an Asian-American President
Excel Saga
Eyeshield 21
Fairy Cube
Fall in Love Like a Comic!
Firefighter! Daigo of Fire Company M
Fist of the North Star
Flame of Recca
From Far Away
Full Moon o Sagashite
Fullmetal Alchemist
Fushigi Ygi
Gaba Kawa
Galaxy Express 999
The Gentlemen's Alliance Cross
Gestalt (manga)
Getter Robo Go
Gin Tama
Golgo 13
Grand Guignol Orchestra
Grey (manga)
Gun Blaze West
Haou Airen
Happy Happy Clover
Happy Hustle High
Haruka: Beyond the Stream of Time
Hayate the Combat Butler
Heaven's Will (manga)
Here is Greenwood
Viz Media 94

High School Debut

Hikaru no Go
Honey and Clover
Honey Hunt
Hoshin Engi
Hot Gimmick
House of Five Leaves
Hunter x Hunter
Ikigami: The Ultimate Limit
Inubaka: Crazy for Dogs
JoJo's Bizarre Adventure
Jormungand (manga)
Kamikaze Girls
Kamisama Kiss
Karakuri Dji Ultimo
Kare First Love
Kaze Hikaru
Kimi ni Todoke
Kingyo Used Books
Kirby (manga)
Kurohime (manga)
The Law of Ueki
The Legend of Kamui
The Legend of Zelda (manga)
Love Com
Macross II
Magical Pokemon Journey
Mai, the Psychic Girl
Maison Ikkoku
Marionette Generation
MegaMan NT Warrior
Mermaid Saga
Midori Days
Millennium Snow
Mixed Vegetables
Mobile Suit Gundam
Viz Media 95

Mobile Suit Gundam Wing

Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin
Monkey High!
Monster (manga)
Muhyo & Roji's Bureau of Supernatural Investigation
Nana (manga)
Natsume's Book of Friends
Nausica of the Valley of the Wind (manga)
Neon Genesis Evangelion (manga)
No Need for Tenchi
Nora: The Last Chronicle of Devildom
Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan
O-Parts Hunter
Ogre Slayer
One Piece
One-Pound Gospel
oku: The Inner Chambers
Oresama Teacher
Ouran High School Host Club
Phoenix (manga)
Please Save My Earth
Pluto (manga)
Pokmon (manga)
Pokmon Adventures
Pokmon Diamond and Pearl Adventure!
Pretty Face
The Prince of Tennis
Project ARMS
Ral Grad
Read or Die
Read or Dream
Real (manga)
The Record of a Fallen Vampire
Red River (manga)
Revolutionary Girl Utena
Ristorante Paradiso
Rosario + Vampire
Rumic Theater
Rurouni Kenshin
Viz Media 96

S A: Special A
Saint Seiya
Sakura Hime: The Legend of Princess Sakura
Samurai Crusader
Sanctuary (manga)
Sand Chronicles
Sand Land
Saturn Apartments
Sensual Phrase
Sexy Voice and Robo
Shakugan no Shana
Shaman King
Short Cuts (manga)
Short Program (manga)
Short-Tempered Melancholic
Silent Mbius
Skip Beat!
Slam Dunk (manga)
Socrates in Love
Spriggan (manga)
St. Dragon Girl
Steam Detectives
Stepping on Roses
The Story of Saiunkoku
Strain (manga)
Strawberry 100%
Street Fighter II (manga)
Sugar Princess
Switch (manga)
Tail of the Moon
Tegami Bachi
Tenjho Tenge
Time Stranger Kyoko
Togari (manga)
Tokyo Boys & Girls
Toshokan Senso
Tough (manga)
Train Man: Densha Otoko
Tuxedo Gin
Ultimate Muscle
Ultra Maniac
Urusei Yatsura
Viz Media 97

Vampire Knight
Video Girl Ai
W Juliet
Wanted (manga)
We Were There (manga)
Wedding Peach
Wild Ones (manga)
Wolf's Rain
X (manga)
Xenon (manga)
Yakitate!! Japan
Yumekui Kenbun
YuYu Hakusho
Yu-Gi-Oh! Duelist
Yu-Gi-Oh! GX
Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's
Yu-Gi-Oh! Millennium World
Yu-Gi-Oh! R
Yume Kira Dream Shoppe
Zatch Bell!
Zoids: Chaotic Century

The following are licensed by VIZ Media:
Blue Dragon
Boys Over Flowers
Buso Renkin
Ceres, Celestial Legend
Corrector Yui
Cross Game
Death Note
Deko Boko Friends
Flame of Recca
Full Moon o Sagashite
Grandpa Danger
Great Dangaioh
Hikaru no Go
Honey and Clover
Honey and Clover II
Hunter x Hunter
Viz Media 98

Hyde & Closer

I"s Pure
InuYasha: The Final Act
Key the Metal Idol
Maison Ikkoku
MegaMan NT Warrior
Mega Man Star Force (anime)
Mermaid Saga
Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory
Naruto Shippuden
Night Warriors: Darkstalkers' Revenge
Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan
Ogre Slayer
One-Pound Gospel
Please Save My Earth
The Prince of Tennis
Project ARMS
Strawberry 100%
Trouble Chocolate
Vampire Knight
Vampire Knight Guilty
Zatch Bell!
Zoids: Chaotic Century
Zoids: Genesis

The following are licensed by VIZ Media:
Bleach: Memories of Nobody
Bleach: The DiamondDust Rebellion
Bleach: Fade to Black
The Cat Returns
Death Note
Death Note: The Last Name
Densha Otoko
Detroit Metal City
Fatal Fury: Legend of the Hungry Wolf
Viz Media 99

Fatal Fury 2: The New Battle

Fatal Fury: The Motion Picture
Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence
Grey: Digital Target
Honey and Clover
InuYasha the Movie: Affections Touching Across Time
InuYasha the Movie: The Castle Beyond the Looking Glass
InuYasha the Movie: Swords of an Honorable Ruler
InuYasha the Movie: Fire on the Mystic Island
Kamikaze Girls
L: Change the World
Nana 2
Naruto the Movie: Ninja Clash in the Land of Snow
Naruto the Movie 2: Legend of the Stone of Gelel
Naruto the Movie 3: Guardians of the Crescent Moon Kingdom
Naruto: Shippden the Movie
Naruto Shippden 2: Bonds
Ping Pong
Pokmon Ranger and the Temple of the Sea
Pokmon: Giratina and the Sky Warrior
Pokmon: Lucario and the Mystery of Mew
Ranma : Big Trouble in Nekonron, China
Ranma : Nihao My Concubine

Web site
For a period VIZ offered an e-mail service called VIZ Mail. In the first two weeks of service it had 1,000
members.[34] The service allowed users to use stationery and letterheads decorated with characters from VIZ Media

[1] http:/ / www. vizmedia. com/
[2] "About Our Company" (http:/ / www. vizmedia. com/ about/ jobs/ ). Viz Media. . Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[3] Oikawa, Tomohiro (2007-09-01). "Weekend Beat: Cashing in on over-the-counter culture" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080316125943/
http:/ / www. asahi. com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200709010077. html). Asahi Weekly. Asahi Shimbun Company. Archived from the
original (http:/ / www. asahi. com/ english/ Herald-asahi/ TKY200709010077. html) on 2008-03-16. . Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[4] "Shueisha Buys Equity Interest in Viz" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 1679. html). ICv2. 2002-08-02. . Retrieved 2006-09-30.
[5] "Random House Preps Manga Releases" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 2941. html). ICv2. 2004-06-23. . Retrieved 2006-09-30.
[6] "Interview With Viz Media's Seiji Horibuchi On Viz Media's Live Action Initiative" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 10739. html).
ICv2. 2007-06-13. . Retrieved 2008-03-12.
[7] "WHV to Distribute Viz Media Anime" (http:/ / icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 13941. html). ICv2. 2008-12-17. . Retrieved 2008-12-17.
[8] "News: Viz Media Restructures with Some Employee Layoffs" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-02-23/
viz-media-restructures-with-some-employee-layoffs). Anime News Network. .
[9] "News: PW: Viz Media Lays Off Up to 60, Closes NY Branch (Updated)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2010-05-11/ pw/
viz-media-lays-off-up-to-60-closes-ny-branch). Anime News Network. .
[10] "News: Viz: No Product or Business Line Cancellations Planned (Updated)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2010-05-13/
viz/ no-product-or-business-line-cancellations-planned). Anime News Network. .
Viz Media 100

[11] "Viz Wins Two 2007 Gem Manga Awards from Diamond" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-04-07/
viz-wins-two-2007-gem-manga-awards-from-diamond). Anime News Network. 2008-04-07. . Retrieved 2008-04-07.
[12] "What Manga Right to Left Will It Fly?" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 1189. html). ICv2. 2002-03-08. . Retrieved
[13] "Viz Unleashes Uncensored Dragon Ball" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 216. html). ICv2. 2001-03-11. . Retrieved 2006-09-30.
[14] Bertschy, Zac (November 30, 1999). "Seiji Horibuchi, Chairman of Viz Media" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ interview/
2007-05-07/ seiji-horibuchi-chairman-of-viz-media). Anime News Network. . Retrieved July 7, 2009.
[15] http:/ / www. newpeopleworld. com/
[16] Patten, Fred. "Fifteen Years of Japanese Animation Fandom". Watching Anime, Reading Manga. Stone Bridge Press. p.43.
[17] "Animerica to Change Format" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2005-04-12/ animerica-to-change-format). Anime News
Network. 2005-04-12. . Retrieved 2008-10-15.
[18] "Animerica to Radically Change Distribution" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2005-02-17/
animerica-to-radically-change-distribution). Anime News Network. 2005-02-17. . Retrieved 2008-10-15.
[19] Koulikov, Mikhail (2005-01-26). "2004 Year in Review: Anime Magazines" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ feature/ 2005-01-26/
8). . Retrieved 2008-10-15.
[20] VIZ Media . news . press room . 2002 press releases (http:/ / www. viz. com/ news/ newsroom/ 2002/ 04_pulpcancelled. php)
[21] "Viz and Shueisha To Launch Mass Market Boys Magazine in US" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 1494. html). ICv2. June 10,
2002. . Retrieved June 30, 2008.
[22] "Shueisha Buys Equity Interest in Viz" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 1679. html). ICv2. August 2, 2002. . Retrieved July 1, 2008.
[23] "Shojo Beat Details" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2005-02-08/ shojo-beat-details). Anime News Network. 2005-02-08. .
Retrieved 2008-03-07.
[24] "Viz Media Happy Birthday Shojo Beat Magazine" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ press-release/ 2007-05-14/
viz-media-happy-birthday-shojo-beat-magazine). Anime News Network. 2007-05-14. . Retrieved 2008-03-07.
[25] "In the Magazine" (http:/ / www. shojobeat. com/ inthemagazine/ 33. php). Shojo Beat Online. Viz Media. . Retrieved 2008-03-07.
[26] "Viz to Publish Novels" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2005-06-04/ viz-to-publish-novels). Anime News Network.
2005-06-04. . Retrieved 2008-03-07.
[27] "Viz Launches New Fiction Imprints" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 6985. html). ICv2 News. 2005-06-06. . Retrieved
[28] "Shojo Beat Media Kit (January 2008)" (http:/ / www. shojobeat. com/ mediakit/ SB_Media_Kit_2008. pdf) (PDF) (Press release). Viz
Media. January 2008. . Retrieved 2008-03-07.
[29] "Shojo Beat Magazine No Longer Accepting Subscriptions" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-05-19/
shojo-beat-magazine-no-longer-accepting-subscriptions). Anime News Network. 2009-05-19. . Retrieved 2009-05-19.
[30] "Viz Confirms Shojo Beat Manga Magazine's End in June (Updated)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-05-19/
viz-confirms-shojo-beat-manga-magazine-end-in-june). Anime News Network. 2009-05-19. . Retrieved 2009-05-19.
[31] "Viz Media Launches Landmark Imprint Haika Soru to Published Acclaimed Japanese Science Fiction Novels" (http:/ / viz. com/ news/
newsroom/ ?id=196) (Press release). Viz Media. 2009-01-29. . Retrieved 2009-06-14.
[32] http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2011-10-22/ viz-launches-sublime-boys-love-manga-line-with-love-pistols
[33] Balistrieri, Emily. "SuBLime: Everything We Know About VIZ's New Boys' Love Line" (http:/ / www. crunchyroll. com/ anime-feature/
2011/ 10/ 22/ sublime-everything-we-know-about-vizs-new-boys-love-line). Crunchyroll. . Retrieved 24 October 2011.
[34] "Viz Relaunches 4 Anime and Manga Websites" (http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1G1-57825898. html). PR Newswire. November 30,
1999. . Retrieved July 7, 2009.
[35] "Viz This Week" (http:/ / www. animenewsservice. com/ archives/ vizin811. txt). Viz Media at Anime News Network. August 11, 2000. .
Retrieved July 7, 2009.

External links
Official website (http://www.vizmedia.com)
Official VIZ Media Facebook Fan Page (https://www.facebook.com/OfficialVIZMedia)
Viz Media (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/company.php?id=4552) at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
Viz Video (http://www.imdb.com/company/co0077046/) at the Internet Movie Database


Anime (, Japanese pronunciation:[anime]( listen); English:/nme/( listen) or English pronunciation: /nme/) is
the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the
context.[1] In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons.[2]
While the earliest known Japanese animation dates to 1917, and many original Japanese cartoons were produced in
the ensuing decades, the characteristic anime style developed in the 1960snotably with the work of Osamu
Tezukaand became known outside Japan in the 1980s.
Anime, like manga, has a large audience in Japan and recognition throughout the world. Distributors can release
anime via television broadcasts, directly to video, or theatrically, as well as online.
Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. It is used in television series, films, video, video games,
commercials, and internet-based releases, and represents most, if not all, genres of fiction. As the market for anime
increased in Japan, it also gained popularity in East and Southeast Asia. Anime is currently popular in many different
regions around the world.

Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese
filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered
in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.[3] The oldest
known anime in existence first screened in 1917 a two-minute clip of
a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer
defeat.[4] [5] Early pioneers included Shimokawa Oten, Jun'ichi
Kouchi, and Seitar Kitayama.[6]

By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to

Screenshot from Momotaro's Divine Sea the live-action industry in Japan. But it suffered competition from
Warriors (1944), the first feature-length anime foreign producers and many animators, such as Nobur fuji and
Yasuji Murata still worked in cheaper cutout not cel animation,
although with masterful results.[7] Other creators, such as Kenz
Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, nonetheless made great strides in animation technique, especially with increasing help
from a government using animation in education and propaganda.[8] The first talkie anime was Chikara to Onna no
Yo no Naka, produced by Masaoka in 1933.[9] [10] The first feature length animated film was Momotaro's Divine Sea
Warriors directed by Seo in 1945 with sponsorship by the Imperial Japanese Navy.[11]

The success of The Walt Disney Company's 1937 feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs influenced
Japanese animators.[12] In the 1960s, manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified many Disney
animation-techniques to reduce costs and to limit the number of frames in productions. He intended this as a
temporary measure to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with inexperienced animation-staff.
The 1970s saw a surge of growth in the popularity of manga many of them later animated. The work of Osamu
Tezuka drew particular attention: he has been called a "legend"[13] and the "god of manga".[14] [15] His work and
that of other pioneers in the field inspired characteristics and genres that remain fundamental elements of anime
today. The giant robot genre (known as "Mecha" outside Japan), for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed
Anime 102

into the Super Robot genre under Go Nagai and others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki
Tomino who developed the Real Robot genre. Robot anime like the Gundam and The Super Dimension Fortress
Macross series became instant classics in the 1980s, and the robot genre of anime is still one of the most common in
Japan and worldwide today. In the 1980s, anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan (although less
than manga), and experienced a boom in production. Following a few successful adaptations of anime in overseas
markets in the 1980s, anime gained increased acceptance in those markets in the 1990s and even more at the turn of
the 21st century.

Japanese write the English term "animation" in katakana as (animshon, pronounced Japanese
pronunciation:[animeo]), and the term (anime, pronounced Japanese pronunciation:[anime]( listen) in
Japanese) emerged in the 1970s as an abbreviation. Others claim that the word derives from the French phrase
dessin anim.[3] Japanese-speakers use both the original and abbreviated forms interchangeably, but the shorter form
occurs more commonly.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese, [anime], differs significantly from the Standard English English pronunciation:
/nme/, which has different vowels and stress. (In Japanese each mora carries equal stress.) As with a few other
Japanese words such as sak, Pokmon, and Kobo Ab, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as anim (as
in French), with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as
English orthography might suggest.

Word usage
In Japan, the term anime does not specify an animation's nation of origin or style; instead, it serves as a blanket term
to refer to all forms of animation from around the world.[17] [18] English-language dictionaries define anime as "a
Japanese style of motion-picture animation" or as "a style of animation developed in Japan".[19] [20]
Non-Japanese works that borrow stylization from anime are commonly referred to as "anime-influenced animation"
but it is not unusual for a viewer who does not know the country of origin of such material to refer to it as simply
"anime". Some works result from co-productions with non-Japanese companies, such as most of the traditionally
animated Rankin/Bass works, the Cartoon Network and Production I.G series IGPX or ban Star-Racers; different
viewers may or may not consider these anime.
In English, anime, when used as a common noun, normally functions as a mass noun (for example: "Do you watch
anime?", "How much anime have you collected?").[21] However, in casual usage the word also appears as a count
noun. Anime can also be used as a suppletive adjective or classifier noun ("The anime Guyver is different from the
movie Guyver").

English-speakers occasionally refer to anime as "Japanimation", but this term has fallen into disuse. "Japanimation"
saw the most usage during the 1970s and 1980s, but the term "anime" supplanted it in the mid-1990s as the material
became more widely known in English-speaking countries.[22] In general, the term now only appears in nostalgic
contexts.[22] Since "anime" does not identify the country of origin in Japanese usage, "Japanimation" is used to
distinguish Japanese work from that of the rest of the world.[22]
In Japan, "manga" can refer to both animation and comics. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter
meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside of Japan. The term "ani-manga" is
used to describe comics produced from animation cels.[23]
Anime 103

Visual characteristics
Many commentators refer to anime as an art form.[24] As a visual medium, it can emphasize visual styles. The styles
can vary from artist to artist or from studio to studio. Some titles make extensive use of common stylization: FLCL,
for example, has a reputation for wild, exaggerated stylization. Other titles use different methods: Only Yesterday or
Jin-Roh take much more realistic approaches, featuring few stylistic exaggerations; Pokmon uses drawings which
specifically do not distinguish the nationality of characters.[25]
While different titles and different artists have their own artistic styles, many stylistic elements have become so
common that describe them as definitive of anime in general. However, this does not mean that all modern anime
share one strict, common art-style. Many anime have a very different art style from what would commonly be called
"anime style", yet fans still use the word "anime" to refer to these titles. Generally, the most common form of anime
drawings include "exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, big hair and elongated limbs... and dramatically
shaped speech bubbles, speed lines and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography."[26]
The influences of Japanese calligraphy and Japanese painting also characterize linear qualities of the anime style.
The round ink brush traditionally used for writing kanji and for painting, produces a stroke of widely varying
Anime also tends to borrow many elements from manga, including text in the background and panel layouts. For
example, an opening may employ manga panels to tell the story, or to dramatize a point for humorous effect. See for
example the anime Kare Kano.

Character design

Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered
by the artist as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains
proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine
heads tall.[27]
Variations to proportion can be modified by the artist. Super-deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small
body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis.
Most super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like Crayon Shin-chan completely
disregard these proportions, such that they resemble Western cartoons. For exaggeration, certain body features are
increased in proportion.[27]

Eye styles
Many anime and manga characters feature large eyes. Osamu Tezuka, who is believed to have been the first to use
this technique, was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Mickey
Mouse, and Disney's Bambi.[3] [28] Tezuka found that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions
distinctly. When Tezuka began drawing Ribbon no Kishi, the first manga specifically targeted at young girls, Tezuka
further exaggerated the size of the characters' eyes. Indeed, through Ribbon no Kishi, Tezuka set a stylistic template
that later shjo artists tended to follow.
Coloring is added to give eyes, particularly to the cornea, some depth. The depth is accomplished by applying
variable color shading. Generally, a mixture of a light shade, the tone color, and a dark shade is used.[29] [30] Cultural
anthropologist Matt Thorn argues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as
inherently more or less foreign.[31]
However, not all anime have large eyes. For example, some of the work of Hayao Miyazaki and Toshiro Kawamoto
are known for having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters.[32]
Anime 104

Facial expressions
Anime characters may employ a variety of predetermined facial expressions to denote moods and thoughts.[33] These
techniques are often different in form than their counterparts in western animation, and they include a fixed
iconography that's used as shorthand for certain emotions and moods.[34]
There are a number of other stylistic elements that are common to conventional anime as well but more often used in
comedies. Characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely
exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stress mark" effect, where lines representing
bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and
strike another character with it, mainly for the sake of slapstick comedy. Male characters will develop a bloody nose
around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, which is a play on an old wives' tale).[34]
Embarrassed or stressed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely
recognized motifs of conventional anime) or produce a visibly red blush or set of parallel (sometimes squiggly) lines
beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. Characters who want to childishly
taunt someone may pull an akanbe face (by pulling an eyelid down with a finger to expose the red underside).
Characters may also have large "X" eyes to show a knockout, or in some cases, even illness. This is typically used
for comedic purposes. Vacant, non-reflecting eyes can be used to indicate a state of semi-consciousness.

Animation technique
Like all animation, the production processes of storyboarding, voice acting, character design, cel production and so
on still apply. With improvements in computer technology, computer animation increased the efficiency of the whole
production process.
Anime is often considered a form of limited animation. That means that stylistically, even in bigger productions the
conventions of limited animation are used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is.[3]
Many of the techniques that are used comprise cost-cutting measures while working under a set budget.
Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views. Backgrounds depict the scenes' atmosphere.[3]
For example, anime often puts emphasis on changing seasons, as can be seen in numerous anime, such as Tenchi
Muyo!. Sometimes actual settings have been duplicated into an anime. The backgrounds for the Melancholy of
Haruhi Suzumiya are based on various locations within the suburb of Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.[35]
Camera angles, camera movement, and lighting play an important role in scenes. Directors often have the discretion
of determining viewing angles for scenes, particularly regarding backgrounds. In addition, camera angles show
perspective.[36] Directors can also choose camera effects within cinematography, such as panning, zooming, facial
closeup, and panoramic.[37]
The large majority of anime uses traditional animation, which better allows for division of labor, pose to pose
approach and checking of drawings before they are shot practices favored by the anime industry.[38] Other
mediums are mostly limited to independently made short films,[39] examples of which are the silhouette and other
cutout animation of Nobur fuji,[38] [40] the stop motion puppet animation of Tadahito Mochinaga, Kihachir
Kawamoto[41] and Tomoyasu Murata[42] and the computer animation of Satoshi Tomioka[43] (most famously
Anime 105

Story themes
A wide variety of stories have been adapted into anime. They are sourced from Japanese history, classical literature,
and even adult-oriented themes. While animation for children exists, most anime are intended for an older

While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s, it grew as a major cultural export during its market
expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4.35
billion, according to the Japan External Trade Organization".[46] Anime has also had commercial success in Asia,
Europe and Latin America, where anime has become more mainstream than in the United States. For example, the
Saint Seiya video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been
Anime distribution companies handled the licensing and distribution of anime outside Japan. Licensed anime is
modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the
Japanese language track. Using a similar global distribution pattern as Hollywood, the world is divided into five
Some editing of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture.[47] Certain
companies may remove any objectionable content, complying with domestic law. This editing process was far more
prevalent in the past (e.g. Voltron), but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form.
This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. Robotech and Star
Blazers were the earliest attempts to present anime (albeit still modified) to North American television audiences
without harsh censoring for violence and mature themes.
With the advent of DVD, it became possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. This was not
the case with VHS cassette, in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as
a single DVD. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio
and the original Japanese audio with subtitles, typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on
DVD "uncut", with all scenes intact.
The Internet has played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Prior to the 1990s, anime had
limited exposure beyond Japan's borders. Coincidentally, as the popularity of the Internet grew, so did interest in
anime. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. The combination of internet communities and
increasing amounts of anime material, from video to images, helped spur the growth of fandom.[48] As the Internet
gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between
1995 and 2005.[49]
Some fan groups add subtitles to anime on their own and distribute the episodes. These are known as fansubs. Before
the popularity of the Internet, fansubbing used VHS as a means of distribution. Often, people will collect these
fansubs and upload them to websites which they also put advertisements on so as to earn money, which violates
copyright laws in many countries. The ethical implications of distributing or watching fansubs are topics of much
controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. Once the series has been licensed outside of
Japan, fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. In one case, Media Factory Incorporated requested that
no fansubs of their material be made, which was respected by the fansub community.[50] In another instance, Bandai
specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya popular in the
English speaking world.[51]
Anime 106

TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. In Japan, major national TV networks, such as TV Tokyo
broadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the UHF. In the United States, cable TV
channels such as Cartoon Network, Disney, Syfy, and others dedicate some of their timeslots to anime. Some, such
as the Anime Network and the FUNimation Channel, specifically show anime. Sony-based Animax and Disney's
Jetix channel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. AnimeCentral solely broadcasts anime in the UK.

Influence on world culture

Anime has become commercially profitable in western countries, as early commercially successful western
adaptations of anime, such as Astro Boy, have revealed.[52] The phenomenal success of Nintendo's multi-billion
dollar Pokmon franchise[53] was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series that, first broadcast in the late 1990s, is
still running worldwide to this day. In doing so, anime has made significant impacts upon Western culture. Since the
19th century, many Westerners have expressed a particular interest towards Japan. Anime dramatically exposed
more Westerners to the culture of Japan. Aside from anime, other facets of Japanese culture increased in
popularity.[54] Worldwide, the number of people studying Japanese increased. In 1984, the Japanese Language
Proficiency Test was devised to meet increasing demand.[55]
Even domestic animation industries had made attempts at emulating anime. Anime-influenced animation refers to
non-Japanese works of animation that emulate the visual style of anime.[56] Most of these works are created by
studios in the United States, Europe, and non-Japanese Asia; and they generally incorporate stylizations, methods,
and gags described in anime physics, as in the case of Avatar: The Last Airbender. Often, production crews either
are fans of anime or are required to view anime.[57] Some creators cite anime as a source of inspiration with their
own series.[58] [59] Furthermore, a French production team for ban Star-Racers moved to Tokyo to collaborate with
a Japanese production team from Hal Film Maker.[60] Critics and the general anime fanbase do not consider them as
Some American animated television-series have singled out anime styling with satirical intent, for example South
Park (with "Chinpokomon" and with "Good Times with Weapons"). South Park has a notable drawing style, itself
parodied in "Brittle Bullet", the fifth episode of the anime FLCL, released several months after "Chinpokomon"
aired. This intent on satirizing anime is the springboard for the basic premise of Kappa Mikey, a Nicktoons Network
original cartoon. Even clichs normally found in anime are parodied in some series, such as Perfect Hair Forever.
Anime conventions began to appear in the early 1990s, during the Anime boom, starting with Anime Expo,
Animethon, Otakon, and JACON. Currently anime conventions are held annually in various cities across the
Americas, Asia, and Europe.[62] Many attendees participate in cosplay, where they dress up as anime characters.
Also, guests from Japan ranging from artists, directors, and music groups are invited. In addition to anime
conventions, anime clubs have become prevalent in colleges, high schools, and community centers as a way to
publicly exhibit anime as well as broadening Japanese cultural understanding.[63]
Viewers may also pick up on Japanese terms either within or related to anime, though at times those words may take
on different connotations. For instance, the Japanese term otaku is used as a term for anime fans beyond Japan, more
particularly the obsessive ones. The negative connotations associated with the word in Japan have lessened in foreign
context, where it instead connotes the pride of the fans.
Anime 107

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html). CNet. 2005-02-01. . Retrieved 2007-09-06.
[51] "Adventures of the ASOS Brigade Episode 00: Made by Fans for Fans" (http:/ / asosbrigade. com/ ). . Retrieved 2006-12-23.
[52] "Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution, Copyright, and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation" (http:/ / groups. csail. mit. edu/
mac/ classes/ 6. 805/ student-papers/ fall03-papers/ Progress_Against_the_Law. html). . Retrieved 2006-05-01.
[53] "Pokemon Franchise Approaches 150 Million Games Sold" (http:/ / www2. prnewswire. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. pl?ACCT=104& STORY=/
www/ story/ 10-04-2005/ 0004159206& EDATE=). PR Newswire. Nintendo. 4 October 2005. .
[54] Faiola, Anthony (2003-12-27). "Japan's Empire of Cool" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/
A33261-2003Dec26?language=printer). The Washington Post (Washington Post Company): p.A1. . Retrieved 2007-08-17.
[55] "Introduction" (http:/ / www. jlpt. jp/ e/ about/ index. html). The Japan Foundation. . Retrieved 2009-05-01.
[56] "What is anime?" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ editorial/ 2002-07-26). ANN. 2002-07-26. . Retrieved 2007-08-18.
[57] "SciFi Channel Anime Review" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080117145951/ http:/ / www. scifi. com/ sfw/ anime/ sfw12366. html).
SciFi. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scifi. com/ sfw/ anime/ sfw12366. html) on 2008-01-17. . Retrieved 2006-10-16.
[58] "Aaron McGruder - The Boondocks Interview" (http:/ / www. ugo. com/ ugo/ html/ article/ ?id=17924). Troy Rogers. UnderGroundOnline. .
Retrieved 2007-10-14.
[59] "Ten Minutes with "Megas XLR"" (http:/ / www. g4tv. com/ screensavers/ features/ 49962/ Ten_Minutes_with_Megas_XLR. html).
2004-10-13. .
[60] "STW company background summary" (http:/ / www. savtheworld. com/ eng/ company. php). .
[61] "How should the word Anime be defined?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2006/ 05/ 15/
ask-john-how-should-the-word-anime-be-defined/ ). AnimeNation. 2006-05-15. . Retrieved 2008-09-26.
[62] "Convention Schedule" (http:/ / www. animecons. com/ events/ ). AnimeCons. . Retrieved 2007-09-06.
[63] "Anime achieves growing popularity among Stanford students" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071021222201/ http:/ / daily. stanford.
edu/ article/ 2002/ 5/ 21/ animeAchievesGrowingPopularityAmongStanfordStudents). Archived from the original (http:/ / daily. stanford. edu/
article/ 2002/ 5/ 21/ animeAchievesGrowingPopularityAmongStanfordStudents) on 2007-10-21. .

External links
Anime (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Animation/Anime/) at the Open Directory Project
Fandub 109

A fandub (not to be confused with a fansub) is a fan-made dub or redub of a production, typically completely
altering dialogues, story plots and personalities of protagonists in a funny way (frequently referred to as fundub or
"Abridged Series"). Fans use copyrighted material and heavily modify the original content to create a new version of
material, though fandubs sometimes make attempt at actually making a legit full series dub of a series or movie
(usually for a series that has not received an official dub, or has had a poorly received dub). These projects are rarely
completed past a few episodes. Fandubbing, except redubbing, is most commonly done with Japanese animation.
Copyright implications for fandubs are very similar to fansubs except the difference of scale (see Fansub for a
detailed explanation of the legal and ethical issues with this type of distribution). There have been cases when
popular fandubs, such as Yu-Gi-Oh! Abridged, Dragon Ball Z Abridged, and Sailor Moon Abridged are tagged by
the Japanese production company for copyright use of their material. These productions are usually later re-uploaded
to a new channel, and are sometimes tagged again. Despite this, parody dubs are often popular among the fan
community of a particular series.

Amateur voice acting began simultaneously and independently from each other in a small number of developed
countries. One of the first recorded projects, dating from 1994[1] , is "Sinnlos im Weltraum" ("Senseless in Space"), a
German redub of Star Trek: The Next Generation. The recordings were distributed on VHS, and copies were
circulating only among a smaller group of people due to the technical limitations of the media. With digitalisation,
starting in 1998, the fandub gained enormous popularity among the German audience[2] .
However, the first commonly noticed fandub can be regarded as Mark Sprague's Sailor Moon S 1997 video fandub,
receiving international publicity on the Sailor Moon News Group. Mark's fandub prompted many others to produce
similar productions of their favorite shows.
While fansubbing is a highly-popular means by which various Internet-downloaded visual media can be understood
by other language markets, fandubbing as a practice has not gained similar momentum as a means of translation by
lay Internet users. The majority of fandub projects are arranged for short-form video clips and are often posted to
video hosting services such as YouTube.

[1] "SiW - history (in German)" (http:/ / www. sinnlosimweltraum. de/ include. php?path=content/ content. php& contentid=1). .
[2] "web site on SiW" (http:/ / www. sinnlos-im-weltraum. de/ ). .

Polish Fandub Communities

Fandub community (http://insomniadub.com)
Fandub community (http://nanokarrin.com)
Fansub 110

A fansub (short for fan-subtitled) is a version of a
foreign film or foreign television program which has
been translated by fans and subtitled into a language
other than that of the original.

Fansubs originated during the explosion of anime
production during the 1980s in Japan. Relatively few
titles were licensed for distribution outside of Japan. A mocked-up fansub image, intended to be from an opening song.
This made it difficult for anime fans to obtain new Note the use of katakana, romaji and English, and the different
colours used. Similar to karaoke, the lyrics that are currently being
titles. Some fans, generally those with some Japanese
sung are bolded in each of the respective languages.
language experience, began producing amateur
subtitled copies of new anime programs so that they
could share them with their fellow fans who did not understand Japanese.

The first distribution media of fansubbed material was VHS and Betamax tapes. Such copies were notoriously low
quality, time consuming to make, expensive to produce (over US$4000 in 1986)[1] and difficult to find. A limited
number of copies were made and then mailed out or distributed at local anime clubs. Fans could purchase fansubs at
a modest cost or could contact clubs who would record the material on their own blank video cassettes.
However, with the advent of widespread high-speed Internet access, desktop video editing, DVD and Blu-ray Disc
ripping, and TV capturing, the original process has largely been abandoned in favor of digital fansubbing
(digisubbing) and electronic distribution of the resulting digisubs. This has allowed fansubbing to transform from a
slow and tedious task that generates a low quality preview of an attractive show to a cheap, easy, and quick way to
create a high quality and high availability alternative to official DVD or Blu-ray releases.
Due to the relatively low quality of television broadcasts (when compared with a DVD or Blu-ray release of the
same show), fansubs done from television video sources do not have the high quality video of official releases. There
are certain "standards" that many fansub groups adhere to, resulting in certain codecs being used and certain target
filesizes for encoded fansubs. This results in most fansubs having similar file sizes: 175 MB, 233 MB, and 350 MB
are generally treated as the "standard" sizes for a fansub file because they divide evenly into 700 MB, the size of a
typical CD-R. As the price of Hard disk drives have decreased while their storage capacity has increased, modeling
fansub filesizes after optical media constraints has become largely unimportant. Fansubs using HDTV broadcast
video sources require a higher bit rate to maintain quality, and in combination with varying amounts of motion
between episodes (large amounts of motion require high bit rates to maintain quality), file sizes for HD fansub
encodes can range from 200MB to 800MB even using the latest H264 codecs. For episodes sourced from Blu-ray
discs, filesizes can be several gigabytes. Some anime series which are broadcast in high definition do not go on to be
released on Blu-ray. Thus it is often the case that downloading a fansub sourced from HDTV will offer much higher
video quality than purchasing an official DVD, due to the difference in resolution.
These advancements in fansubbing quality mean that fansubs are now of such quality and free accessibility that the
incentive to upgrade (or in some cases downgrade, as from an HD fansub to an SD DVD) to a legitimate copy once a
title is domestically licensed may be severely diminished. However, recent research by the Yale Economic Review
has shown that people who download movies are no less likely to buy movies than those who do not, calling this
conclusion into serious question.[2] Economic instabilities in both the US and Japan have made it hard to gauge the
precise consequences of digisubs on the commercial industry, as well,[3] though several Japanese and North
American anime studios and distribution companies have pointed to fansubbing as drawing a large amount of profit
Fansub 111

away from them.

In April, 2008, two Gonzo titles began free, subtitled releases simultaneously with their Japanese TV-airing
counterparts on streaming websites YouTube, Crunchyroll, and BOST.[4] In addition to the streaming video, viewers
may pay any price they wish (greater than zero) to download a higher-quality version of the shows. As of October,
2009, a large number of new anime are being distributed using this same model through Crunchyroll. The general
reaction from the fansub community has been to not subtitle these shows, though in some cases the streaming video
is released days after the Japanese airing and in very low quality, leading fansubs to still be done of such shows.
Several "fansub groups" have taken to ripping the subtitles from these Crunchyroll releases, syncing them to HDTV
video sources, and then releasing them for free. That said, the apparent increase in support from Japanese animation
studios for this new distribution model would suggest that it is working quite well, and the number of fansubbing
groups has decreased as many people do not feel a need for fansubs when they can stream these shows legally and
for free.

Early fansubs
Early or "traditional" fansubs were produced using analog video editing equipment. First, a copy of the original
source material, called a raw was obtained. The most common raw source was a commercial laserdisc. However, a
commercial VHS tape or even a homemade recording could be used as well, though that would entail a lower quality
finished product. A translated script was then made to match the dialog of the raw video. The video script was then
timed. Timing is the process of assigning a "start time" (Synch-Point) and "end time" for each line of subtitling; this
determines how long a given subtitle would remain on the screen. Timing a script was usually done in conjunction
with computer software designed specifically for that purpose. The person performing the timing would watch the
source video and would assign the appearance, changing, and removal of the subtitle text using a computer. The two
most popular programs used in this process were JACOsub (on the Commodore Amiga) and Substation Alpha (on
MS Windows). Once the script was prepared and timed, the next step was to produce one or more masters. A master
was a high quality copy of the finished fansub from which many distribution copies could be made. The fansubber
would play back the raw video through a computer equipped with a genlock in order to generate the subtitles and
then overlay them on the raw signal. The hardware of choice was an Amiga PC as most professional genlocks were
extraordinarily expensive. The final output of this arrangement was then recorded. The master was most often
recorded onto S-VHS tape in an attempt to maximize quality, though some fansubbers were forced to use inferior but
less expensive VHS or Beta. Once completed, the master copy was then sent to a distributor.
Fansub distributors (who delivered videos to fans) were
usually separate from fansubbers, who did translations
and produced masters. Since most members of the
fansub community did not want to profit from their
activities, fansubs were usually not "sold". Typically, a
fan who wanted copies of a given program would mail
blank VHS or Betamax tapes to a fansub distributor,
along with a modest payment for shipping expenses.
The distributor would then record copies onto the
"customer's" blank cassettes, and ship them back. A VHS tape from an internet fansub distributor

Alternatively, a fansub distributor might sell copied

tapes outright, but at a low price which was intended to be exactly enough to cover the cost of blank cassettes and
This style of fansubbing was quite cost-intensive for the fansubber and the distributor. The raw usually was
purchased at a high price; nearly all Anime Laserdiscs (or tapes) cost more than $50, and many cost more than $100.
It would not be uncommon for a $50 Laserdisc to contain just 30 minutes of video. Obtaining quality raws for a
Fansub 112

series of moderate length could cost over $1000. As well, many fansubbing groups paid professional translators in
order to generate the script. Then, expensive video equipment was required: Laserdisc player, PC, genlock, and
recording deck for producing the master; subsequently two or more video decks were then needed for producing
distribution copies. Professional grade video hardware such as players, recorders, and editing decks was extremely
expensive; easily into the thousands of dollars.
Various factors made it difficult for fansubbing groups to make releases with good video quality. The high cost of
equipment forced most fansubbing groups to use less expensive but inferior quality consumer grade electronics.
Even when a high quality LD source and professional grade hardware could be used, the final fansub was at best a
third-generation copy. In reality, most fansubs in circulation were fourth or fifth generation copies, and were not
made on professional equipment. Thus, in practice quality was usually very poor, though the actual localization and
translation were closer to a professional level than those found in modern fansubs.

Modern fansub techniques

Modern fansubs are produced entirely on computers. A raw is still required, but unlike the fansubbers who relied on
laser discs, most raw sources comes directly from recordings off Japanese TV, which are widely available via
Japanese peer-to-peer programs such as Winny, Share, or Perfect Dark. Some larger fansubbing groups have cappers
in Japan that supply them with an MPEG transport stream. While TV recordings are now the primary type of raw
used today, rips of region 2 DVDs are also used. For older shows not available on DVD, some modern fansubbers
use computers equipped with video capture hardware to get digital copies of older analog media (laserdisc or tape) to
work with.
Once the video is in the computer it can be edited and subtitles applied with minimal or no loss of quality, compared
to the playback-recording cycle required in traditional fansubbing. However, a majority of the encoding formats used
generally cause some loss of quality versus the original broadcast or DVD. A relatively inexpensive PC can perform
all of the manipulation necessary, without the need for expensive and complex devices such as editing decks and a
Translation is usually done solely by listening to the recording. Mostly, translators are not experienced with fansub
technology and only provide a translation.[5] While commercial releases will often have access to the scripts,
fansubbers have to translate by ear. This can sometimes lead to mistakes or unclear spellings of names. The latter is
most common with shows that use Western names. Because of ambiguities resulting from Japanese pronunciation
and transcription of English names, names like Alice can sound or be spelled like "Arisu" - which can be misheard as
any number of Alice alternatives. This can lead to different fansubbing groups using different spellings. A famous
example is Winry Rockbell from Fullmetal Alchemist, who was variously spelled as Winry, Winly and Rinry by
different groups due to the equivalence of the alveolar approximant and alveolar lateral approximant in Japanese.
Many groups have translation checkers to reduce the chances of letting translation errors slip through, and/or to give
an alternative wording/meaning of a certain line to aid in editing an ambiguous translation. Translations for most
shows are between 200 and 300 lines, though some dialogue-heavy shows may reach over 500 lines.
One alternative to using the raw Japanese file for audio translation is the use of video that has been subtitled in
Chinese. China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have their own fansub groups that also release to the Internet. Several
fansubbers are known to translate into English from the Chinese translations of the original Japanese, although this
inherently reduces the accuracy of the translation because of the fact it has gone through two translations. To account
for this, fansub groups using Chinese subs often have one or more Japanese translation checkers to minimize the loss
of original meaning. A recent example of a show that was fansubbed entirely using Chinese subs is My-Otome;
Doremi, one of the groups that worked on the show, used two native Chinese speakers for the project, although
several translation checkers were on hand to verify against the original Japanese. In a similar way, English-subbed
series can be retranslated into other languages, notably Russian.[5]
Fansub 113

Another, more recent, alternative with the growing availability and usage of .ts raws is translation from Japanese
closed captions. The closed captions can be exported from the .ts raw into various formats, and most fansub groups
use a program called C-Cats [6] to accomplish it. This method often results in a fast, yet still fairly accurate
translation due to greater ease of translating text to text, rather than audio to text. This method, however, is not as
widespread, as it is still not commonplace to have a .ts raw for a show. In addition, not all .ts raws have the closed
captions in them, as some raw providers remove the captions, and some Japanese broadcasting stations do not
broadcast with closed captions. Groups that use closed captions from a .ts raw use the audio to verify the closed
caption translation, as it cannot be guaranteed that the closed captions are flawless.
Timing can take place before or after translation, and currently Aegisub is the most popular program for this process.
Many groups will "pre-time" before the translation is done, then upon completion of the translation, apply the
translation to the timed lines, while at the same time doing what is called "fine timing." Fine timing often involves
applying "scene timing," which is a process whereby a line's start or end point is made to correspond with a nearby
scene change. This prevents "scene bleeds," which occur when every line has the same lead-in or lead-out time,
resulting in some lines starting before or after a scene change.
The next process is to typeset both the text or other parts of the video which have been translated (signs, cellphone
screens, etc.). Many groups make viewing easier and more organized by utilizing different colors and/or styles for
different conditions that the current line is under. In this way, viewers can differentiate between, for example, speech
by an on-screen character, speech by an off-screen character, thoughts, announcements (e.g. train boarding notices),
or any other conditions which may require differentiation. Many groups use AFX, which is the process of typesetting
signs or other on-screen text onto the video such that they blend in seamlessly with or on top of the original Japanese
ones. Due to the limitations of softsubs, AFX is usually encoded directly into the video. Many groups who either do
not have skilled typesetters or are attempting to release as fast as possible will often just put up another subtitle line
(usually at the top of the screen) with the translation of the on-screen text (e.g. "Sign: John's Pub").
Editing takes place any time after the translation has been completed. Most translators are more proficient in
Japanese than they are in English, and as such their translations are often ambiguous or grammatically incorrect. It is
the editor's job to make the subtitles as easily understandable to a native English speaker as the Japanese audio would
be to a native Japanese speaker, while still retaining as much of the original meaning as possible. Different groups
have different guidelines for editing. Some insist upon keeping as literal subtitles as possible, thus the editor would
merely fix spelling and grammar mistakes, while other groups are more liberal with their editing, in which case the
editor often rewrites/rewords lines in their entirety. Many groups have the translator or translation checker view the
episode with the edited subtitles to ensure that the editor has not accidentally changed the meaning of a line. Fansub
editors on the whole do not require high-level English education, as the dialogue lines are of course not extremely
Quality control, or QC,[7] is one of the final stages of fansubbing. Many groups do what is called a "soft QC", then
encode the episode, then do what is called a "hard QC." The goal of quality checking an episode is to catch any
typesetting, timing, editing, and, in the case of hard QC, encoding errors. Most groups have multiple QCers, each of
whom compiles a report of errors in the episode and submits it, and any errors are then fixed. Quality checkers often
are capable of doing other fansub jobs, or have some overall knowledge of the fansubbing process, as well as an eye
for spotting various errors.
The subtitles are then encoded using VirtualDub or a similar program.[5] There are several methods of subbing
currently used. "Hard" subtitles, or hard subs, are encoded into the footage, and thus become hard to remove from
the video without losing video quality (this can be done with a VirtualDub Filter). "Soft" subtitles, or soft subs, are
subtitles applied at playback time from a subtitle datafile, either muxed directly into the video file (.mkv, .ogm, etc.),
or in a separate file (.ssa, .srt, etc.). With the correct media player or an auxiliary program, softsubs are superimposed
on the footage and appear indistinguishable from hardsubs. Soft subs can also be rendered at higher resolutions,
which can make for easier reading if the viewer is upscaling the file. Hard subs have traditionally been more popular
Fansub 114

than softsubs, due to a lack of player support and worries over plagiarism, but most fansub groups now release a
softsub version of their releases. Since modern video media can contain multiple softsubs, some groups release
fansubs with several translations into different languages, or differently styled subtitles to fit different preferences.
Some groups have begun to release the opening and ending animations as separate files in order to reduce the size of
each individual episode, though this introduces conflicts with player support, thus this method is not yet widespread.
In the case of hard subtitles a video editor (commonly VirtualDub) uses an AVISynth script to load the raw video
file and the subtitle file (created by the translators) then the video software applies the subtitles on the video and
captures video with the subtitles "burned" in.
The resulting fansub is a computer video file. In the case of soft subs, the companion sub data can be supplied as a
separate file; however the complete package often now comes in a suitable media container such as Matroska. It can
be copied to CD or DVD media for physical distribution, but is most often distributed using online file-sharing
protocols such as viral video, DDL, BitTorrent and by file-sharing bots on IRC.[5] This distribution is usually
handled by a distribution team, or "distro" team, composed of one or more individuals with a server or very high
upload speed. This allows modern anime fans to download the finished product at little or no cost to themselves or to
distributors, as the distro team usually uses servers that are not dedicated to fansub releases, or that are paid for
through donations to their respective fansub group.
The internet allows for highly collaborative fansubbing, and each member of a fansub team may only complete one
task.[5] Online fansubbing communities are able to release a fully subtitled episode (including elaborate karaoke[5]
with translation, kana, and kanji for songs, as well as additional remarks and translations of signs)[8] within 24 hours
of an episode's debut in Japan. While this kind of speed is possible, the groups that favor speed in determent of
quality are known as "speedsub" groups and tend to release low-quality fansubs (in terms of subtitle accuracy, video
quality, and other aspects). "Quality" groups often take several days, weeks, or even months to release each episode
after its initial airing. However, with the advent of new techniques and technology, such as softsubs and modern
hardware capable of encoding high quality video quickly, combined with larger fansub groups tending to have a
large staff capable of performing tasks in parallel, the line between speedsubs and quality subs is gradually becoming

Distribution and playback

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, fansubs in electronic form were primarily distributed like VHS and Beta tapes: via
mailed CD-Rs. Many fans did not have high speed Internet and were unable to download large files. Many of the
early electronic fansubs were made from regular tape subs.
In the mid-2000s, most fansubs were distributed through IRC channels, file hosting services and BitTorrent. In
recent years most groups have shifted from using IRC to being primarily BitTorrent. BitTorrent trackers dedicated to
anime fansub releases allow fans to easily find the latest releases, and individual fansub groups often use their own
websites to inform fans of new releases. Because of an almost complete de-emphasis on CD-R and DVD-R
distribution, file size standards are less frequently followed.
An appropriate video and audio playback codec needs to be installed on the computer for proper playback. In
addition, many of the video files use alternate multimedia container formats such as OGM and Matroska. Special
decoders need to be acquired for these formats as well. One main benefit of using Ogg or Matroska multimedia
containers is the ability to create a single file that has DVD-like features such as chapter support and multiple audio
and/or subtitle tracks, as well as support for separate opening/ending animation files. At the same time, these
multimedia containers can be easily demuxed into their individual files, the individual files can be altered (for
example, fixing a misspelling in the subtitles), and then remuxed back together. Many fansub groups recommend
using a codec pack, such as CCCP, to allow for relatively simple playback of these formats.
Fansub 115

Legal and ethical issues

In countries subscribing to the Berne Convention, fansubbing is illegal as it constitutes copyright infringement.
However, fansubbers have traditionally held themselves to a common code of ethics and do not commonly see
themselves as pirates.[9]
Many fansubs contain subtitle text that reads "This is a free fansub: not for sale, rent, or auction" that pops up during
Marketing concerns for distribution companies create a gray operating zone for fansubbers. While on the one hand it
is true that products like Fist of the North Star are released and licensed in America, only part of the series is
available. A fan willing to buy the whole series would find it impossible. However, the lack of support of these
products, which fansubs can play a part in, is often a factor in the decision to not continue releasing a series. The
costs of licensing more of the series might not be possible without a successful release of the initial offering.
Supporters of fansubbing point[10] to an alleged positive impact it has had on the anime industry through its function
as publicity. There have been several shows that were at first overlooked for US distribution, only to be picked up
later when fansubs helped create a buzz about the franchise.
The role fansubs have played in popularizing anime titles received official recognition by at least two major
distributors. In the promotional video announcing the American license of The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya,
Kadokawa Pictures USA and Bandai Entertainment specifically thanked fansub watchers and asked them to
purchase the official release.
A company can successfully dub over 100 episodes in as little as a two year period, a length of time that has
confused some fan groups due to the speed that fansubs can provide the same material (considering that the fanbase
desires the unaltered Japanese show, simply with their native language subtitles). But companies are starting to
address this issue, for example, Funimation is working to release their uncut, unedited episodes of One Piece in
multiple formats,[11] releasing earlier season sections alongside boxsets more recent episodes in attempt to meet fan
demand. VIZ's boxset format releases for Naruto and Prince of Tennis also attempt to deliver larger chunks of a
series to fans in a quick and efficient manner.
Due to 4Kids' heavy editing of their properties and refusal to release untouched versions on DVD, some fansubbing
groups continue to subtitle and release popular shows owned by the company such as Tokyo Mew Mew, One Piece,
and Yu-Gi-Oh!. 4Kids attempted an uncut bilingual release of Shaman King and Yu-Gi-Oh in the mid 2000s,
releasing a handful of volumes of each title in the format, but in an interview with ANN Alfred Kahn stated that
"The market for them just isn't as large as the one for the cut version," pointing out that their sales might not have
met 4Kids' needs or expectations to continue them.[12]
Past market reactions have shown that time might be better spent petitioning 4Kids for a bilingual release, and
supporting the uncut release of former 4Kids licenses like One Piece, to show them there is a market for such titles.
An older example is Sailor Moon, which was initially licensed by DiC. After fan demand showed there was a market
for the title, uncut, unedited versions of the show, and Pioneer successfully release the Sailor Moon Movies in a
subtitled VHS format in 1999, followed by dubbed versions and bilingual DVDs. This was quickly followed by the
release of Sailor Moon S and Sailor Moon Supers, which both received complete unedited releases on VHS and
DVD from Geneon. In 2003, the commercial subtitles of the first two seasons appeared, released by ADV Films
under license by DIC, completing the uncut release that many fans never believed would be possible.
Fansub 116

Dynamics of fansubbing
Although executives of domestic anime distributors have been vocal about their objection to fansubs, most do not
want to gain an image as being hostile to their fans. Of special note, many in the anime industry started as VHS
fansubbers themselves, although fansubbing as they knew it then has become profoundly different from fansubbing
as it is known today. This is due to the shift from traditional fansubbing using VHS tape to modern digisubs that are
circulated on the internet.
During the early days of the Internet, it was difficult for fansubbing groups to get the attention of their target
audience. Even during the early to mid 1990s, groups still had to charge a nominal fee (usually $5 to $10 at most) for
a VHS and shipping charges to get the anime to its destination. Many people in the general public were not willing to
trust relatively unknown internet businesses, especially during the primitive days of internet security. Most of the
American and UK anime distribution companies were formed during the early 1990s, and had little competition from
such amateur groups. Some companies even formed out of fansubbing circles. However, as the internet grew in
availability and speed, fansub groups were able to host and distribute fansubs online easily. The advent of BitTorrent
as opposed to IRC has been pointed to as a key ingredient in the current fansubbing scene.[13] It has been argued that
this prompted fans to ignore official releases altogether, and some websites started charging for easier downloading
rates. The development of new software and its newfound availability made it very simple to copy, subtitle,
distribute, and play back fansubs, cutting into what DVDs offer, and their sales.
Many anime shows make their debut outside of Japan's shores in electronic format, and it is rare that a popular anime
will go without fansubs.[13] Recently, this has also applied to the tokusatsu fandom due to the fact fansubs are
actually being done for Super Sentai, Kamen Rider, Ultraman, and various Daikaiju Movies which most fans didn't
appreciate the dubbing. In addition, J-Horror and J-Drama, as well as other Asian Shows have been fansubbed as
many people are becoming more and more curious about Asian Cinema and breaking away from the Kung Fu,
Samurai, Giant Monsters films that so many people were familiar with prior to fansubbing.

Recent legal action

There is a belief among some fans that an "unspoken agreement" exists between the fansubbers and Japanese
copyright holders that fansubs help promote a product. Steve Kleckner of Tokyopop noted:
Frankly, I find it kind of flattering, not threatening[...] To be honest, I believe that if the music industry
had used downloading and file sharing properly, it would have increased their business, not eaten into it.
And, hey, if you get 2,000 fans saying they want a book you've never heard of, well, you gotta go out
and get it. "[14]
This belief was challenged when in December 2004 Media Factory (MFI), a Japanese copyright holder, directly
requested that their works be removed from download sites, and since then numerous other companies such as
Nippon TV have followed suit in the wake of the appearance of fansubs on YouTube.
On December 7, 2004, a Tokyo law firm representing Media Factory sent letters and e-mails to the anime BitTorrent
directory AnimeSuki and fansub groups Lunar Anime and Wannabe Fansubs requesting that they halt the fansubbing
and hosting of all current and future fansubbing productions.[9] AnimeSuki and Lunar Anime complied, and shortly
after, other fansub groups such as Solar and Shining Fansubs followed suit. Despite the request, Wannabe Fansubs
and a handful of other fansubbing groups continued to produce fansubs of MFI anime series.[15] To date, this has
been one of the few legal actions taken by a Japanese anime company against fansubbing.
After MFI's request was made public, only Genshiken, whose fansubs had been completed before the notifications,
and Kimi ga Nozomu Eien were licensed in the US. MFI's other major projects, including Pugyuru and Akane
Maniax, were not picked up by American distributors. The lack of buzz that surrounded these titles has been linked
by fansub supporters to MFI's suppression of fan distribution. They argue that by cutting off this means of "free
advertisement," MFI has alienated fans who would normally buy their products after they were licensed and kept the
Fansub 117

shows from being as widely exposed as they might otherwise be. The end result, say fansub supporters, is a reduced
interest from American anime companies and a loss of revenue for the studio. However, in August, 2006, School
Rumble was finally licensed by Funimation thanks to popularity of the series garnered from its manga release by Del
Rey. It took the series over 2 years to be licensed, which is normal for anime licenses around 2002. Since MFI's legal
action against fansubbers, their number of licenses secured is below the industry average.
MFI's actions are sometimes used as an example in the fansub debate as a reason why other Japanese companies
should not pursue similar injunctions. However, their titles are still being licensed. The anime series based on Emma
and Aria were both licensed in 2008, and Area 88, Gankutsuou, Kurau Phantom Memory, Noein, Shura no Toki, and
UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie were all licensed after the legal action in 2004.
Recently, a few titles such as Street Fighter Generations were prelicensed, meaning that they were released
simultaneously in Japan and North America, in an effort to negate the need for fansubs. However, some fansubbing
of such titles still occurs, as some people prefer fansubs over commercial releases.
Fansub opposers claim that Japanese licensers have reportedly grown discontent with fansubbers because the ease of
access with which their works are obtained has begun to affect foreign licensers' willingness to license a series, as
evidenced by the Western market's sharp drop in new acquisitions in 2005. They also suggest that anime fans in
Japan have reportedly begun to turn to English fansubs which often appear days after a show's release, affecting sales
in their home market. Indeed, Japanese companies have banded together to form JASRAC, a copyright holders rights
company, which has frequently taken YouTube to task for providing content which domestic Japanese viewers often
use, which includes fansubs, as seen on their official site.[16] A growing anti-fansub stance has been taken by US
distributors, as seen in Geneon and ADV's comments at the State of the Industry Panel at Anime Boston,[17] as well
as recent comments by Matt Greenfield of ADV Films at Anime Central:
"Answering a fan question on how ADV perceives the threat and challenge presented by fansubbers, Matt
answered that while fan subtitling is hurting the industry both in the US and in Japan, 'the industry has to learn
and adapt to new technology, and has to find ways to work around it.'"[18]
In Singapore, anime distributor Odex has been actively tracking down and sending legal threats against internet users
in Singapore since 2007. These users have allegedly downloaded fansubbed anime via the BitTorrent protocol. Court
orders on ISPs to reveal subscribers' personal information have been ruled in Odex's favour, leading to several
downloaders receiving letters of legal threat from Odex and subsequently pursuing out-of-court settlements for at
least S$3,000 (US$2,000) per person, the youngest person being only 9 years old.[19] [20] These actions were
considered controversial by the local anime community and have attracted criticisms towards the company, as they
are seen by fans as heavy-handed.[21]

[1] Leonard, Sean. Progress against the law: Anime and fandom, with the key to the globalization of culture (http:/ / ics. sagepub. com/ cgi/
content/ abstract/ 8/ 3/ 281) International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9 2005; vol. 8: pp. 281305.
[2] Zhou, Jie. "The Economics of Movie Downloads in the Film Industry" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071011231757/ http:/ /
yaleeconomicreview. com/ issues/ fall2005/ downloads. php). Yale Economic Review. Archived from the original (http:/ /
yaleeconomicreview. com/ issues/ fall2005/ downloads. php) on 2007-10-11. . Retrieved May 7, 2006.
[3] "Tokyo Anime Center Posts "Stop! Fan-Subtitle" Notice" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-03-29/
tokyo-anime-center-posts-stop-fan-subtitle-notice). Anime News Network. March 29, 2008. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[4] "Gonzo Works to be Streamed Simultaneously with Airing" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-03-21/
gonzo-works-to-be-streamed-simultaneously-with-airing). Anime News Network. March 21, 2008. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[5] Cintas, Jorge Daz; Pablo Muoz Snchez. "Fansubs: Audiovisual Translation in an Amateur Environment" (http:/ / www. jostrans. org/
issue06/ art_diaz_munoz. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[6] http:/ / www29. atwiki. jp/ ccats/ pages/ 13. html
[7] "Of Otakus and Fansubs" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080217024839/ http:/ / www. law. ed. ac. uk/ ahrc/ SCRIPT-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher.
asp#Quality). Law.ed.ac.uk. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. law. ed. ac. uk/ ahrc/ SCRIPT-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher. asp#Quality) on
February 17, 2008. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
Fansub 118

[8] Hatcher, Jordan S.. "Of Otaku and Fansubs. Appendix - Fansub Samples" (http:/ / www. law. ed. ac. uk/ ahrc/ script-ed/ vol2-4/
otaku_appendix. pdf) (PDF). Script-ed. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005.. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[9] Solomon, Charles (August 21, 2005). "File Share and Share Alike" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 08/ 21/ arts/ 21solo.
html?ex=1282276800& en=91a6bf6f3813c78f& ei=5090& partner=geartest& emc=rss). New York Times. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[10] Jenkins, Henry (December 2006). "When Piracy becomes Promotion" (http:/ / www. reason. com/ news/ show/ 116788. html). Reason
Magazine. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[11] "One Piece Release Polls" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. com/ forum/ showtopic. php?tid/ 19349/ tp/ 4/ ). AnimeOnDVD.com. .
[12] "Alfred R. Kahn" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ interview/ 2005-04-24/ alfred-r-kahn). Anime News Network. April 24, 2005. .
Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[13] "Interview With The Fansubber" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ feature/ 2008-03-11). Anime News Network. March 11, 2008. .
Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[14] Hatcher, Jordan. "Of Otakus and Fansubs" (http:/ / www. law. ed. ac. uk/ ahrc/ script-ed/ vol2-4/ hatcher. asp#sdendnote175anc). University
of Edinburgh. . Retrieved September 24, 2009.
[15] "Removal of Media Factory Inc. Works" (http:/ / www. animesuki. com/ doc. php/ legal/ mediafactory. html). AnimeSuki. . Retrieved April
24, 2006.
[16] "Press release" (http:/ / www. jasrac. or. jp/ release/ 06/ 12_2. html). Jasrac.or.jp. . Retrieved July 19, 2007.
[17] "Why do R1 companies suddenly hate us?" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927200506/ http:/ / animeondvd. com/ forum/ showtopic.
php?tid/ 19708/ tp/ 12/ ). AnimeonDVD.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / animeondvd. com/ forum/ showtopic. php?tid/ 19708/ tp/ 12/
) on 2007-09-27. . Retrieved July 19, 2007.
[18] Koulikov, Mikhail (May 12, 2007). "Anime Central 2007 - ADV Films" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ convention/ 2007/
anime-central/ advfilms). Anime News Network. . Retrieved July 19, 2007.
[19] Hanqing, Liew (August 2, 2007). "Parents get shock letter" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070930224936/ http:/ / newpaper. asia1. com.
sg/ printfriendly/ 0,4139,137645,00. html). The New Paper. Archived from the original (http:/ / newpaper. asia1. com. sg/ printfriendly/
0,4139,137645,00. html) on 2007-09-30. .
[20] Tan, Michael (August 16, 2007). "Kicking kids for profit?" (http:/ / asia. cnet. com/ blogs/ rehashplus/ post. htm?id=63000177). CNet Asia. .
Retrieved 2009-09-24.
[21] Hou, Chua Hian (August 16, 2007). "Anime firm boss gets online death threats" (http:/ / www. asiamedia. ucla. edu/ article-southeastasia.
asp?parentid=76054). The Straits Times. p. 4. . Retrieved 2009-09-24.

Further reading
. doi:10.1353/mec.2010.0002.
Leonard, Sean. "Celebrating Two Decades of Unlawful Progress: Fan Distribution, Proselytization Commons,
and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation" (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.
cfm?abstract_id=696402). UCLA Entertainment Law Review, Spring 2005.
History of anime 119

History of anime
The history of anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the
animation techniques that were being explored in the West. During the 1970s, anime developed further, separating
itself from its Western roots, and developing distinct genres such as mecha and its Super Robot sub-genre. Typical
shows from this period include Lupin III and Mazinger Z. During this period several filmmakers became famous,
especially Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii.
In the 1980s, anime was accepted in the mainstream in Japan, and experienced a boom in production. The rise of
Gundam, Macross, Real Robot, Dragon Ball, and Space Opera set a boom as well. The film Akira set records in
1988 for the production costs of an anime film and went on to become a success worldwide. Later, in 2004, the same
creators produced Steamboy, and later took over as the most expensive anime film. The Super Dimension Fortress
Macross also became a worldwide success after being adapted as part of Robotech, and Megazone 23 also gained
recognition in the West after it was adapted as Robotech: The Movie.
I internet also led to the rise of fansub anime. Spirited Away shared the first prize at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival
and won the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, while Innocence: Ghost in the Shell was featured at
the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.

First generation of Japanese animators

Few complete animations made during the beginnings of Japanese animation have survived. The reasons vary, but
many are of commercial nature. After the clips had their run, reels (being property of the cinemas) were sold to
smaller cinemas in the country and then disassembled and sold as strips or single frames. ten Shimokawa was a
political caricaturist and cartoonist who worked for the magazine Tokyo Puck. He was hired by Tenkatsu to do an
animation for them. Due to medical reasons, he was only able to do five movies, including Imokawa Mukuzo
Genkanban no Maki (1917), before he returned to his previous work as a cartoonist.
Another prominent animator in this period was Jun'ichi Kuchi. He was a caricaturist and painter, who also had
studied watercolor painting. In 1912 he also entered the cartoonist sector and was hired for an animation by
Kobayashi Shokai later in 1916. He is viewed as the most technically advanced Japanese animator of the 1910s. His
works include around 15 movies.
Seitaro Kitayama was an early animator who made animations on his own, not hired by larger corporations. He even
founded his own animation studio, the Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo, which was later closed due to lack of commercial
success. He utilized the chalkboard technique, and later paper animation, with and without pre-printed backgrounds.
The works of these two pioneers include Namakura Gatana (An Obtuse Sword, 1917) and a 1918 film Urashima
Tar which were discovered together at an antique market in 2007.[1]
In July 2005, an old animation film was found in Kyoto. This undated 3 seconds film, plainly titled Moving Picture
(, Katsud Shashin?), consists of fifty frames drawn directly onto a strip of celluloid.[2] It depicts a young
boy in a sailor suit writing the kanji "" (katsud shashin, for "moving pictures") on a board, then turning
towards the viewer, removing his hat, and offering a salute. The creator's identity is unknown, but it is thought that it
was made for private viewing, perhaps as experimentation, rather than for public release. The discoverer, Naoki
Matsumoto, has speculated that it could be "up to 10 years older" than the previously first known Japanese
animation, Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki, released in 1917. However, while a date of circa 1915 is possible,
there is no actual basis for this extreme speculation.
History of anime 120

Second generation of Japanese animators

Yasuji Murata, Hakuzan Kimura, Sanae Yamamoto and Nobur fuji were students of Kitayama Seitaro and
worked at his film studio. Kenz Masaoka, another important animator, worked at a smaller animation studio. In
1923, the Great Kant earthquake destroyed most of the Kitayama studio and the residing animators spread out and
founded studios of their own.
Prewar animators faced several difficulties. First, they had a hard time competing with foreign producers such as
Disney, which were influential on both audiences and producers. Since foreign films had already made a profit
abroad, they could be sold for even less than the price domestic producers need to charge in order to break even.[3]
Japanese animators thus had to work cheaply, in small companies with only a handful of employees, but that could
make matters worse: given costs, it was then hard to compete in terms of quality with foreign product that was in
color, with sound, and made by much bigger companies. Japanese animation until the mid-1930s, for instance,
generally used cutout animation instead of cel animation because the celluloid was too expensive.[4] This resulted in
animation that could seem derivative, flat (since motion forward and backward was difficult) and without detail.[5]
But just as postwar Japanese animators were able to turn limited animation into a plus, so masters such as Yasuji
Murata and Nobur fuji were able to do wonders in cutout animation.
Animators such as Kenz Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, however, did attempt to bring Japanese animation up to the
level of foreign work by introducing cel animation, sound, and technology such as the multiplane camera. Masaoka
created the first talkie anime, Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka, released in 1933,[6] [7] and the first anime made
entirely using cel animation, The Dance of the Chagamas (1934).[8] Seo was the first to use the multiplane camera in
Ari-chan in 1941.
Such innovations, however, were hard to support purely commercially, so prewar animation depended considerably
on sponsorship, as animators often concentrated on making PR films for companies, educational films for the
government, and eventually works of propaganda for the military.[9] During this time, censorship and school
regulations discouraged film-viewing by children, so anime that offered educational value were supported and
encouraged by the Monbusho (the Ministry of Education). This proved important for producers that had experienced
a hard time releasing their work in regular theaters. Animation had found a place in scholastic, political and
industrial use.

During the Second World War

In the 1930s the Japanese government began enforcing cultural nationalism. This also lead to a strict censorship and
control of published media. Many animators were urged to produce animations which enforced the Japanese spirit
and national affiliation. Some movies were shown in newsreel theaters, especially after the Film Law of 1939
promoted documentary and other educational films. Such support helped boost the industry, as bigger companies
formed through mergers, and prompted major live-action studios such as Shochiku to begin producing animation.[10]
It was at Shochiku that such masterworks as Kenz Masaoka's Kumo to Chrippu were produced. Wartime
reorganization of the industry, however, merged the feature film studios into just three big companies.
More animated films were commissioned by the military,[11] showing the sly, quick Japanese people winning against
enemy forces. In 1943, Geijutsu Eigasha produced Mitsuyo Seo's Momotaro's Sea Eagles with help from the Navy.
Shochiku then made Japan's first real feature length animated film, Seo's Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors in 1945,
again with the help of the Navy. In 1941 Princess Iron Fan had become the first Asian animation of notable length
ever made in China. Due to economic factors, it would be Japan which later emerged long after the war with the
most readily available resources to continue expanding the industry.
History of anime 121

Toei Animation and Mushi Productions

In 1948, Toei Animation was founded and produced the first color
anime feature film in 1958, Hakujaden (The Tale of the White Serpent,
1958). This film was more Disney in tone than modern anime with
musical numbers and animal sidekicks. However, it is widely
considered to be the first "anime" ever, in the modern sense. It was
released in the US in 1961 as Panda and the Magic Serpent. From
1958 to the mid-1960s, Toei continued to release these Disney-like
films and eventually also produced two of the most well known anime
series, Dragon Ball in 1986 and Sailor Moon in 1992.

Toei's style was also characterized by an emphasis on each animator

bringing his own ideas to the production. The most extreme example of
this is Isao Takahata's film Hols: Prince of the Sun (1968). Hols is
often seen as the first major break from the normal anime style and the
beginning of a later movement of "auteuristic" or "progressive anime"
which would eventually involve directors such as Hayao Miyazaki
(creator of Spirited Away) and Mamoru Oshii. Japanese movie poster for the first color anime
feature film The Tale of the White Serpent (1958)
A major contribution of Toei's style to modern anime was the
development of the "money shot". This cost-cutting method of
animation allows for emphasis to be placed on important shots by animating them with more detail than the rest of
the work (which would often be limited animation). Toei animator Yasuo tsuka began to experiment with this style
and developed it further as he went into television. in the 1980s Toei would later lend it's talent to companies like
Sunbow Productions, Marvel Productions, DiC Entertainment, Murakami-Wolf-Swenson, Ruby Spears and Hanna
Barbera with producing several animated cartoons for America during this period. Other studios like TMS
Entertainment, were also being used in the 80's, which lead to Asian studios being used more often to animate
foreign productions, but the companies involved still produced anime for their native Japan.

First Native language name English name Released Type Broadcast

First anime series Otogi Manga Calendar May 1, 1961 series yes

First super robot anime series 28 Tetsujin 28-go October 20, 1963 series yes

First anime space opera series Space Battleship Yamato October 6, 1974 series yes

First real robot anime series Mobile Suit Gundam April 7, 1979 series yes

First OVA Dallos December 12, 1983 OVA no

First adult (hentai) anime Lolita Anime February 21, 1984 OVA yes

During the 1970s, the Japanese film market shrunk due to competition from television. This increased competition
from television reduced Toei animation's staff and many animators went to studios such as A Pro and Telecom
animation. Mushi Productions went bankrupt (only to be revived 4 years later), its former employees founding
studios such as Madhouse Production and Sunrise. As a result, many young animators were thrust into the position
of director before they would have been promoted to it. This injection of young talent allowed for a wide variety of
experimentation. One of the earliest successful television productions in the early 1970s was Tomorrow's Joe (1970),
a boxing anime which has become iconic in Japan.
History of anime 122

Another example of this experimentation is with Isao Takahata's 1974 television series Heidi, Girl of the Alps. This
show was originally a hard sell because it was a simple realistic drama aimed at children. Most TV networks thought
the TV show wouldn't be successful because children needed something more fantastic to draw them in. Heidi
wound up being an international success being picked up in many European countries and becoming popular there.
In Japan it was so successful that it allowed for Hayao Miyazaki and Takahata to start up a series of literary based
anime (World Masterpiece Theater). Miyazaki and Takahata left Nippon Animation in the late 1970s. Two of
Miyazaki's critically acclaimed productions during the 1970s were Future Boy Conan (1978) and Lupin III: The
Castle of Cagliostro (1979).
Another genre known as Mecha came into being at this time. Some early works include Mazinger Z (197274),
Science Ninja Team Gatchaman (197274), Space Battleship Yamato (197475) and Mobile Suit Gundam
(197980). These titles showed a progression in the science fiction genre in anime, as shows shifted from more
superhero-oriented, fantastical plots found, as seen in the Super Robot genre, to somewhat more realistic space
operas with increasingly complex plots and fuzzier definitions of right and wrong, as seen in the Real Robot genre.

This shift towards space operas became more pronounced with the commercial success of Star Wars (1977). This
allowed for the space opera Space Battleship Yamato (1974) to be revived as a theatrical film. Mobile Suit Gundam
(1979), the first Real Robot anime, was also initially unsuccessful but was revived as a theatrical film in 1982. The
success of the theatrical versions of Yamato and Gundam are seen as the beginning of the anime boom of the 1980s,
which many consider the beginning of the "golden age of anime". This anime boom also marked the beginning of
"Japanese Cinema's Second Golden Age", which would last until around the beginning of the 2000s.[12]
While the Mecha genre shifted from superhero giant robots (the Super Robot genre of the 1970s) to elaborate space
operas (the Real Robot genre of the 1980s), two other events happened at this time. A subculture in Japan, who later
called themselves otaku, began to develop around animation magazines such as Animage or later Newtype. These
magazines popped up in response to the overwhelming fandom that developed around shows such as Yamato and
Gundam in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Yamato animator Yoshinori Kanada allowed individual key animators working under him to put their own style of
movement as a means to save money. In many more "auteuristic" anime this formed the basis of an individualist
animation style unique to Japanese commercial animation. In addition, Kanada's animation was inspiration for
Takashi Murakami and his Superflat art movement.
In the United States the already mentioned popularity of Star Wars had a similar, but much smaller, effect on the
development of anime. Gatchaman was reworked and edited into Battle of the Planets in 1978 and again as G-Force
in 1986. Space Battleship Yamato was reworked and edited into Star Blazers in 1979. The Macross series began with
The Super Dimension Fortress Macross (1982), which was adapted into English as the first arc of Robotech (1985),
which was created from three separate anime titles: The Super Dimension Fortress Macross, Super Dimension
Cavalry Southern Cross and Genesis Climber Mospeada. The sequel to Mobile Suit Gundam, Mobile Suit Zeta
Gundam (1985), became the most successful Real Robot space opera in Japan, where it managed an average
television rating of 6.6% and a peak of 11.7%.[13]
The otaku culture became more pronounced with Mamoru Oshii's adaptation of Rumiko Takahashi's popular manga
Urusei Yatsura (1981). Yatsura made Takahashi a household name and Oshii would break away from fan culture
and take a more auteuristic approach with his 1984 film Urusei Yatsura 2: Beautiful Dreamer. This break with the
otaku culture would allow Oshii to experiment further.
The otaku subculture had some effect on people who were entering the industry around this time. The most famous
of these people were the amateur production group Daicon Films which would become Gainax. Gainax began by
making films for the Daicon science fiction conventions and were so popular in the otaku community that they were
given a chance to helm the biggest budgeted (to that point) anime film, Royal Space Force: The Wings of
History of anime 123

Honneamise (1987).
One of the most influential anime of all time, Nausica of the Valley of the Wind (1984), was made during this time
period. The film gave extra prestige to anime allowing for many experimental and ambitious projects to be funded
shortly after its release. It also allowed director Hayao Miyazaki and his long time colleague Isao Takahata to set up
their own studio under the supervision of former Animage editor Toshio Suzuki. This studio would become known
as Studio Ghibli and its first film was Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986), one of Miyazaki's most ambitious films.
The success of Dragon Ball (1984) introduced the martial arts genre and became incredibly influential in the
Japanese Animation industry. It influenced many more martial arts anime and manga series' including Yu Yu
Hakusho (1990), One Piece (1997), and Naruto (1999).
The 1980s brought anime to the home video market in the form of Original Video Animation (OVA). The first OVA
was Mamoru Oshii's Moon Base Dallos (19831984). Dallos was a flop, but 1985's Megazone 23 was a success.
Shows such as Patlabor had their beginnings in this market and it proved to be a way to test less marketable
animation against audiences. The OVA allowed for the release of pornographic anime such as Cream Lemon (1984).
The first hentai OVA was actually the little-known Wonder Kids Lolita Anime, also released in 1984.
Sports anime as now known made its debut in 1983 with an anime adaptation Yoichi Takahashi's soccer manga
Captain Tsubasa, which became the first worldwide successful sports anime leading its way to create themes and
stories that would create the formula that would later then be used in many sports series that soon followed such as
Slam Dunk, Prince of Tennis and Eyeshield 21.
The late 1980s, following the release of Nausica, saw an increasing number of high budget and/or experimental
films. In 1985 Toshio Suzuki helped put together funding for Oshii's experimental film Angel's Egg (1985). The
OVA market allowed for short experimental pieces such as Take the X Train, Neo Tokyo, and Robot Carnival (all
three 1987).
Theatrical releases became more ambitious, each film trying to outclass or outspend the other film, all taking cues
from Nausica's popular and critical success. Night on the Galactic Railroad (1985), Tale of Genji (1986), and
Grave of the Fireflies (1988) were all ambitious films based on important literary works in Japan. Films such as
Char's Counterattack (1988) and Arion (1986) were lavishly budgeted spectacles. This period of lavish budgeting
and experimentation would reach its zenith with two of the most expensive anime film productions ever: Royal
Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise (1987) and Akira (1988).
Most of these films did not make back the costs to produce them. Neither Akira nor Royal Space Force: The Wings
of Honneamise were box office successes in Japan. As a result, large numbers of anime studios closed down, and
many experimental productions began to be favored less over "tried and true" formulas. Only Studio Ghibli was to
survive a winner of the many ambitious productions of the late 1980s with its film Kiki's Delivery Service (1989)
being the top grossing film for that year earning over $40 million at the box office.
Despite the failure of Akira in Japan, it brought with it a much larger international fan base for anime. When shown
overseas, the film became a cult hit and, eventually, a symbol of the medium for the West. The domestic failure and
international success of Akira, combined with the bursting of the bubble economy and Osamu Tezuka's death in
1989, brought a close to the 1980s era of anime.

In 1995, Hideaki Anno wrote and directed the controversial anime, Neon Genesis Evangelion. This show became
popular in Japan among anime fans and became known to the general public through mainstream media attention. It
is believed that Anno originally wanted the show to be the ultimate otaku anime designed to revive the declining
anime industry, but midway through production he also made it into a heavy critique of the culture eventually
culminating in the controversial, but quite successful film The End of Evangelion (1997) which grossed over $10
million. Anno would eventually go on to produce live action films. Many scenes in the Evangelion TV show were so
History of anime 124

controversial that it forced TV Tokyo to clamp down with censorship of violence and sexuality in anime. As a result
when Cowboy Bebop (1998) was first broadcast it was shown heavily edited and only half the episodes were aired.
The censorship crackdown has relaxed a bit, but Evangelion had a major effect on the television anime industry as a
In addition, Evangelion started up a series of so-called "post-Evangelion" shows. Most of these were giant robot
shows with some kind of religious or difficult plot. These include RahXephon, Brain Powerd, and Gasaraki. Another
series of these are late night experimental TV shows. Starting with Serial Experiments Lain (1998) late night
Japanese television became a forum for experimental anime with other shows following it such as Boogiepop
Phantom (2000), Texhnolyze (2003) and Paranoia Agent (2004). Experimental anime films were also released in the
1990s, most notably Ghost in the Shell (1995), which alongside Megazone 23 (1985),[14] had a strong influence on
The Matrix.[15] [16] [17]
The late 1990s also saw a brief revival of the Super Robot genre that was once popular in the 1960s and 1970s but
had become rare due to the popularity of Real Robot shows such as the Gundam and Macross series in the 1980s and
psychological Mecha shows such as Neon Genesis Evangelion in the 1990s. The revival of the Super Robot genre
began with GaoGaiGar in 1997 in response to "post-Evangelion" trends, but there were very few popular Super
Robot shows produced after this, until Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann in 2007.
Alongside its Super Robot counterpart, the Real Robot genre was also declining during the 1990s. Though several
Gundam shows were produced during this decade, very few of them were successful. The only Gundam shows in the
1990s which managed an average television rating over 4% in Japan were Mobile Fighter G Gundam (1994) and
New Mobile Report Gundam Wing (1995). It wasn't until Mobile Suit Gundam SEED in 2002 that the Real Robot
genre regained its popularity.[13]
The 1990s also saw the popular video game series, Pokmon, spawn an anime television show which is still running,
several anime movies, a trading card game, toys, and much more. Other 1990s anime series which gained
international success were Dragon Ball Z, Sailor Moon, and Digimon; the success of these shows marked the
beginning of the martial arts superhero, the magical girl genre, and the action adventure genre respectively. In
particular, Dragon Ball Z was dubbed into more than a dozen languages worldwide.
In 1997, Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke became the most expensive animated film up until that time, costing
$20 million to produce. Miyazaki personally checked each of the 144,000 cels in the film,[18] and is estimated to
have redrawn parts of 80,000 of them.[19]
The late 1990s also saw anime crossing the borders into live action, starting with Gokusen, Great Teacher Onizuka
(1999). It continued well into the 2000s, with Hana Yori Dango (2005), Jigoku Shjo (2006) and Nodame Cantabile
among them.

An art movement started by Takashi Murakami that combined Japanese pop-culture with postmodern art called
Superflat began around this time. Murakami asserts that the movement is an analysis of post-war Japanese culture
through the eyes of the otaku subculture. His desire is also to get rid of the categories of 'high' and 'low' art making a
flat continuum, hence the term 'superflat'. His art exhibitions are very popular and have an influence on some anime
creators particularly those from Studio 4C.
The "Evangelion-era" trend continued into the 2000s with Evangelion-inspired mecha anime such as RahXephon
(2002) and Zegapain (2006) - RahXephon was also intended to help revive 1970s-style mecha designs. The
experimental late night anime trend popularized by Serial Experiments Lain also continued into the 2000s with
experimental anime such as Boogiepop Phantom (2000), Texhnolyze (2003), Paranoia Agent (2004) and Gantz
Manga Author Mia Ikumi made the Tokyo Mew Mew and Only One Wish books along with the Magical Girl genre.
History of anime 125

The Real Robot genre (including the Gundam and Macross franchises), which had declined during the 1990s, was
revived in 2002 with the success of shows such as Mobile Suit Gundam SEED (2002), Eureka Seven (2005), Code
Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion (2006), Mobile Suit Gundam 00 (2007), Macross Frontier (2008) and Code Geass:
Lelouch of the Rebellion R2 (2008). The resurgence of Real Robot anime can be seen in a top 20 anime poll
published in the April 2008 issue of Newtype magazine, where Japanese readers voted for Gundam 00 as the #1 top
anime, alongside Code Geass at #2 and Gundam SEED at #9.[20]
The 1970s-style Super Robot genre revival started by GaoGaiGar (1997), continued into the 2000s, with several
remakes of classic series such as Getter Robo and Dancougar as well as original properties created in the Super
Robot mold like Godannar and Gurren Lagann. In particular, Gurren Lagann combined the genre with elements
from 1980s Real Robot shows as well as 1990s "post-Evangelion" shows. Gurren Lagann received both the "best
television production" and "best character design" awards from the Tokyo International Anime Fair in 2008.[21] This
eventually culminated in the release of Shin Mazinger in 2009, a full-length revival of the first Super Robot series,
Mazinger Z.
In addition to these experimental trends, the 2000s has also been characterized by the increase of the moe-style art
and the bishjo and bishnen character design. The presence and popularity of genres such as romance, harem and
slice of life story has risen.
Anime based on eroge and visual novels increased in popularity in the 2000s, building on a trend started in the late
90s by such works as Sentimental Journey (1998) and To Heart (1999). Examples of such works include Green
Green (2003), SHUFFLE! (2006), Kanon (2002 and 2006), Fate/Stay Night (2006), Higurashi no Naku Koro ni
(2006), Ef: A Tale of Memories (2007), True Tears (2008), and Clannad (2008 and 2009).
Many shows are being adapted from manga and light novels as well including popular titles such as Fullmetal
Alchemist (2005), Rozen Maiden 2005, Aria the Animation (2005), Shakugan no Shana (2005), Pani Poni Dash!
(2005), Death Note (2006), Mushishi (2006), Sola (2007), The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya (2006), Lucky Star
(2007), Toradora! (200809), K-On! (2009) and Bakemonogatari (2009). Nevertheless, original anime titles are still
being created which reach success.
The 2000s also mark a trend of emphasis of the otaku subculture. A notable critique of this otaku subculture is found
in the 2006 anime Welcome to the N.H.K., which features a hikikomori protagonist and explores the effects and
consequences of various Japanese sub-cultures, such as otaku, lolicon, internet suicide, massively multiplayer online
games and multi-level marketing.
In contrast to the above mentioned phenomenon, there have been more productions of late night anime for a
non-otaku audience as well. The first concentrated effort came from Fuji TV's Noitamina block. The 30 minute late
Thursday timeframe was created to showcase productions for young women of college age, a demographic that
watches very little anime. The first production 'Honey and Clover' was a particular success, peaking at a 5% TV
rating in Kantou, very strong for late night anime. The block has been running uninterrupted since April 2005 and
has yielded many successful productions unique in the modern anime market.
There have been revivals of American cartoons such as Transformers which spawned four new series, Transformers:
Car Robots in 2000, Transformers: Micron Legend in 2003, Transformers: Superlink in 2004, and Transformers:
Galaxy Force in 2005. In addition, an anime adaptation of the G.I Joe series was produced titled 'G.I. Joe: Sigma 6'.
The 2000's also saw the revival of earlier series in the forms of Fist of the North Star: The Legends of the True
Savior (2006) and Dragon Ball Z Kai (2009).
The 2000s also saw the revival of high-budget feature-length anime films, such as Millennium Actress (2001),
Appleseed (2001), Paprika (2006), and the most expensive of all being Steamboy (2004) which cost $26 million to
In 2008, the Japanese government created the position of Anime Ambassador and appointed Doraemon as the first
Anime Ambassador to promote anime worldwide in diplomacy.[22]
History of anime 126

The romance and comedy genres have continued into the 2010s.

[1] Earliest Anime found (http:/ / www. cartoonbrew. com/ anime/ earliest-anime-found)
[2] "China People's Daily Online (Japanese Edition): " (http:/ / j. peopledaily. com. cn/
2005/ 08/ 01/ jp20050801_52250. html). . Retrieved 2007-03-05.
[3] Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Yasushi Watanabe (1977). Nihon animshon eigashi. Ybunsha. pp.2627.
[4] Sharp, Jasper (2009). "The First Frames of Anime." The Roots of Japanese Anime, official booklet, DVD.
[5] Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Yasushi Watanabe (1977). Nihon animshon eigashi. Ybunsha. pp.2021.
[6] Baricordi, Andrea; de Giovanni, Massimiliano; Pietroni, Andrea; Rossi, Barbara; Tunesi, Sabrina (December 2000). Anime: A Guide to
Japanese Animation (1958-1988). Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Protoculture Inc.. p.12. ISBN2-9805759-0-9.
[7] Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha. 1993. ISBN9784062064897.
[8] Sharp, Jasper (September 23, 2004). "Pioneers of Japanese Animation (Part 1)" (http:/ / www. midnighteye. com/ features/ pioneers-of-anime.
shtml). Midnight Eye. . Retrieved 10 December 2009.
[9] The Roots of Japanese Anime, official booklet, DVD.
[10] Yamaguchi, Katsunori (1977). Nihon animshon eigashi. Ybunsha. pp.3437.
[11] Yamaguchi, Katsunori (1977). Nihon animshon eigashi. Ybunsha. pp.3844.
[12] Dave Kehr, Anime, Japanese Cinema's Second Golden Age (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9507E5D71238F933A15752C0A9649C8B63), The New York Times, January 20, 2002.
[13] All Gundam TV series ratings (http:/ / aeug. blogspot. com/ 2004_11_01_aeug_archive. html#110060731014068978)
[14] "Megazone 23" (http:/ / www25. advfilms. com/ titles/ megazone). A.D. Vision. . Retrieved 2008-05-05.
[15] Joel Silver, interviewed in "Scrolls to Screen: A Brief History of Anime" featurette on The Animatrix DVD.
[16] Joel Silver, interviewed in "Making The Matrix" featurette on The Matrix DVD.
[17] Mitsuhisa Ishikawa, interviewed in The South Bank Show, episode broadcast 19 February 2006 (http:/ / www. itv. com/ page.
[18] "Transcript on Miyazaki interview" (http:/ / www. princess-mononoke. com/ html/ chats/ dp_991104_transcript. html). Official film site. .
[19] "Mononoke DVD Website" (http:/ / disney. go. com/ disneyvideos/ animatedfilms/ studioghibli/ princessnews. html). Disney. .
[20] Newtype April 2008 Issue Poll (http:/ / reira. zuiken. net/ ?p=220)
[21] "Eva 1.0 Wins Tokyo Anime Fair's Animation of the Year" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-02-26/ eva-1.
0-wins-tokyo-anime-fair-animation-of-the-year). Anime News Network. February 26, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-02-26.
[22] Doraemon sworn in as anime ambassador (http:/ / www. yomiuri. co. jp/ dy/ features/ culture/ 20080321TDY02306. htm), Daily Yomiuri,
March 21, 2008.

Works cited
Clements, Jonathan and Helen McCarthy (2001). The anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since
1917. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-64-7.
Drazen, Patrick (2003). Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Stone Bridge Press.
ISBN 1-880656-72-8.
Ettinger, Benjamin "Karisuma Animators" (http://www.pelleas.net/animators/)
Ettinger Benjamin "Toei Doga" (http://www.pelleas.net/aniTOP/index.php?p=66&more=1&c=1&tb=1&
pb=1#comments) ( Part 2 (http://www.pelleas.net/aniTOP/index.php?p=67&more=1&c=1&tb=1&
pb=1#comments)) Anipages Daily. 7/25/2004 and 7/26/2004.
Miyazaki, Hayao trans. Ryoko Toyama "About Japanese Animation" (http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/
Murakami, Takashi (2003). Super Flat. Last Gasp. ISBN 4-944079-20-6.
Okada, Toshio et al. (2005), "Otaku Talk". Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. Ed. Takashi
Murakami. Japan Society and Yale University Press. ISBN 0-913304-57-3.
Sharp, Jasper "Pioneers of Japanese Animation at PIFan" Midnight Eye 9/25/2004 (http://www.midnighteye.
Richie, Donald (2005). A Hundred Years of Japanese Film: A Concise History, with a Selective Guide to DVDs
and Videos. Kodansha America. ISBN 4-7700-2995-0.
History of anime 127

Kime, Chad. "American Anime: Blend or Bastardization?" EX Online Anime Magazine (http://www.ex.org/3.

External links
HISTORY OF ANIME: Osamu Tezuka (http://www.tapanime.com/General-Info/historyanime.php)
A Capsule History of Anime (http://www.awn.com/mag/issue1.5/articles/patten1.5.html)

List of anime companies

This is a list of anime industry companies involved in the production or distribution of anime.

Japan-based companies

Animation studios
A-1 Pictures
AIC (Anime International Company)
Ashi Productions
A.P.P.P. (Another Push Pin Planning Company)
Bee Train
Daiei Co., Ltd.
David Production
Group TAC
Hal Film Maker
Imagin (studio)
Japan Vistec
Kyoto Animation
Magic Bus
Mushi Productions
Nippon Animation
Oriental Light and Magic (OLM)
P.A. Works
Polygon Pictures
Production I.G
List of anime companies 128

Seven Arcs
Studio 4C
Studio Comet
Studio Deen
Studio Donguri
Studio Dub
Studio Egg
Studio Fantasia
Studio Gallop
Studio Ghibli
Studio Hibari
Studio Junio
Studio Mook
Studio Nue
Studio Orphee
Studio Pierrot
Studio Wombat
Tatsunoko Production
Telecom Animation Film
Tezuka Productions
TNK (studio)
Toei Animation
Tokyo Movie Shinsha - also known as TMS Entertainment
Triangle Staff
White Fox

Aniplex (Sony's anime distribution unit)
Bandai Visual
Geneon Universal Entertainment (Formerly Pioneer LDC)
Hakuhodo DY Media Partners
Japan Home Video (JHV)
Nihon Ad Systems
List of anime companies 129

Pony Canyon
Soft On Demand (SOD)
Victor Entertainment
Viz Media

Non-Japanese companies


North America & other regions

AnimEigo (U.S.)
Bandai Entertainment (U.S., owned by Namco Bandai[1] )
Bandai Visual USA (U.S., previously a subsidiary of Bandai Visual Japan and not affiliated with Bandai
Entertainment, now folded into Bandai Entertainment[2] )
Crunchyroll (U.S.)
Disney (U.S.)
Miramax Films (U.S., owned by Disney)
Funimation Entertainment (U.S.)
4Kids Entertainment (U.S.)
Manga Entertainment (UK, U.S.: bought by Anchor Bay Entertainment in 2005)
Media Blasters (U.S.)
NIS America (U.S., American subsidiary of Nippon Ichi Software software company)
Section 23 (U.S.) (the successor company to ADV films, which split into several companies in 2009. "Section 23"
handles distribution, "Sentai Filmworks" handles license acquisition, "Aesir Holdings" inherited ADV's old
library of titles, "Seraphim Studios" handles new English dubs, and "Valkyrie Media Productions" handles The
Anime Network).
The Right Stuf International (U.S., main distribution subdivision rebranded "Nozomi Entertainment" in 2007)
Viz Media (U.S., owned jointly by Shogakukan and Shueisha, of Japan, but it is run independently)

Europe exclusive
Manga Entertainment UK (the main branch of "Manga Entertainment")
Beez Entertainment (EU, owned by Bandai)
MVM Films (UK)
Optimum Releasing (UK)

Australia is not part of the normal global anime release system. Major worldwide anime distributors, such as for
example ADV or FUNimation, usually hold the release rights to everywhere except for Japan itself, and Australia
AkaHana (Australia)
Madman Entertainment (Australia: Madman overwhelmingly dominates the Australian anime market, for many
years through the 2000s controlling approximately 90% of all sales)
Siren Visual (Australia)
List of anime companies 130

ADV Films (U.S., U.K.) (shut down in 2009, selling off its assets and intellectual properties to four other
Houston-based companies, such as Section 23 (see above)).
Central Park Media (de facto defunct since mid-2007 when new DVD releases ceased, even though they
continued to license their titles for TV and VOD, they entered a state of limbo.[3] Officially declared bankruptcy
and assets liquidated in mid-2009.[4] Several of their titles have been acquired by other anime distributing
companies prior to and following Central Park Media's bankruptcy and liquidation, such as ADV Films, Bandai
Entertainment, Funimation Entertainment, Media Blasters, Nozomi Entertainment, etc.)
US Manga Corps (U.S., part of Central Park Media)
Family Home Entertainment (U.S., renamed Artisan Entertainment) in the 1990s, then acquired by Lions Gate
Entertainment in 2003).
Geneon Entertainment (U.S. branch "Geneon USA" (formerly "Pioneer Entertainment") defunct September 2007.
Parent Japanese company ceased in-house distribution of its own titles, many of which have been re-licensed by
Funimation[5] [6] and Sentai Filmworks. Parent company "Geneon Entertainment" then sold off its own ownership
to NBC Universal subsidiary UPI, which then merged Geneon with its own "Universal Pictures Japan" division
on February 1, 2009, renaming the new company "Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan").[7] [8]
Streamline Pictures (U.S., Canada: stopped producing new anime releases in 1996, folding into Orion Pictures,
which in turn folded into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer one year later, in 1997. The Streamline brand name officially
went defunct in 2002).
Synch-Point (U.S., A subsidiary of Broccoli (company), defunct when parent company Broccoli International
USA shut down their operations in 2007)
U.S. Renditions (U.S., A subsidiary of Books Nippan, defunct mid-1990s)
Tokyopop (U.S.)

Sav! The World Productions (Fr, producer of Oban Star-Racers with Bandai Visual and HAL Film Maker)
Harmony Gold USA (U.S., produced the seminal Robotech series in 1985; stopped releasing new anime in the
late 1980s and virtually dormant in the 1990s, the company technically still exists and issues re-releases)

[1] http:/ / www. namcobandai. com/
[2] "Bandai Visual USA to be Liquidated by September" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-05-23/
bandai-visual-usa-to-be-liquidated-by-september). Anime News Network. May 23, 2008. . Retrieved May 22, 2009.
[3] Musicland files for bankruptcy (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ press-release/ 2006-01-12/ musicland-files-for-bankruptcy)
[4] "Central Park Media Files for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy (Update 2)" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2009-04-28/
central-park-media-files-for-chapter-7-bankruptcy). Anime News Network. April 28, 2009. . Retrieved May 22, 2009.
[5] "Funimation Agrees to Distribute Select Geneon Titles" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-07-03/
funimation-agrees-to-distribute-select-geneon-titles). Anime News Network. July 3, 2008accessdate=May 22, 2009. .
[6] "Funimation to Distribute Gungrave Anime for Geneon" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-12-30/
funimation-to-distribute-gungrave-anime-for-geneon). Anime News Network. December 30, 2008. . Retrieved May 22, 2009.
[7] "Geneon to Merge with Universal Pictures Japan" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-11-12/
geneon-to-merge-with-universal-pictures-japan). Anime News Network. November 12, 2008. . Retrieved November 13, 2008.
[8] "Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan Official Website" (http:/ / www. geneonuniversal. jp/ ) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2009-02-22.
List of anime series by episode count 131

List of anime series by episode count

This is a list of anime series by episode count. Minimum count for each section is listed above each table.

This is a list of television anime series by episode count for series with a minimum of 150 episodes. Note that
anime franchises with multiple television series (e.g. Sailor Moon, Pokmon) will not be listed on this page.

No # Episodes Episode length (approx.) Series title In Current

(in minutes) production?

1 [1] [2] [3] 6 Sazae-san () Yes


2 2189 6 at 1979, then 8~25 at 2005 Doraemon () Yes

3 [4] [5] Nintama Rantar () Yes


4 [6] 5 Hoka Hoka Kazoku () No


5 1068 30 Soreike! Anpanman () Yes

6 1066 10 Prince Mackaroo Yes

7 [1] 25 Chibi Maruko-chan () Yes


8 726 25 Shima Shima Tora no Shimajir () No

9 [1] 7 Crayon Shin-chan Yes


10 694 Ninja Hattori-kun No

11 [1] 25 Case Closed/Detective Conan Yes


12 638 15-30 Perman No

13 525 25 One Piece Yes

14 524 20 Kochira Katsushika-ku Kameari Ken-mae Hashutsujo No

15 358 25 Sgt. Frog No

16 [1] 25 Bleach Yes


17 349 25 Kiteretsu Daihyakka No

18 330 25 Atashin'chi No

19 312 3 Otogi Manga Calendar No

20 300 3 Hyppo and Thomas No

21 296 25 Hamtaro No

22 296 30 Ikky-san No

23 291 25 Dragon Ball Z No

24 276 25 Pokmon (original series) No

25 243 25 Dr. Slump Arale-chan No

26 236 25 Naruto: Shippuden Yes

27 231 25 Gin Tama Yes

28 224 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters No

29 220 25 Naruto No
List of anime series by episode count 132

30 203 25 Reborn! No

31 200 10 Holly the Ghost No

32 200 25 Parasol Henbee No

33 195 5 Tamagon the Counselor No

34 195 25 Urusei Yatsura No

35 193 25 Astro Boy (1963 Series) No

36 192 25 Pokmon: Advanced Generation No

37 [7] 25 Pokmon: Diamond and Pearl No


38 188 25 Kaibutsu-kun No

39 [8] 20 Star of the Giants No


40 180 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters GX No

41 178 25 The Prince of Tennis Yes

42 172 25 Mirmo! No

43 170 10 Yadamon No

44 167 25 InuYasha No

45 [9] Dr. Slump No


46 163 25 Dokaben No

47 161 25 Ranma No

48 155 25 Lupin III Part II No

49 [10] 7 Ch Tokky Hikarian No


50 [11] 25 Major No

51 154 25 Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's No

52 153 25 Dragon Ball No

53 151 25 Cooking Papa No

54 150 25 Zatch Bell! No


This is a list of original video animation (OVA) and original net animation (ONA) series by episode count for
series with a minimum of 12 episodes.
List of anime series by episode count 133

# Episodes Episode length Type Series title In current

(approx.) production?

110 25 OVA Legend of the Galactic Heroes No

103 5 ONA Hetalia: Axis Powers Yes

52 25 OVA Legend of the Galactic Heroes Side Stories No

30 23 OVA Hunter Hunter No

26 24 ONA Xam'd: Lost Memories No

26 11 ONA Starry Sky Yes

25 5 ONA The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya-chan No

24 3 ONA Petit Eva: Evangelion@School Yes

24 9-10 ONA Psychic Academy No

22 ONA Magical Play No

22 ONA Penguin Musume Heart No

22 25 OVA Supernatural: The Animation No

21 20 OVA Case Closed Yes

20 30 OVA Tenchi Muyo! Ryo-Ohki No

16 OVA Cream Lemon No

16 ONA Eagle Talon No

16 OVA Mobile Police Patlabor P-Series No

15 OVA Key the Metal Idol No

15 OVA Cosmo Warrior Zero No

15 OVA Gundam Evolve No

13 OVA Record of Lodoss War No

13 OVA Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory No

12 OVA Mobile Suit Gundam: The 08th MS Team No

[1] "Animation World 811910" (in Japanese). Animage (Tokyo, Japan: Tokuma Shoten) 375: 157164. 10 September 2009.
[2] "" (http:/ / www. fujitv. co. jp/ b_hp/ sazaesan/ index. html) (in Japanese). Fuji TV. . Retrieved
[3] Each episode of Sazae-san consists of 3 separate stories.
[4] " " (http:/ / www3. nhk. or. jp/ anime/ nintama/ story/ series01/ index. html) (in Japanese). NHK. .
Retrieved 2008-11-14.
[5] There are 18 "series" which are part of the overall Nintama Rantar series. This page lists all the episode titles.
[6] "" (http:/ / www. eiken-anime. jp/ works/ works025. html) (in Japanese). Eiken. . Retrieved October 20, 2010.
[7] The Pokmon episode list contains episodes which have not aired yet. This list, however, only counts those episodes that have been aired or
otherwise officially released as of today.
[8] This count consists of the original 182-episode Star of the Giants series.
[9] Dr. Slump consists of 243 short episodes which, when aired, are combined into 165 25-minute-long episodes.
[10] "HIKARIAN Great Railroad Protector" (http:/ / www. enokifilmsusa. com/ library/ hikarian. htm). Enoki Films. . Retrieved 2011-07-17.
[11] "NHK MAJOR" (http:/ / www3. nhk. or. jp/ anime/ major/ ). NHK. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
List of anime series by episode count 134


Demographic groups

Josei manga
Josei manga (, lit. comics for women, pronounced[dosei]) also known as "ladies" ( redsu) or
"ladies' comics" ( redikomi, lit. "LadyComi"), is a term that refers to the target demographic of manga
created mostly by women for late teenage and adult female audiences. Readers range from 15-44.[1] In Japanese, the
word josei means simply "woman", "female", "feminine", "womanhood" and has no manga-related connotations at
The stories tend to be about everyday experiences of women living in Japan. Though there are some that cover high
school, most cover the lives of adult women. The style also tends to be a more restrained, realistic version of shjo
manga, keeping some of the wispy features and getting rid of the very large sparkly eyes. There are exceptions in the
style described above, but what defines josei is some degree of stylistic continuity of comics within this particular
demographic (the same is true with different demographics that have different stylistic tendencies).
Josei comics can portray realistic romance, as opposed to the mostly idealized romance of shjo manga, but it does
not always have to be. A famous example of a josei is Honey and Clover, which was animated, which is unusual for
josei comics. Josei tends to be both more sexually explicit and contain more mature storytelling, although that is not
always true either. It is also not unusual for themes such as NTR and rape to occur in josei manga target specifically
towards more mature audiences. Some other famously popular josei series include Yun Kouga's Loveless, Ai
Yazawa's Paradise Kiss, and the award-winning works of Erica Sakurazawa.

The reported average circulations for some of the top-selling josei manga magazines in 2007 are as follows:

Magazine title Reported circulation

You 194,791

Be-Love 194,333

Kiss 167,600

Chorus 162,916

Elegance Eve 150,000

For Mrs. 150,000

Romance White Paper Pastel 150,000

Dessert 149,333

The Dessert 141,664

Office You 117,916

For comparison, here are the circulations for the top-selling magazines in other categories for 2007.
Josei manga 136

Category Magazine title Reported circulation

Top-selling shnen manga magazine Weekly Shnen Jump 2,778,750

Top-selling seinen manga magazine Weekly Young Magazine 981,229

Top-selling shjo manga magazine Ciao 982,834

Top-selling non-manga magazine Monthly The Television 1,018,919

(Source for all circulation figures: Japan Magazine Publishers Association[2] )

Josei manga (then called Ladies Comics, or Redikomi) began to appear in the 1980s, during a boom period in manga,
when the girls who had read shoujo manga in the 1950s and 60s wanted manga for adult women.[3] The first ladies
comic magazine, Be-Love, was printed in 1980. At the end of 1980 there were two ladies comics magazines, at the
end of 1989 there were over fifty.[4] Early ladies comics were sexually free, and the comics became more and more
sexually extreme until the early 1990s.[1] Manga branded as "Ladies' Comics" has acquired a reputation for being
low-brow, and "dirty", and the term josei was created to move away from that image.[5]

Angel Nest
The Aromatic Bitters
Be With You
Between The Sheets
Happy Mania
Happy Marriage!?
Honey and Clover
Make Love and Peace
Nodame Cantabile
Object of Desire
Paradise Kiss
Sweet Cream and Red Strawberries
Tramps Like Us
Usagi Drop
Walkin' Butterfly
With the Light
Love in the mask
Josei manga 137

[1] Ito, Kinko (2003). "The World of Japanese Ladies' Comics: from Romantic Fantasy to Lustful Perversion". The Journal of Popular Culture
36 (1): 6885. doi:10.1111/1540-5931.00031.
[2] Japan Magazine Publishers Association Magazine Data 2007 (http:/ / www. j-magazine. or. jp/ data_001/ index. html). The publication,
which relies on information provided by publishers, categorizes the magazine Cookie (with a reported circulation of 200,000) as josei, but
Shueisha's "S-MANGA.NET" site (http:/ / www. s-manga. net/ ) clearly categorizes that magazine as shjo, and it is therefore not included
[3] Ito, Kinko 2003. "Japanese Ladies' Comics as agents of socialization: The lessons they teach." International Journal of Comic Art,
[4] http:/ / www. imageandnarrative. be/ index. php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 124/ 95
[5] Matt Thorn What Shjo Manga Are and Are Not (http:/ / www. matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ whatisandisnt. html)
[6] O'Connell, Margaret (September 8, 2008). "Comics for Grown-Up Women, Part 1" (http:/ / www. sequentialtart. com/ article. php?id=1101).
Sequential Tart. . Retrieved 2009-10-15.
[7] Aoki, Deb. "2008 Readers Poll: Best New Josei Manga" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ recommendedreading/ tp/ 2008NewJoseiPoll. htm).
About.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-13.
[8] Aoki, Deb. "Josei Manga Ladies Comics" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ glossary/ g/ josei. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-15.
[9] Brenner, Robin E. Understanding manga and anime. pp. 36. ISBN 9781591583325
[10] Aoki, Deb. "2007 Readers Poll: Best New Josei Manga" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ recommendedreading/ tp/ 2007NewJoseiPoll. htm).
About.com. . Retrieved 2009-10-15.
[11] Kai-Ming Cha. (April 25, 2006). "Kind of Blue: The Josei Manga of Nananan" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6327715.
html). Publishers Weekly. . Retrieved 2009-10-13.

Further reading
Fusami Ogi, 2003: Female Subjectivity and Shoujo (Girls) Manga (Japanese Comics): Shoujo in Ladies' Comics
and Young Ladies' Comics, Volume 36, Issue 4, pages 780803
Gretchen Jones, 2003: "Ladies' Comics": Japan's Not-So-Underground Market in Pornography for Women,
US-Japan Women's Journal English Supplement, Volume 22, pages 3-30
Deborah Shamoon, Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women,
in: Porn Studies, ed. Linda Williams, 2004
Gretchen Jones, Bad Girls Like to Watch: Writing and Reading Ladies' Comics, in: Bad girls of Japan, ed. Laura
Miller and Jan Bardsley, 2005
Kodomo anime and manga 138

Kodomo anime and manga

Children's manga ( Kodomomuke manga) and children's anime ( kodomomuke
anime), are Japanese terms which literally mean "manga (or "anime", respectively) directed towards children".
Children's manga are also known by the word "Kodomo", or "child". These works are noted for stories that are often
very moralistic, teaching children how to behave as good and considerate people and helping them to stay on the
right path in life. The episodes are generally stand alone and non-episodic in order to appeal to a child. They are very
fun to read, and are directed towards a toddler audience.
Doraemon by Fujiko F. Fujio is one of the most notable examples for this manga/anime genres.

Seinen manga
Seinen manga () is a subset of manga that is generally targeted at a 2030 year old male audience, but the
audience can be older with some manga aimed at businessmen well into their 40s. In Japanese, the word Seinen
means "young man" or "young men" and is not suggestive of sexual matters. (The female equivalent to seinen manga
is josei manga.)
It has a wide variety of art styles and more variation in subject matter, ranging from the avant-garde to the
pornographic. Seinen manga is distinguished from shnen, or boys' manga, by having a stronger emphasis on
realism. Because of the emphasis on storyline and character development instead of action, some seinen series are
often confused with shjo, or girls' manga. This is especially true of seinen comedy series such as Chobits, and Chi's
Sweet Home, or seinen drama such as Twin Spica. Other examples of seinen manga include: Gantz, Battle Royale,
20th Century Boys, Monster, Blame!, Ghost in the Shell, Akira, Berserk, Battle Angel Alita, Drifters and Elfen Lied.
Rumiko Takahashi's Maison Ikkoku is sometimes classified as seinen, although this is disputed by some fans.
A common way to tell if a manga is seinen is by looking at whether or not furigana is used over the original kanji
text: if there are furigana on all kanji, the title is generally aimed at a younger audience. The title of the magazine it
was published in is also an important indicator. Usually Japanese manga magazines with the word "young" in the
title (Weekly Young Jump for instance) are seinen. Other popular seinen manga magazines include Ultra Jump,
Afternoon, and Big Comic.

List of seinen manga

Main category: Seinen manga

External links
Japanese Magazine Publishers Association [1] (Japanese)

[1] http:/ / www. j-magazine. or. jp/ data_001/ main_b. html#003
Shjo manga 139

Shjo manga
The term shjo, shojo, or shoujo manga ( shjo manga)
refers to manga marketed to a female audience roughly between
the ages of 10-18. The name romanizes the Japanese (shjo),
literally: "little female". Shjo manga covers many subjects in a
variety of narrative and graphic styles, from historical drama to
science fiction often with a strong focus on human and
romantic relationships and emotions.[1] Strictly speaking, shjo
manga does not comprise a style or a genre per se, but rather
indicates a target demographic.[2] [3] Examples include Cardcaptor
Sakura, Fruits Basket, Fushigi Yuugi, Ouran High School Host
Club, Pretty Cure, Princess Ai, Princess Tutu, Revolutionary Girl
Utena, Romeo x Juliet, Sailor Moon, Skip Beat, Shugo Chara!,
Tokyo Mew Mew, Vampire Knight and Watashi Ni XX Shinasai.

Japanese magazines specifically for girls, known as shjo
magazines, first appeared in 1903 with the founding of Shjo kai
(?, Girls' World) , and continued with others such as Shjo A simple four-panel manga from the November 1910
Sekai (?, Girls' World) (1906) and the long-running issue of Shjo (artist unknown)
Shjo no tomo (?, Girls' Friend) (1908).[4] [5]
Simple, single-page manga had begun to appear in these magazines by 1910, and by the 1930s more sophisticated
humor-strips had become an essential feature of most girls' magazines. The most popular manga, Katsuji
Matsumoto's Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (), debuted on the pages of Shjo no tomo ()
in 1938.[6] As World War II progressed, however, "comics, perhaps regarded as frivolous, began to disappear".[7]
Postwar shjo manga, such as Shosuke Kurakane's popular Anmitsu Hime,[8] initially followed the pre-war pattern of
simple humor-strips. But Osamu Tezuka's postwar revolution, introducing intense drama and serious themes to
children's manga, spread quickly to shjo manga, particularly after the enormous success of his seminal Ribon no
kishi ( Princess Knight).[7]
Until the mid-1960s males vastly outnumbered the handful of females (for example: Toshiko Ueda, Hideko Mizuno,
Masako Watanabe, and Miyako Maki) amongst the artists working on shjo manga. Many, such as Tetsuya Chiba,[9]
functioned as rookies, waiting for an opportunity to move over to shnen ( "boys'") manga. Chiba asked his
wife about girls' feelings for research for his manga. At this time, conventional job-opportunities for females did not
include becoming a manga artist.[10] Adapting Tezuka's dynamic style to shjo manga (which had always been
domestic in nature) proved challenging. According to Thorn:
While some chose to simply create longer humor-strips, others turned to popular girls' novels of the day
as a model for melodramatic shjo manga. These manga featured sweet, innocent pre-teen heroines, torn
from the safety of family and tossed from one perilous circumstance to another, until finally rescued
(usually by a kind, handsome young man) and re-united with their families.[11]
These early shjo manga almost invariably had pre-adolescent girls as both heroines and readers. Unless they used a
fantastic setting (as in Princess Knight) or a backdrop of a distant time or place, romantic love for the heroine
remained essentially taboo. But the average age of the readership rose, and its interests changed. In the mid-1960s
one of the few female artists in the field, Yoshiko Nishitani, began to draw stories featuring contemporary Japanese
Shjo manga 140

teenagers in love. This signaled a dramatic transformation of the genre.[12] [13] Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly
large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shnen manga
aimed at boys and shjo manga aimed at girls.[1] [14]
Between roughly 1969 and 1971 a flood of young female manga artists transformed the genre again. Some, including
Hagio Moto, Yumiko Oshima, and Keiko Takemiya, became known as the hana no nij yon nen gumi (24,
Year 24 Group, so named from the approximate year of birth many of them shared:Shwa 24, or 1949). This
loosely-defined group experimented with content and form, inventing such new sub-genres as Shnen-ai, and
earning the long-maligned shjo manga unprecedented critical praise. Other female artists of the same generation,
such as Riyoko Ikeda, Yukari Ichijo, and Sumika Yamamoto, garnered unprecedented popular support with such hits
(respectively) as Berusaiyu no bara (, "The Rose of Versailles"), Dezainaa (,
"Designer"), and Eesu wo nerae! (!, "Aim for the Ace!").[1] [4] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Since the
mid-1970s, women have created the vast majority of shjo manga - notable exceptions include Mineo Maya and
Shinji Wada).
From 1975 to 2009 shjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously branching out into different
but overlapping subgenres.[17] Yukari Fujimoto feels that during the 1990s, shoujo manga became concerned with
self-fulfillment. She feels the Gulf War influenced the development of "girls who fight to protect the destiny of a
community", such as Red River, Basara, Magic Knight Rayearth, and Sailor Moon. She feels that the shoujo manga
of the 1990s showed emotional bonds between women that were stronger than bonds between a man and a
woman.[18] Major sub-genres include romance, science fiction, fantasy, magical girls, yaoi, and "Ladies Comics" (in
Japanese, redisu , redikomi , and josei ).[19] [20]

Meaning and spelling

As shjo literally means "girl" in Japanese, the equivalent of the western usage will generally include the medium:
girls' manga ( shjo manga), or anime for girls ( shjo-muke anime). The parallel terms
shnen, seinen, and josei also occur in the categorisation of manga and anime, with similar qualification. Though the
terminology originates with the Japanese publishers, cultural differences with the West mean that labelling in
English tends to vary wildly, with the types often confused and mis-applied.
Due to vagaries in the romanization of Japanese, publishers may transcribe (written in hiragana)
in a wide variety of ways. By far the most common form, shoujo, follows English phonology, preserves the spelling,
and requires only ASCII input. The Hepburn romanization shjo uses a macron for the long vowel, though the
prevalence of Latin-1 fonts often results in a circumflex instead, as in shjo. Many English-language texts just ignore
long vowels, using shojo, potentially leading to confusion with (shojo, literally: "virgin") as well as other
possible meanings. Finally, transliteraters may use Nihon-shiki-type mirroring of the kana spelling: syjyo, or

Western adoption
Fans in the West have adopted a wide range of Japanese anime and manga terminology, however the strong stylistic
and thematic similarities between a sector of shjo works has led to regarding them as a genre or style, sometimes
with an attempt to assign it by degrees. This has led to western fans classifying a wide variety of titles as shjo, even
though their Japanese creators would label them differently. Anything non-offensive and featuring female characters
may class as shjo, such as the light shnen comedy manga and anime Azumanga Daioh.[21] Similarly, as romance
has become a common element of many shjo works, any title with romance, such as the shnen Love Hina[22] or the
seinen Oh My Goddess! tend to get mislabeled. In addition Westerners often declare that particularly violent, gory, or
sexually explicit works "cannot possibly" be shjo, or disbelieve that the producers of yaoi titles target a market of
girls rather than homosexual men, although both of these claims are false, and the reason for them was most likely
due to uneven translation of Japanese anime terminology. It has been proven true that Boys' Love (yaoi) and "shojo
Shjo manga 141

smut" manga, is indeed, targeted at teenage girls.

This confusion also extends beyond the fan community; articles aimed at the mainstream also widely misrepresent
the terms. In an introduction to anime and manga, Jon Courtenay Grimwood writes:
'Maison Ikkoku' comes from Rumiko Takahashi, one of the best known of all 'shjo' writers. Imagine a very
Japanese equivalent of 'Sweet Valley High' or 'Melrose Place'. It has Takahashi's usual and highly-successful
mix of teenagers and romance, with darker clouds of adolescence hovering.
Grimwood, Jon Courtenay , "Every Picture..." , Books Quarterly, (Issue 19, 2006). p. 42
Takahashi has become a famed shnen manga artist, but Maison Ikkoku, one of her few seinen titles and serialised in
Big Comic Spirits, aimed at males in their 20s. Matt Thorn, who has made a career out of studying girls' comics,
attempts to clarify the matter by explaining that "shjo manga are manga published in shjo magazines (as defined
by their publishers)".[3]
Publishers and stores have problems retailing shjo: unsure of the "right" way to spell the word. Licensees such as
Dark Horse Comics have misidentified several of the seinen titles, and in particular manga and anime aimed at a
younger audience in Japan is often considered "inappropriate" for minors in the US.[23] In this way licensees often
either voluntarily censor titles or re-market them towards an older audience. In the less conservative European
markets, content that might be heavily edited or cut in an English-language release is often present in French,
German and other translated editions.
As one effect of these variations, US companies have moved to use the borrowed words that have gained name-value
in fan communities, but separate them from the Japanese meaning. In their shjo manga range, publisher VIZ Media
attempt a re-appropriation of the term, providing the definition:
shjo (sho'jo) n. 1. Manga appealing to both female and male readers. 2. Exciting stories with true-to-life
characters and the thrill of exotic locales. 3. Connecting the heart and mind through real human relationships.
Nasu Yukie , Here is Greenwood 1 , San Francisco, California: [1996] 2004. VIZ LLC. ISBN
The desire to disassociate the word from its meaning, "girl", seems largely driven by fear of putting off potential new
readers, particularly male ones.
Manga and anime labeled as "shjo" need not interest only young girls, and some titles gain a following outside the
traditional audience. For instance, Frederik L. Schodt identifies Banana Fish by Akimi Yoshida as:
...one of the few girls' manga a red-blooded Japanese male adult could admit to reading without blushing.
Yoshida, while adhering to the conventions of girls' comics in her emphasis on gay male love, made this
possible by eschewing flowers and bug eyes in favor of tight bold strokes, action scenes, and speed lines.
Such successful "crossover" titles remain the exception rather than the rule, however: the archetypal shjo manga
magazine Hana to Yume has a readership 95% female, with a majority aged 17 or under.[25]
The popularity of romantic shjo manga in America has encouraged Harlequin to release manga-styled romantic
Shjo manga 142

Circulation figures
The reported average circulations for some of the top-selling shjo manga magazines in 2007 included:

Title Reported Circulation First Published

Ciao 982,834 1977

Nakayoshi 400,000 1954

Ribon 376,666 1955

Bessatsu Margaret 320,000 1964

Hana to Yume 226,826 1974

Cookie 200,000 1999

Deluxe Margaret 181,666 1967

Margaret 177,916 1963

LaLa 170,833 1976

Cheese! 144,750 1996

For comparison, circulations for the top-selling magazines in other categories for 2007 included:

Category Magazine Title Reported Circulation

Top-selling shnen manga magazine Weekly Shnen Jump 2,778,750

Top-selling seinen manga magazine Young Magazine 981,229

Top-selling josei manga magazine YOU 194,791

Top-selling non-manga magazine Monthly The Television 1,018,919

(Source for all circulation figures: Japan Magazine Publishers Association[27] )

Shjo magazines in Japan

In a strict sense, shjo manga refers to a story serialized in a shjo manga magazine (a magazine marketed to girls
and young women). The list below contains past and current Japanese shjo manga magazines, grouped according to
their publishers. Such magazines can appear on a variety of schedules, including bi-weekly (Margaret, Hana to
Yume, Shjo Comic), monthly (Ribon, Bessatsu Margaret, Bessatsu Friend, LaLa), bi-monthly (Deluxe Margaret,
LaLa DX, The Dessert), and quarterly (Cookie BOX, Unpoko). Weekly shjo magazines, common in the 1960s and
1970s, had disappeared by the early 1980s.

Ribon (monthly, 1955- )
Ribon Original
Cookie BOX (quarterly)
Margaret (bi-weekly, 1963- )
Bessatsu Margaret (monthly)
The Margaret
Deluxe Margaret (bi-monthly)
Shjo manga 143

Shjo Friend
Bessatsu Friend
The Dessert

Chu Chu
Shjo Comic
Petit Comic

Hana to Yume
Bessatsu Hana to Yume

Akita Shoten
Princess Gold
Petit Princess
Mystery Bonita
Susperia Mystery
Renai MAX
Shjo manga 144

Kadokawa Shoten

Web magazine
Manga Airport


Shjo magazines outside Japan

Viz Media
Shojo Beat, a shjo manga magazine published in North America from 2005 to 2009

Ultimate Manga Guide [28] (zip), version 13.6, last modified July 31, 2004
Shojo Anime List [29], last modified February 14, 1995
Napier, Susan J., Anime: From Akira to Howl's Moving Castle (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)
Thorn, Matt (2001) "Shjo MangaSomething for the Girls" [30], The Japan Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 3
The Boys of Shojo Manga [31], article by Shaenon K. Garrity
Shamoon, Deborah "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shojo Manga"
Mechademia Vol. 2, 2007
Takahashi Mizuki "Opening the Closed World of Shojo Manga" [33] Japanese Visual Culture Ed. Mark
MacWilliams. ME Sharpe, 2008.

Further reading
Ogi, Fusami (Autumn 2001) "Beyond Shoujo, Blending Gender: Subverting the Homogendered World in Shoujo
Manga (Japanese Comics for Girls)." International Journal of Comic Art 3 (2): 151-161.
Prough, Jennifer S.. Straight from the heart : gender, intimacy, and the cultural production of shjo manga.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN978-0-8248-3528-6.

[1] Toku, Masami, editor. 2005. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" Chico, CA: Flume Press/California State University Press. ISBN 1-886226-10-5.
See also http:/ / www. csuchico. edu/ pub/ cs/ spring_06/ feature_03. html. Accessed 2007-09-22.
[2] Thorn, Matt (2001) "Shjo MangaSomething for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index. html), The
Japan Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 3
[3] Thorn, Matt (2004) What Shjo Manga Are and Are Not: A Quick Guide for the Confused (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/
whatisandisnt. html), last modified December 18, 2006
[4] Thorn, Matt (JulySeptember 2001). "Shjo MangaSomething for the Girls" (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shjo_manga/ japan_quarterly/
index. html). The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). . Retrieved 2007-09-22
[5] The Kikuy Town Library [[Category:Articles containing Japanese language text (http:/ / www. kikuyo-lib. jp/ top. html)]].
Meiji - Shwa shjo zasshi no goshkai ( [[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? (http:/ / www. kikuyo-lib. jp/
08_menu. htm)], "Meiji - Shwa: An Introduction to Girls' Magazines") ] Retrieved on 2008-09-15.
[6] Thorn, Matt (2006) " Pre-World War II Shjo Manga and Illustrations (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shjo_manga/ prewar_shjo/ index. html)"
[7] Schodt, Frederik L. (1983) Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics, Kodansha International
[8] Yonezawa, Yoshihiro, ed. (1991)Kodomo no Shwa-shi: Shjo manga no sekai I, Shwa 20 nen - 37 nen
( I 2037 "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shjo Manga I,
Shjo manga 145

1945-1962") Bessatsu Taiy series. Tokyo: Heibonsha

[9] Thorn, Matt (2005) " The Moto Hagio Interview (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ hagio_interview. htm)" The Comics Journal #269.
[10] Toku, Masami (2007) " Shojo Manga! Girls' Comics! A Mirror of Girls Dreams (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/ Books/ L/
lunning_mechademia2. html)" Mechademia 2 pp.22-23
[11] Thorn, Matt (2008) " The Multi-Faceted Universe of Shjo Manga (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ colloque/ index. html)",
presented at Le manga, 60 ans aprs... (http:/ / www. mcjp. asso. fr/ pjanv2008/ conferences/ manga/ index. html), Paris, March 15.
[12] Yonezawa, Yoshihiro, ed. (1991)Kodomo no Shwa-shi: Shjo manga no sekai II, Shwa 38 nen - 64 nen
( II 3864 "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shjo Manga II,
1963-1989") Bessatsu Taiy series. Tokyo: Heibonsha
[13] Thorn, Matt (2005) "The Magnificent Forty-Niners" The Comics Journal #269.
[14] Schodt, Frederik L. 1986. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0870117527.
[15] Gravett, Paul. 2004. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. New York: Harper Design, pages 78-80 ISBN 1-85669-391-0.
[16] Lent, 2001, op. cit., pp. 9-10.
[17] gi, Fusami 2004. "Female subjectivity and shjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics."
Journal of Popular Culture, 36(4):780-803.
[18] http:/ / www. jpf. go. jp/ JF_Contents/ GetImage/ img_pdf/ JBN56. pdf?ContentNo=9& SubsystemNo=1& FileName=img_pdf/ JBN56. pdf
[19] Gravett, Paul. 2004. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. NY: Harper Design. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. p. 8.
[20] Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235.
[21] Azumanga Daioh mistakenly identified as 'shjo comedy' (http:/ / web. mit. edu/ anime/ www/ Showings/ Azumanga_Daioh. shtml) on the
MIT Anime Club website, last modified August 19, 2004
[22] Chobot, Jessica Shojo Showdown (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 675/ 675434p1. html), defending choice of Love Hina as #5 in the 'Top
Ten Shjo Manga', IGN, December 2, 2005
[23] Shojo Update:Your Comments and Our Answers (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 654. html), ICV2, August 23, 2001
[24] Schodt, Frederik L. (1996) Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga - Japanese Comics for Otaku. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge
Press. ISBN 1-880656-23-X
[25] "Hana to Yume Readers Data" (http:/ / www. j-magazine. or. jp/ data_002/ pdf/ d_hakus_hanat. pdf) (in Japanese) (PDF). The Japanese
Magazine Publishers Association. . Retrieved October 29, 2009.
[26] Harlequin Ginger Blossom manga (http:/ / www. darkhorse. com/ Press-Releases/ 1208/ Harlequin-Ginger-Blossom-manga)
[27] Japan Magazine Publishers Association Magazine Data 2007 (http:/ / www. j-magazine. or. jp/ data_001/ index. html). The publication,
which relies on information provided by publishers, categorizes the magazine Cookie as josei, but Shueisha's "S-MANGA.NET" site (http:/ /
www. s-manga. net/ ) clearly categorizes that magazine as shjo, hence its categorization here.
[28] http:/ / users. skynet. be/ mangaguide/ mgguide. zip
[29] http:/ / www. rawbw. com/ ~hbv/ anime/ shouanim. txt
[30] http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ japan_quarterly/ index. html
[31] http:/ / www. comixology. com/ articles/ 52/ The-Boys-of-Shojo-Manga
[32] http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. html
[33] http:/ / www. mesharpe. com/ mall/ resultsa. asp?Title=Japanese+ Visual+ Culture%3A+ Explorations+ in+ the+ World+ of+ + Manga+
and+ Anime
Shnen manga 146

Shnen manga
The term shnen, shonen, or shounen manga ( shnen manga) refers to manga marketed to a male
audience aged roughly 10 and up. The Kanji characters () literally mean "few" and "year", respectively, where
the characters () generally mean "comic". The complete phrase literally means "young person's comic" or
simply "boys comic" Examples include Dragon Ball, One Piece, Saint Seiya, Detective Conan, YuYu Hakusho,
InuYasha, Hunter Hunter, Naruto, Bleach, Soul Eater, The Prince of Tennis, Slam Dunk, Fairy Tail, Reborn!,
Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle, Fist of the North Star, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Fullmetal Alchemist and D.Gray-man.
Shnen () manga () is typically characterized by high-action,[1] often humorous plots featuring male
protagonists. The camaraderie between boys or men on sports teams, fighting squads and the like is often
emphasized. Attractive female characters with exaggerated features are also common (see fan service), but are not a
requirement; Dragon Ball, for example, has only a few such characters. After the case of Tsutomu Miyazaki,
depictions of violence and sexual matters became more highly regulated in manga in general, but especially in
shonen manga.[2] The art style of shnen is generally less flowery than that of shjo manga, although this varies
greatly from artist to artist, and some artists draw both shnen and shjo manga.
Beyond shnen manga, manga for men (university age and older) is called seinen manga. Despite a number of
significant differences, many Western fans do not make a distinction between shnen manga and seinen manga. This
may be because very few seinen manga have been published outside of Japan. In Japan, many older men read shnen
magazines because of their ease in reading during commutes to and from work on trains. Consequently, in Japan,
shnen manga magazines are the most popular manga magazines.
Dragon Ball creator Akira Toriyama is credited for shaping the shnen genre we see today, with notable authors of
other shnen manga such as Yoshihiro Togashi, Eiichiro Oda, Masashi Kishimoto, Gosho Aoyama, Tite Kubo and
Yusuke Murata paying homage to his impact and influence on their work.[3]

List of shnen manga

Main category: Shnen manga

[1] "Short anime glossary [ - ]" (in Russian). anime*magazine (3): 36. 2004. ISSN18108644.
[2] http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue20/ mclelland. htm
"One result was a new regime of self-regulation among manga producers and distributors who began to reign in the more violent and sexual
images that characterised some genres, particularly manga directed at shnen (male youth)."
[3] http:/ / dragonballarena. gamesurf. it/ english/ info/ guide/ tributes. php

External links
Anime for boys (Japanese)
Anime for men (Japanese)
Shnen-in (http://www.moj.go.jp/KYOUSEI/kyouse04.html), reformatory (Ministry of Justice site)


Harem, hremumono (), broadly speaking, is a loose subgenre of anime and manga characterized by
a protagonist surrounded, usually amorously, by three or more members of the opposite sex.[1] The most common
and practically tantamount scenario is a male surrounded by a group of females; when this is reversed it is informally
referred to as a reverse harem gyakuhremu ().[2] More recent variants include removing the
protagonist's opposing sex to allow for yuri harems and yaoi harems (as with Gakuen Heaven). The term is derived
from the Arabic "harem", originally defined as a private sanctum for women where men were forbidden but,
modernly defined outside its original meaning as "a group of women associated in any way with one man or

Because romance is rarely the main focus of an entire series, harem structure is ambiguous. The most distinguishable
trait is arguably the group of girls who accompany, and in some instances cohabitate with the boy, and while
intimacy is just about customary, it is never necessary; when it is present, there must be a minimum of three girls
who express it, otherwise two is a love triangle. Additionally, it is not essential for there to be one exclusive boy;
many can exist as long as they are given less attention or the story calls for an unusually obscure sex ratio.[1]

Given the archetypical ratio and content of harems,[a] the genre is often criticized in the West for its almost inviting
but unnecessary sexual references, known colloquially as fan service. The unrest has been seen particularly in the
United States. [4]
Harem is also criticized for often excessive use of clichs and stock characters as well as obvious use of
wish-fulfillment fantasies. Common criticisms also stem from the tendency to portray female characters very
negatively often having little depth beyond their attachment to the male lead and their tendency towards unnecessary
violence and jealousy which is often seen as repetitive and sexist.[5]

a. "Series" implies any that are designated as a harem.

[1] Oppliger, John (April 17, 2009). "Ask John: What Distinguishes Harem Anime?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 17/
ask-john-what-distinguishes-harem-anime/ ). Anime Nation. . Retrieved 2009-11-16.
[2] "DarkSeraphim" (December 2006). "Reverse Harem" (http:/ / www. urbandictionary. com/ define. php?term=Reverse Harem). Urban
Dictionary. . Retrieved 2009-11-17.
[3] "Harem definition" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ harem). Dictionary.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-16.
[4] Oppliger, John (May 20, 2005). "Ask John: Why Do Americans Hate Harem Anime?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2005/ 05/ 20/
ask-john-why-do-americans-hate-harem-anime/ ). AnimeNation.net. . Retrieved April 25, 2008.
[5] http:/ / www. comedyvideoscentral. com/ Harem_anime. html
Harem 148

Further reading
Brenner, Robin E. (2007). Understanding Manga and Anime. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited. pp.82,
89, 112, 297. ISBN978-1-59158-332-5. OCLC85898238.
Drummond-Mathews, Angela (2010) "What Boys Will Be: A Study of Shonen Manga" in Johnson-Woods, Toni
(e.d.) Manga: An Anthology of Global and Cultural Perspectives Continuum International Publishing Group pp.
69-70. ISBN 9780826429384

Magical girl
Magical girls ( mah shjo, also known as mahou shoujo or majokko) belong to a sub-genre of Japanese
fantasy anime and manga. Magical girl stories feature young girls with superhuman abilities, forced to fight evil and
to protect the Earth. They often possess a secret identity, although the name can just refer to young girls who
follow a plotline involving magic and a transformation (such as Full Moon o Sagashite and Sailor Moon). Ojamajo
Doremi features magical girls as protagonists, but its plot differs from the standard as the girls use magic for
friendship, behavior and achieving goals, rather than for attacking antagonists. The Japanese language identifies
magical girls as majokko (, literally "witch girl"), though this term does not generally apply to modern
magical-girl anime. Sally, the Witch (1966) counts as the first magical girl anime.[1]
Magical boys occur much more rarely, but one can readily identify them: they operate along similar lines (as with
D.N.Angel and Mei no Naisho). Magical girls generally differ from catgirls and from magical girlfriends. Sometimes
the catgirl and magical girl character types cross over; the magical girl may have cat-ears and -tail as part of her
costume, or a catgirl could have some form of magical powers. Examples of these include Tokyo Mew Mew and
Hyper Police. A magical girl and a magical girlfriend typically differ in that the magical girlfriend is not the

General examples
A general example of a magical girl is Sakura Kinomoto from the series Cardcaptor Sakura, a normal girl who gains
magical powers, and becomes involved in a quest for various magical objects. Another magical girl includes Lucia
Nanami from Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch whose true identity as a mermaid princess prevents her from
declaring love to a young surfer; she battles enemies using the power of her voice and songs with the help from the
other mermaid princesses. Other magical-girl subjects may appear in the guise of witches, or (rarely) of psychics
(such as Hailey from Queen Bee). Examples of conventional magical girls include the protagonists of: Princess Tutu,
Sailor Moon, and Shugo Chara!.

Genre history
In 1962 Secret Akko-chan introduced the convention that the magical girl gets her powers from a "special object".[2]
Paul Gravett regards Princess Sapphire as a prototype for magical girls. Born with two hearts, one of a girl and one
of a boy, she must pass as a boy in order to save her kingdom from falling into the clutches of her evil uncle. In
feminine guise (with aid of a blonde wig) she romances a prince.[3]
The Japanese dub of the American TV series Bewitched became popular among young Japanese girls in the 1960s.[4]
This occurred in the formative years of Japanese animation as a genre, and animators wanted to produce a series
aimed at young girls; since the target audience approved of Bewitched, animators decided to make a series about a
witch not a witch in the usual Western sense of the word, resembling the evil witch in Hansel and Gretel, but a
witch in the same vein as Bewitched's Samantha: a witch who looked just like a normal person and used her magic
for everyday tasks and the good of others around her. This inspired Mitsuteru Yokoyama best known in the U.S.
Magical girl 149

as the creator of Tetsujin 28-go to invent Sally the Witch,[5] which aired on television in serial form in 1966.[2]
Commentators regard Cutie Honey, which began in 1973, as the prototype for the transforming magical-girl genre.
Sailor Moon, which began in 1992, later popularized the genre. At the same time, many related video games ware
made too.[6] Typically, such transforming sequences involve pirouetting, loss of normal clothes (usually censored)
and the sudden appearance of a magical girl uniform and weapon.
According to the analyst John Oppliger of AnimeNation, after 2003 magical girl animemarketed (at least partially)
to male audienceshas become a prolific trend alongside the traditional female-oriented works, coinciding with the
rise of moe-genre popularity.[7] As a prime example of this, note Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha.

Common themes and features

Magical girls generally obtain their powers from some sort of enchanted object: such as a pendant, a wand, a
compact, or a ribbon. By concentrating on this object, and in some cases by speaking a special phrase or command, a
girl undergoes an intricate transformation sequence and changes to her fully powered form. A major theme of
magical girl stories involves learning to harness these powers and develop them fully. Teams of magical girls often
learn to combine their powers to perform massive, super-charged attacks. Powers or no powers, though, magical
girls rarely suffer defeat even in normal form, as they tend to learn how to cope with opponents in their powerless
form, or they might have learned some ordinary acrobatics, martial arts, or other offensive or defensive actions to
supplement their supernatural talents, although they do need to use their power against whatever villains they have to
Magical girls do not operate alone in their adventures. They occasionally receive the help of mysterious, magical
boys. These boys sometimes disdain their female counterparts, but at other times they show romantic interest in one
of the girls, or vice versa. Another common theme involves some sort of talking-animal sidekick with magical
powers of its own. These pets rarely participate in combat; instead, they offer advice and help train the girls in the
use of their abilities.
Magical girls' power potential is generally inestimable, which also makes their abilities vaguely defined. While their
powers evidently have a source behind them, the extent and exact nature of those powers usually remains unknown
or unclear. However, because the function of magical girls is generally to unleash and harness such mystical powers,
and their ability to summon powers depends on their mind state, which, in turn, depends on various emotional factors
such as combat awareness, sense of duty, realizing what they must protect and the fact that they are the ones to
protect, and so forth. Thus a magical girl may summon extraordinary new magical powerspowers previously
unavailable to herin the last moments of an epic battle. Such powers can serve as a deus ex machina to resolve the
major conflict in a climactic fashion. To some extent, this seems to differ from shnen in that shnen tends to define
a hero's powers specifically and to indicate what those powers can achieve (in most cases said powers increase as
time goes by, usually by extensive training), whereas magical girl series tend to leave these factors ambiguous, and
instead allow her powers to be more free-flowing and open to change based on the situation. However, since magical
girls tend to harness their power using their mind and might even fuel their power with their mindful indomitability,
the extra powers can generally be attributed to a power source from their mind or the power sources' response to
their mind. Unlike shnen characters, who tend to have an affection in adventuring and heroism, magical girls are
generally peaceful and they tend to prefer the normal way of life, so they tend to develop combat awareness along
the way and experience an emotional upheaval during an epic battle, resulting in a dramatic power increase that
might be repeatable only when the situation calls for it.
Magical girls spend much of their time trying to keep their powers and their normal identities secret. The reasons for
this vary: they may wish to avoid capture by the enemy, they may simply feel embarrassed, and sometimes they have
even received severe warnings not to let their friends and family know about their secret powers. However, despite
their best attempts to keep their normal and supernatural lives separate,[9] strange events tend to occur to magical
girls in normal life with alarming regularity, forcing them to transform and fight.
Magical girl 150

Magical girl stories tend to be emotion-oriented, upbeat and cheerful. Magical girls often represent that special time
in a young, Japanese girl's life where she is free from adult responsibility and submission. The characters fight for
idealistic causes such as love, peace, hope, and beautyrarely for revenge. By forming teams, the heroines learn the
values of friendship and co-operation. Even the magical girls' enemies leave them alone most of the time; the girls
need to pursue the enemies and to attempt to thwart their plans. The genre can be intriguing due to the contrasts and
conflicts the magical girls represent, caught up as they are between the childish and the mature, or between
helplessness and power.

Magical girl in Japan

Until the appearance of Sailor Moon, the original term mah shjo in Japan referred primarily to girls who did not
transform themselves and who used magic for acts of mercy and succor rather than for heroism against evil; for
example, Mako of Mah no Mako-chan. In fact, magical girl series such as Himitsu no Akko-chan and Fushigi na
Merumo existed in which the heroines received the power to transform themselves into whatever they wished, not for
the sake of fighting evil, but for the sake of adventure. However, the term is generally used in the west to refer only
to evil-fighting magical girls. The series Sally, the Witch and Minky Momo are hardly known in the United States
although they are popular works of magical girl series in Japan.
One series transcended these two cases: Akazukin Chacha, a Japanese mah shjo manga, portrayed the adventures
of the protagonist Chacha and her friends. When Nihon Ad Systems and Studio Gallop adapted the manga into
anime, Chacha became a "Magical Princess" in order to battle with villains. Another genre-crossing series, Majokko
Megu-chan (Toei, 197475), sees the heroine, Megu, use her magic not only to fight villains but also to deal with
everyday situations (such as teaching her younger brother to swim). In 2004, Pretty Cure and Magical Girl Lyrical
Nanoha premiered, both shows featuring an emphasis on combat alongside magical girl based powers.

[1] Patrick Drazen, Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation, p 123, ISBN 1-880656-72-8
[2] Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. Harper Design. p.78. ISBN1-85669-391-0.
[3] Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics. Harper Design. p.77. ISBN1-85669-391-0.
[4] Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge
Press. pp.281. ISBN1-880656-72-8. OCLC50898281.
[5] Boren, James (September 2003). "The Making of a Magical Girl". Animerica (Viz Media) 11 (9): 31.
[6] "Magical Girl" (http:/ / www. uvlist. net/ groups/ info/ magicalgirl). UVL. . Retrieved July 13, 2010.
[7] Oppliger, John (2007-10-22). "Ask John: Is Magical Girl Anime for Male Viewers a New Trend?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/
2007/ 10/ 22/ ask-john-is-magical-girl-anime-for-male-viewers-a-new-trend/ ). AnimeNation. . Retrieved 2008-05-30.
[8] Magical girls appearing as fighters often obtain fighting powers after transforming into a warrior form, and they tend to become more agile
and situation-aware as the story proceeds, but they generally live an ordinary normal life without having explicitly learned fighting techniques
outside of battles.
[9] "Short anime glossary [ - ]" (in Russian). anime*magazine (3): 36. 2004. ISSN18108644.

Further reading
Yoshida, Kaori (2002). Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime (http://
yoshida.php3). Western Washington University. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
Napier, Susan J. (1998) [1998]. "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez,
Dolores P.. The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN0521631289.
Magical girlfriend 151

Magical girlfriend
A magical girlfriend (also referred to as exotic girlfriend, supernatural lover, or nonhuman woman[1] ) is a
female character often associated with romantic comedy anime series,[2] and is sometimes considered a genre of its
own,[3] or as the leading lady of the "fantastic romance" genre, which combines the fantasy and romance genres.[2]
As Thomas LaMarre states, "Anime fans become familiar with a whole range of female figures that are either not
really human (robots, aliens, deities, animals), or that possess extra-human powers of some kind or another (from
cyborg enhancements to magical or psychic abilities), which take them beyond the merely human woman."[1]
Magical girlfriends can be one or many in a single anime (always attached to the male lead). Because of the
tendency for rivals to appear even when there is one female lead and because of the unnatural gender balance among
the cast, magical girlfriend comedies are often conflated with harem comedies. A good example of this conflation is
Oh My Goddess![4] which is "one of the prototypical harem anime titles"[5] despite the short-lived nature of most of
the romantic rivalries.

Characteristics of the genre

Often series in the genre start with the male lead encountering the female lead either by pure chance or by an unusual
event, after which the female lead somehow becomes bound or otherwise dependent upon him, often forcing a
situation of cohabitation. In many cases, this situation is repeated with other characters (Tenchi Muyo!), overlapping
with the harem genre of anime. However the male lead is often inexperienced with women despite typically being a
"nice guy". This situation often prevents the relationship from advancing beyond a platonic level throughout most of
the series, as an ideal girlfriend doesn't come on strong herself and is generally passive in the relationship.
In parodies, the character may be too young (i.e. Nakahito Kagura in Steel Angel Kurumi; Negi Springfield in Mahou
Sensei Negima!) or otherwise have a more rational, ambivalent attitude towards women. A famous early reversal of
the cliche occurs with the overtly lecherous Ataru Moroboshi of Urusei Yatsura), who is simply uninterested in
monogamous relationships despite the fact few women besides his romantically-aggressive alien girlfriend find him
Another feature is that soon after the male and female leads begin to live together, other (usually female) characters
from the female (or male) lead's origin appear (friends, siblings, relatives, rivals or even enemies), either becoming
frequent visitors, cohabitors, or generally causing a disruption. or even moving in with the lead couple. Sometimes a
character from the male lead's origin will appear. Examples include Ai Yori Aoshi, where Kaoru's half-brother tries
to take Aoi for himself, and Omamori Himari, where demonslayer Kuesu Jinguuji appears in volume 3 to claim
Yuuto Amakawa as her betrothed.
Even when there is one female lead, various rivals always threaten the relationship between the lead characters, often
creating complicated "love polygons". These can vary from being from mundane characters such as men who fight
for the affection of the female (and rarely male) lead, or rivals from the female lead's origins.
The romantic relationship(s) in magical girlfriend comedies tend to remain static and platonic throughout the series.
Commonly episodes involve some sort of superficial threat to the static nature of the relationship (which could, and
often is, the male lead or the girlfriends' desire to get closer), which is almost always resolved in some way that
doesn't fundamentally alter that relationship. Action plotlines are often introduced through some sort of threat from
the magical girlfriends origins or through other means. If the romantic relationship(s) do move, it is very slow. For
example, Oh My Goddess starts with Belldandy contractually bound to Keiichi and the other goddesses trying to
separate them. After more than 100 chapters, Belldandy is no longer bound, but chooses to stay with Keiichi, and the
other goddesses admit that Keiichi is worthy of a goddess' love.
Magical girlfriend 152

The "ideal woman" personality, or yamato nadeshiko

Many magical girlfriends are considered by both fans and critics of the genre to be idealizations of woman-kind.
This model of the ideal Japanese woman, the yamato nadeshiko, is similar to that found in The Tale of Genji. Ideal
girlfriends are not necessarily magical in nature. Aoi of Ai Yori Aoshi is an example of an ideal woman and girlfriend
but is of mundane origin. Some "ideal" magical girlfriends may seem weak and emotionally needy, while others,
such as Belldandy of Oh My Goddess!, may possess a godly power stemming from their feminine traits.
Ideal women have absolute dedication to whatever work they do and for whomever they have great affection,
although depending on the character's actual talents this can make for anything from 'quite capable' to 'well-meaning
klutz'. They usually have calm, gentle and demure personalities. They generally suppress selfish desires in favor of
desiring good for others.
Ideal women are always naive or innocent, sometimes explained by the girlfriends origins which do not allow for
much experience with mainstream life. Paradoxically, other characters of the girlfriend's origin tend not to be as
naive (e.g. Belldandy of Oh My Goddess! is more naive than even her kid sister). Ideal women are emotionally
insightful, seeing the good in others when most wouldn't and forgiving their shortcomings.
Ideal women are examples of moe girls in anime. As such, ideal girlfriends are not overly independent. They are
proper Japanese women who typically will not initiate romantic action themselves, except in a delicate or indirect
manner (Aoi's romantic behavior might be considered clingy, even desperate at times, but is still done in a delicate
manner, except in ecchi dream sequences). However, numerous characters are so innocent as to not understand the
nature of their actions. Independence and aggression (especially in sexual matters) is a trait of parodies of the ideal
girlfriend such as Lum Invader in Urusei Yatsura, Kurumi in Steel Angel Kurumi or Hazuki in Tsukuyomi -Moon
Parodies of the ideal woman are often selfish and become involved with the male lead because of their own selfish
desires which are not (initially) shared by their mate. While the male lead usually has some sort of hold over his
girlfriend (as "husband," "fianc," provider, contract holder, client, creator, master, or even owner) the parody of the
ideal girlfriend either succeeds in inverting the power balance of relationship or simply reverses roles.
Shjo artists have written another sort of parody of magical girlfriends. Shjo writers put more emphasis on the girl.
Examples include Absolute Boyfriend, in which an ordinary girl gets a magical boyfriend,[6] and Ultra Maniac, in
which a Middle School girl meets and becomes best friends with a magical girlfriend; followed by their
misadventures at finding boyfriends.
Susan J. Napier has described the popularity of the ideal magical girlfriend, for example, Belldandy and Ai to be a
backlash against the "yellow cab" social phenomenon, where some Japanese women were seeking out sexual
relationships with non-Japanese men.[2]

Examples of "magical girlfriend" characters

Belldandy of Oh My Goddess!
Lum Invader of Urusei Yatsura[7] (a parody of the ideal girlfriend)
Chi of Chobits[1] [8] [9]
Saati Nanba of A.I. Love You[9]
Haruko of FLCL[9]
Shaorin of Mamotte Shugogetten[10]
Night of Absolute Boyfriend[6] (male equivalent of magical girlfriend)
Sun Seto of My Bride is a Mermaid
Valkyrie of UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie
Phryne of Fractale - Zac Bertschy of Anime News Network states: "let's just call it 'mildly interesting,
competently made magical girlfriend show'"[11]
Magical girlfriend 153

Magical girlfriends in Western media

Tiffany White of Pop Matters, in her review of the Mannequin movies, classifies magical girlfriend movies with this
Main protagonist is a loser who has no luck with girls or has a real girlfriend who doesnt understand him.
Main guy finds magical girlfriend (usually an angel, mermaid, or science experiment) and they fall in love.
An antagonist lurks about, and its sole purpose is exposing the magical girlfriend.
In the end, the protagonist and the magical girlfriend escape persecution, gain public acceptance, and spend the rest
of their lives happy ever after.
A.E. Sparrow of IGN, in reviewing Mamotte Shugogetten, also relates magical girlfriends shows to their western
counterparts:[10] "She's completely devoted to protecting her new "master" from any misfortune, utterly oblivious to
the ways of the modern world, and (in cute girl manga terms) a total knockout. If you're not completely immersed in
the world of manga yet, think "I Dream of Jeannie". If you are, then think "Oh! My Goddess!". Either one works if
you're looking for a comparison."

[1] Lamarre, Thomas (July 2006). "Platonic Sex: Perversion and Shjo Anime (Part One)". Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal 1 (1):
4559. doi:10.1177/1746847706065841.
[2] Napier, Susan (May 2001). "Carnival and Conservatism in Romantic Comedy" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=T7WhxNhF6vAC). Anime
from Akira to Princess Mononoke (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave. pp.139156. ISBN0-312-23863-0. . Retrieved 2008-01-03.
[3] Wong, Wendy Siuyi (2006). "Globalizing Manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and Beyond" (http:/ / books. google. com/
?id=CMYwUzMCj-gC& pg=PA28& dq="magical+ girlfriend"). Mechademia 1: 28. ISBN9780816649457. .
[4] Fujishima, Kosuke. Oh My Goddess! (manga, unflopped) Volume 3. p. 187
[5] Martin, Theron (2005-10-06). "Anime News Network review of Ah! My Goddess DVD 1" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ review/
ah-my-goddess/ dvd-1). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2007-08-09.
[6] Green, Jason. "Shojo Beat Review Absolute Boyfriend" (http:/ / www. playbackstl. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view&
id=2628& Itemid=31). playback:stl. . Retrieved 2009-05-11.
[7] Napier, Susan (May 2001). "Carnival and Conservatism in Romantic Comedy" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=T7WhxNhF6vAC). Anime
from Akira to Princess Mononoke (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave. pp.142151. ISBN0-312-23863-0. . Retrieved 2008-01-03.
[8] CLAMP. Chobits (manga) Volume 1, Chapter 2, Hideki ponders: You hear about it all the time. A guy finds a nice girl, takes her home.
Shes always cute. Then it turns out shes got some sort of special powers, and shell fall madly in love with the guy. Happens all the time. Ive
seen it on TV, like I Dream of Jeannie!
[9] Harvell, Jess (2006-10-11). "Boys Life: Sometimes a Giant Robot Isn't Just a Giant Robot in the World of Japanese Comics" (http:/ / www2.
citypaper. com/ news/ story. asp?id=12770). Baltimore City Paper. . Retrieved 2011-10-17.
[10] Sparrow, A.E. (2008-05-13). "Mamotte Shugogetten: Volume 1 Review" (http:/ / comics. ign. com/ articles/ 873/ 873178p1. html). IGN. .
Retrieved 2011-10-17.
[11] Bertschy, Zac (2011-01-04). "The Winter 2011 Anime Preview Guide" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ feature/ 2011-01-04/ zac).
Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2011-11-14.
[12] White, Tiffany (2008-05-14). "Mannequin & Mannequin 2: On the Move" (http:/ / www. popmatters. com/ pm/ review/
mannequin-mannequin-2-on-the-move). Pop Matters. . Retrieved 2011-11-14.
Mecha anime 154

Mecha anime
Mecha anime cover all series that revolve around the use of piloted robotic armors in battle, which is broken down
into two subcategories of Super Robot and Real Robot. Mecha series cover a wide variety of genres from comedy to
drama, though are always fantastical and larger-than-life in nature and feature large-scale battles and/or action
sequences. Mecha anime has contributed to a greater popularity of mecha and has expanded into other media, with
manga and video game adaptations, and has also contributed to the popularity of scale model robots.

The genre started with Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go (which was later animated in 1963 and
also released abroad as Gigantor). Its inclusion is debatable however, as the robot was controlled by remote instead
of a cockpit in the machine. Not long after that the genre was largely defined by author Go Nagai, into something
considerably more fantastical. Mazinger Z, his most famous creation, was not only the first successful Super Robot
anime series, but also the pioneer of the genre staples like weapons that were activated by the hero calling out their
names ("Rocket Punch!"). It was also a pioneer in die-cast metal toys such as the Chogokin series in Japan and the
Shogun Warriors in the U.S., that were (and still are) very popular with children and collectors. Getter Robo, for its
part, was the first combining robot, something that became a frequent design theme and was aggressively imitated in
similar mecha shows.
The appearance of Yoshiyuki Tomino's Gundam in 1979 is considered to have broken the mecha genre into two
subsets: the Super Robot show, which focused on ultratech mecha that often had elements of mysticism and tend to
use a "monster of the week" format; and the Real Robot show, in which the mecha are shown as tools rather than
semi-mystical creations, and the focus is less on the machines and more on the pilots. The introduction of Mobile
Suit Gundam in 1979 introduced a sort of plot paradox that would be revisited frequently in subsecuent Real Mecha
anime productions: a war show about giant war machines that was in fact anti-war at heart.
Other notable series include but are by no means limited to The Super Dimension Fortress Macross, which in its
modified Robotech form led to one of the breakthroughs of anime in the USA; Hideaki Anno's Gunbuster, which
along with Macross and Gundam is considered the pinnacle of mecha anime in the 1980s; the police-focused
Patlabor, which acted as a homage to the light-hearted and courage-focused stories of the 80s in a time of mostly
dramatic mecha series; and as examples of older shows, Go Lion (Voltron) and Giant Robo as well as Full Metal
Panic. Macross was especially noteworthy as it showed mecha fighting under combined arms tactics, ranging from
the infantry Spartan MBR-07-II to the jet fighter VF-1 Valkyrie and artillery Monster HWR-00-II.
One anime series that drew from the tradition of both super robot and Real Robot genres while being unique was
Hideaki Anno's Neon Genesis Evangelion. Considered by many to be the spiritual successor to Space Runaway
Ideon, Evangelion was highly successful and quite controversial, similar to its would-be predecessor. Another series,
Kishin Heidan, is less well known outside Japan.
The mecha genre in anime is still alive and well as the new millennium came, with revival OVAs like Getter Robo:
the Last Day, Diebuster, Mazinkaiser and Gurren Lagann from the Super Robot tradition, the Gundam Seed,
Gundam 00, Code Geass and Macross Frontier series from the Real Robot side, and Reideen, a recent remake of the
1975 hit series Brave Raideen.
Arguably, the concept of piloted mecha goes back decades before Tetsujin-28. The tripods featured in The War of
the Worlds, with advanced weaponry and dedicated piloting stations, are perhaps the forerunners of modern mecha.
More recent anime titles, such as Escaflowne and ZOIDS, introduce variant concepts to the mecha genre, such as
organic mecha and upscaled mechanical animals and vehicles.
Mecha anime 155

Scale models
Assembling and painting mecha scale model kits is a popular pastime among mecha enthusiasts. While many model
kits are not produced for distribution to the West, foreign fans can acquire them through comic book shops or online
retailers that cater to imports. Like other models such as cars or airplanes, more advanced kits require much more
intricate assembly.
Others enjoy building Lego mecha [1], whether to reproduce existing designs or create their very own. Lego mecha
construction can present unique engineering challenges; the balancing act between a high range of motion, good
structural stability, and aesthetic appeal can be difficult to manage. In 2006, the Lego Group released their own
somewhat manga-inspired mecha line with the Exo-Force series.

External links
Gears Online [2]
Brickshelf Lego mecha galleries [3]
Mecha Anime HQ [4]: Extensive coverage on Gundams and other mecha.

[1] http:/ / www. mechahub. com/
[2] http:/ / www. gearsonline. net
[3] http:/ / www. brickshelf. com/ cgi-bin/ customview. cgi?include=Mecha
[4] http:/ / www. mahq. net/

Sentai () in Japanese language is a word for a military unit and may be literally translated as "squadron", "task
force", "group" or "wing". The terms "regiment" and "flotilla", while sometimes used as translations of Sentai, are
also used to refer to larger formations.

World War II
It is perhaps best known as a term used during World War II by the military of the Empire of Japan, for Imperial
Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF) and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (IJNAS) military aviation units
equivalent to a group or wing in other air forces. However, the term had slightly different meanings in the IJAAF
and the IJNAS.
An IJAAF Sentai was made up of two to four squadrons (chtai). In the IJAAF, two or more Sentai comprised a
hikdan (air brigade). In the later stages of World War II, the IJAAF abolished chtai and divided its sentai into
hiktai (flying units) and seibitai (maintenance units). A sentai commander (sentaich) was generally a Lieutenant
In the IJNAS, a sentai was a larger unit: a kktai was the equivalent of an IJAAF sentai. Several sentai made up a
kantai (air fleet). In the IJNAS, a Sentaich was usually a Naval Captain.
Sentai 156

Super Sentai
The Super Sentai Series ( Sp Sentai Shirzu) is a franchise of Japanese tokusatsu television
dramas that uses the word sentai to describe a group of three or more costumed superheroes (whose core team
generally consists of five members) who often pilot mecha.

Dan Ford, 2004-05, "An introduction to the Japanese Army Air Force" [1] (warbirdforum.com)
Mark Kaiser, 1997-98, "Unit structure of IJA Air Force" [2] (self-published)
Mitch Schwartz, 2001, "East Asian/Pacific Area" [3] (self-published)
Peter Dunn, 2002, "Japanese Navy Air Force (JNAF) Operating in the Australian Area During WW2" [4]

[1] http:/ / www. warbirdforum. com/ jaaf. htm
[2] http:/ / markkaiser. com/ japaneseaviation/ jaafstructure. html
[3] http:/ / world. std. com/ ~Ted7/ minorafp. htm
[4] http:/ / home. st. net. au/ ~dunn/ jnaf/ jnaf. htm

Yaoi ()[1] also known as Boys' Love, is a Japanese popular term
for female-oriented fictional media that focus on homoerotic or
homoromantic male relationships, usually created by female authors.
As these depict males, there is an androphilic male audience as well,
however manga aimed at a gay male audience is considered a separate
genre. Originally referring to a specific type of djinshi (self-published
works) parody of mainstream anime and manga works, yaoi came to be
used as a generic term for female-oriented manga, anime, dating sims,
novels and djinshi featuring idealized homosexual male relationships.
The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme
( lit. "attacker") who pursues the uke ( lit. "receiver"). In
Japan, the term has largely been replaced by the rubric Boys' Love
( Bizu Rabu), which subsumes both parodies and
original works, and commercial as well as djinshi works. Although
the genre is called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as "BL"), the
males featured are pubescent or older. Works featuring prepubescent Example of shnen-ai artwork, originally
boys are labeled shotacon, and seen as a distinct genre. Yaoi (as it published at Animexx.
continues to be known among English-speaking fans) has spread
beyond Japan: both translated and original yaoi is now available in many countries and languages.

Yaoi began in the djinshi markets of Japan in the late 1970s/early 1980s as an outgrowth of shnen-ai ()
(also known as "Jun" or "tanbi"), but whereas shnen-ai (both commercial and djinshi) were original works, yaoi
were parodies of popular shnen anime and manga, such as Captain Tsubasa and Saint Seiya.
BL creators and fans are careful to distinguish the genre from bara, including "gay manga", which are created by and
for gay men.[2] [3] However, some male manga creators have produced BL works.[4] Yuri is a wider blanket term
than yaoi, because it refers to comics with lesbian relationships, regardless of the target audience, which may be
Yaoi 157

(presumptively heterosexual) men, heterosexual women, or lesbian women. Yuri made by and for lesbians tends to
resemble a distaff counterpart of bara, while men's yuri manga is more like yaoi manga, since both are targeted at the
opposite sex and are not about realistic homosexual relationships.


Although different meanings are often ascribed to the terms yaoi and Boy's Love (with yaoi generally said to be
more explicit and BL generally said to being less so),[5] there is conflicting information on their usage.[6]
Yaoi is an acronym created in the djinshi market of the late 1970s by Yasuko Sakata and Akiko Hatsu[7] and
popularized in the 1980s[8] standing for Yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi () "No
climax, no point, no meaning". This phrase was first used as a "euphemism for the content"[9] and refers to how yaoi,
as opposed to the "difficult to understand" shnen-ai of the Year 24 Group,[10] focused on "the yummy parts".[11]
The phrase also parodies a classical style of plot structure.[2] Kubota Mitsuyoshi says that Osamu Tezuka used yama
nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi to dismiss poor quality manga, and this was appropriated by the early yaoi authors.[9] As
of 1998, the term yaoi was considered "common knowledge to manga fans".[12] A joking alternative acronym among
fujoshi (female yaoi fans) for yaoi is Yamete, oshiri ga itai ( ?, "Stop, my ass hurts!") .[4] [13]
Originally in Japan, much BL material was called june (),[14] a name derived from June, a magazine that
published male/male tanbi ( "aesthetic") romances,[15] Kaoru Kurimoto had also written shnen ai mono
stories in the late 1970s that have been described as "the precursors of yaoi".[7] The term "bishnen manga" was used
in the 1970s, but became depreciated in the 1990s when the manga featured a broader range of protagonists than
adolescent boys.[] June magazine was named after the French author Jean Genet, with "june" being a play on the
Japanese pronunciation of his name.[16] Eventually the term "june" died out in favour of "BL," which remains the
most common name.[14] Mizoguchi suggests that publishers wishing to get a foothold in the June market coined the
term BL to disassociate the genre with the publisher of June.[]
Another term for yaoi is 801.[17] "801" can be read as "yaoi"[9] in the following form: the "short" reading of the
number 8 is "ya", 0 can be read as "o" a western influence, while the short reading for 1 is "i" (see Japanese
wordplay). For example, an Internet manga called Tonari no 801-chan, about a male otaku who dates a fujoshi, has
been adapted into a serialized shjo manga and a live-action film. 801-chan, the mascot of a Japanese shopping
centre, is used in the manga.[18]
Yaoi has become an umbrella term in the West for women's manga or Japanese-influenced comics with male-male
relationships,[14] and it is the term preferentially used by American manga publishers.[19] The actual name of the
genre aimed toward women in Japan is called 'BL' or 'Boy's Love'. BL is aimed at the shjo and josei demographics,
but is considered a separate category.[14] [20] Yaoi is used in Japan to include djinshi and sex scenes,[14] and does
not include gei comi, which is by and for gay men.[2] [14]
The terms yaoi and shnen-ai are sometimes used by western fans to differentiate between the contents of the genre.
In this case, yaoi is used to describe titles that contain largely sex scenes and other sexually explicit themes and
shnen-ai is used to describe titles that focus more on romance and do not include explicit sexual content, although
they may include implicit sexual content.[21] [22] [] When using the terms in this way, Gravitation is considered to be
shnen-ai due to its focus on the characters' careers rather than their love life, while the Gravitation Remix and
Megamix djinshi by the same author, which emphasize the characters' sexual relationships, would be considered
yaoi. Sometimes the word hentai is used as an additional modifier with yaoi "hentai yaoi" to denote the most
explicit titles.[23] However, Kaze to Ki no Uta[24] was groundbreaking in its depictions of "openly sexual
relationships", spurring the development of the Boys Love genre in shjo manga,[25] and the development of
sexually explicit amateur comics.[26] The use of yaoi to denote those works with explicit scenes sometimes clashes
with use of the word to describe the genre as a whole. Yaoi can be used by fans as a label for anime or manga-based
Yaoi 158

slash fiction.[27]
While shnen-ai literally means boy's love, the two terms are not synonymous. In Japan, shnen-ai used to refer to a
now obsolete subgenre of shjo manga about prepubescent boys in relationships ranging from the platonic to the
romantic and sexual. The term was originally used to describe ephebophilia, and in scholarly contexts still is. Boy's
Love, on the other hand, is used as a genre's name and refers to all titles regardless of sexual content or the ages of
characters in the story (with the exception of titles featuring prepubescent boys, which are categorized as shotacon, a
distinct genre with only peripheral connections to BL).[14]

Gei comi/Bara
Although sometimes conflated with "yaoi" by Anglophone commentators, gay manga ( gei comi) (also
called "Mens' Love" ( Menzu Rabu), ML, in Japan and "bara" in English) caters to a gay male audience
rather than a female one and tends to be made primarily by homosexual and bisexual male artists (such as Gengoroh
Tagame) and serialized in gay men's magazines.[28] It is an even smaller niche genre in Japan than yaoi manga; none
has been licensed in English and not much has been scanlated into English.[29] Considered a subgenre of seijin
( adult) (men's erotica) for gay males, bara resembles comics for men (seinen) rather than comics for female
readers (shjo/josei).
Recently a subgenre of BL has been introduced in Japan, so-called gachi muchi () or "muscley-chubby"
BL,[30] which offers more masculine body types and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists. Although
still marketed primarily to women,[30] it is also thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience.[31] This
material has been referred to as "bara" among English-speaking fans,[32] [33] but it is distinct in publishing terms (and
often in content and style), and should not be confused with gei comi proper.
The yaoi OVA Legend of the Blue Wolves is considered the first OVA for bara fans.

Seme and uke

The two participants in a yaoi relationship (sometimes also in yuri[34] )
are often referred to as seme ( or ) and uke ( or ).
These terms originated in martial arts and uke is used in Japanese gay
slang to mean the receptive partner in anal sex.[35] Aleardo Zanghellini
suggests that the martial arts terms have special significance to a
Japanese audience, as an "archetype" of male same-sex relationships
are those between samurai and their companions.[5] Seme derives from
the ichidan verb semeru ( to attack) and uke from the verb
ukeru ( or to receive). Seme and uke are analogous to
"top" and "bottom." The seme and uke are often drawn in the bishnen
style and are "highly idealised",[36] blending both masculine and
feminine qualities.[12]

Zanghellini suggests that the samurai archetype is responsible for "the

Artwork depicting a seme (left) and uke (right)
'hierarchical' structure and age difference" of some relationships
portrayed in yaoi and BL.[5] The seme is often depicted as the
stereotypical male of anime and manga culture: restrained, physically
powerful, and/or protective. The seme is generally older and taller,[37] with a stronger chin, shorter hair, smaller eyes,
and a more stereotypically masculine, even "macho",[38] demeanour than the uke. The seme usually pursues the uke,
hence the name. The uke usually has softer, androgynous, feminine features with bigger eyes and a smaller build,

and is often physically weaker than the seme.[19] [35] [39] Zanghellini feels that these stereotypes come from shjo
manga conventions of depicting heroines and her female rival, where the heroine would be portrayed as kawaii and
Yaoi 159

her rival would be portrayed as a sophisticated and adult beauty. When the characters were changed from female to
male, these characteristics remained in the seme and uke characters. In this view, readers identify with the uke.[5]
Readers may identify with the seme, or the uke, or both at the same time, or instead become a voyeur.[40]
Anal sex is a prevalent theme in yaoi, as nearly all stories feature it in some way.[35] The storyline where an uke is
reluctant to have anal sex with a seme is considered to be similar to the reader's reluctance to have sexual contact
with someone for the first time.[41] Zanghellini notes that anal sex is almost always in a position so that the
characters face each other, not in the doggy style Zanghelli states is portrayed by gay pornography. Zanghellini also
notes that the uke rarely fellates the seme, but instead receives the sexual and romantic attentions of the seme.[5]
One stereotype that is criticized is when the protagonists do not identify as gay, but rather are simply in love with
that particular person.[3] [35] This is said to heighten the theme of all-conquering love,[42] but is also pointed to as
avoiding having to address prejudices against people who consider themselves to have been born homosexual.[3] In
recent years, newer yaoi stories have characters that identify as gay.[4] Criticism of the stereotypically "girly"
behavior of the uke has also been prominent.[39] It has been questioned if yaoi is heteronormative, due to the
masculine seme and feminine uke stereotypes.[19] [43] Additionally, yaoi stories are often told from the uke's
perspective.[19] When the seme and uke roles are more closely adhered to, the uke character may be said to represent
a "'vagina/anus' to be penetrated", but even as he is penetrated, his phallus is not forgotten, for example, as a seme
simultaneously fellates and digitally penetrates his partner in Play Boy Blues. This combination of penetration and
phallic pleasure reinforces depictions of sex in yaoi as challenging the idea that there is an active, penetrating, male
sexuality as opposed to a passive, penetrated, female sexuality.[44]
Though these stereotypes are common, not all works adhere to them.[6] [39] Mark McLelland says that authors are
"interested in exploring, not repudiating" the dynamics between the insertive partner and the receptive partner.[45]
The possibility of switching roles is often a source of playful teasing and sexual excitement for the characters, which
has been said to show that the genre is aware of the "performative nature" of the roles.[46] Sometimes the bottom
character will be the aggressor in the relationship,[47] or the pair will switch their sexual roles.[48] Riba, (a
contraction of the English word "reversible") is used to describe a couple that yaoi fans think is still plausible when
the partners switch their seme/uke roles.[49] In another common mode of characters, the author will forego the
stylisations of the seme and uke, and will portray both lovers as "equally attractive handsome men". In this case,
whichever of the two who is ordinarily in charge will take the "passive role" in the bedroom.[38]

Shnen-ai originally connoted ephebophilia or pederasty in Japan, but from the early 1970s to the late 1980s, was
used to describe a new genre of shjo manga, primarily by the Year 24 Group, about beautiful boys in love.
Characteristics of shnen-ai include that they were exotic, often taking place in Europe,[50] and idealistic.[51] Suzuki
describes shnen-ai as being "pedantic" and "difficult to understand",[10] saying that they required "knowledge of
classic literature, history and science"[51] and were replete with "philosophical and abstract musings".[52] She says
that this challenged the young readers and expanded their minds. Although they could not understand the works at
first reading, as they grew older they would come to understand the works more. In the meantime, "the readers'
attention became focused on the figure of the male protagonist" and how he navigated his sexual relationships.[52] By
the late 1980s, the popularity of professionally published shnen-ai was declining, and yaoi djinshi was becoming
more popular.[11] In recent years, the terms yaoi and shnen-ai have sometimes been used by western fans to
differentiate between the contents of the genre. Yaoi has been used to describe titles that contain largely sex scenes
and other sexually explicit themes and shnen-ai is used to describe titles that focus more on romance and do not
include explicit sexual content, although they may include implicit sexual content.[21] [22] []
Yaoi 160

The djinshi subculture has been considered the Japanese equivalent of the English-language slash fandom,
especially as they both do not have typical "narrative structure", science fiction works are particularly popular in
both,[12] and they both originated in the 1970s.[8] [21] Typical yaoi djinshi features male-male pairings from
non-romantic, published manga and anime. Much of the material derives from male-oriented (shnen and seinen)
works which contained male-male close friendships and are perceived by fans to imply homosexual attraction,[11]
such as with Captain Tsubasa[2] and Saint Seiya, two titles which popularised yaoi in the 1980s.[8] Saint Seiya was
particularly popular as it had a large cast of characters, most of them male, which allowed "an incredible number" of
pairings between characters, although Andromeda Shun was one of the more popular characters to parody in yaoi, as
he was presented in the original series as "fragile and sensible, with fine traits, long hair, doe eyes and the most
feminine armour of the group".[53] For a time, yaoi djinshi was known as Captain Tsubasa.[54] Djinshi has been
described by Comiket's co-founder Yoshihiro Yonezawa as being "girls playing with dolls";[41] yaoi fans may ship
any male-male pairing, sometimes pairing off a favourite character, or creating a story about two men and fitting
existing characters into the story.[2]
Matt Thorn notes that unlike in slash fandom, a canonical homoerotic element "takes away the fun" of creating yaoi
for that series, for example, From Eroica with Love is more popular with slash fans than it has been with djinshi
artists.[11] Kazuko Suzuki outlines the thematic development of the yaoi fandom, from curiosity about sexuality, to
taking a parodic revenge against men, to a feminist protest, and lastly, exploring "ideal relationships".[55]
Important characteristics of the early yaoi djinshi were that they were amateur publications not controlled by media
restrictions, the stories were by teens for other teens and they were based on famous characters who were in their
teens or early twenties, the same age as the yaoi fans.[8] The rapid expansion of Comiket during the 1980s (less than
10,000 attendees in 1982-over 100,000 attendees in 1989) permitted many doujinshi authors to sell thousands of
copies of their works, earning a fair amount of money. Mizoguchi points out that June paid a small honorarium and
only published stories which suited their less-explicit style, leading to some authors of yaoi choosing not to try to
publish in June.[] During the early 1990s, djinshi played a part in popularising yaoi.[36] Yaoi djinshi has been
compared to the Plot, what Plot? subgenre of fan fiction.[56]
Though collectors often focus on djinshi based on particular manga, any male character may become the subject of
a yaoi djinshi, even characters from non-manga titles such as Harry Potter or The Lord of the Rings,[57] or video
games such as Kingdom Hearts and Final Fantasy,[58] [59] real people such as politicians, or personifications such as
Hetalia: Axis Powers, or complementary items such as salt and pepper or peanut butter and jelly. Patrick W.
Galbraith sums this up by saying "Among fujoshi, there seems no limit to the potential of transgressive intimacy
imagined in yaoi relationships in pursuit of moe."[60]
Most djinshi are created by amateurs who often work in "circles";[61] for example, the group CLAMP began as an
amateur djinshi circle, drawing Saint Seiya yaoi.[53] However, some professional artists, such as Kodaka Kazuma
create djinshi as well.[62] Some publishing companies have used djinshi published in the 1980s to spot talented
amateurs,[21] [35] such as Biblos hiring Youka Nitta.[63]
Convention when labelling stories differs between Japanese fandom and slash-influenced fandoms. In Japan, the
labelling is to put the two names of the characters separated by a multiplication sign, with the seme being first, and
the uke being second.[64]
Yaoi 161

Global BL
As Japanese yaoi gained popularity in the U.S., a few American artists began creating original English-language
manga for female readers featuring beautiful male-male couples,[8] [7] referred to as "American yaoi." The first
known original English-language BL comic is Sexual Espionage #1 by Daria McGrain, published in May 2002.[65]
Since approximately 2004, what started as a small subculture in North America has become a burgeoning market, as
new publishers began producing female-oriented male/male erotic comics and manga from creators outside
Japan.[66] Because creators from all parts of the globe are published in these "original English language" works, the
term "American Yaoi" fell out of use; terms like 'Original English Language yaoi'[67] shortened to 'Global Yaoi'.[68]
The term Global BL was coined by creators and newsgroups that wanted to distinguish the Asian specific content
known as 'yaoi', from the original English content, and so the term Global BL was used.[69] [70] "Global BL" was
shortened by comics author Tina Anderson in interviews and on her blog to the acronym 'GloBL'.[32] [71]
Current North American publishers of 'Global BL' are Yaoi Press,[72] and publisher DramaQueen, which debuted its
'Global BL' quarterly anthology RUSH in 2006.[73] RUSH ceased publishing when the company experienced
financial issues and were uncommunicative with the creators involved in the project.[74] [75] [76] Dramaqueen began
publishing again in 2010,[77] and on their forums, CEO Tran Nguyen indicated RUSH would return in a new format
in 2011.[78]
Former publishers include Iris Print.[79] [80]
Prolific GloBL creators include Yayoi Neko,[81] Dany & Dany,[82] [83] Tina Anderson,[84] and Studio Kosen.[85]
The most recent publishing boom in GloBL is happening in Germany, with a handful of original German titles
gaining popularity for being set in Asia.[86] Some publishers of German GloBL are traditional manga publishers like
Carlsen Manga,[87] and small press publishers specialising in GloBL like The Wild Side[88] and Fireangels

Mizoguchi divides BL publication into two eras the first era from the
time of June to 2004, and a second era from 2004 onwards.[90] The
earliest magazine about Boy's Love was June, which began in 1978 as
a response to the success of commercially published manga such as the
works of Keiko Takemiya, Moto Hagio and Yumiko shima.[64] Other
factors was the rising popularity of depictions of bishnen in the
djinshi market and ambiguous musicians such as David Bowie and Books on display at a San Francisco Kinokuniya
Queen. June was meant to have an underground, "cultish, bookstore

guerilla-style" feeling most of its manga artists were new talent.

Frederik L. Schodt describes June as "a kind of 'readers' magazine, created by and for the readers." Essays about the
characteristics of the June genre were published with the manga in June. In 1982, Shsetsu June ("Novel June"), a
sister magazine to June began publication. Its content is text-only stories with male romance.[91] Nagaike believes
that the true "revolution" in BL culture was when it began to be commercially published en masse in the 1990s.[92]
As of the mid-1990s, Shsetsu June outsold June.[91] As of 2008, June was still running,[93] although the target
audience's ages have widened and the style of stories has changed from being "soft love" to more overtly
pornographic.[64] The magazine Allan ( Aran) (19801984) which was more text-based than June was
influential in cultivating a lesbian culture.[94] The Japanese publisher Biblos was a BL publisher established in 1988
but their bankruptcy due to failure of their parent company[35] caused them to fold in April 2006.[95] Most of their
titles were picked up by Libre.[96] A 2006 breakdown of the Japanese commercial BL market estimated it grosses

approximately 12 billion yen annually, with novel sales generating 250 million yen per month, manga generating
400 million yen per month, CDs generating 180 million yen per month, and video games generating 160 million yen
Yaoi 162

per month.[92] A 2010 report estimated that the Boys Love market was worth approximately 21.3 billion yen in both
2009 and 2010.[97]
Japanese BL works are sold to English-speaking countries by companies that translate and print them in English;
companies such as Digital Manga Publishing with their imprints 801 Media (for explicit BL) and June (for "romantic
and sweet" BL),[21] as well as DramaQueen, Kitty Media, Central Park Media's Be Beautiful,[19] Tokyopop under
their imprint BLU, Broccoli under their Boysenberry imprint, Aurora Publishing under their imprint Deux Press, and
Yaoi Generation. The first publisher of BL in translation may be ComicsOne, which released two volumes of
shnen-ai manga as e-books in January 2000.[98] In 2001, the only BL-type manga available in print in English were
the barely-suggestive Banana Fish and X/1999,[99] and in 2002, commercially translated BL was "not common".[100]
According to McLelland, the earliest officially translated BL manga in print appeared in 2003, and as of 2006 there
were about 130 English-translated works commercially available.[35] In March 2007, Media Blasters stopped selling
shnen manga and increased their yaoi lines, anticipating to publish one or two titles per month that year.[101] In
2007 following Biblos' bankruptcy, Libre published an open letter on their website which said that English-language
publishers had to renegotiate publishing rights for Biblos' former series with Libre, specifically naming CPM's
releases as "illegal".[102] [103] Diamond Comic Distributors estimated the U.S. sales of yaoi manga as being
approximately $US 6 million in 2007. In English-speaking countries explicit stories are either sold online or
displayed in shrink wrap.[104] Mark McLelland surveyed 135 yaoi books published in North America between 2003
and 2006, and found that 14% was rated at 13 years or over, 39% was rated for readers aged 15 years or over, and
47% was rated for readers 18 years or older.[105] In 2008, BLU reported that although bookshops are becoming more
willing to stock BL titles, they are conservative about how the books are labelled, leading to books being shrink
wrapped and rated for over 18s which previously would have garnered an over 16 rating, and do not "really follow
through on the [adult content] promise."[7]
In 2010, Libre Publishing sent cease and desist letters to English language BL scanlation groups.[106]
Tokyopop and its imprint BLU folded in May 2011. In October 2011, Viz Media launched the BL imprint SuBLime
in collaboration with the Japanese BL publisher Libre and the Japanese retailer Animate to publish English-language
BL for the print and worldwide digital market.[107] [108]

Thematic elements
BL has similar themes to heterosexual shjo manga, several exploring adolescent romance and the "interiority of the
characters."[109] Nagaike identifies common narratives as being toshishita zeme, where the younger partner
penetrates the older, shota mono about young adolescents, riiman mono, about salarymen, and gakuen mono, stories
set on a campus.[44] Common characters in yaoi are schoolboys and yakuza.[110] Sometimes, schoolboys are depicted
in sexual situations, which is controversial when these titles are licensed in countries where underage sexuality and
its depiction is taboo.[111]

Female characters
Female characters often have very minor roles in yaoi, or are absent altogether.[42] [112] Suzuki notes that mothers, in
particular, are portrayed badly, such as Takuto's mother from Zetsuai 1989, who killed her husband in front of her
young son. Suzuki suggests this is because the character and the reader are attempting to replace a mother's lacking
"unconditional love" with the "forbidden" all-consuming love presented in yaoi.[113] Nariko Enomoto, a yaoi author,
says she feels that when women are shown, "it can't help but become weirdly real".[114] When yaoi fan works are
created from a series which originally contained females (such as Gundam Wing),[115] the female's role is either
minimised or the character is killed off.[112] Early shnen-ai and yaoi has been regarded as misogynistic, but Lunsing
detects a decrease in misogynistic comments from characters and regards the development of the yuri genre as
reflecting a reduction of internal misogyny.[4] Alternatively, the yaoi fandom is also viewed as a "refuge" from
mainstream culture, which in this paradigm is viewed as inherently misogynistic.[8] Fumi Yoshinaga is regarded as a
Yaoi 163

creator who usually includes at least one sympathetic female character in her works.[116] Also, there are many female
characters in Yaoi who are Fujoshi themselves.

Gachi muchi
Recently, a subgenre of BL has been introduced in Japan, so-called "muscley-chubby BL" or gachi muchi (from
gacchiri ( muscular) and muchimuchi ( chubby))[30] which offers more masculine body types
and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists. Although still marketed primarily to women,[30] it is also
thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience.[117] Although this type of material has also been referred to as
"bara" among English-speaking fans,[32] [33] it is not equivalent to gei comi proper (although there is considerable
overlap, as writers, artists and art styles cross over between the two genres). Prior to the development of gachi
muchi, the greatest overlap between yaoi and bara authors has been in BDSM-themed publications[118] such as Zettai
Reido, a yaoi anthology magazine which had a number of openly male contributors.[4] Several female yaoi authors
who have done BDSM-themed yaoi have been recruited to contribute stories to BDSM-themed bara anthologies or
special issues.[118]

Gay rights
Many BL manga have fantastic, historic or futuristic settings, and many fans consider BL to be an "escapist
fantasy".[119] Homophobia, when it is presented as an issue at all,[6] is used as a plot device to "heighten the
drama",[120] or to show the purity of the leads love.[] Matt Thorn has suggested that as BL is a romance narrative,
having strong political themes may be a "turn off" to the readers.[11] Yaoi narratives show characters "overcoming
obstacles, often internal, to be together". The theme of the victory of the protagonists in yaoi has been compared
favourably to Western fairy tales, as the latter intends to enforce the status quo, but yaoi is "about desire" and seeks
"to explore, not circumscribe, possibilities."[121] Hisako Miyoshi, vice editor-in-chief for Libre Publishing, has said
that she feels that boys love manga has become less realist, with more comedic elements or being "simply for
entertainment". She thinks that earlier BL focused "more on the homosexual way of life with a realist
perspective."[122] Makoto Tateno has said that she feels that BL with a focus on realistic gay issues "won't become a
trend, because girls like fiction more than realism."[123] Akiko Mizoguchi feels that while depictions of
homosexuality as "shameful" to heighten dramatic tension are still shown, BL is including more coming out stories
which portray a gradual acceptance from the wider community. Mizoguchi feels that BL is showing far more
gay-friendly depictions of Japanese society, which she regards as activism.[90]

Most BL manga have been said to "foster an aesthetic of purity, even when depicting hard-core sex acts."[124] Sandra
Buckley felt that the characters have equality in their relationships, which were "free of domination and
exploitation".[125] Yaoi stories are often strongly homosocial, which gives the men freedom to bond with each other
and to pursue shared goals together, as in dojinshi representations of Captain Tsubasa, or to rival each other, as in
Haru wo Daiteita. This spiritual bond and equal partnership shown overcomes the male-female power hierarchy.[44]

According to Suzuki, sexual intercourse in yaoi is a way of expressing commitment to a partner, and "apparent
violence" in sex is a "measure of passion". Suzuki elaborates that when a woman is raped, she is stigmatised by
society, but in yaoi narratives, boys who are loved by their rapists are still "imbued with innocence", a theme she
attributes to Kaze to Ki no Uta.[126] According to Nagaike, rape scenes in yaoi are rarely presented as crimes with an
assaulter and a victim. Nagaike feels that scenes where a seme rapes an uke are not symptomatic of the seme's
"disruptive sexual/violent desires", but instead are a signifier of the "uncontrollable love" felt by a seme for an uke.
Instead of being depicted as a crime, rape scenes can be a plot device used to make the uke see the seme as more
Yaoi 164

than just a good friend, resulting in the uke falling in love with the seme.[44] Rape fantasy themes have been said to
free the protagonist of responsibility in sex, leading to the narrative climax of the story, where "the protagonist takes
responsibility for his own sexuality".[111] The 2003-2005 Under Grand Hotel, set in a men's prison, has been praised
for showing a more realistic depiction of rape.[127]

June stories with suicide endings were popular,[91] as was "watching men suffer".[128] Matt Thorn theorises that
depicting abuse in yaoi is a coping mechanism for some yaoi fans.[11] By the mid 1990s the fashion was for happy
endings.[91] When tragic endings are shown, the cause is not infidelity, but "the cruel and intrusive demands of an
uncompromising outside world."[129]

Critical attention
Boys' Love manga has received considerable critical attention, especially after translations of BL became
commercially available outside of Japan in the 21st century.[11] Different critics and commentators have had very
different views of BL. In 1983, Frederik L. Schodt observed that aesthetically depicted male-male homosexual
relationships had become popular among female readers as an extension of bisexual themes already present in shjo
manga.[130] Japanese critics have seen BL as allowing girls to distance sex from their own bodies,[131] as allowing
girls to avoid adult female sexuality while simultaneously creating greater fluidity in perceptions of gender and
sexuality,[132] and as rejecting socially mandated gender roles as a first step toward feminism.[133] In more
elaborate theorizing, Kazuko Suzuki sees BL manga emerging from girls' contempt and dislike for masculine
heterosexism and from an effort to define "ideal relationships" among men.[134] Mizoguchi, writing in 2003, feels
that BL is a "female-gendered space", as the writers, readers, artists and most of the editors of BL are female.[135] BL
has been compared to romance novels by English-speaking librarians.[37] [120] Parallels have also been noted in the
popularity of lesbianism in pornography,[35] [41] and yaoi has been called a form of "female fetishism".[136] Mariko
hara, a science fiction writer, has said that she wrote yaoi Kirk/Spock fiction as a teen because she could not enjoy
"conventional pornography, which had been made for men", and that she had found a "limitless freedom" in yaoi,
much like in science fiction.[137]
Other commentators have suggested that more radical gender-political issues underlie BL. Shihomi Sakakibara
(1998) argued that yaoi fans, including herself, were homosexually oriented female-to-male transsexuals.[138] For
Sandra Buckley, bishnen narratives champion the imagined potentialities of alternative [gender]
differentiations"[139] and James Welker described the bishnen character as "queer", observing that manga critic
Akiko Mizoguchi saw shnen-ai as playing a role in how she herself had become a lesbian.[140] Dru Pagliassotti sees
this and the yaoi rons as indicating that for Japanese gay and lesbian readers, BL is not as far removed from reality
as heterosexual female readers like to claim.[7] Welker added that shnen-ai liberates readers "not just from
patriarchy, but from gender dualism and heteronormativity."[140]
Some gay and lesbian commentators have criticized how gay identity is portrayed in BL, most notably in the yaoi
rons or "yaoi debate" of 19921997.[4] [] In May 1992, gay activist Masaki Sat criticized yaoi fans and artists in an
open letter to the feminist zine (or minikomi in Japanese) Choisir.[4] [] Sat said that yaoi failed to provide accurate
information about gay men, promoted a destructive image of gay men as wealthy, handsome, and well-educated,
ignored prejudice and discrimination against gay men in society, and co-opted gay men as masturbation fantasies.[]
An extensive debate ensued, with yaoi fans and artists arguing that yaoi is entertainment for women, not education
for gay men, and that yaoi characters are not meant to represent "real gay men."[] As internet resources for gay men
developed in the 1990s, the yaoi debate waned[141] but has had later echoes, for example when Mizoguchi in 2003
characterised stereotypes in modern BL as being "unrealistic and homophobic".[142] There has been similar criticism
to the Japanese yaoi debate in the English-speaking fandom.[6] [143] [144] [145] In 1993 and 2004, Matt Thorn pointed
to the complexity of these phenomena, and suggested that yaoi and slash fiction fans are discontented with the
Yaoi 165

standards of femininity to which they are expected to adhere and a social environment that does not validate or
sympathize with that discontent.[11] [146]
As women have greater economic power, commercial demand for the sexualization of men may correlate. Korean
manhwa writer Jin Seok Jeon wrote in a commentary to Vol. 5, Chp 2 of an Arabian Nights themed shnen-ai work,
A Night of a Thousand Dreams, "Men are now marketable. It's also a time where women are big consumers and can
buy almost anything they desire. Some men think this is degrading...but the tables have turned, and I like the fact that
men are just as commercialized now." He jokes that after researching oil wrestling, which requires extreme physical
fitness, he does not feel as marketable, illustrating that yaoi and other pornography exploiting men is subject to
traditional criticisms, such as sexual objectification, creating unrealistic expectations and negative body images.
In China, BL became very popular in the late 1990s, attracting media attention, which became negative, focusing on
the challenge it posed to "heterosexual hegemony". Publishing and distributing BL is illegal in mainland China.[147]
Zanghellini notes that due to the "characteristics of the yaoi/BL genre" of showing characters who are often underage
engaging in romantic and sexual situations, child pornography laws in Australia and Canada "may lend themselves to
targeting yaoi/BL work". He notes that in the UK, cartoons are exempt from child pornography laws unless they are
used for child grooming.[5]
In 2001, a controversy erupted in Thailand regarding homosexual male comics. Television reports labeled the comics
as negative influences, while a newspaper falsely stated that most of the comics were not copyrighted as the
publishers feared arrest for posting the content; in reality most of the titles were likely illegally published without
permission from the original Japanese publishers. The shnen ai comics provided profits for the comic shops, which
sold between 30 to 50 such comics per day. The moral panic regarding the male homosexual comics subsided. The
Thai girls felt too embarrassed to read heterosexual stories, so they read homosexual male-themed josei and shjo
stories, which they saw as "unthreatening."[148]
Youka Nitta has said that "even in Japan, reading boys' love isn't something that parents encourage" and encouraged
any parents who had concerns about her works to read them.[149] Although in Japan, concern about manga has been
mostly directed to shnen manga, in 2006, an email campaign was launched against the availability of BL manga in
Sakai City's public library. In August 2008, the library decided to stop buying more BL, and to keep its existing BL
in a collection restricted to adult readers. That November, the library was contacted by people who protested against
the removal, regarding it as "a form of sexual discrimination". The Japanese media ran stories on how much BL was
in public libraries, and emphasised that this sexual material had been loaned out to minors. Debate ensued on Mixi, a
Japanese social networking site, and eventually the library returned its BL to the public collection. Mark McLelland
suggests that BL may become "a major battlefront for proponents and detractors of 'gender free' policies in
employment, education and elsewhere."[150]

[1] In careful Japanese enunciation, all three vowels are pronounced separately, for a three-mora word, Japanese pronunciation:[ja.o.i]. The
English equivalent is yah-oy.
[2] Wilson, Brent; Toku, Masami. "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy (http:/ / www. csuchico. edu/ ~mtoku/
vc/ Articles/ toku/ Wil_Toku_BoysLove. html) 2003
[3] Noh, Sueen (2002). "Reading YAOI Comics: An Analysis of Korean Girls' Fandom" (http:/ / moongsil. com/ study/ yaoi_eng. pdf) (PDF). .
[4] Lunsing, Wim. Yaoi Rons: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography
(http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue12/ lunsing. html) Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 12, January
2006 Accessed 12 August 2008.
[5] Zanghellini, Aleardo (2009). "Underage Sex and Romance in Japanese Homoerotic Manga and Anime". Social & Legal Studies 18 (2):
159177. doi:10.1177/0964663909103623.
[6] Masaki, Lyle. (6 January 2008) Yowie!: The Stateside appeal of boy-meets-boy YAOI comics (http:/ / www. afterelton. com/ Print/ 2008/ 1/
yaoi?) AfterElton.com
[7] Kotani Mari, foreword to Sait Tamaki (2007) "Otaku Sexuality" in Christopher Bolton, Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr., and Takayuki Tatsumi
ed., page 223 Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/ Books/ B/ bolton_robot. html) University of Minnesota Press
ISBN 978-0-8166-4974-7
Yaoi 166

[8] McHarry, Mark (November 2003). "Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love" (http:/ / classic-web. archive. org/ web/ 20080417001927/ http:/ / www.
guidemag. com/ temp/ yaoi/ a/ mcharry_yaoi. html). The Guide. .
[9] Ingulsrud, John E.; Allen, Kate (2009). Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse. Rowman & Littlefield. p.47.
[10] Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls:
Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.252 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5, ISBN 0-8476-9137-3.
[11] Thorn, Matthew. (2004) Girls And Women Getting Out Of Hand: The Pleasure And Politics Of Japan's Amateur Comics Community.
(http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ outofhand/ index. php) pp. 169186, In Fanning the Flames: Fans and Consumer Culture in
Contemporary Japan, William W. Kelly, ed., State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-6032-0. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
[12] Kinsella, Sharon Japanese Subculture in the 1990s: Otaku and the Amateur Manga Movement (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 133236) Journal
of Japanese Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Summer, 1998), pp. 289316
[13] Fujimoto, Yukari (1991) "Shjo manga ni okeru 'shnen ai' no imi" ("The Meaning of 'Boys' Love' in Shjo Manga"). In N. Mizuta, ed. New
Feminism Review, Vol. 2: Onna to hygen ("Women and Expression"). Tokyo: Gakuy Shob, ISBN 4-313-84042-7. http:/ / matt-thorn. com/
shoujo_manga/ fujimoto. php (in Japanese). Accessed August 12, 2008. " " "Stop, because my butt hurts"
[14] "Definitions From Japan: BL, Yaoi, June" (http:/ / replay. web. archive. org/ 20090605111837/ http:/ / www. aestheticism. com/ visitors/
reference/ jpnse_def/ index. htm). aestheticism.com. .
[15] Tanbi was used for stories written for and about the worship of beauty, and romance between older men and beautiful youths using
particularly flowery language and unusual kanji. Mori Mari in Koibito tachi no mori (?, A Lovers' Forest) , considered "the first
work of BL per se",Pagliassotti, Dru (November 2008) 'Reading Boys' Love in the West' (http:/ / www. participations. org/ Volume 5/ Issue 2/
5_02_pagliassotti. htm) Particip@tions Volume 5, Issue 2 Special Edition used such unusual kanji for her characters' names that she converted
to spelling their names in katakana.Vincent, Keith (2007) " A Japanese Electra and Her Queer Progeny (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/
Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. html)" Mechademia 2 pp. 6479 The word was originally used to describe an author's distinctive style, for
example, the styles of Yukio Mishima and Jun'ichir Tanizaki. Akiko Mizoguchi describes its application to male-male stories as
"misleading", but notes "it was the most commonly used term in the early 1990s."Mizoguchi Akiko (2003). "Male-Male Romance by and for
Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions". U.S.-Japan Womens Journal, 25: 49-75.
[16] "Digital Manga Names New Yaoi Imprint: A Tribute to Jean Genet" (http:/ / www. icv2. com/ articles/ news/ 8191. html). .
[17] Aoyama, Tomoko (April 2009). "Eureka Discovers Culture Girls, Fujoshi, and BL: Essay Review of Three Issues of the Japanese Literary
magazine, Yuriika (Eureka)" (http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue20/ aoyama. htm). Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the
Pacific 20. .
[18] "Tonari no 801 chan Fujoshi Manga Adapted for Shjo Mag" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2007-11-15/
tonari-no-801-chan-fujoshi-manga-adapted-for-shojo-mag). .
[19] Jones, V.E. "He Loves Him, She Loves Them: Japanese comics about gay men are increasingly popular among women" (http:/ / www.
boston. com/ ae/ books/ articles/ 2005/ 04/ 25/ he_loves_him_she_loves_them/ ). Boston.com. April 2005.
[20] Thorn, Matt What Shjo Manga Are and Are Not A Quick Guide for the Confused (http:/ / www. matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/
whatisandisnt. php)
[21] Strickland, Elizabeth. "Drawn Together." (http:/ / www. villagevoice. com/ 2006-10-31/ news/ drawn-together/ full) The Village Voice.
November 2, 2006.
[22] Cha, Kai-Ming (7 March 2005) Yaoi Manga: What Girls Like? (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/ print/ 20050307/
29621-yaoi-manga-what-girls-like-. html) Publishers Weekly
[23] Thompson, David (8 September 2003) Hello boys (http:/ / www. newstatesman. com/ 200309080034) New Statesman
[24] First serialised in Shjo Comic in January 1976, Kaze has been called "the first commercially published boys' love story", but this claim has
been challenged, as the first male-male kiss was in the 1970 In the Sunroom, also by Keiko Takemiya. Journalista the news weblog of The
Comics Journal Blog Archive Mar. 27, 2007: The first draft of history (some revisions may be necessary) (http:/ / archives. tcj. com/
journalista/ ?p=321).Tcj.com. Retrieved on 2008-12-23 Matt Thorn says that Kaze was "the first shjo manga to portray romantic and sexual
relationships between boys", and that Takemiya first thought of Kaze nine years before it was approved for publication. Takemiya attributes
the gap between the idea and its publication to the sexual elements of the story.
[25] Toku, Masami (2007) " Shojo Manga! Girls Comics! A Mirror of Girls Dreams (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/ Books/ L/
lunning_mechademia2. html)" Mechademia 2 p. 27
[26] Matsui, Midori. (1993) "Little girls were little boys: Displaced Femininity in the representation of homosexuality in Japanese girls' comics,"
in Gunew, S. and Yeatman, A. (eds.) Feminism and The Politics of Difference, pp.177196. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
[27] Aquila, Meredith (2007) " Ranma 1/2 Fan Fiction Writers: New Narrative Themes or the Same Old Story? (http:/ / www. upress. umn. edu/
Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. html)" Mechademia 2 p.39
[28] McLelland, Mark (2000). Male homosexuality in modern Japan. Routledge. pp.131 and ff. ISBN070071300X.
[29] Dirk Deppey. "A Comics Reader's Guide to Manga Scanlations" (http:/ / archives. tcj. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view&
id=430& Itemid=70& limit=1& limitstart=0). The Comics Journal. . Retrieved 2007-07-11.
[30] "WeeklyAkibaWords: Gachi Muchi ()" (http:/ / en. akibablog. net/ archives/ 2009/ 02/ weeklyakibawords_gachi_muchi. html).
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[31] Anderson, Tina (date unknown). "That Damn Bara Article!" (http:/ / ggymeta. wordpress. com/ popular-gay-manga-posts/ that-bara-article/
). Guns, Guys & Yaoi. . Retrieved 4/5/09.
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[32] "GloBL and Gay Comics Chicks On Anime" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ chicks-on-anime/ 2008-11-25). Anime News
Network. 2008-11-25. . Retrieved 2009-09-08.
[33] "How To Find Bara In English" (http:/ / www. yaoi911. com/ how-to-find-bara-in-english/ ). Yaoi 911. 2008-09-07. . Retrieved 2009-09-08.
[34] Aoki, Deb (3 March 2007) Interview: Erica Friedman Page 2 (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ mangaartistswriters/ a/ EFriedman_2. htm)
"Because the dynamic of the seme / uke is so well known, it's bound to show up in yuri. ... In general, I'm going to say no. There is much less
obsession with pursued/pursuer in yuri manga than there is in yaoi."
[35] McLelland, Mark. Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? (http:/ / blogs. arts. unimelb. edu. au/ refractory/ 2006/ 12/ 04/
why-are-japanese-girls-comics-full-of-boys-bonking1-mark-mclelland/ ) Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol.10, 2006/2007
[36] McLelland, Mark. " Male homosexuality and modern culture in modern Japan (http:/ / intersections. anu. edu. au/ issue3/ mclelland2.
html)." Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 3, January 2000
[37] Camper, Cathy (2006) Yaoi 101: Girls Love "Boys' Love." (http:/ / www. wcwonline. org/ Women-s-Review-of-Books-May/ June-2006/
[38] Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls:
Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.253 ISBN 0-8476-9136-5, ISBN 0-8476-9137-3.
[39] Keller, Katherine Seme and Uke? Make Me Puke (http:/ / www. sequentialtart. com/ article. php?id=864) Sequential Tart February 2008
[40] http:/ / www. imageandnarrative. be/ index. php/ imagenarrative/ article/ viewFile/ 130/ 101
[41] Avila, K. "Boy's Love and Yaoi Revisited" (http:/ / www. sequentialtart. com/ archive/ jan05/ art_0105_1. shtml). Sequential Tart. January
[42] Lees, Sharon (June 2006). "Yaoi and Boys Love" (http:/ / www. akibaangels. com/ articles/ 06_2006/ yaoiandBL. php). Akiba Angels.
[43] Linderstrm, Jenny Boys' Love: En studie av maskuliniteter och maktrelationer i yaoi manga (http:/ / sh. diva-portal. org/ smash/ record.
[44] Nagaike Kazumi (2003). "Perverse Sexualities, Perverse Desires: Representations of Female Fantasies and Yaoi Manga as Pornography
Directed at Women. U.S.-Japan Womens Journal, 25: 76-103
[45] McLelland, Mark. The World of Yaoi: The Internet, Censorship and the Global Boys Love Fandom (http:/ / ro. uow. edu. au/ cgi/
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[46] Wood, Andrea. (Spring 2006). "Straight" Women, Queer Texts: Boy-Love Manga and the Rise of a Global Counterpublic. WSQ: Women's
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[47] This character has been called an "Osoi uke" (, "attacking uke"). He is usually paired with a "Hetare seme" (, "wimpy
[48] Manry, Gia. (16 April 2008) It's A Yaoi Thing: Boys Who Love Boys and the Women Who Love Them (http:/ / www. escapistmagazine.
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[51] Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls:
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Further reading
Aoyama, Tomoko (1988) "Male homosexuality as treated by Japanese women writers" in The Japanese
Trajectory: Modernization and Beyond, Gavan McCormack, Yoshio Sugimoto eds. Cambridge University Press,
ISBN 0-521-34515-4.
Brienza, Casey (6 February 2004). "An Introduction to Korean Manhwa" (http://caseybrienza.com/
BRIENZA_MANHWA.pdf) Aestheticism.com
Butcher, Christopher (11 December 2007). "Queer love manga style" (http://www.xtra.ca/public/viewstory.
aspx?AFF_TYPE=3&STORY_ID=4057&PUB_TEMPLATE_ID=1). Xtra!.
Camper, Cathy (2006). "Boys, Boys, Boys: Kazuma Kodaka Interview". Giant Robot (42): 6063.
Cooper, Lisa "Laugh it up" Newtype USA, October 2007 (Volume 6 Number 10)
Fujimoto Yukari (2004). "Transgender: Female Hermaphrodites and Male Androgynes". U.S.-Japan Womens
Journal (http://www.josai.jp/jicpas/usjwj/) 27: 76.
Yaoi 171

Galbraith, Patrick W. (2011). "Fujoshi: Fantasy Play and Transgressive Intimacy among "Rotten Girls" in
Contemporary Japan". Signs 37 (1): 211232. doi:10.1086/660182.
van de Goor, Sophie (2010) Slashing Japan: the self-depathology of the female fan (http://www.mos.umu.se/
Haggerty, George E. (2000). Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures. Taylor & Francis. ISBN
Kakinuma Eiko, Kurihara Chiyo et al. (eds.), Tanbi-Shosetsu, Gay-Bungaku Book Guide, 1993. ISBN
KUCI Subversities 18 October 2010 (http://www.kuci.org/podcastfiles/600/Sv101018.mp3)
Lees, Sharon (July 2006). "Be Beautiful: Yaoi Publishers Interviews Part 3" (http://www.akibaangels.com/
articles/07_2006/bebeautiful.php). Akiba Angels.
Levi, Antonia (1996) Samurai from Outer Space: Understanding Japanese Animation
Levi, Antonia; McHarry, Mark; Pagliassotti, Dru, eds (2010). Boys' Love Manga: Essays on the Sexual Ambiguity
and Cross-Cultural Fandom of the Genre. McFarland & Company. ISBN9780786441952
Lewis, Marilyn Jaye (editor), Zowie! It's Yaoi!: Western Girls Write Hot Stories of Boys' Love. Philadelphia:
Running Press, 2006. ISBN 1-56025-910-8.
Mautner, Chris (2007) " Introduction to yaoi, part 1 (http://panelsandpixels.blogspot.com/2007/03/
McCarthy, Helen, Jonathan Clements The Erotic Anime Movie Guide pub Titan (London) 1998 ISBN
McHarry, Mark (2011). "Girls Doing Boys Doing Boys: Boys' Love, Masculinity and Sexual Identities." In
Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog (Eds.) Mangatopia: Essays on Anime and Manga in the Modern World. New
York: ABC-Clio. ISBN 9781591589082
McLelland, Mark (2011). "Australia's 'Child-Abuse Materials' legislation, internet regulation and the juridification
of the imagination". International Journal of Cultural Studies. doi:10.1177/1367877911421082.
Nishimura Mari (2001) Aniparo to Yaoi Ohta Publishing ISBN 978-4-87233-643-6
Newtype USA, August 2007 (Volume 6 Number 8) "Why we like it"
Newtype USA, November 2007 (Vol. 6 No. 11) "Favorite authors" p.109
Ogi, Fusami (Autumn 2001) "Beyond Shoujo, Blending Gender: Subverting the Homogendered World in Shoujo
Manga (Japanese Comics for Girls)." International Journal of Comic Art 3 (2): 151-161.
Pilcher, Tim; Moore, Alan; Kannenberg, Gene Jr. (2009). Erotic Comics 2: A Graphic History from the Liberated
'70s to the Internet. Abrams ComicArts. ISBN9780810972773.
PiQ, June 2008 (Volume 1 Number 3)
PiQ, July 2008 (Volume 1 Number 4)
Saito, Kumiko (2011) "Desire in Subtext: Gender, Fandom, and Womens Male-Male Homoerotic Parodies in
Contemporary Japan" in Mechademia 6.
Salek, Rebecca (June 2005) More Than Just Mommy and Daddy: "Nontraditional" Families in Comics (http://
www.sequentialtart.com/archive/june05/allaccess_0605.shtml) Sequential Tart
Solomon, Charles (30 June 2004) Young men in love (http://articles.latimes.com/2004/jun/30/entertainment/
et-solomon30) Los Angeles Times
Thompson, Jason (31 July 2006) Boku no Shonen Ai (or "Jason overanalyzes something and takes all the fun out
of it") (http://khyungbird.livejournal.com/12890.html) livejournal.com archive (http://web.archive.org/
Welker, James. (2011) "Flower Tribes and Female Desire: Complicating Early Female Consumption of Male
Homosexuality in Shjo Manga" in Mechademia 6.
Yuri 172

Yuri (), also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love ( gruzu rabu),[1] is a Japanese
jargon term for content and a genre involving love between women in manga, anime, and related Japanese media.[2]
Yuri can focus either on the sexual, the spiritual, or the emotional aspects of the relationship, the latter two
sometimes being called shjo-ai by western fans.[4]
The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian literature of early twentieth century,[5] [6] with
pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya.[7] Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed
works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda.[] The 1990s
brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in djinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind
of content.[8] In 2003 the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri was launched under the name Yuri
Shimai, followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, launched after the former was discontinued in 2004.[9] [10]
Although yuri originated in female-targeted (shjo, josei) works, today it is featured in male-targeted (shnen,
seinen) ones as well.[6] Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and
Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S,
which was launched in 2007.[11]

Definition and semantic drift

The word yuri () literally means "lily", and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name.[2] In 1976, It
Bungaku, editor of Barazoku (, lit. rose tribe), a magazine geared primarily towards gay men, first used the
term yurizoku (, lit. lily tribe) in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku
no heya (, lit. lily tribe's room).[12] It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the
term. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were necessarily lesbians, but some were and
gradually an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan ( Aran) began running a Yuri
Tsshin (?, "Lily Communication") personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate.[13]
Along the way, many djinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai
(pornographic) djinshi, and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped.[4] Since then, the
meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the
intimate emotional connections between women.[14]

Japanese vs. western usage

As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual,
spiritual, or romantic; explicit or implied) in manga, anime, and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of
stories primarily dealing with this content.[3] [14] The wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" ( gruzu
rabu), occasionally spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is also used with this meaning.[1]
Yuri is generally a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since
2005.[1] [3] The term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is primarily used by the publishers.[14] [15]
In North America, yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed
primarily as a variety of hentai.[4] Following the pattern of shnen-ai, a term already in use in North America to
describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, western fans coined the term shjo-ai to describe
yuri without explicit sex.[4] In Japan the term shjo-ai (, lit. girl love) is not used with this meaning,[4] and
instead tends to denote pedophilia (actual or perceived), with a similar meaning to the term lolicon (Lolita
complex).[16] Still, the western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s, picking up connotations from the Japanese
Yuri 173

use.[14] American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted
the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.[17] [18]

Thematic history
Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya,[7] a novelist
active in the Taish and Shwa periods of Japan.[19] Yoshiya pioneered in Japanese lesbian literature, including the
early twentieth century Class S genre.[20] These kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet
platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death.[19] The root of this
genre is in part the contemporary understanding that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female
development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood.[21] Class S stories in particular tell about strong
emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.[20]
Around the 1970s yuri began to appear in shjo manga,[] presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian
literature of the early twentieth century.[5] This early yuri generally features an older looking, more sophisticated
woman, and a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their
families, and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a
tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end.[5] In general, the yuri manga of this time could
not avoid a tragic ending,[22] [23] Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian
relationship,[] being a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s.[24] It is
also in the 1970s that shjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism,[25] sometimes depicting
female characters as manly looking, which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka
Revue.[26] These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works,[27] including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisama
e... and Claudine...!.[28] Some shnen works of this period feature lesbian characters too, but these are mostly
depicted as fanservice and comic relief.[29]
Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s:[8] manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni
Akisato, published in 1992, began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics.[30] This stand
side-by-side with djinshi works, which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor
Moon,[31] the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian
couple.[6] [27] Furthermore, many of the people behind this show went on to make Revolutionary Girl Utena, a shjo
anime series where the main storyline focuses on a yuri relationship, which is widely regarded today as a
masterpiece.[32] Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series, based on a homonym seinen manga
by Go Nagai, began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too.[33] The first magazines specifically
targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period, containing sections featuring yuri manga.[34] These stories
range from high school crush to lesbian life and love, featuring different degrees of sexual content.[34] [35] It is at this
point (the mid 1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable.[27]
The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru, which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri
novels.[36] This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya:[37] strong emotional bonds
between females, mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic, like those portrayed
in Class S.[37] Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama, active since the early 1990s, with works
involving love stories among lesbians.[36] It is around this point (the early 2000s) that the first magazines specifically
dedicated to yuri manga were launched,[9] [10] containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense
emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful, to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in
First Love Sisters,[38] passing by realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no
Jken.[39] Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well,[40] [41] sometimes in
combination with other themes, including mecha and science fiction.[42] [43] Examples include series such as
Kannazuki no Miko, Blue Drop, and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl. In addition, male-targeted stories tend to make
extensive use of moe and bishjo characterizations.[11]
Yuri 174

Sun Magazine published the yuri manga anthology
magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November
2004 in quarterly installments, ending with only five
issues.[9] After the magazine's discontinuation, Comic Yuri
Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival
of the magazine,[3] containing manga by many of the
authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai.[10]
Like its predecessor, Comic Yuri Hime is also published
quarterly.[10] A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named
Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication
by Ichijinsha in June 2007.[44] Unlike either Yuri Shimai or
Comic Yuri Hime, Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a
male audience.[11] Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel
adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri
novels under their shjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko
Iris, scheduled to begin on July 19, 2008.[45] Some Japanese
lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections,
including the now-defunct magazines Anise (199697,
200103) and Phryn (1995).[34] Carmilla, an erotic lesbian
publication,[34] released an anthology of yuri manga called
Girl's Only.[46] Additionally, Mist (199699), a ladies' Cover of the autumn 2004 issue of Yuri Shimai, illustrated by
Reine Hibiki, the illustrator for the yuri light novel series
comic manga magazine, contained sexually explicit yuri
Maria-sama ga Miteru.
manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest

The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC
Publishing.[47] Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?, which in 2006 was course material for
Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University,[48] [49] and their annual yuri manga
anthology Yuri Monogatari; both first released in 2003.[47] The latter collects stories by American, European and
Japanese creators, including Akiko Morishima, Althea Keaton, Kristina Kolhi, Tomomi Nakasora and Eriko
Tadeno.[50] [51] These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming
out and sexual orientation.[51] Besides ALC Publishing, the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also
incurred in the genre, with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga
and the Strawberry Panic! light novels.[18] On October 24, 2006, Seven Seas announced the launch of their
specialized yuri manga line, which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga, The Last Uniform,[18] and
Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.[38]

Yuri series
These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. The first list shows series in which attraction
between females and/or lesbian themes play a central role in their storylines; most of which are labeled by publishers
as yuri. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief, as fanservice,
subtext, or for character development in a larger, sometimes unrelated context; these are generally recognized by the
fandom as to contain prevalent elements of yuri (even if the series is not marketed as such).
Yuri 175

Yuri as a central element

[52] [53] [32]

12 Days Girls' Revolution Read or Dream
[54] [53] [55]
Akai Ito Hayate X Blade Revolutionary Girl Utena
[53] Hen [56]
Akatsuki-iro no Senpuku Majo Sasameki Koto
[30] [43] [24]
Anata to Scandal Ice Shiroi Heya no Futari
[57] [58] [59]
Aoi Hana Iono-sama Fanatics Shjo Sect
[60] [53] [32]
Blue Kanamemo Simoun
[61] [42] [62]
Blue Drop Kannazuki no Miko Steel Angel Kurumi 2
[63] [18] [32] [18]
Candy Boy Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl Strawberry Panic!
[64] [65] [65]
Chirality Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo Strawberry Shake Sweet
[30] [28] [66]
Claudine...! Love My Life Stray Little Devil
[32] [67] [18]
Devil Lady Maka-Maka Tetragrammaton Labyrinth
[68] [69] [18]
El Cazador de la Bruja Maria-sama ga Miteru The Last Uniform
[38] [30] [70]
First Love Sisters Miyuki-chan in Wonderland The Sword of Paros
[71] [30] [38]
Girl Friends Oniisama e... Voiceful
[53] [72] [73]
Girls' Life Piet Yami to Bshi to Hon no Tabibito

Yuri as an additional element

[74] [75] [32] [76]

.hack//Sign I My Me Strawberry Eggs R.O.D the TV
[77] [78] [79] [80]
Ace o Nerae! Ikki Tousen S.S. Astro
[81] [30] [30]
Agent Aika Kaguyahime Sailor Moon
[82] [83] [84]
Air Master Kaleido Star Saki
[30] [84] [85]
Angel/Dust Kanamemo Sakura no Sono
[72] [86] [87]
Azumanga Daioh Koihime Mus Sasami: Magical Girls Club
[88] [89] [90]
Battle Athletes Victory Lady Snowblood Seraphim Call
[91] [92] [93]
Best Student Council Loveless Shattered Angels
[94] [95] [32]
Bubblegum Crisis Madlax Stellvia of the Universe
[96] [97] [98]
Burst Angel Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Steel Angel Kurumi
[30] [99] [100]
Cardcaptor Sakura Maria Holic Stratos 4
[101] [102] [32]
Choir! Maze Strawberry Marshmallow
[103] [104] [105]
Confidential Confessions Mnemosyne Strike Witches
[106] [32] [107]
Cosplay Complex My-HiME Sukeban Deka
[108] [32] [109]
Cutie Honey My-Otome Tactical Roar
[110] [111] [112]
Doki Doki School Hours Najica Blitz Tactics The Rose of Versailles
[113] [114] [84]
El-Hazard Negima!: Magister Negi Magi Toaru Kagaku no Railgun
[115] [114] [116]
Excel Saga Negima!? Touka Gettan
[117] [118] [119]
Family Complex Ninja Nonsense Ultimate Girls
[120] [72] [121]
Fight! Iczer One Noir Uta Kata
Yuri 176

[122] [123] [124]

Futari wa Pretty Cure Project A-ko Vampire Princess Miyu
[125] [126] [127]
Girls Bravo Puni Puni Poemy Venus Versus Virus
[128] [129] [30]
Godannar Queen's Blade X/1999
[130] [131] [72]
Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite Rakka Rysui Yokohama Kaidashi Kik
[132] [133]
He Is My Master Red Garden
[134] [30]
High School Girls' RG Veda

Notes and references

[1] Morishima, Akiko (January 2008). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku" (in Japanese). Comic Yuri Hime (11). ASIN B00120LP56.
[2] Charlton, Sabdha. "Yuri Fandom on the Internet" (http:/ / www. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ). Yuricon. . Retrieved
2008-01-13. Query Wayback (http:/ / wayback. archive. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ )
Bibalex Wayback (http:/ / web. archive. bibalex. org/ web/ */ http:/ / www. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ) WebCite
(http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query. php?url=http:/ / www. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ) Wikiwix (http:/ / wikiwix.
com/ cache/ ?url=http:/ / www. yuricon. com/ essays/ yuri-fandom-on-the-internet/ ).
[3] "Joseidshi no LOVE wo egaita, danshi kinsei no "Yuri bmu" gayattekuru!?" (http:/ / www. cyzo. com/ 2008/ 02/ post_350. html) (in
Japanese). Cyzo. . Retrieved 2008-03-21.
[4] Friedman, Erica. "What is Yuri?" (http:/ / www. yuricon. org/ essays/ whatisyuri. html). What are Yuri and Shoujoai, anyway?. Yuricon and
ALC Publishing. . Retrieved 20 May 2005.
[5] Fujimoto, Yukari (1998) (in Japanese). Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo.
[6] "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2)" (http:/ / manga. about. com/ od/ mangaartistswriters/ a/ EFriedman_2. htm). Manga. About.com. .
Retrieved 2008-03-06.
[7] Tsuchiya, Hiromi (March 912, 2000). "Yoshiya Nobukos Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and
Feminism" (http:/ / www. aasianst. org/ absts/ 2000abst/ Japan/ J-12. htm). Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese
Culture (San Diego, CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting). . Retrieved 2008-02-24.
[8] "Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi" (http:/ / d. hatena. ne. jp/ kaien/ 20060828/ p1) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2008-02-16.
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Yuri 179

[84] Friedman, Erika. "Top Ten Yuri Anime of 2009" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 12/ top-ten-yuri-anime-of-2009. html). Okazu. .
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[85] Welker, James. "From The Cherry Orchard to Sakura no Sono: Translating Sexual Identities" (http:/ / apq. anu. edu. au/ archive/ apq3/
James_Welker. html). Australian National University. . Retrieved 2008-11-25.
[86] Friedman, Erika. "Yuri Anime: Koihime Musou" (http:/ / okhttp:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 09/ yuri-anime-koihime-musou. html).
Okazu. . Retrieved 2011-03-17.
[87] Brienza, Casey (2009-01-02). "Sasami: Magical Girls Club Review" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ review/ sasami/
magical-girls-club/ dvd-season-one). Anime News Network. . Retrieved 2009-07-23. "Probably the most annoying recurring interaction is
An-An's puppy love infatuation with Tsukasa."
[88] Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 3)" (http:/ / www. afterellen. com/ archive/ ellen/ Print/ 2005/ 8/
yuri3. html). AfterEllen.com. . Retrieved 2008-01-13.
[89] "Lady Snowblood Review" (http:/ / www. rpg. net/ reviews/ archive/ 12/ 12135. phtml). RPGnet. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[90] Frost, Marc. "Seraphim Call Review" (http:/ / www. asian-stuff. com/ anime/ review_85. html). Asian-Stuff. . Retrieved 2008-03-18. "Some
scenes of girls in bathing suits and lingerie. Lesbian themes."
[91] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Best Student Council, Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 04/
yuri-anime-best-student-council-volume. html). Okazu. . Retrieved 2010-12-27.
[92] Friedman, Erica. "Loveless" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Loveless). Okazu. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[93] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Kyoshiro to Towa no Sora, Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 02/
yuri-manga-kyoshiro-to-towa-no-sora. html). . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[94] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Bubblegum Crisis/Bugglegum Crash" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 02/
bubblegum-crisisbugglegum-crash. html). Okazu. . Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[95] Houston, Don. "Madlax: Complete Collection Review" (http:/ / www. dvdtalk. com/ reviews/ read. php?ID=29311). DVD Talk. . Retrieved
2007-11-30. "As with other genre picks, there were some hinted at lesbian overtures but nothing as overt as expected."
[96] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Bakuretsu Tenshi, Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 04/ bakuretsu-tenshi-volume-1. htmlp). .
"Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 05/ yuri-manga-bakaretsu-tenshi-volume-2. html). . "Yuri
Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 10/ yuri-manga-bakuretsu-tenshi-vol-3. html). Okazu. . Retrieved
[97] Friedman, Erica. "Nanoha" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Nanoha). Okazu. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[98] "Steel Angel Kurumi Vol. 1 - Angel On My Shoulder Review" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070515001158/ www. otakureview. net/
182. html). Otaku Review. 2004-10-08. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. otakureview. net/ 182. html) on 2007-05-15. . Retrieved
2009-07-28. "and the rival maid who is a lesbian."
[99] "Maria Holic Manga Confirmed to Get TV Anime" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2008-08-07/
maria-holic-manga-confirmed-to-get-tv-anime). Anime News Network. 2008-08-07. . Retrieved 2008-08-07.
[100] Beveridge, Chris. "Stratos 4 Vol. #3 Review" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 3369. php). AnimeOnDVD.com. .
Retrieved 2007-11-20. "It's a military show that's not a military show (...) with an aliens invasion storyline that's tied to lesbianism and
consuming mass quantities of food."
[101] Friedman, Erica (2008-11-10). "Yuri Manga: Choir!, Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 11/ yuri-manga-choir-volume-1.
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[102] "Maze TV" (http:/ / www. themanime. org/ viewreview. php?id=193). T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. . Retrieved 2009-07-26. "Solude is
exactly like Fuuko-chan from Flame of Recca (or heck, Asagiri Priss, weaponry-wise), with the lesbian bent of Akane from KOR."
[103] "Confidential Confessions Volume 4" (http:/ / www. tokyopop. com/ product/ 1157/ ConfidentialConfessions/ 4.
html?PHPSESSID=6a24d8a9808cc0aebe33596b01c6310a). Tokyopop. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[104] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Mnemosyne 2" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 03/ yuri-anime-mnemosyne-ova-2. html). . Retrieved
[105] Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2009). "Strike Witches Anime" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ strike-witches-anime. html). .
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[106] Crocker, Janet. "Cosplay Complex Review" (http:/ / www. animefringe. com/ magazine/ 2004/ 07/ review/ 02. php). Animefringe. .
Retrieved 2007-12-01. "Jenny, a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena."
[107] Friedman, Erica (March 3, 2004). "Yuri Manga: Sukeban Deka" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2004/ 03/ yuri-manga-sukeban-deka. html).
. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
[108] Friedman, Erica. "Cutey Honey" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Cutey Honey). Okazu. . Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[109] Tran, Can. "Anime Review of Tactical Roar" (http:/ / www. groundreport. com/ Arts_and_Culture/ Anime-Review-of-Tactical-Roar).
GroundReport. . Retrieved 2008-02-04.
[110] "Doki Doki School Hours" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0406463/ plotsummary). IMDb. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[111] Divers, Allen. "Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ review/ najica-blitz-tactics/ dvd-1). Anime
News Network. . Retrieved 2007-11-28. "Yes, this show is full of panty shots, upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone."
[112] Shamoon, Deborah (2007). "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shjo Manga" (http:/ / www.
upress. umn. edu/ Books/ L/ lunning_mechademia2. html). In Lunning, Frenchy. Networks of Desire. Mechademia. 2. University of Minnesota
Press. p.8, pp.1011. ISBN978-0-8166-5266-2. .
Yuri 180

[113] Thom, Martin. "El-Hazard OVA Vol. #3 Review" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 6391. php).
AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-04.
[114] Friedman, Erica. "Negima" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Negima). Okazu. . Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[115] Crandol, Mike. "Excel Saga DVD 4 Review" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ reviews/ display. php?id=390). Anime News
Network. . Retrieved 2007-11-21. Yegulalp, Serdar. "DVD of the Week (07-31-03): Excel Saga" (http:/ / www. thegline. com/
dvd-of-the-week/ 2003/ 07-31-2003. htm). TheGline.com. . Retrieved 2007-11-21.
[116] Friedman, Erica. "Another Anime With Yuri In It: Touka Gettan" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 02/
another-anime-with-yuri-in-it-touka. html). . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[117] Ellinwood, Holly. "Family Complex Review" (http:/ / www. activeanime. com/ html/ content/ view/ 2497/ 57/ ). Active Anime. . Retrieved
[118] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Ninja Nonsense, Volume 4 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 07/
yuri-anime-ninja-nonsense-volume-4. html). Okazu. . Retrieved 2007-11-15.
[119] Jones, Tim. "Ultimate Girls Review" (http:/ / www. themanime. org/ viewreview. php?id=797). THEM Anime. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[120] Ross, Carlos. "Iczer-One Review" (http:/ / www. themanime. org/ viewreview. php?id=149). THEM Anime Reviews. . Retrieved
[121] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Uta-Kata Revisited" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2004/ 12/ yuri-anime-uta-kata-revisited. html). Okazu. .
Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[122] "Is Pretty Cure the Next Sailor Moon?" (http:/ / www. animenation. net/ blog/ 2007/ 05/ 23/ ask-john-is-pretty-cure-the-next-sailor-moon/
). AnimeNation. . Retrieved 2007-11-29. "Furthermore, the first two seasons of Pretty Cure illustrated co-star Nagisa's crush on her classmate
Shjo Fujimura, and frequently hinted at a developing lesbian affection between the two female stars."
[123] Anderson, Matthew. "Project Ako Review" (http:/ / www. dvdvisionjapan. com/ ako. htm). DVD Vision Japan. . Retrieved 2007-11-28.
"Yes, Bko is a lesbian, in love with Cko, and all of the people on the ship were women."
[124] Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez, Dolores P.. The Worlds of Japanese
Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp.97 and p.107. ISBN0521631289.
[125] Gilvear, Kevin. "Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review" (http:/ / www. dvdtimes. co. uk/ content. php?contentid=57458). DVD Times. . Retrieved
2007-12-03. "Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4, and thus we get another character insight when we learn
that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie."
[126] Smith, Lesley. "Puni Puni Poemy Review" (http:/ / www. dvdtimes. co. uk/ content. php?contentid=59200). DVD Times. . Retrieved
[127] "Venus Versus Virus Ultimate Guide" (http:/ / gomanga. com/ news/ features_vvv_01. php). Seven Seas Entertainment. . Retrieved
2007-12-08. "There is no explicit yuri content in the manga, but the pages are full of subtext."
[128] Beveridge, Chris. "Godannar Vol. #5 Review" (http:/ / www. animeondvd. com/ reviews2/ disc_reviews/ 5223. php). AnimeOnDVD.com.
. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
[129] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Queen's Blade Anime, Volume 1 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 12/
queens-blade-anime-volume-1-english. html). Okazu. . Retrieved 2011-02-07.
[130] Toole, Mike. "Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite vols. 1-3 Review" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071107174426/ http:/ / www.
animejump. com/ index. php?module=prodreviews& func=showcontent& id=659). Anime Jump. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.
animejump. com/ index. php?module=prodreviews& func=showcontent& id=659) on 2007-11-07. . Retrieved 2007-12-04. "The maids are
rounded out by Yashima, a security maid with dark skin, a speech impediment, and a lesbian crush on Konoe."
[131] Erica Friedman (2006-12-06). "Yuri Manga: Rakka Ryuusui" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2006/ 12/ yuri-manga-rakka-ryuusui. html). .
Retrieved 2007-11-30.
[132] Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2008). "He is My Master Manga, Volume 1 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 02/
he-is-my-master-manga-volume-1. html). . Retrieved 2008-04-22.
[133] Friedman, Erica (April 19, 2007). "Yuri Manga: Red Garden, Volume 1" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 04/
yuri-manga-red-garden-volume-1. html). . Retrieved 2008-04-22.
[134] Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: High School Girls, Volume 8 (English)" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 06/
yuri-manga-high-school-girls-volume-8. html). Okazu. . Retrieved 2008-04-23.
Yuri 181

External links
Shjo-ai Archive (http://www.shoujoai.com/)
Yuricon (http://www.yuricon.org/)
Small Call (http://smallcall.net/yuri/) List of all the yuri-related djinshi circles present in Comiket since 2001.
Yuribu (http://yuribu.net/) Group of one-hundred yuri djinshi circles that will be present in Comitia 84.

Selected biographies

Go Nagai
Go Nagai ()

Go Nagai at Japan Expo 2008, Paris, France (2008-07-04).

Born Kiyoshi Nagai ()

September 6, 1945
Wajima, Ishikawa, Japan

Residence Japan

Nationality Japanese

Occupation Manga artist

Knownfor Harenchi Gakuen

Mazinger Z
Cutie Honey
Violence Jack
UFO Robot Grendizer

Awards 4th Kodansha Manga

Susano Oh


[1] (Japanese) Dynamic Productions

Go Nagai 183

Kiyoshi Nagai ( Nagai Kiyoshi, born September 6, 1945 in

Wajima, Ishikawa), better known by the penname Go Nagai (
Nagai G), is a Japanese manga artist and a prolific author of science
fiction, fantasy, horror and erotica.[2] He made his professional debut
in 1967 with Meakashi Polikichi, but is best known for creating Cutie
Honey, Devilman, and Mazinger Z in the 1970s. In 2005, he became a
Character Design professor at the Osaka University of Arts. Since
2009, he is a member of Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize's nominating

Go Nagai in his studio, Tokyo, 1987; photo by
Sally Larsen

Early life
Go Nagai was born on September 6, 1945 [3] in the Ishikawa Prefecture city of Wajima.[4] He is the son of Yoshio
and Fujiko Nagai (),[5] and the fourth of five brothers.[6] His family had just returned from
Shangai. While he was still in his early childhood, he along with his mother and his four brothers moved to Tokyo
after the premature passing of his father.[4] As a child, he was influenced by the work of Gustave Dor (specifically,
a Japanese edition of the Divine Comedy) and Osamu Tezuka (his brother Yasutaka gave him a copy of Lost
World).[7] [8] [9]
After he graduated from the Metropolitan Itabashi High School of Tokyo,[6] he entered the world of manga. While
passing his ronin year in a prep school in order to aim at the Waseda University, he suffered a severe case of diarrhea
for 3 weeks. Aware of his own mortality, he wanted to leave some evidence that he had lived, by doing something
that he liked as a child: working on manga. He was determined to create one work of manga in what he thought were
his last months.[10] As Nagai prepared for the task, he went to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with catarrh of
the colon, and soon healed. But this was the turning point in his life.[10] Convinced that he would continue working
on manga, he stopped attending school after three months and started living as a ronin.[10]
With the help of his brother Yasutaka, he created his first manga works.[7] [11] Aiming to be a manga artist, despite
the fact that his mother opposed his manga career, he submitted his works for publication finding many rejected.[10]
It is said that when the young Nagai submitted his tables to publishers, his mother secretly convinced publishers to
reject them.[4] [12] [13] However, his work was noticed by Shnen Sunday, which contacted Shotaro Ishinomori.[11]
Thanks to some trial manga he created with the help of his brother Yasutaka, he was finally accepted in the studio of
Ishinomori in 1965.[7]
The trial manga was about a science fiction ninja,[9] and was a prototype for a different story, Kuro no Shishi. Nagai
was 19 years old when he made this work; it started at 15 or 16 pages and ended up being 88 pages long after a year,
and was untitled at that time.[9] Ishinomori saw this work and praised Nagai for it, but commented that the design
was too chunky and should improve it a little. Two or three days later, Nagai was invited to become an assistant with
Ishinomori and this work was forgotten until 2007, when it was published for the first time, in the magazine Comic
Ran TWINS Sengoku Busho Retsuden ( TWINS ) by LEED, under the name Satsujinsha
(()).[14] His professional career began in 1967, despite the opposition of his mother.[12]
Go Nagai 184

First works
After working as assistant of Shotaro Ishinomori, his very first professional manga work was Meakashi Polikichi
( also ),[5] [15] a very short gag comedy oneshot, published in November 1967 in the
magazine Bokura by Kodansha.[16] Almost at the same time, this was followed by the manga adaptation of Tomio
Sagisu's TV anime Chibikko Kaiju Yadamon (, Little Monster Yadamon), also published in
1967 in the same magazine.[17] A common misconception is that Kuro No Shishi (Black Lion) was his first manga
work; while not entirely false, what Nagai really made two years earlier than Meakashi Polikichi, was only a draft
for what would later be Kuro no Shishi, which would not be actually published until 1978.
His first works consisted entirely of short gag comedy manga. This would change with Harenchi Gakuen.

First success and controversies

In less than a year after debuting, he met with a big success. After being an unknown manga artist, he became a
protagonist of televised debates and journalistic investigations. [18]
In 1968, while Shueisha was getting prepared to launch its first manga publication, Shnen Jump, in order to
compete with other magazines from rival companies (like Shnen Magazine from Kodansha and Shnen Sunday
from Shogakukan), Nagai was invited to be one of the first manga artists publishing in the new magazine. He
contemplated this, since he had to design a long running series instead of the autoconclusive short stories that he had
been developing until that point.[4] He accepted and the series became a big success, being the first for Nagai [19] and
making Shnen Jump sell more than one million copies. [15] With Harenchi Gakuen, Nagai was the first to introduce
eroticism in modern manga and became the creator of modern erotic manga, [2] [19] [20] [21] [22] opened the door to a
new era in Manga [21] and also became the symbol of an entire generation. [15] This work has influenced Japanese
society radically, completely changing the common perceptions of manga. [23]
Until Harenchi Gakuen, Japanese manga had been relatively tame affairs, but things soon changed. [20] The manga
became so popular that several live-action films and TV series based on the manga were developed. Harenchi
Gakuen is considered as probably the work that has had the most influence in the world of manga at the end of the
1960s, leading the newly born Shnen Jump magazine to sell millions of copies per week. [24]
A scandalous manga in its time, it is a very innocent series by today's standards. [24] But at the time of his original
publication, it met with severe criticism by some parts of the Japanese society. Harenchi Gakuen was criticized as
vulgar because it introduced overt eroticism to children. Male students and teachers were depicted as being
preoccupied with catching glimpses of girls' panties or naked bodies. Many parents, women's associations, and PTAs
protested. [25]
In particular, the PTA protests over Harenchi Gakuen were notorious. Nagai was bombarded with interview requests
from newspapers, magazines and TV. Whenever he flew outside of Tokyo, TV cameras were waiting for him. He
was branded a "nuisance" and even an "enemy of society". He, however, had a clear sense of what things he could or
could not do with the manga. [26]
At first, Nagai didn't think that the opposition was against him, since he always knew when to draw the line and was
aware of the standards that applied with movies and similar things for an audience below 18 years old. At that time,
he never drew sex scenes, avoided pictures of genitals and made nudes cute rather than sexy. [20] His fans supported
him throughout the PTA protests. They sent him letters where they expressed how they were aware that the adults
cracking down on them were reading raunchier stuff than what Nagai was producing. [20]
The protests were not only against the manga, but also against the TV series. The PTA even managed to prevent the
distribution of the magazine in some parts of Japan. [18] As a result of the protests, when the series was about to be
cancelled because of the PTA. Nagai changed the theme in Harenchi Gakuen into a more mature and serious matter.
From nonsense gags with sexy touchs, to a full scale war where murder was depicted in the bloody way for which
many know him. This led to the famous ending of Harenchi Gakuen, symbol of freedom and of rejection of the
Go Nagai 185

hypocrisy, where all students & teachers, while defending their freedom of expression, are killed by the PTA and
other parental forces. This was the ironic answer that Nagai gave to the PTA. It wasn't the true ending of Harenchi
Gakuen, as it would return to be published for several years. [18]
It was also around this time that he created Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko (), also known as Guerrilla
High, another school-themed manga, but this time war between youths and adults was the main theme. A little before
that, in 1969,Abashiri Ikka () was created. Both titles are a direct result of the PTA protests, being
both a form of parody of what happened. Abashiri Ikka became a big success, and along with Harenchi Gakuen, the
most popular series of Nagai's juvenile period. [27]

Dynamic Productions
Thanks to the success of Harenchi Gakuen, Dynamic Productions (, also known as
Dynamic Production or Dynamic Pro, ), was founded by Go Nagai with his brothers in April,
1969. Meant to be a group to help him with his works, as a consequence of what happened with Harenchi
Gakuen, where he received almost no royalties derived from the TV series, films and gadgets related, Dynamic
Productions became a company established to manage Nagai's relations and contractual rights of his work. Dynamic
became one of the first companies to require publishers the edition of contracts (even today many manga are
designed and published only on the basis of verbal agreements).[4] It would start as a yugen kaisha (limited
company) and would change to a kabushiki kaisha (stock company) in 1970.[5]
The same year of the foundation of Dynamic Pro, Ken Ishikawa joined the company. He would become Nagai's
second assistant after Mitsuru Hiruta, who had been working with Nagai since the beginnings of Harenchi
Gakuen.[5] He would become one of Nagai's regular partners and his best friend. Ken Ishikawa participated as
assistant in Harenchi Gakuen, Abashiri Ikka and Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko, particularly in the last one. In parallel with
those activities as assistant, he co-produces with Go Nagai what would be in fact his professional debut in manga,
Gakuen Bangaichi (1969-09-08 ~ 1970-09-22), and also his second manga, Sasurai Gakuto (1970-01 ~ 1970-05). He
temporary quit Dynamic Productions in 1970. This prompted Nagai to end Gakuen Taikutsu Otoko and the story of
this series would be left inconclusive.

Change in genres
Even with the changes in Harenchi Gakuen and other series, Nagai remained writing mostly gag comedies, varying
only in the thematic. With the success of Harenchi Gakuen and Abashiri Ikka, most editors expected this kind of
story from Nagai. This would start to change in 1970, with the oneshot Oni -2889 Nen no Hanran-, which tells a
science fiction story set in the year 2889 about a war between the race of Onis (who in this story are treated as a
lower class) and the human beings. After this, in 1971 came the horror oneshot Susumu-chan Dai Shock about a
violent collapse of the parent-child relationships. A series of horror oneshots would follow, in the series called
Gensou Kyofu e Hanashi (), which comprehends Africa no Chi (an original story of Yasutaka Tsutsui),
Schalken Gahaku (based in the famous story Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter by Joseph Sheridan Le
Fanu) and Kuzureru. A little before that, Nagai would be given the chance to write a full serial of an occult horror
story called Mao Dante, which would in turn mark the beginning of his most famous horror work, Devilman.

Style and works

Further information: Bibliography of Go Nagai
In his series Harenchi Gakuen (, Shameless School, 19681972, Weekly Shnen Jump magazine)
Nagai used eroticism and extreme, graphic violence in kid's manga for the first time in Japan, thus breaking taboos
and becoming quite controversial.[2] His use of violence and gross humour was widely loathed in many corners of
Japan's society and became a concern for many PTAs at the time. The series temporary ended dramatically when all
the characters died during a massacre. This type of content would be a trend in most of Nagai's later work and in
Go Nagai 186

those of other directors such as Yoshiyuki Tomino. A Harenchi Gakuen live-action TV series followed in the early
1970s, as well as several other live-action movies and an OVA version (Heisei Harenchi Gakuen, or "Modern-Day
Shameless School") in the mid-1990s.
In 1970, Go Nagai started a company, Dynamic Productions, to fund his manga and anime ventures. Dynamic
Productions' first titles were Getter Robo and Abashiri Ikka (, Abashiri Family).
After Harenchi Gakuen Nagai created the Mazinger Z (Z) series, later expanded into Great Mazinger,
Grendizer, and - many years later - Mazinkaiser, where he developed the concept of giant mecha. Mazinger was the
first manga where a giant robot was piloted by the hero, thus creating one of the biggest staples of the industry.
Mazinger is considered the first successful "Super Robot" anime show, and has spanned numerous imitations.
Simultaneously to Mazinger, he created one of his most popular manga, Debiruman (, Devilman), about
a demonic hero fighting against hordes of demons. Nagai also turned Devilman into a series which was less violent
and gritty than the manga. Years later Nagai revamped this popular series by introducing the main character as a
female and altering the storyline. This series is called Devilman Lady (, Devil Lady in the US).
It was first released as a manga and then later as an anime. Go Nagai considers the Devilman series, as well as the
Mazinger series, as being his life's work due to their massive popularity all over the world. In 1972, Nagai managed
to have 5 weekly manga publications at the same time, drawing and writing. This hasn't been achieved by other
manga artists with the exception of Shinji Mizushima and George Akiyama.[29]
Another long-running series, Violence Jack ( ) spanned multiple volumes and dealt with
a giant brute of a man fighting evil warlords in a post-apocalyptic setting where Japan has been devastated by a
massive earthquake and isolated from the rest of the world.
One of Nagai's most popular works outside of his fanbase has been Cutey Honey, considered to be one of the first
"magical girl" comics and a major influence on future series in the genre (in particular Sailor Moon). Nagai had less
success a few years later with Majokko Tickle, a more traditional magical-girl series for younger children, although
the accompanying anime was popular on TV in some European countries.
In 1980, he received the 4th Kodansha Manga Award for shnen for Susano OH.[30]
Nagai has worked with Shotaro Ishinomori and Ken Ishikawa. He is currently being more prolific in manga
production than ever. Much of Nagai's work has been adapted into anime and tokusatsu. Nagai has made cameo
appearances in some of his live-action adaptations of his work, including The Toxic Avenger Part II, the Cutie Honey
2004 live action film, and in a special DVD-only episode of Cutie Honey: The Live as Dr. Koshiro Kisaragi.

Success abroad
In Italy, France, and the Middle East, Grendizer was very popular when they aired. They are still fondly remembered
to this day. In Spain, a Mazinger Z statue has been erected in Tarragona. It still stands even today.

Anime Director Hideaki Anno (Evangelion)cited Devilman as a source of inspiration for Evangelion during a
conversation between him and Go Nagai published in Devilman Tabulae Anatomicae. Manga artist Kentarou Miura
claims that he likes Go Nagai's dynamic style and that Nagai had a big influence on him in an interview which was
included as an extra in the fourth volume of the North American DVD release by Media Blasters in 2002. Movie
Director Yoshihiro Nishimura (Tokyo Gore Police) claimed that he's a fan of Go Nagai's works in an interview with
Sancho Asia and said that he wants to adapt Devilman into a live action movie since he didn't like the 2004 live
action Devilman adaptation.
Go Nagai 187

Anime titles created or based in the works of Go Nagai

Devilman ()(TV series, 1972-07-08)
Mazinger Z (Z)(TV series, 1972-12-03)
Mazinger Z tai Devilman (Z)(Movie, 1973-07-18)
Dororon Enma-kun ()(TV series, 1973-10-04)
Cutie Honey (, Cutey Honey)(TV series, 1973-10-13)
Getter Robot ()(TV series, 1974-04-04)
Mazinger Z tai Ankoku Daishougun (Z)(Movie, 1974-07-25)
Great Mazinger ()(TV series, 1974-09-08)
Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot ()(Movie, 1975-03-21)
Getter Robot G ( G)(TV series, 1975-05-15)
Great Mazinger tai Getter Robot G: Kuuchuu Daigekitotsu (G
, Great Mazinger tai Getter Robo G: The Great Space Encounter)(Movie, 1975-07-26)
Uchuu Enban Daisensou (, The Great Battle of the Flying Saucers)(Movie, 1975-07-26)
Koutetsu Jeeg ()(TV series, 1975-10-05)
UFO Robot Grendizer (UFO )(TV series, 1975-10-05)
UFO Robot Grendizer tai Great Mazinger (UFO )(Movie,
Daikyu Maryu Gaiking ()(TV series, 1976-04) Nagai had some problems with Toei and
was left out of the credits.[31] Eventually Nagai sued Toei and stopped further collaborations for some time. Nagai
himself confirmed that he was the creator of the robot in the Comicon 2007 of Naples, Italy.[32]
Groizer X (X, Gloizer X)(TV series, 1976-07-01)
Grendizer, Getter Robot G, Great Mazinger: Kessen! Daikaijuu
(G !)(Movie, 1976-07-18)
Majokko Tickle ()(TV series, 1978-03-06)
Psycho Armor Govarian ()(TV series, 1983-07-06)
God Mazinger ()(TV series, 1984-04-15)
Chounouryoku Shjo Barabanba ()(OVA, 1985-06-21)
Mujigen Hunter Fandora ( , Dream Dimension Hunter Fandora)(OVA,
Violence Jack: Harem Bomber ( , Violence Jack: Slumking)(OVA,
Devilman: Tanjo Hen ( , Devilman: The Birth)(OVA, 1987-11-01)
Violence Jack: Evil Town ( , Violence Jack: Jigokugai)(OVA, 1988-12-21)
Juushin Liger (, Beast-God Riger)(TV series, 1989-03-11)
Shutendoji (, Shuten Douji)(OVA, 1989-12)
Devilman: Yocho Sirne Hen ( , Devilman: The Demon Bird)(OVA, 1990-02-25)
Violence Jack: Hell's Wind Hen ( , Violence Jack: Hell's
Wind)(OVA, 1990-11-09)
Getter Robot Go ()(TV series, 1991-02-11)
CB Chara Nagai Go World (CB)(OVA, 1991-02-21)
Abashiri Family (, Abashiri Ikka)(OVA, 1991-05-21)
Kekko Kamen ()(OVA, 1991-08-01)
Kyukioku no Sex Adventure Kamasutra (SEX )(1992-04-24)
Iron Virgin Jun (JUN, Tetsu no Shjo JUN)(OVA, 1992-07)
Oira Sukeban ((), Sukeban Boy, Delinquent in Drag)(OVA, 1992-08)
Hanappe Bazooka ()(OVA, 1992-09)
Go Nagai 188

Black Lion (, Kuro no Shishi)(OVA, 1992-11)

New Cutey Honey (, Shin Cutey Honey)(OVA, 1994-04)
Heisei Harenchi Gakuen ()(OVA, 1996-03)
Harenchi Koumon Manyuuki ()(OVA, 1996-05)
Cutey Honey F (F())(TV series, 1997-02)
Cutey Honey F (F())(Movie, 1997-07)
Shin Getter Robo: Sekai Saigo no Hi (, Getter Robo: Armageddon))(OVA,
Devilman Lady ()(TV series, 1998-10)
Amon: The Apocalypse of Devilman ()(OVA, 200005)
Shin Getter Robot tai Neo Getter Robot ()(OVA, 200012)
Mazinkaiser ()(OVA, 200109)
Demon Lord Dante (, Mao Dante)(TV series, 200208)
Mazinkaiser: Death! The Great General of Darkness ( !, Mazinkaiser: Shitou!
Ankoku Daishogun)(OVA, 200307)
New Getter Robo (, Shin Getter Robo)(OVA, 2004-04)
Panda-Z - The Robonimation ( THE ROBONIMATION)(TV series, 2004-04)
Re: Cutie Honey (Re:)(OVA, 200407)
Gaiking Legend of Daiku-Maryu ()(TV series, 200511)
Demon Prince Enma (, Kikoushi Enma)(OVA, 200608)
Koutetsushin Jeeg (, Steel God Jeeg)(TV series, 2007-04)
Shin Mazinger Shougeki! Z Hen ( ! Z )(TV series, 2009-04)
Mazinkaizer SKL (SKL)(OVA, 201011)
Dororon Enma-kun Meeramera (Dororon ~)(TV series, 2011-04-07)
This list is incomplete.

Tokusatsu/Live action created or based in the works of Go Nagai

Harenchi Gakuen ()(Movie, 1970-05-02)
Harenchi Gakuen: Shintai Kensa no Maki ( )(Movie, 1970-08-01)
Harenchi Gakuen: Tackle Kiss no Maki ( )(Movie, 1970-09-12)
Harenchi Gakuen ()(TV series, 1970-10-01)
Shin Harenchi Gakuen ()(Movie, 1971-01-03)
Battle Hawk ()(TV series, 1976-10-04)
Pro-Wres no Hoshi Aztecaser ( )(TV series, 1976-10-07)
X Bomber (X, , Super Space Machine X Bomber, Star Fleet)[TV
series, 1980-10-04)
Nagai Go no Kowai Zone: Kaiki ( )(Movie, 1989-08-25)
Nagai Go no Kowai Zone 2: Senki (2 )(Movie, 1990-08-24)
The Ninja Dragon ( , Kuso Kagaku Ninkyoden: Gokudo Ninja
Dosuryu)(Movie, 1990-10-25)
Kekko Kamen ()(Movie, 1991-03-22)
Bishjo Tantei Maboroshi Panty ( )(Movie, 1991-11-25)
Kekko Kamen 2: We'll be back... (2, 2 Well be back)(Movie, 1992-03-27)
Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Mannequin ( )(Movie, 1992-04-24)
Oira Sukeban: Kessen! Pansuto ( !)(Movie, 1992-07-24)
Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Kirikagami ( )(Movie, 1992-08-28)
Kekko Kamen 3 (3)(Movie, 1993-04-23)
Go Nagai 189

Jushin Thunder Liger: Fist of Thunder ( FIST OF THUNDER)(Movie,

Heisei Harenchi Gakuen ()(Movie, 1996-02-02)
Kyuketsu Onsen e Yokoso ()(Movie, 1997-04-21)
Lovely Angel: Homon Soap Degozaimasu ( )(Movie,
Lovely Angel 2: Taiketsu! Homon Soap Jo vs Shuccho SM Jo!! (2
!vsSM!!)(Movie, 1997-11-28)
Kekko Kamen (, Mask of Kekkou)(Movie, 2004-02-06)
Nagai Go World: Maboroshi Panty VS Henchin Pokoider (
VS)(Movie, 2004-05-10)
Cutie Honey ()(Movie, 2004-05-29)
Kekko Kamen: Mangriffon no Gyakushu ( , Kekko Kamen: The MGF
Strikes Back!)(Movie, 200407-23)
Devilman ()(Movie, 2004-10-09)
Kekko Kamen Returns ( RETURNS)(Movie, 2004-10-31)
Kekko Kamen Surprise!! ( SURPRISE)(Movie, 2004-10-31)
Kabuto-O Beetle ()(Movie, 2005-07-16)
Oira Sukeban ()(Movie, 2006-02-04)
Kekko Kamen Royale ( )(Movie, 2007-05-25)
Kekko Kamen Premium ( )(Movie, 2007-06-22)
Kekko Kamen Forever ( )(Movie, 2007-07-27)
Cutie Honey The Live ( THE LIVE)(TV series, 2007-10-02)
Abashiri Ikka: The movie ( THE MOVIE)(Movie, 2009-11-21)
Additionally, Nagai appears as an actor in the following productions:
The Toxic Avenger Part II (1989)
Nijisseiki Shnen Dokuhon (1989)
Kekko Kamen 2: We'll be back... (1992)
Nagai Go no Horror Gekijo: Mannequin (1992)
Oira Sukeban: Kessen! Pansuto (1992)
Mirai no Omoide: Last Christmas (1992)
Metropolis (anime) (2001) Guest voice
Kekko Kamen (2004)
Nagai Go World: Maboroshi Panty VS Henchin Pokoider (2004)
Cutie Honey (2004)
Devilman (2004)
Cutie Honey The Live (2007) episode 26 (DVD-only episode)
This list is incomplete.
Go Nagai 190

[1] http:/ / www. dynamicproduction. co. jp/
[2] Lambiek Comiclopedia. "Comic Creator: G Nagai" (http:/ / lambiek. net/ artists/ n/ nagai_go. htm). Lambiek. . Retrieved 2008-03-13.
[3] Patten, Fred (2004). "Hypersexual Psychoviolence! The Dynamic World of Go Nagai" (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=u3K0z7s0Z7cC& lpg=PA194& pg=PA194). Watching Anime, Reading Manga. Stone Bridge Press. p.194.
ISBN978-1-880656-92-1. .
[4] "L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071229194605/ http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ goldrake/ autore. html) (in
Italian). D/visual. 2007-03-03. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ goldrake/ autore. html) on 2007-12-29. . Retrieved
[5] "GO HISTORY" (http:/ / www. mazingerz. com/ MrGO/ MrGO. html) (in Japanese). The World of Go Nagai. . Retrieved 2008-05-15.
[6] "Happywedding Go & Sumiko" (http:/ / www. mazingerz. com/ DYNAMIC/ WEDDING. html) (in Japanese). The World of Go Nagai. .
Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[7] "Go Nagai - Il potere e la gloria" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080606023954/ http:/ / www. ilpotereelagloria. com/ biografie/
Go-Nagai) (in Italian). Il potere e la gloria. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ilpotereelagloria. com/ biografie/ Go-Nagai) on
2008-06-06. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[8] Rafaelli, Luca. "La parola al pap di Goldrake - Colloquio con Go Nagai" (http:/ / xl. repubblica. it/ dettagliospeciale/ 45961) (in Italian). La
Repubblica - Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[9] "Manga Kakumei 40 Nen Nagai Go Tokushu" (http:/ / www. nikkansports. com/ special/ nagai/ 2007/ top-nagai. html) (in Japanese). Gag,
serious, SF, Fantasy Nadode Fan Miryo. Nikkan Sports News. . Retrieved 2008-04-02.
[10] "7 & Y - Nagai Go Debut 40 Shunen Kinen Kikaku Nagai Go Senshu" (http:/ / www. 7andy. jp/ esb/ docs/ special/ 200711_bible/ index2.
html) (in Japanese). Seven and Y Corp. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[11] Scalambra, Giovanni (2002-03-11). "Il grande Go Nagai" (http:/ / www. divertimento. it/ articoli/ 2002/ 03/ 11/ 275833. php?ppid=275850)
(in Italian). Divertimento.it - NEXTA Media Srl. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[12] Crispino, Susanna (2007-05-26). "La Sirena a strisce. Il Comicon, festival internazionale del fumetto e dell'animazione" (http:/ / lnx.
whipart. it/ artivisive/ 3328/ comicon-festival-fumetto-animazione-napoli. html) (in Italian). Whipart Onlus. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[13] Di Pino, Angelo (2007-05-22). "Go Nagai...intervista integrale." (http:/ / cartoonmag. altervista. org/ index. php?option=com_content&
task=view& id=275& Itemid=102) (in Italian). CartoonMag. . Retrieved 2008-03-29.
[14] "Hikken - Mazinger Z, Devilman, Cutie Honey Nado Kyosho - Nagai Go, 40 nen Bun no Sakuhingunga Ichido Ni" (http:/ / trendy. nikkeibp.
co. jp/ article/ pickup/ 20071226/ 1005726/ ?ST=ent& P=4) (in Japanese). Trendy.net - Nikkei Business Publications. 2007-12-26. . Retrieved
[15] "L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071229194605/ http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ goldrake/ autore. html) (in
italian). D/visual. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ goldrake/ autore. html) on 2007-12-29. . Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[16] "Kodansha magazine" (http:/ / www. mazingerz. com/ magazine/ kodanshaBOKU. html) (in Japanese). The World of Go Nagai. . Retrieved
[17] "Yadamon" (http:/ / www. mazingerz. com/ GAG/ YADAMON. html) (in Japanese). The World of Go Nagai. . Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[18] Colpi, Federico (1996). "SERIE TV - L'autore" (http:/ / www. goldrake. info/ serietv/ nagai-go. html) (in Italian). Il mondo di Go Nagai.
Dynamic Italia Srl.. . Retrieved 2008-04-11.
[19] "Harenchi Gakuen" (http:/ / www. misiontokyo. com/ index. php?ind=reviews& op=entry_view& iden=162) (in Spanish). Mision Tokyo. .
Retrieved 2008-04-12.
[20] Connel, Ryan (2007-03-30). "40-year veteran of ecchi manga Go Nagai says brains more fun than boobs" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/
20080317060218/ http:/ / mdn. mainichi. jp/ culture/ waiwai/ archive/ news/ 2007/ 03/ 20070330p2g00m0dm024000c. html). Mainichi
Newspapers Co.. Archived from the original (http:/ / mdn. mainichi. jp/ culture/ waiwai/ archive/ news/ 2007/ 03/
20070330p2g00m0dm024000c. html) on 2008-03-17. . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
[21] "Tezuka Osamu @ World - Manga works" (http:/ / en. tezuka. co. jp/ manga/ sakuhin/ m074/ m074_01. html). The Song for Apollo. Tezuka
Productions. 2007-03-30. . Retrieved 2008-09-21.
[22] "Harenchi Gakuen : Il manga" (http:/ / gonagainet. blogspot. com/ 2007/ 08/ harenchi-gakuen-il-manga. html) (in Italian). Gonagainet.
2007-08-24. . Retrieved 2008-09-21.
[23] "Nagai Go (Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of Japan)" (http:/ / www. sfwj. or. jp/ member/ NAGAI-GO. e. html). Science Fiction and
Fantasy Writers of Japan. . Retrieved 2008-04-15.
[24] "HARENCHI GAKUEN / SCUOLA SENZA PUDORE" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071031161023/ http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ dv/
gonagai. php?action=harenchi) (in Italian). d/visual. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ dv/ gonagai. php?action=harenchi)
on 2007-10-31. . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
[25] Ito, Kinko (2005-02). "A History of Manga in the Context of Japanese Culture and Society" (http:/ / www. blackwell-synergy. com/ doi/
full/ 10. 1111/ j. 0022-3840. 2005. 00123. x?cookieSet=1). The Journal of Popular Culture (Blackwell Publishing) 38 (3): 456.
doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.2005.00123.x. . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
[26] Alt, Matt (2007-06-16). "Go Monkey - a short excerpt of the Monkey Punch interview by Go Nagai" (http:/ / altjapan. typepad. com/
my_weblog/ 2007/ 06/ enemies_of_soci. html). . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
Go Nagai 191

[27] "Abashiri ikka" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080606030656/ http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ dv/ gonagai. php?action=aba) (in Italian).
d/visual. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. d-world. jp/ dv/ gonagai. php?action=aba) on 2008-06-06. . Retrieved 2008-04-15.
[28] "Dynamic Pro Company Overview" (http:/ / www. dynamicproduction. co. jp/ d-pro_gaiyo. html) (in Japanese). Dynamic Production. 2007.
. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
[29] Mandana Tsushin Blog. "The Busiest Mangaka Ever: Go Nagai" (http:/ / comipress. com/ article/ 2008/ 02/ 11/ 3257). ComiPress. .
Retrieved 2008-03-06.
[30] Joel Hahn. "Kodansha Manga Awards" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070816031310/ http:/ / www. hahnlibrary. net/ comics/ awards/
kodansha. shtml). Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. hahnlibrary. net/ comics/ awards/ kodansha. shtml)
on 2007-08-16. . Retrieved 2007-08-21.
[31] "Biografia Go Nagai" (http:/ / www. encirobot. com/ 5nagai/ n_bio. asp) (in Italian). Enciclo'Robopedia. . Retrieved 2008-03-25.
[32] "Go Nagai al Comicon: annunci dalla giornata di sabato" (http:/ / animeclick. lycos. it/ notizia. php?id=7616) (in Italian). AnimeClick.it. .
Retrieved 2008-03-25.

External links
Go Nagai (http://www.sfwj.or.jp/member/NAGAI-GO.e.html) (Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of
(Japanese) (http://www.sfwj.or.jp/member/NAGAI-GO.html)
(SF) a Japanese version of the page.
The World of Before the Apocalypse Fan Page: Go Nagai (http://www.cjas.org/~bchow/gonagai/)
Go Nagai (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/people.php?id=3140) at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
Revelation, An Essay on Devilman by Go Nagai (http://www.devilworld.org/revelations.html)
(Japanese) The World of Go Nagai (http://www.mazingerz.com/GO.html), with lists and pictures of various
Nagai and Nagai-related works, and many notes on them.
(Italian) Enciclo'Robopedia - Sezione di Go Nagai (http://www.encirobot.com/5nagai/nagai_main.asp), a
website with a biography of Go Nagai and a list of almost all of his manga and anime work from 1967 to 2004, as
well as other works based on his original ideas.
(Italian) L'AUTORE / CHI E' GO NAGAI - Dynamic Italie (http://www.d-world.jp/goldrake/autore.html),
the official biography of Go Nagai by D/visual.
(Italian) Shuten Doji (Anime Mundi) (http://www.terrediconfine.eu/Default.aspx?tabid=610), detailed
production information
Hayao Miyazaki 192

Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki

Born January 5, 1941

Bunky, Tokyo, Japan

Occupation Anime Director

Manga Artist
Storyboard Artist

Years active 1963present

Knownfor Nausica
Castle in the Sky
My Neighbor Totoro
Kiki's Delivery Service
Porco Rosso
Princess Mononoke
Spirited Away
Howl's Moving Castle

Spouse Akemi ta

Hayao Miyazaki ( Miyazaki Hayao, born January 5, 1941) is a Japanese manga artist and prominent film
director and animator of many popular anime feature films. Through a career that has spanned nearly fifty years,
Miyazaki has attained international acclaim as a maker of animated feature films and, along with Isao Takahata,
co-founded Studio Ghibli, an animation studio and production company. The success of Miyazaki's films has invited
comparisons with American animator Walt Disney, British animator Nick Park and Robert Zemeckis, and he has
been named one of the most influential people by Time magazine.[1] [2]
Born in Bunky, Tokyo, Miyazaki began his animation career in 1961 when he joined Toei Animation. From there,
Miyazaki worked as an in-between artist for Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon where he pitched his own ideas that
eventually became the movie's ending. He continued to work in various roles in the animation industry over the
decade until he was able to direct his first feature film Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro which was released in
1979. After the success of his next film, Nausica of the Valley of the Wind, he co-founded Studio Ghibli where he
Hayao Miyazaki 193

continued to produce many feature films until his temporary retirement in 1997 following Princess Mononoke.
While Miyazaki's films have long enjoyed both commercial and critical success in Japan, he remained largely
unknown to the West until Miramax Films released Princess Mononoke. Princess Mononoke was the
highest-grossing film in Japanuntil it was eclipsed by another 1997 film, Titanicand the first animated film to
win Picture of the Year at the Japanese Academy Awards. Miyazaki returned to animation with Spirited Away. The
film topped Titanic's sales at the Japanese box office, also won Picture of the Year at the Japanese Academy Awards
and was the first anime film to win an American Academy Award.
Miyazaki's films often incorporate recurrent themes like humanity's relationship to nature and technology, and the
difficulty of maintaining a pacifist ethic. Reflecting Miyazaki's feminism, the protagonists of his films are often
strong, independent girls or young women. Miyazaki is a vocal critic of capitalism and globalization.[3] While two of
his films, The Castle of Cagliostro and Castle in the Sky, involve traditional villains, his other films like Nausica or
Princess Mononoke present morally ambiguous antagonists with redeeming qualities.

Early life and education

Miyazaki, the second of four sons, was born in the town of Akebono-cho, part of Tokyo's Bunky. During World
War II, Miyazaki's father, Katsuji, was director of Miyazaki Airplane, owned by his brother (Hayao Miyazaki's
uncle), which made rudders for A6M Zero fighter planes. During this time, Miyazaki drew airplanes and developed a
lifelong fascination with aviation, a penchant that later manifested as a recurring theme in his films.[4]
Miyazaki's mother was a voracious reader who often questioned socially accepted norms. From 1947 until 1955 his
mother underwent treatment for Pott disease. She spent the first few years mostly in the hospital, but was eventually
able to be nursed from home.[4]
During his childhood, Miyazaki was forced to switch schools several times. These would all impact elements of his
films. First, when he was three, Miyazaki's family was forced to evacuate Bunky. He began school as an evacuee in
1947. At age nine his family returned home, but the following year he switched to another American-influenced
elementary school.[4] Miyazaki attended Toyotama High School. In his third year there, he saw the film Hakujaden
(The Tale of the White Serpent), which has been described as "the first-ever Japanese feature length color anime."[5]
After high school, Miyazaki attended Gakushuin University, from which he would graduate in 1963 with degrees in
political science and economics. He was a member of the "Children's Literature research club," the "closest thing to a
comics club in those days."[5]

Manga and anime interest

Like many children in postwar Japan, Miyazaki decided he wanted to become a manga artist during high school.
However, his talents were limited to things like planes, tanks and battleships; he had an especially hard time drawing
people. Famous manga artists like Osamu Tezuka, Tetsuji Fukushima and Sanpei Shirato influenced his early works.
In order to distance himself from the criticism he expected from following Tezuka's form, he consciously developed
his own style, but was unable to fully shake Tezuka's influence off until he began studying animation.[6]
His interest in animation began during high school after watching Japan's first full-length feature animation The Tale
of the White Serpent by Taiji Yabushita. Miyazaki "fell in love" with the movie's heroine and it left a strong
impression on him. It was after this Miyazaki decided to stop his pursuit of being a manga artist and pursue
animation.[7] However, in order to become an animator, he had to learn to draw the human figure, since his prior
work had been limited to airplanes and battleships.[5]
Hayao Miyazaki 194

Animation career

Toei Animation
In April 1963, Miyazaki got a job at Toei Animation, working as an in-between artist on the anime Watchdog Bow
Wow (Wanwan Chushingura). He was a leader in a labor dispute soon after his arrival, becoming chief secretary of
Toei's labor union in 1964.[8] He first gained recognition while working as an in-between artist on the Toei
production Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon (Garib no Uchuu Ryok) in 1965. He found the original ending to
the script unsatisfactory and pitched his own idea, which became the ending used in the final film. In October 1965,
he married fellow animator Akemi Ota, who later left work to raise their two sons, Gor and Keisuke.
In 1968 Miyazaki played an important role as chief animator, concept artist, and scene designer on Hols: Prince of
the Sun, a landmark animated film directed by Isao Takahata, with whom he continued to collaborate for the next
three decades. In Kimio Yabuki's Puss in Boots (1969), Miyazaki again provided key animation as well as designs,
storyboards and story ideas for key scenes in the film, including the climactic chase scene. Shortly thereafter,
Miyazaki proposed scenes in the screenplay for Flying Phantom Ship, in which military tanks would roll into
downtown Tokyo and cause mass hysteria, and was hired to storyboard and animate those scenes. In 1971, Miyazaki
played a decisive role in developing structure, characters and designs for Animal Treasure Island and Ali Baba and
the 40 Thieves. He also helped in the storyboarding and key animating of pivotal scenes in both films.

Works for other studios

Miyazaki left Toei in 1971 for A Pro, where he co-directed six episodes of the first Lupin III series with Isao
Takahata. He and Takahata then began pre-production on a Pippi Longstocking series and drew extensive story
boards for it. However, after traveling to Sweden to conduct research for the film and meet the original author,
Astrid Lindgren, they were denied permission to complete the project, and it was canceled.[8]
Instead of Pippi Longstocking, Miyazaki conceived, wrote, designed and animated two Panda! Go, Panda! shorts
which were directed by Takahata. Miyazaki then left Nippon Animation in 1979 in the middle of the production of
Anne of Green Gables to direct his first feature anime The Castle of Cagliostro (1979), a Lupin III adventure film.
Miyazaki's next film, Nausica of the Valley of the Wind (Kaze no Tani no Naushika, 1984), was an adventure film
that introduced many of the themes which recur in later films: a concern with ecology and the human impact on the
environment; a fascination with aircraft and flight; pacifism, including an anti-military streak; feminism; and morally
ambiguous characterizations, especially among villains. This was the first film both written and directed by
Miyazaki. He adapted it from his manga series of the same title, which he began writing and illustrating two years
earlier, but which remained incomplete until after the film's release.

Studio Ghibli
Studio Ghibli was originally established in 1985, as a subsidiary of Tokuma Shoten. In 2005, Hayao Miyazaki,
Toshio Suzuki and Isao Takahata established a new Studio Ghibli in Koganei, Japan and acquired all the copyrights
of Miyazaki's works and business rights from Tokuma Shoten.[9] [10]

Following the success of Nausica of the Valley of the Wind, Miyazaki co-founded the animation production
company Studio Ghibli with Takahata in 1985, and has produced nearly all of his subsequent work through it.
Miyazaki continued to gain recognition with his next three films. Laputa: Castle in the Sky (1986) recounts the
adventure of two orphans seeking a magical castle-island that floats in the sky; My Neighbor Totoro (Tonari no
Totoro, 1988) tells of the adventure of two girls and their interaction with forest spirits; and Kiki's Delivery Service
(1989), adapted from a novel by Eiko Kadono, tells the story of a small-town girl who leaves home to begin life as a
Hayao Miyazaki 195

witch in a big city. Miyazaki's fascination with flight is evident throughout these films, ranging from the ornithopters
flown by pirates in Castle in the Sky, to the Totoro and the Cat Bus soaring through the air, and Kiki flying her
Porco Rosso (1992) was a notable departure for Miyazaki, in that the main character was an adult male, an
anti-fascist aviator transformed into an anthropomorphic pig. The film is set in 1920s Italy and the title character is a
bounty hunter who fights air pirates and an American soldier of fortune. The film explores the tension between
selfishness and duty. The film can also be viewed as an abstract self-portrait of the director; its subtext can be read as
a fictionalized autobiography. Like many of his movies, it is richly allusive and generates a lot of its humour and
charm out of its references to American film of the 1930s and 1940s. Porco Rosso, for instance, owes much to the
various screen personae of Humphrey Bogart.
1997's Princess Mononoke (Mononoke-Hime) returns to the ecological and political themes of Nausica of the Valley
of the Wind. The plot centers on the struggle between the animal spirits who inhabit the forest and the humans who
exploit the forest for industry. Both movies implicitly criticize the adverse impact of humans on nature, and portray
the military in a negative light. Princess Mononoke is also noted as one of his most violent pictures. The film was a
huge commercial success in Japan, where it became the highest grossing film of all time, until the later success of
Titanic, and it ultimately won Best Picture at the Japanese Academy Awards. Miyazaki went into what would prove
to be temporary retirement after directing Princess Mononoke.
During this period of semi-retirement, Miyazaki spent time with the daughters of a friend, one of whom became his
inspiration for Spirited Away (Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi, 2001). Spirited Away is the story of a girl, forced to
survive in a bizarre spirit world, who works in a bathhouse for spirits after her parents are turned into pigs by the
sorceress who owns it. Released in Japan in July 2001, the film broke attendance and box office records with 30.4
billion (approximately $300 million) in total gross earnings from more than 23 million viewings. It has received
many awards, including Best Picture at the 2001 Japanese Academy Awards, Golden Bear (First Prize) at the 2002
Berlin Film Festival, and the 2002 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. In July 2004, Miyazaki completed
production on Howl's Moving Castle, a film adaptation of Diana Wynne Jones' fantasy novel. Miyazaki came out of
retirement following the sudden departure of original director Mamoru Hosoda.[11] The film premiered at the 2004
Venice International Film Festival and won the Golden Osella award for animation technology. On November 20,
2004, Howl's Moving Castle opened to general audiences in Japan where it earned 1.4 billion in its first two days.
An English language version was later released in the US by Walt Disney.
In 2005, Miyazaki received a lifetime achievement award at the Venice Film Festival. Later that year, Chinese media
reported that Miyazaki's final film project would be I Lost My Little Boy, based on a Chinese children's book.[12]
This later proved to be faked news.[13]
In 2006, Miyazaki's son Gor Miyazaki completed his first film, Tales from Earthsea, based on several stories by
Ursula K. Le Guin. Hayao Miyazaki had long aspired to make an anime of this work and had repeatedly asked for
permission from the author, Ursula K. Le Guin. However, he had been refused every time. Instead, Miyazaki
produced Nausica of the Valley of the Wind and Shuna no tabi, (The Journey of Shuna) as substitutes (some of the
ideas from Shuna no tabi were diverted to this movie). When Le Guin finally requested that Miyazaki produce an
anime adaptation of her work, he refused, because he had lost the desire to do so. The Author, Ursula K. Le Guin,
remembers this differently: "In August 2005, Mr Toshio Suzuki of Studio Ghibli came with Mr Hayao Miyazaki to
talk with me and my son (who controls the trust which owns the Earthsea copyrights). We had a pleasant visit in my
house. It was explained to us that Mr Hayao wished to retire from film making, and that the family and the studio
wanted Mr Hayao's son Goro, who had never made a film at all, to make this one. We were very disappointed, and
also anxious, but we were given the impression, indeed assured, that the project would be always subject to Mr
Hayao's approval. With this understanding, we made the agreement." Among fans of the nearly forty year old books,
this film was mostly disappointing.
Hayao Miyazaki 196

Throughout the film's production, Gor and his father were not speaking to each other, due to a dispute over whether
or not Gor was ready to direct.[14] This movie was originally to be produced by Hayao Miyazaki, but he declined as
he was already in the middle of producing Howl's Moving Castle (film). Ghibli decided to make Gor, who had yet
to head any animated films, the producer instead.
In 2006, Nausicaa.net reported Hayao Miyazaki's plans to direct another film, rumored to be set in Kobe. Among
areas Miyazaki's team visited during pre-production were an old caf run by an elderly couple, and the view of a city
from high in the mountains. The exact location of these places was censored from Studio Ghibli's production diaries.
The studio also announced that Miyazaki had begun creating storyboards for the film and that they were being
produced in watercolor because the film would have an "unusual visual style." Studio Ghibli said the production time
would be about 20 months, with release slated for Summer 2008.
In 2007, the film's title was publicly announced as Gake no ue no Ponyo, literally "Ponyo on a Cliff."[15] The story
revolves around a five-year old boy, Sousuke, and the Princess goldfish, Ponyo, who wants to become human.
Studio Ghibli President Toshio Suzuki noted that "70 to 80% of the film takes place at sea. It will be a director's
challenge on how they will express the sea and its waves with freehand drawing." The film does not contain any
computer generated imagery (CGI) in contrast to Miyazaki's other recent work. Ponyo was released in July 2008 in
Japan, then in North America and the UK in 2009 and 2010, respectively.
Hayao Miyazaki recently worked on a new film, titled Kokurikozaka kara (From up on Poppy Hill). The film is
based on the 1980 two-volume manga of the same name written by Tetsur Sayama and drawn by Chizuru
Takahashi. The film is a collaboration between Hayao Miyazaki, who wrote the screenplay, and his son Gor, who
directed the film. The story takes place in Yokohama and revolves around Umi Komatsuzaki, a high school student
who is forced to fend for herself when her sailor father goes missing from the seaside town.

Miyazaki's work in television is less known than his films. In the 1970s he worked as an animator on the World
Masterpiece Theater television animation series under Isao Takahata. His first directorial credit is for the television
version of Lupin III in 1971; he was co-director (with Takahata) of the second half of the first television series, and
director of two episodes of the second series.
Miyazaki's most famous television work was his direction of Future Boy Conan (1978), an adaptation of the
children's novel The Incredible Tide by Alexander Key. The main antagonist is the leader of the city-state of
Industria who attempts to revive lost technology. The series also elaborates on the characters and events in the book,
and is an early example of characterizations which recur throughout Miyazaki's later work: a girl who is in touch
with nature, a warrior woman who appears menacing but is not an antagonist, and a boy who seems destined for the
girl. The series also featured imaginative aircraft designs.
Miyazaki also directed six episodes of Sherlock Hound, an Italian-Japanese co-production which retold Sherlock
Holmes tales using anthropomorphic animals. These episodes were first broadcast in 198485.

Miyazaki has illustrated several manga, beginning in 1969 with Puss in Boots (Nagagutsu wo Haita Neko). His
major work in this format is the seven-volume manga version of his tale Nausica of the Valley of the Wind, which
he created from 1982 to 1994 and which has sold millions of copies worldwide. Other works include Sabaku no
Tami ( People of the Desert), Shuna no Tabi ( The Journey of Shuna), The Notebook of
Various Images ( Zass Nto), which was the basis of his film Porco Rosso.
In October 2006, A Trip to Tynemouth was published in Japan. Miyazaki based it on the young adult short stories of
Robert Westall, who grew up in World War II England. The most famous story, first published in a collection called
Break of Dark, is titled Blackham's Wimpy, the name of a Vickers Wellington Bomber featured in the story, whose
nickname comes from the character J. Wellington Wimpy from the Popeye comics and cartoons (the Wellington was
Hayao Miyazaki 197

named for Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, victor over Napoleon).
In early 2009, Miyazaki returned with a new manga called Kaze Tachinu ( The Wind Rises), telling the
story of Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter designer Jiro Horikoshi. The manga was published in two issues of the Model
Graphix magazine, published on February 25 and March 25, 2009.[16]

Creation process and animation style

Miyazaki takes a leading role when creating his films, frequently serving as both writer and director. He personally
reviewed every frame used in his early films, though due to health concerns over the high workload he now
delegates some of the workload to other Ghibli members.[17] In a 1999 interview, Miyazaki said, "at this age, I
cannot do the work I used to. If my staff can relieve me and I can concentrate on directing, there are still a number of
movies I'd like to make."[18]
Miyazaki uses very human-like movements in his animation. In addition, much of the art is done using water colors.
In contrast to American animation, the script and storyboards are created together, and animation begins before the
story is finished and storyboards are developing.[19] [20]
Miyazaki has used traditional animation throughout the animation process, though computer-generated imagery was
employed starting with Princess Mononoke to give "a little boost of elegance".[17] In an interview with the Financial
Times, Miyazaki said "it's very important for me to retain the right ratio between working by hand and computer. I
have learnt that balance now, how to use both and still be able to call my films 2D."[21] Digital paint was also used
for the first time in parts of Princess Mononoke in order to meet release deadlines.[22] It was used as standard for
subsequent films. However, in his 2008 film Ponyo, Miyazaki went back to traditional hand-drawn animation for
everything, saying "hand drawing on paper is the fundamental of animation."[23] Studio Ghibli's computer animation
department was dissolved before production on Ponyo was started, and Miyazaki has decided to keep to hand drawn

Themes and devices

Miyazaki's works are characterised by the recurrence of progressive themes, such as environmentalism, pacifism,
feminism, and the absence of villains.[25] His films are also frequently concerned with childhood transition and a
marked preoccupation with flight.
Miyazaki's narratives are notable for not pitting a hero against an unsympathetic antagonist. In Spirited Away,
Miyazaki states "the heroine [is] thrown into a place where the good and bad dwell together. [...] She manages not
because she has destroyed the 'evil', but because she has acquired the ability to survive."[26] Even though Miyazaki
sometimes feels pessimistic about the world, he prefers to show children a positive world view instead, and rejects
simplistic stereotypes of good and evil [27]
Miyazaki's films often emphasize environmentalism and the Earth's fragility.[28] In an interview with The New
Yorker, Miyazaki claimed that much of modern culture is "thin and shallow and fake", and "not entirely jokingly"
looked forward to an apocalyptic age in which "wild green grasses" take over.[29] Growing up in the Shwa period
was an unhappy time for him because "nature the mountains and rivers was being destroyed in the name of
economic progress."[30] Miyazaki is critical of capitalism, globalization and their impacts on modern life.[31]
Commenting on the 1954 Animal Farm animated film, he has said that "exploitation is not only found in
communism, capitalism is a system just like that. I believe a company is common property of the people that work
there. But that is a socialistic idea."[32] Nonetheless, he suggests that adults should not "impose their vision of the
world on children."[19]
Nausica, Princess Mononoke and Howl's Moving Castle feature anti-war themes. In 2003, when Spirited Away won
the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, Miyazaki did not attend the awards show personally. He later
explained that it was because he "didnt want to visit a country that was bombing Iraq".[33]
Hayao Miyazaki 198

Miyazaki has been called a feminist by Studio Ghibli President Toshio Suzuki, in reference to his attitude to female
workers.[34] This is evident in the all-female factories of Porco Rosso and Princess Mononoke, as well as the
matriachal bath-house of Spirited Away. Many of Miyazaki's films are populated by strong female protagonists that
go against gender roles common in Japanese animation and fiction.[35]

A number of Western authors have influenced Miyazaki's work, including Ursula K. Le Guin, Lewis Carroll, and
Diana Wynne Jones. Miyazaki confided to Le Guin that Earthsea had been a great influence on all his works, and
that he kept her books at his bedside.[36] Miyazaki and French writer and illustrator Jean Giraud (aka Moebius) have
influenced each other and have become friends as a result of their mutual admiration. Monnaie de Paris held an
exhibition of their work titled Miyazaki et Moebius: Deux Artistes Dont Les Dessins Prennent Vie (Two Artistss
Drawings Taking on a Life of Their Own) from December 2004 to April 2005. Both artists attended the opening of
the exhibition.[27] [37] Moebius named his daughter Nausicaa after Miyazaki's heroine.[38] Miyazaki has been deeply
influenced by another French writer, Antoine de Saint-Exupry. He illustrated the Japanese covers of
Saint-Exupry's Night Flight (Vol de nuit) and Wind, Sand and Stars (Terre des Hommes), and wrote an afterword
for Wind, Sand and Stars.
In an interview broadcast on BBC Choice on 2002-06-10, Miyazaki cited the British authors Eleanor Farjeon,
Rosemary Sutcliff, and Philippa Pearce as influences. The filmmaker has also publicly expressed fondness for Roald
Dahl's stories about pilots and airplanes; the image in Porco Rosso of a cloud of dead pilots was inspired by Dahl's
They Shall Not Grow Old. As in Miyazaki's films, these authors create self-contained worlds in which allegory is
often used, and characters have complex, and often ambiguous, motivations. Other Miyazaki works, such as My
Neighbor Totoro, Princess Mononoke, and Spirited Away, incorporate elements of Japanese history and mythology.
Miyazaki has said he was inspired to become an animator by The Tale of the White Serpent, considered the first
modern anime, in 1958. He has also said that The Snow Queen, a Soviet animated film, was one of his earliest
inspirations, and that it motivated him to stay in animation production.[39] Yuriy Norshteyn, a Russian animator, is
Miyazaki's friend and praised by him as "a great artist."[40] Norshteyn's Hedgehog in the Fog is cited as one of
Miyazaki's favourite animated films.[39] Miyazaki has long been a fan of the Aardman Studios animation. In May
2006, David Sproxton and Peter Lord, founders of Aardman Studios, visited the Ghibli Museum exhibit dedicated to
their works, where they also met Miyazaki.[41]
Pete Docter, director of the popular films Up and Monsters Inc. as well as a co-creator of other Pixar works, has
praised Miyazaki and described him as an influence.[42] Glen Keane, the animator for successful Disney films such
as The Little Mermaid, The Rescuers Down Under, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, and Tangled, has also credited
Miyazaki as a "huge influence" on his work and on Disney in general during the past two decades.[43]
Miyazaki has also been cited as an influence on various role-playing video games. The creator of Square's Final
Fantasy series, Hironobu Sakaguchi, cited Miyazaki as inspiration for elements such as the airships and chocobos
featured in the series.[44] The post-apocalyptic setting of SNK's Crystalis was inspired by Miyazaki's Nausicaa of the
Valley of the Wind, and Crystalis in turn influenced Square's Secret of Mana.[45]
Hayao Miyazaki 199

Family life
Miyazaki's dedication to his work has often been reported to have impacted negatively on his relationship with his
son Gor.[46] He has expressed he does not wish to create a dynasty of animators and his son has to create a name for


Director, screenplay and storyboards

Lupin III Part I, 197172 anime series (with Isao Takahata)
Yuki's Sun, 1972 (Pilot film for a never-realized anime series)
Future Boy Conan, 1978 anime series
The Castle of Cagliostro, 1979 film
Lupin III Part II, 1980 anime series (2 episodes in season 4 under
the pseudonym Tsutomu Teruki)
Sherlock Hound, 1984 anime series

Films in the Studio Ghibli canon

Nausica of the Valley of the Wind, 1984 film
Castle in the Sky, 1986 film
My Neighbor Totoro, 1988 film
Kiki's Delivery Service, 1989 film
Porco Rosso, 1992 film
Princess Mononoke, 1997 film
Miyazaki at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con
Spirited Away, 2001 film (winner, Academy Award for Best International
Animated Feature, 2002)

The Cat Returns,2002 Film(release in Japan), 2003 Film (Release in United States)
Howl's Moving Castle, 2004 film (nominee, Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, 2005)
Ponyo, 2008 film

"On Your Mark", 1995 music video for Chage and Aska
"The Whale Hunt", 2001 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"Koro's Big Day Out", 2001 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"Mei and the Kittenbus", 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"Imaginary Flying Machines", 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the exhibited
"Ornithopter Story: Fly! Hiyodori Tengu Go!", 2002 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the
exhibited material)
"Monmon the Water Spider", 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"House-hunting", 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"The Day I Harvested A Planet", 2006 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
"Film Guruguru", (20018 short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum as a part of the exhibited material)[47]

"Mr. Dough and the Egg Princess", 2010 (short film exclusive to the Ghibli Museum)
Hayao Miyazaki 200

Other work
Hols: Prince of the Sun, 1968 film: Key animation, storyboards, scene design
Puss 'n Boots, 1969 film: Key animation, storyboards, design
Flying Phantom Ship, 1969 film: Key animation, storyboards, design
Animal Treasure Island ( Dbutsu Takarajima), 1971: Story consultant, key animation,
storyboards, scene design
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (40 Aribaba to Yonjbiki no Tozuku), 1971 film:
Organizer, key animation, storyboards
Panda! Go, Panda!, 1972 short film: Concept, screenplay, storyboards, scene design, key animation
Panda! Go, Panda! and the Rainy-Day Circus ( Panda Kopanda:
Amefuri Skasu no Maki), 1973 short film: Screenplay, storyboards, scene design, art design, key animation
Heidi, Girl of the Alps, 1974 anime series: Scene design, layout
3000 Leagues in Search of Mother, 1976 anime series: Scene design, layout
Anne of Green Gables, Episodes 1-15, 1979 anime series: Scene design, layout
Pom Poko, Executive Producer, Story concept
Whisper of the Heart, 1995 film: Screenwriter, storyboards, executive producer, sequence director
The Cat Returns, 2002 film: Executive Producer, Project Concept Designer
The Secret World of Arrietty, 2010 film: Executive Producer, screenwriter, animation planning supervisor [49]
From up on Poppy Hill, 2011 film: Planning, screenwriter

[1] Morrison, Tim (2006-11-13). "Hayao Miyazaki: In an era of high-tech wizardry, the anime auteur makes magic the old way" (http:/ / web.
archive. org/ web/ 20110623060452/ http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ asia/ 2006/ heroes/ at_miyazaki. html). Time Asia. Archived from the
original (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ asia/ 2006/ heroes/ at_miyazaki. html) on 2011-06-23. . Retrieved 2007-02-19.
[2] Lee, Stan (2005-04-18). "Hayao Miyazaki" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ subscriber/ 2005/ time100/ artists/ 100miyazaki. html). The Time
100 (Time). . Retrieved 2009-07-15.
[3] A Neppu interview with Miyazaki Hayao (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html#3103_02), 30th of November,
[4] McCarthy, Helen (1999-09-01). Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation. United States: Stone Bridge Press. p.26.
[5] Feldman, Steven (1994-06-24). "Hayao Miyazaki Biography" (http:/ / www. nausicaa. net/ miyazaki/ miyazaki/ miyazaki_biography. txt)
(plain text). Nausicaa.net. . Retrieved 2007-02-19.
[6] McCarthy, Helen. pp.2728.
[7] McCarthy, Helen. pp.2829.
[8] McCarthy, Helen (1999-09-01). Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation. United States: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN1-880656-41-8.
[9] (http:/ / www. yomiuri. co. jp/ entertainment/ ghibli/ cnt_eventnews_20050215a. htm)
[10] Matsutani, Minoru, " Japan's greatest film director? (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20080930i1. html)", Japan Times, 30
September 2008.
[11] He is a director of Superflat Monogram which is the anime film for the shop promotion of Louis Vuitton, and "The Girl Who Leapt Through
[12] "" (http:/ / ent. sina. com. cn/ m/ f/ 2005-04-08/ 1150697174. html) (in Chinese). . Retrieved
[13] """?!" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20081202202105/ http:/ / www. zhongman. com/ Article_im7/ Class1/
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[14] "Coranto Archive: July 3, 2006 Hayao Miyazaki's Surprise Visit" (http:/ / nausicaa. net/ miyazaki/ newspro/
latestnews_headlines-archive-7-2006. html). Nausicaa.net. 2006-07-03. . Retrieved 2007-02-19.
[15] "Ghibli World" (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html#1903). 2007-03-19. . Retrieved 2007-03-19.
[16] "Miyazaki Starts New Manga, Kaze Tachinu" (http:/ / www. animekon. com/ news-792-Miyazaki-Starts-New-Manga-Kaze-Tachinu. html).
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[17] Ng, Jeannette. "Japanese anime wrestles with use of computer graphics" (http:/ / www. japantoday. com/ jp/ feature/ 363). Japan Today. .
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[18] The Making of Spirited Away, Nippon TV Special; as shown on the R2 English language Spirited Away DVD.
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[19] "Midnight Eye interview: Hayao Miyazaki" (http:/ / www. midnighteye. com/ interviews/ hayao_miyazaki. shtml). Midnight Eye. .
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[20] "Drawn to oddness" (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ articles/ 2003/ 06/ 05/ 1054700334418. html). The Age. June 7, 2003. . Retrieved
[21] Andrews, Nigel (2005-09-20). "Japan's visionary of innocence and apocalypse" (http:/ / www. ft. com/ cms/ s/
698539fe-2974-11da-8a5e-00000e2511c8. html). Financial Times. . Retrieved 2007-06-06.
[22] Toshio Uratani (2004). Princess Mononoke: Making of a Masterpiece (Documentary). Japan: Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
[23] "New Ponyo details at tenth radio Ghibli" (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html). Ghibliworld. . Retrieved 2008-06-24.
[24] Press conference with John Lasseter and Hayao Miyazaki at the Four Seasons Hotel 2009-09-28 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/
[25] McCarthy, Helen (1999). Hayao Miyazaki: master of Japanese animation: films, themes, artistry. Stone Bridge Press. pp.79, 89.
[26] Lu, Alvin, ed (2002). The Art Of Miyazaki's Spirited Away. introduction by Hayao Miyazaki. Viz Communications. p.15.
[27] Yves Montmayeur (2005). Ghibli The Miyazaki Temple (Documentary film). Paris.
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[29] Talbot, Margaret (2005-01-10). "The Animated Life" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060524092154/ http:/ / www. newyorker. com/
online/ content/ ?050117on_onlineonly01) (via the Internet Archive). The New Yorker. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. newyorker.
com/ online/ content/ ?050117on_onlineonly01) on 2006-05-24. . Retrieved 2007-06-07. "He's said, not entirely jokingly, that he looks
forward to the time when Tokyo is submerged by the ocean and the NTV tower becomes an island, when the human population plummets and
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[30] Schilling, Mark (2008-12-04). "An audience with Miyazaki, Japan's animation king" (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/
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[31] (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html#3103_02), 30th of November, A NEPPU INTERVIEW WITH MIYAZAKI HAYAO.
[32] "Hayao Miyazaki interview on the 1954 Animal Farm animated film" (in Japanese). Neppu (Studio Ghiblis monthly report magazine).
November 2008.( Summary at GhibliWorld.com (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html#3103_02))
[33] Alex, Pham (2009-07-24). "Comic-Con: Miyazaki breaks his silent protest of America's actions in Iraq with visit to the U.S." (http:/ /
latimesblogs. latimes. com/ herocomplex/ 2009/ 07/ comiccon-miyazaki-breaks-his-boycott-of-us-. html). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved
[34] Birth of Studio Ghibli (from Nausica DVD). Studio Ghibli. "Miyazaki is a feminist, actually. He has this conviction that to be successful,
companies have to make it possible for their female employees to succeed too. You can see this attitude in Princess Mononoke. All characters
working the bellows in the iron works are women. Then there's Porco Rosso. Porco's plane is rebuilt entirely by women. (Toshio Suzuki)"
[35] Napier, Susan J. (2001). Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
[36] (Japanese) " [[Category:Articles containing Japanese language
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[38] (in Japanese) Ghibli Museum diary (http:/ / www. ghibli-museum. jp/ diary/ 004624. html). Tokuma Memorial Cultural Foundation for
Animation. 2002-08-01. . Retrieved 2008-05-18.
[39] Dibrov, Dmitry, ed. (October 22, 2005) (TV show), A remote conversation between Yuriy Norshteyn and Hayao Miyazaki (http:/ / video.
google. com/ videoplay?docid=-6754083829948706013), Russia: ProSvet,
[40] Spirited Away (http:/ / www. theblackmoon. com/ Deadmoon/ spiritedaway2. html) (premire press Q&A), USA: The Black Moon,
[41] "XXat" (in Japanese). Animage 338: 13. August 2006.
[42] Interview with Up Director Peter Docter (http:/ / www. kpbs. org/ news/ 2009/ may/ 29/ interview-director-peter-docter/ ). By Beth
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[43] Michael J. Lee (October 24, 2010), AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH GLEN KEANE (http:/ / movies. radiofree. com/ interviews/
tangled_glen_keane. shtml), RadioFree.com
[44] Rogers, Tim (March 27, 2006). " In Defense of Final Fantasy XII (http:/ / www. next-gen. biz/ features/ defense-final-fantasy-xii)". Next
[45] "Console vs Handheld : Crystalis" (http:/ / www. 1up. com/ do/ feature?cId=3133565). 1up.com. . Retrieved 2007-10-23.
[46] Gor Miyazaki. "Translation of Gor Miyazaki's Blog, post 39" (http:/ / www. nausicaa. net/ miyazaki/ earthsea/ blog/ blog39. html).
Nausicaa.net. . Retrieved 2007-06-08.
[47] Coranto Archive (http:/ / www. nausicaa. net/ miyazaki/ newspro/ latestnews_headlines-archive-10-2006. html), Nausica.net, 2006-10,
[48] "" (http:/ / www. ghibli-freak. net/ ghibli_museum/ filmguruguru. html) (in Japanese). . Retrieved February 22, 2011.
[49] GhibliWorld.com - The Ultimate Ghibli Collection Site - NEWS & UPDATES (http:/ / www. ghibliworld. com/ news. html#1612)
Hayao Miyazaki 202

Further reading
Cavallaro, Dani (2006). The Anim Art of Hayao Miyazaki (http://books.google.com/
books?id=N3e00UlzHjgC). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786423699.
Miyazaki, Hayao (2009). Starting Point: 19791996. Beth Cary and Frederik L. Schodt, trans. Foreword by John
Lasseter. San Francisco: VIZ Media. ISBN 9781421505947. OCLC290477195.
Miyazaki, Hayao (1996). Shuppatsuten, 19791996 (1979~1996). Tokyo: Studio Ghibli,
Inc./Hatsubai Tokuma Shoten. ISBN 978-4198605414. OCLC37636025. Original Japanese edition.
Odell, Colin, & Le Blanc, Michelle (2009). Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata.
Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England: Kamera. ISBN 9781842432792. OCLC299246656.
Schodt, Frederik L. (1996) Dreamland Japan

External links
The Official Studio Ghibli Site (Japanese) (http://www.ghibli.jp/)
Miyazaki Information at Nausicaa.net (http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/miyazaki/)
Profile at Japan Zone (http://www.japan-zone.com/modern/miyazaki_hayao.shtml)
Interview in The Guardian (http://film.guardian.co.uk/interview/interviewpages/0,6737,1569689,00.html)
August 1997 interview (http://web.archive.org/web/20010211030138/www.acsys.com/~tallman/miya_e.
html) -(Nikkei Entertainment)
Hayao Miyazaki (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/people.php?id=51) at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
Hayao Miyazaki (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0594503/) at the Internet Movie Database
Links from Miyazakis Laputa to the works of Jules Verne. (http://www.mangauk.com/?p=french-connection)
Katsuji Matsumoto 203

Katsuji Matsumoto
Katsuji Matsumoto

Katsuji Matsumoto in an undated photograph

Born July 25, 1904

Kobe, Hygo Prefecture, Japan

Died May 13, 1986 (aged81)

Izu, Shizuoka, Japan

Nationality Japanese

Area(s) illustrator, comics creator, designer

Notable works Kurukuru Kurumi-chan

The Mysterious Clover

Katsuji Matsumoto (, 19041986) was a Japanese illustrator and shjo manga artist.[1] [2] Matsumoto's
16-page The Mysterious Clover (1934) is recognized as a pioneering work in the field of manga,[3] [4] but he is best
known for his shjo manga Kurukuru Kurumi-chan, serialized from 1938 to 1940, and again from 1949 to 1954.[5] [6]
His illustrations were popular from the 1930s through the 1950s, and he contributed illustrations to numerous
popular girls' novels by some of the period's most famous authors, including Yasunari Kawabata and Nobuko
Yoshiya.[7] [8] He was also a prolific illustrator of children's books and created merchandise for babies, small
children, and girls.[7] [8] The Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto in Tokyo is managed by his surviving children.[9]

Early life and professional debut

Matsumoto was born in Kobe, the son of Toraji () and Ishi () Matsumoto, but moved with his family to
Tokyo at the age of eight.[10] At the age of 13, he began attending what was then called Rikky (St. Paul's) Middle
School.[11] Through the introduction of a teacher at Rikky, Matsumoto began drawing illustrations for the magazine
Shinseinen (?, "New Youth") at the age of 17.[10] Matsumoto withdrew from Rikky at the age of 18 and
began attending the Kawabata ga gakk (?, "Kawabata Art School") .[10] During this time he contributed
drawings to such magazines as Shjo sekai (?, "Girls' World") and Shnen sekai (?, "Boys'
World") .[10] It was during this period that Matsumoto was inspired by illustrator Kji Fukiya to become an
illustrator in the field of girls' media.[12] (Matsumoto's younger sister, Ryko (), would eventually marry
Fukiya.[13] )
Following the devastation of Tokyo, including its publishing industry, in the 1923 Great Kant earthquake,
Matsumoto decided to try his fortunes overseas, and managed to obtain free passage to Shanghai.[10] His hope was to
eventually make his way to Paris. In Shanghai, he earned money by contributing illustrations and articles to the
Shanhai nichinichi shinbun (?, "Shanghai Daily Newspaper") , but when he turned twenty years of
age, he was forced to return to Japan to report for the draft. He was rejected for military service because he was flat
Katsuji Matsumoto 204

Early career and marriage

Matsumoto's first forum for steady work was the magazine Shjo Gah (?, "Girls' Illustrated") , to which
he contributed from 1928 to 1938.[10] Matsumoto first ventured into manga in Shjo Gah, creating a series of
illustrated narratives featuring a lively Chinese girl named Poku-chan, which was irregularly published between
November 1930 and March 1934.[10] The Poku-chan strips were drawn in a stylized, almost abstract, Art Deco
Matsumoto could draw in a wide range of styles, from the realistic to the near-abstract, but all of his work was
distinguished by clean, almost geometrical lines and a strictly Modern sensibility. While he illustrated numerous
dramatic girls' novels, his style was better suited to sunny, playful, or humorous work. In 1935, Matsumoto began to
work for the magazine that would become his primary forum, Shjo no tomo (?, "Girls' Friend") . Shjo no
tomo, with its modern, stylish image, was the ideal magazine for Matsumoto.[15]
In 1932, at the age of 28, Matsumoto was wed to Ayako Nimori (). They went on to have seven children
(four boys, three girls) together. Because Ayako was an only child, the decision was made to have the firstborn male
child legally adopted by her parents in order to carry on the Nimori name. On official records, therefore, Ki Nimori
(, born 1933) is listed as the younger brother of Ayako, and therefore the brother-in-law of Matsumoto.[16] [9]

Major works

The Mysterious Clover

In 1934, Matsumoto drew his first full-fledged manga, a 16-page story titled Nazo no kurbaa
(?, "The Mysterious Clover") . Printed as an over-sized pamphlet with a sturdy cardboard
cover, and included as a premium in the April issue of Shjo no tomo, The Mysterious Clover was a variation on The
Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. The protagonist of The Mysterious Clover is a young girl who protects the poor
peasants from the cruel and greedy nobles. This work is remarkable for its use of varying angles, including bird's-eye
views, and variation in the size of panels.[4] Sak Shishido (), influenced by American newspaper strips, had
used similar techniques in his 1930 Supiido Tar (?, "Speed Tar") , but in a far cruder drawing style
than Matsumoto's.[17] The Mysterious Clover had been neglected for decades by manga scholars until it was
displayed at a 2006 exhibition at the Yayoi Art Museum, where it caught the eye of Fusanosuke Natsume, who then
wrote about it on his blog and in a newspaper column.[3]

Kurukuru Kurumi-chan
Matsumoto's most famous work is his manga Kurukuru Kurumi-chan (),[18] [10] which was
serialized in Shjo no tomo from January 1938 until December 1940. Featuring the daily antics of a little girl named
Kurumi (, meaning "walnut"), each episode was a self-contained story, usually running 4 pages and 22
panels. The strip rarely ventured far from everyday reality, and was characterized by a gradually building absurdity
that rarely descended to simple slapstick.[5] [6]
In the earliest episodes, Kurumi-chan is roughly four heads tall, and would seem to be roughly nine or ten years old.
Over the years, though, Kurumi's proportions changed, until by the 1950s she had become an extremely stylized
character no more than two heads high, and of unknown age.[5] [6]
The strip was revived after the war in the magazine Shjo ("Girl") under the title Kurumi-chan and ran from
November 1949 to February 1954.[19]
Katsuji Matsumoto 205

Book illustrations
While working on Kurukuru Kurumi-chan, Matsumoto continued to do freestanding illustrations, in both color and
black and white, and also to illustrate girls' fiction and poetry. Matsumoto was one of the most popular and
influential illustrators working in girls' media, and he continued to be a popular illustrator through the early
1950s.[20] [21] He worked with such prominent Japanese authors and poets as Nobuko Yoshiya and Yaso Saij, and
adapted many works by non-Japanese author's, including Katherine Mansfield's short story The Doll's House, to the
short-lived genre of emonogatari (?, "picture stories") .[22]
Although Matsumoto drew in a wide range of styles, certain features remain consistent. His characters have an air of
intelligence without melancholy, and of cheerful optimism that is never saccharine.[15] Other popular illustrators of
the day were better suited to the niches in which Matsumoto was not in his element. The multi-talented and
enormously popular Jun'ichi Nakahara () drew girls who were intelligent and stylish, but humor was not
his forte.[23] In the genre of sentimental melodrama, according to Akiko Horiguchi, no one was more popular than
Hiroshi Katsuyama ().[24] But in an age when print media of all kinds were becoming increasingly
visual, there was plenty of work to go around.[25]

Children's books and infant merchandise

In 1955, Matsumoto abandoned manga altogether. Although he continued to do illustration work in a variety of
styles, his focus shifted to the kind of hyper-stylized, wryly adorable character epitomized by the later Kurumi-chan.
His target audience accordingly shifted from preteen and low-teen girls to toddlers and young mothers. In addition to
illustrating new and original children's books, Matsumoto illustrated numerous classics, including Little Red Riding
Hood (1955), Andrew Lang's Blue Fairy Book (1959, translated by Yasunari Kawabata), and various other
collections of classic Japanese and European fairy tales.[26]
In 1960, Matsumoto founded Katsu Productions (), which specialized in illustrations for infants
and toddlers and designing various infant merchandise. This merchandise was spectacularly popular. Amateur manga
scholar and blogger "lacopen" commented that "When I was a child, [Matsumoto's baby] goods were all the rage, so
much so that it is no exaggeration to say they were everywhere."[27] His designs for the infant merchandise company
known originally as "Sanshin. Inc." were perhaps the mostly widely consumed and recognized, and it has been
suggested that the company changed its name to Combi[28] (, which comes from the English "combination"
and is used in Japanese to mean "duo") in response to the popularity of the infant duo, "Haamu" () and
"Monii" (), created by Matsumoto and featured on a wide array of the company's products.[29]

Retirement and death

In 1971, now in his late 60s, Matsumoto built an atelier, "Chijunb"
(?, "Young Bamboo Shoot Studio") in Kamishiraiwa (on
the Izu Peninsula, where he turned his creative talents from the modern
and cosmopolitan to the traditional and provincial. Using the bamboo
that was so plentiful in the area, he designed a variety of toys and
objects that could easily be reproduced by the local farmers to sell as
souvenirs. For this work, Matsumoto was given a commendation by
the Shizuoka Prefectural government.[30] Although these works seem
strikingly at odds with Matsumoto's cosmopolitan image, he in fact had Bamboo figurines designed by Matsumoto at his
always had an eye for the traditional, and was particularly fond of rural atelier, Chijunb

collecting carefully selected Japanese and Korean pottery and

furniture. Modern or traditional, Western or Eastern, the common thread that runs through Matsumoto's aesthetic
sense, and his work, is an appreciation of that which is refined, simple, elegant, and unpretentious.[9] [31] [32]
Katsuji Matsumoto 206

In 1986, Matsumoto suffered the last of a series of strokes, and was hospitalized, never to fully regain consciousness
again. The stylish Matsumoto had been famously fastidious throughout his life, and his daughter, Meiko, has written
that she was startled to notice that on his hospital bed, where Matsumoto lay unconscious and barely responsive, he
had been using his remaining good hand to remove the pills that had formed on the old hospital blanket.
Furthermore, although doctors said he had lost his sight, Matsumoto would open his eyes, and, as if looking in a
mirror, would straighten the hairs of his mustache with his fingers as he had habitually done for years.[33] Matsumoto
died at the age of 81. His cremated remains are interred in the Fuji Cemetery in Gotemba, Shizuoka, at the foot of
Mount Fuji.[9]

Matsumoto's children, in addition to Ki Nimori, are, in order of birth: Ikki Matsumoto (, born 1935,
currently living in the U.S.A.); Rumi O'Brien (, born 1937, also living in the U.S.A.); Motoi
Matsumoto (, born 1939); Ken Matsumoto (, born 1941, deceased); Meiko Matsumoto (,
born 1943); and Michie Utsuhara (, born 1945). Two of the first successful female shjo manga artists
of the postwar period, Toshiko Ueda and Setsuko Tamura, were his apprentices. Michie, Matsumoto's youngest
child, along with several of her siblings and Matsumoto's grandchildren, manages the Gallery Katsuji Matsumoto
(), soon to be renamed the Katsuji Matsumoto Archives (), the
official Katsuji Matsumoto website [34] and its on-line shop [35], and also writes "Kurumi-chan nikki
([[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? [36]], "Kurumi-chan Diary") ]. The gallery is located at
4-14-18 Tamagawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-0094.[9]

[1] Although he generally wrote his given name in hiragana, , his legal given name, pronounced the same, was written in kanji,
.Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, p. 121. Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[2] The Matsumoto Katsuji of this article should not be confused with animation director Matsumoto Katsuji who has
worked on the Sailor Moon anime (note difference in the fourth kanji).
[3] Natsume, Fusanosuke () (2006) Hayakatta Matsumoto Katsuji no katsugeki hygen (?,
"Katsuji Matsumoto's Cutting-Edge Expression of Dramatic Action") Mainichi Shimbun, May 30.
[4] Thorn, Matt (2008) "The Multi-Faceted Universe of Shjo Manga" (http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ colloque/ index. php), presented
at Le manga, 60 ans aprs... (http:/ / www. mcjp. asso. fr/ pjanv2008/ conferences/ manga/ index. html), Paris, March 15.
[5] Matsumoto, Katsuji (1987) Kurukuru Kurumi-chan () Vol. 1. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (), ISBN
[6] Matsumoto, Katsuji (1987) Kurukuru Kurumi-chan () Vol. 2. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankoukai (), ISBN
[7] "Katsuji Matsumoto's World" (Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai ), the official web site maintained by the Matsumoto estate:
http:/ / katsudi. com/ katsudiinfo1. html. (Accessed September 2, 2008).
[8] Thorn, Matt (2006) "Pre-World War II Shjo Manga and Illustrations." http:/ / matt-thorn. com/ shoujo_manga/ prewar_shoujo/ index. html.
(Accessed September 2, 2008).
[9] Details regarding Matsumoto's parents, exact date of birth and date of death, education, children, publication history of Kurukuru
Kurumi-chan, atelier activities, and personality and habits were provided to Matt Thorn in three personal e-mails from Matsumoto's daughter
Michie Utsuhara (), dated July 22, 23, and 28, 2008. These facts can be verified by Ms. Utsuhara, who is President of
Mastumoto Katsuji Art Promotion, Inc. The telephone/fax number is +81-3-3707-3503, and the address is 4-14-18 Tamagawa, Setagaya-ku,
Tokyo, 158-0094, Japan. She can be reached by e-mail at info@katsudi.com
[10] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, pp. 94, 121. Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[11] The school is today known as Rikky (St. Paul's) Junior & Senior High School in Ikebukuro. It should be noted that in the prewar period,
chgakk (?, "middle school") referred to what would today be considered an academically elite high school or "prep school."Uchida,
Shizue (), the Yayoi Museum () (2005) Jogakusei tech: Taish/Shwa otome raifu (
?, "A Schoolgirl's Handbook: A Maiden's Life in the Taisho and Showa Periods") , pp. 18-19. Tokyo: Kawade Shob Shinsha
Katsuji Matsumoto 207

() ISBN 4-309-72742-5.
[12] Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (), ed. (1985, revised 1996) Shjo no akarui yume o tsuiky--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai
(?, "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") , p. 19.
Tokyo: Sanrio.
[13] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, p. 92. Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[14] Thorn, Matt (2006-02-24). "Commercialization & the Loss of Innocence: Childrens Manga from the 1920s to the Present". Comics and
Childhood: The Fourth Annual Conference on Comics (http:/ / www. english. ufl. edu/ comics/ 2006/ ). University of Florida, Gainesville.
[15] Endoh, Hiroko () (2004) "Shjo no tomo" to sono jidai: henshsha no yki Uchiyama Motoi
( , ?, "Shjo no tomo and Era: An Editor's Courage Motoi Uchiyama") pp. 55-59
Tokyo:Honnoizumisha () ISBN 978-4880238210
[16] Under the Japanese ie family system that was the law of the land prior to the end of World War II, it was common in cases where there was
no male heir for a groom to be legally adopted by his bride's parents and become the successor to her family name. Since Katsuji was himself
the eldest son of and successor to the Matsumoto family, this was not an option.
[17] Shishido, Sakoh () (1988) Supiido Tar (?, "Speed Tar") , Tokyo: San'ichi shob (), ISBN
[18] "Kurukuru"----means "spinning" or "winding", "-chan"----is a diminutive honorific that can be translated as "little" or
[19] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, p. 122. Tokyo: Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[20] Kondoh, Tomie (), supervising editor (1992) TaishShwa shnen shjo zasshi meibamen shuu
(?, "A Collection of Memorable Scenes from Boys' and Girls' Magazines of the Taisho and Showa
Periods") , p. 47. Tokyo: Gakken ().
[21] Takahashi, Yohji (), ed. (1984) Ehon II (?, "Picture Books II") , p. 36. Bessatsu Taiy () series, Tokyo: Heibonsha
() ISBN 978-4582920470.
[22] Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (), ed. (1985, revised 1996) Shjo no akarui yume o tsuiky--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai
(?, "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") , pp.
34-48. Tokyo: Sanrio.
[23] Yanase, Takashi (), supervising editor (1986) Yomigaere! Jojga--bishjo no densetsu: jojga no rtsu kara shinkankakuha
no tanj made ( ?, "Revive! Lyrical Illustration--Legend of
the beautiful girl: From the Roots of Lyrical Illustration to the Birth of Neo Sensualism") , p. 54. Tokyo: Sanrio ISBN 4-387-86065-0.
[24] Horiuchi, Akiko (), ed. (2003) Otome no romansu tech (?, "A Maiden's Romance Handbook") , p. 36.
Tokyo: Kawade Shob Shinsha (). ISBN 4-309-72732-8
[25] Yonezawa, Yoshihiro (), ed. (1991) Kodomo no Shwa-shi: Shjo manga no sekai I, Shwa 20 nen - 37 nen
( I 2037?, "A Children's History of Showa-Era Japan: The World of Shjo Manga I,
1945-1962") , p. 36. Bessatsu Taiy () series, Tokyo: Heibonsha () ISBN 978-4582942392.
[26] Hiramatsu, Yoshiyuki (), ed. (1985, revised 1996) Shjo no akarui yume o tsuiky--Matsumoto Katsuji no sekai
(?, "In Pursuit of the Cheerful Dreams of Girls: The World of Katsuji Matsumoto") , pp.
8189. Tokyo: Sanrio.
[27] lacopen blog version (http:/ / lacopen. cocolog-nifty. com/ blog/ 2006/ 05/ post_bdd0. html)
[28] Combi Corporation (2004) Corporate History (http:/ / www. combi. co. jp/ en/ company/ history_e. htm) Retrieved on August 26, 2008
[29] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, pp. 68-69. Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[30] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, p. 120. Tokyo: Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[31] Uchida, Shizue (), ed. (2006) Matsumoto Katsuji--Shwa no kawaii! o tsukutta irasutoreetaa
(----!?, "Katsuji Matsumoto: The Illustrator Who Created the Showa Era's 'Cute!'")
, pp. 74-75. Kawade Shob Shinsha. ISBN 4-309-72751-4
[32] Katsuji no ai shita monotachi ([[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|? (http:/ / katsudi. com/ katsudiinfo3. html)], The
Objects Katsuji Loved) ]
[33] Matsumoto, Meiko () (2008) Kurumi-chan nikki: Chichi no shi ([[Help:Installing Japanese character sets|?
(http:/ / kurumifriend. blog122. fc2. com/ blog-entry-32. html)], "Kurumi-chan Diary: Father's Death") June 16.]
[34] http:/ / katsudi. com/ katsudiinfo1. html
[35] http:/ / kurumifriend. ocnk. net/
[36] http:/ / kurumifriend. blog122. fc2. com/
Katsuji Matsumoto 208


Further reading
Shimonaka, Kunihiko (), ed. (1979) Meisaku sashie zensh dai yon kan: Shwa senzen shnen shjo
hen (?, "Complete Collection of Memorable Book Illustrations, Volume
4: Prewar Showa Period Boys' and Girls' Works")
, Tokyo: Heibonsha ().

External links
Matsumoto Katsuji no Sekai (, "Katsuji Matsumoto's World"--Official web site maintained by
the Matsumoto estate) (http://katsudi.com/katsudiinfo1.html)
Thorn, Matt (2006) " Pre-World War II Shjo Manga and Illustrations (http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/
prewar_shoujo/index.html)" matt-thorn.com
Kichi Mashimo 209

Kichi Mashimo
Kichi Mashimo
Born June 21, 1952
Tokyo, Japan

Nationality Japanese

Alma mater Sophia University

Occupation Anime director and screenwriter

Employer Tatsunoko Production

Bee Train
Victor Entertainment
Production I.G

Knownfor Bee Train animation studio

Kichi Mashimo ( Mashimo Kichi, sometimes credited as Kouchi Mashimo or Kouichi Mashimo)
(born June 21, 1952) is a well-known Japanese anime director and the founder of the animation studio Bee Train.
Since the creation of the studio, Mashimo directed or otherwise participated in (nearly) all its works, for example, as
a member of art or sound department. The anime OVA Murder Princess was the first Bee Train production since
1999 which he had not directed.

Kichi Mashimo was born in Tokyo, Japan and from his early years showed interest in photography, admittedly
under the influence of his father. Mashimo studied jurisprudence at Sophia University and during his fourth
university year, he participated in the making of several television commercials. However, this was a rather
disappointing experience, and on November 6, 1975, he applied for a position of Hiroshi Sasagawa's assistant
director in Tatsunoko Production. The first anime series he worked on was Time Bokan (197576).
In the mid-1980s, while still working for Tatsunoko, Mashimo survived a severe alpine skiing accident. During his
stay in an intensive care unit, he came up with an idea of a "hospital for animators", an animation studio whose
primary goal would be fostering and self-actualization of talented artists rather than commercial success and money.
Some time after that, he founded a small freelance studio called Mashimo Jimusho that was mainly producing
in-between animation for larger companies. In 1997, Mashimo presented his studio-as-hospital concept to Mitsuhisa
Ishikawa, the president of Production I.G, who was so impressed with it that he immediately agreed to sponsor
Mashimo. The new subsidiary has become known as Bee Train and in February 2006, it ended its relationship with
I.G and became independent.

Approach and style

Mashimo generally storyboards all the anime he directs. As one of the leading and only regular on-staff directors at
Bee Train, most series are fully directed by him. As Bee Train has expanded, more directors have been able to
handle episode direction under Mashimo's supervision, such as Tsubasa Chronicle.
Mashimo is known for frequently hiring Yuki Kajiura to compose for his projects. Their first project being Eat-Man,
then going onto Noir, as well as .hack//Sign, Liminality, and Tsubasa Chronicle.[1] Besides Kajiura, many Mashimo
and Bee Train's projects bring back seiys and crew members. Some noted cast members include: Maaya Sakamoto
(.hack//SIGN, Blade of the Immortal, Tsubasa Chronicle), Sanae Kobayashi (Madlax, .hack//Roots,
.hack//Liminality),[2] as well as noted crew members such as character designer Minako Shiba, Satoshi Oshawa, and
Kichi Mashimo 210

artist and director Koji Sawai, as well as writers such as Hiroyuki Kawasaki.
Mashimo's approach to music is to have the music play a key role in the series. He feels music and animation should
work and push each other to new heights all the time, and it should be seen as more than simple background.[3]
Some of Mashimo's major projects have featured strong female protagonists. The famous "girls with guns" trilogy
(Noir, Madlax, El Cazador de la Bruja) have all featured female characters in lead roles. One of his earlier films, The
Weathering Continent, also featured a young woman who takes matters into her own hands to save her people. Some
have also been known to contain subtle hints at lesbian relations, most notably in Madlax.[4] [5]
Mashimo once remarked that he would like to have personally met the photographers Richard Avedon, Jeanloup
Sieff, and Helmut Newton and film directors John Ford and Alfred Hitchcock. However, by the time the interview
has been published, four of these were already dead and Avedon died later that year. Mashimo is particularly fond of
the French movie Les Aventuriers (1967, IMDB [6]) and has even named a character in Madlax after the protagonist
of that film.[7]

Year Anime Job


1975 Time Bokan assistant director

1978 Kagaku Ninja-Tai Gatchaman II director

1979 Kagaku Ninja-Tai Gatchaman F director


1981 Golden Warrior Gold Lightan Chief Director, episode director, storyboards

1982 Golden Warrior Gold Lightan Chief director

1985 Night on the Galactic Railroad script

1986 Ai City director

1987 Dirty Pair: Project Eden director, general superintendent

1988 F director, script

Dominion: Tank Police director, script

1989 Dragon Warrior script


1990 Robin Hood no Daiboken director

1992 The Weathering Continent director, script

1993 The Irresponsible Captain Tylor director, script, supervisor, storyboard

1996 Sorcerer Hunters director

1997 Eat-Man director

1998 Xenogears animation movie producer

1999 PoPoLoCrois director, script

Wild Arms: Twilight Venom director, planning

Kichi Mashimo 211


2001 Noir director, storyboard, sound director, music director

2002 .hack//Sign director, script, sound director, soundtrack supervisor

.hack OVAs: .hack//Intermezzo, .hack//Unison, director


.hack//Liminality director, soundtrack supervision, animation director

.hack//Infection staff member: Bee Train

.hack//Mutation staff member: Bee Train

.hack//Outbreak staff member: Bee Train

2003 Avenger director

.hack//Legend of the Twilight director, general superintendent

.hack//Quarantine staff member: Bee Train

Immortal Grand Prix director, script

2004 Madlax director, script, storyboards

Ginyuu Mokushiroku Meine Liebe director, script

2005 Tsubasa Chronicle (first season) director, storyboards

2006 Ginyuu Mokushiroku Meine Liebe wieder planner

.hack//Roots director, supervision, soundtrack supervision, consulting producer

.hack//G.U. vol. 1//Rebirth staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

.hack//G.U. vol. 2//Reminisce staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

Spider Riders director, storyboards

Tsubasa Chronicle (second season) director (co-director: Hiroshi Morioka)

2007 .hack//G.U. vol. 3//Redemption staff member: Bee Train (G.U. grand design)

El Cazador de la Bruja director

Spider Riders: Yomigaeru Taiyou director

Murder Princess planner

2008 .hack//G.U. Returner director

Blade of the Immortal director, storyboard artist

Batman Gotham Knight: Field Test segment producer

2009 Phantom ~Requiem for the Phantom~ director, storyboards (ending animation #2)

2010 Halo Legends segment executive producer and director: "Homecoming" (co-director Koji

2011 Hyouge Mono director, storyboard, episode director

Kichi Mashimo 212

[1] "Kichi Mashimo" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0556325/ ). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 2008-05-29.
[2] Kichi Mashimo (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ WorkedWith?name=Mashimo,+ Kichi& as=e& with=b)
[3] Wong, Amos ( March 2005 (http:/ / www. newtype-usa. com/ issues/ index. php?itemid=71)). "Inside Bee Train". Newtype USA: 815.
[4] "Shoujo-Ai Archive: Madlax Fanfiction" (http:/ / www. shoujoai. com/ fanfics/ ?series=madlax). ShoujoAi.com. . Retrieved 2007-06-14.
[5] Friedman, Erica (2004-06-29). "Okazu: Madlax" (http:/ / okazu. blogspot. com/ search/ label/ Madlax). . Retrieved 2007-06-14.
[6] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0061376/
[7] Kichi Mashimo (2004) [DVD 2005] (insert leaflet Staff Talk #1 (Shigeru Kitayama)). Madlax Volume 1: Connections (http:/ / www.
advfilms. com/ CatalogFilms_Detail. asp?ID=4177) (Liner notes). Houston, Texas: ADV Films. DMAD/001.
[8] "Halo Legends" (http:/ / halo. xbox. com/ en-us/ halolegends#video_1). . Retrieved 2009-10-26.

Katoh, Hidekazu et al. "Tsubasa - Reservoir Chronicle". (May 2007) Newtype USA. pp.2633.
Yuki, Masahiro. "The Official Art of .hack//Roots". (May 2007) Newtype USA. pp.101107.

External links
Kichi Mashimo (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/people.php?id=372) at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
Kichi Mashimo (http://www.beetrainfan.org/wiki/index.php?title=Mashimo_Kichi) at the Bee Train Fan
Kichi Mashimo (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0556325/) at the Internet Movie Database
Koichi Mashimo (http://www.anime-wiki.org/index.php/Koichi_Mashimo) at Anime-Wiki
Leiji Matsumoto 213

Leiji Matsumoto
Leiji Matsumoto

Leiji Matsumoto in 2008

Birth name Akira Matsumoto ( Matsumoto Akira)

Born January 25, 1938

Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan

Nationality Japanese

Field character design, illustration

Works Space Battleship Yamato, Captain Harlock, Galaxy Express 999

Awards Order of the Rising Sun#4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette

Leiji Matsumoto ( Matsumoto Reiji, born Akira Matsumoto January 25, 1938 in Kurume, Fukuoka,
Japan) is a well-known creator of several anime and manga series. His wife Miyako Maki ( Maki
Miyako) is also known as a manga artist.[1]

Space opera
Matsumoto is famous for his space operas such as Space Battleship Yamato. His style is characterized by tragic
heroes; tall, slender, fragile-looking heroines with strong wills and in some cases, god-like powers; and a love of
analog gauges and dials in his spacecraft.

Matsumoto made his debut under his real name, Akira Matsumoto, in 1953. His wife is shjo manga artist Miyako
Maki (better known as the creator of the doll, Licca-chan, the Japanese equivalent of Barbie).
Matsumoto had his big break with Otoko Oidon, a series that chronicled the life of a rnin (a young man who was
preparing himself for entrance examinations to universities and colleges), in 1971. Around the same time he started a
series of unconnected short stories set during World War II, Senjo Manga Series, which would eventually become
popular under the title The Cockpit.
He was involved in Space Battleship Yamato (1974) and the debut of the highly popular series Captain Harlock and
Galaxy Express 999 (both 1977). In 1978, he was awarded the Shogakukan Manga Award for shnen for Galaxy
Express 999 and Senjo Manga Series.[2] Animated versions of Captain Harlock and Galaxy Express 999 are set in
the same universe, which spanned several spin offs and related series, most notably Queen Emeraldas and Queen
Matsumoto supervised the creation of several music videos for the French house group Daft Punk, set to tracks from
their album Discovery. These videos were issued end-to-end (making a full-length animated movie) on a DVD
Leiji Matsumoto 214

release titled Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem.
About two dozen bronze statues each perhaps four feet tall of characters and scenes from Space Battleship
Yamato and Galaxy Express 999 were erected in the downtown area of Tsuruga in 1999.[3] Each statue includes a
plaque at its base explaining the character, and featuring Matsumoto's signature.
Matsumoto worked with Yoshinobu Nishizaki on
Space Battleship Yamato (known outside Japan under
various names but most commonly as Star Blazers).[4]
Matsumoto created a manga loosely based on the
series, and the Yamato makes cameo appearances (sans
crew) in several of his works including the Galaxy
Express 999 manga.

A recent work by Matsumoto called Great Yamato

featuring an updated Yamato had to be renamed Great
Galaxy due to legal issues with Nishizaki.[6] [7] [8] [9]
As of 2009, Matsumoto and Nishizaki were working on Himiko, a water bus of Tokyo Cruise Ship designed by Leiji
independent anime projects featuring the acclaimed Matsumoto
Space Battleship Yamato, with the conditions that
Matsumoto cannot use the name Yamato or the plot or characters from the original, and Nishizaki cannot use the
conceptual art, character or ship designs of the original.[10] Since Nishizaki's death in 2010, it is uncertain whether
these restrictions will continue to apply.

List of works
Arei no Kagami (1985)
Fairy Hotaruna
Space Battleship Yamato (1974)
Planet Robot Danguard Ace (part of the U.S. Force Five anthology series, as Dangard Ace; 19771978)
Galaxy Express 999 (19771981)
Captain Harlock (19771979)
Starzinger (part of the Force Five anthology series, as Spaceketeers) (1978-1979)
Queen Millennia (aka Queen of 1000 Years)
Arcadia of My Youth
Arcadia of My Youth: Endless Orbit SSX
The Cockpit
Maeterlinck's Blue Bird: Tyltyl and Mytyl's Adventurous Journey
Queen Emeraldas
Tiger-Striped Mii
The Ultimate Time Sweeper Mahoroba (manga)
Fire Force DNAsights 999.9
Harlock Saga Der Ring des Nibelungen
Maetel Legend
Cosmo Warrior Zero
Gun Frontier (19721975)
Great Galaxy (formerly Great Yamato)
Space Pirate Captain Herlock: The Endless Odyssey
Pu Pu (1974)
Submarine Super 99
Leiji Matsumoto 215

Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem (2003) (In cooperation with Daft Punk)
The Galaxy Railways
Great Yamato #0
Space Symphony Maetel
Submarine Super 99 (1964)
Kousoku Esper (19681970)
Sexaroid (19681970)
Machinner series (19691970)
Mystery Eve (19701971)
Dai-yojo-han series (19701974)
Otoko Oidon (197173)
Senjo Manga series (19731978)
Insect (1975)
Saint Elmo - Hikari no Raihousha

[1] allcinema (http:/ / www. allcinema. net/ prog/ show_p. php?num_p=117225)
[2] "[[Category:Articles containing Japanese language text (http:/ / comics. shogakukan. co. jp/ mangasho/ rist.
html)]"] (in Japanese). Shogakukan. . Retrieved 2007-08-19.
[3] http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=371 Yamatour 2009: Matsumoto Symbol Road
[4] "Leiji Matsumoto 1978 Interview" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=305). StarBlazers.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[5] "Leiji Matsumoto 1976 Interview" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=303). StarBlazers.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[6] "" (http:/ / www. law. co. jp/ cases/ yamato. htm). law.co.jp. . Retrieved 2008-07-20.(Japanese)
[7] "Yamato dispute arises again" (http:/ / www. animenewsnetwork. com/ news/ 2003-08-08/ yamato-dispute-arises-again). Anime News
Network. 2008-07-10. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.
[8] "Cosmoship Yamato Part 1: The Leiji Matsumoto Manga" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=171). StarBlazers.com. .
Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[9] "Cosmoship Yamato Part 2: The Leiji Matsumoto Manga" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=173). StarBlazers.com. .
Retrieved 2008-10-02.
[10] "Leiji Matsumoto: A Tribute" (http:/ / www. starblazers. com/ html. php?page_id=301). StarBlazers.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.

External links
(Japanese) Leiji Matsumoto Official Home Page (http://www.leiji-matsumoto.ne.jp/)
Leiji Matsumoto (http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/people.php?id=3138) at Anime News
Network's Encyclopedia
Leiji Matsumoto (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0559535/) at the Internet Movie Database
Osamu Tezuka 216

Osamu Tezuka
In this Japanese name, the family name is "Tezuka".

Osamu Tezuka
Born Tezuka Osamu ( )
November 3, 1928
Toyonaka, Osaka

Died February 9, 1989 (aged60)


Nationality Japanese

Area(s) Writer, Penciller, Inker, Animator, Producer, Manga Artist, Medical Doctor, actor, pianist

Notable works Astro Boy

Kimba the White Lion
Black Jack

Spouse Etsuko Okada

Osamu Tezuka ( , born Tezuka Osamu, November 3, 1928 February 9, 1989) was a Japanese
cartoonist, manga artist, animator, producer, activist and medical doctor, although he never practiced medicine. Born
in Osaka Prefecture, he is best known as the creator of Astro Boy, Kimba the White Lion and Black Jack. He is often
credited as the "Godfather of Anime", and is often considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, who served as
a major inspiration during his formative years.[1] His prolific output, pioneering techniques, and innovative
redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the god of comics"[2] and "kamisama of
manga".[3] His grave is located in Tokyo's Souzen-ji Temple Cemetery.

Early life
Osamu was born, as the eldest son of three children of Tezuka family, on November 3, 1928, in Toyonaka City,
Osaka.[4] [5] His nickname was gashagasha-atama (gashagasha is slang for messy, atama means head). His mother
often comforted him by telling him to look to the blue skies, giving him confidence. His mother's stories inspired his
creativity as well. Tezuka grew up in Takarazuka City, Hygo and his mother often took him to the Takarazuka
Theatre. The Takarazuka Revue that performed at the theatre is made up in its entirety of women, and so male
characters are also played by women. The Takarazuka Revue is known for its romantic musicals usually aimed at a
female audience, thus having a large impact on the later works of Tezuka, including his costuming designs. He has
said that he has a profound "spirit of nostalgia" for Takarazuka.[6] His animation production company was named
Mushi (insect) Production.[7]
He started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school. Around his fifth year he found a bug named
"Osamushi". It so resembled his name that he adopted osamushi as his pen name. He came to the realization that he
could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. After World War II, he created his
first piece of work (at age 17), Diary of Ma-chan and then Shin Takarajima (New Treasure Island), which began the
golden age of manga, a craze comparable to American comic books at the time.[8] Japanese manga artists call him
"Manga-no-kami sama" [the god of manga].
Osamu Tezuka 217

The distinctive "large eyes" style of Japanese animation was invented by Tezuka,[9] drawing inspirations on cartoons
of the time such as Betty Boop and Walt Disney's Bambi and Mickey Mouse. As an indication of his productivity, the
Complete Manga Works of Tezuka Osamu (, published in Japan) comprises some 400 volumes,
over 80,000 pages; even so, it is not comprehensive. His complete oeuvre includes over 700 manga with more than
150,000 pages.[10] [11] However, the vast m