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200

5-393.200

(Note: This section uses English units only)

smoothness has been planed on a planing machine on either

The finished appearance of a concrete structure is dependent one side (S1S), two sides (S2S), one edge (S1E), two edges

to a large extent on the forms and falsework used in the (S2E) or a combination thereof (including complete planing

concrete construction. Concrete lines and surfaces will S4S)

usually reflect the degree of care and skill used in the design

and construction of the forms and falsework. Unsatisfactory Rough timber - lumber which has not been dressed but has

concrete construction due to faulty form and falsework design been sawn to the extent of showing saw marks on the full

or construction is very difficult to correct after the concrete is width of each of the 4 faces, also described as full sawn

cast. In an extreme case, the result of a faulty design or lumber.

careless workmanship on the forms and falsework could lead

to their collapse during construction operations, with serious Sized lumber - lumber, either rough or dressed, which is

consequences. The Department, by its Specifications, has prepared in standard dimension increments, with a plus and

placed certain restrictions on the design and construction of minus tolerance assigned to each size.

forms and falsework. These restrictions do not prohibit the

Contractor from exercising ingenuity in the construction of Nominal dimensions - the cross-section dimensions of the

form details and the economical selection of materials. The piece in inches as a full sawn piece (dimension prior to

Specifications do provide guidelines for forms and falsework surfacing).

that should be safe and that will result in satisfactory concrete

lines and surfaces. B. Falsework Requirements

A. Definitions and Nomenclature Usually the need for falsework is self-evident; however,

bridge plans often require the construction of some concrete

Forms are those members (usually vertical) that are required to item at or below ground level which has no footing. Typical

maintain plastic concrete in its desired shape until it has set of these are:

up. Forms resist the fluid pressure of the plastic concrete, the

additional fluid pressure generated by mechanical vibration of 1. cantilevered wingwalls on the abutments,

the concrete and the impact of placing the concrete in the 2. tie beams between concrete walls or between footings,

forms. Forms may be stripped when the concrete is set up and 3. high abutment side walls (or curtain walls) as on box type

its fluid pressure is reduced to zero. abutments.

Falsework is the supporting framework required to maintain a Judgment must then be exercised as to whether the existing

concrete unit in the desired position (when it cannot be soil can adequately support the weight of the concrete without

supported directly on the ground, as a footing or on previously settlement, or if falsework support is necessary. (Note, the

cast concrete) until the concrete is strong enough to carry its falsework referred to is in addition to that which is used to

own dead weight. Falsework must be strong enough to carry hold sheathing to shape the lower concrete surface, as on the

its own dead weight, the dead weight of the forms and bottom of most abutment wingwalls.)

concrete and the live load of construction crews and their

equipment. Wingwalls and tie beams can normally be formed directly on

the underlying soil, providing that the soil is stable and well

Sheathing used on the underside of a concrete unit, such as compacted. (Beware of plastic soils that will become unstable

sheathing under deck slabs or pier caps, serves the dual with rain.) However, the higher abutment sidewalls will

purpose of a form and a falsework member but, for design, is usually require falsework and falsework piling when the

classified as a falsework member, as the dead weight of the underlying material is not rock.

concrete plus live load is used in the design loading rather than

the fluid concrete pressure. Specific falsework requirements are given in Specifications

2401.3B4. For certain structures, the special provisions will

Common terminology for members of a falsework pile bent contain requirements for falsework plans and construction.

and for a typical form system are shown on Figure A 5- These requirements are in addition to those contained in

393.201. In addition, the following nomenclature will be used construction specifications and this Manual.

in this manual when referring to form lumber:

Forms must be used on all vertical or battered surfaces except

Side = wider face }regardless of how the piece is positioned the portions of footings that extend into solid rock. Casting

Edge = narrower face} concrete against an earth face will not be permitted (see

Specifications 2401.3B). One exception to the above is that

5-393.201 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

the 1 inch radius required at the front face of sidewalks can function as intended. See Section 5-393.202 for more

normally be shaped with a 1 inch radius edger. However, the information.

3 inch radius required at the front face of 6 inch high curbs

must normally be shaped by a form built to the specified A continuing inspection should be made during placement of

radius since hand shaping of this radius is seldom performed form and falsework members to assure conformance with

satisfactorily. approved plans (if used), to assure structural soundness and

accuracy, and to minimize the need for last minute corrections.

C. Contractor Responsibilities This inspection is discussed in more detail in Section

5-393.208.

The Contractor is responsible for the design of all falsework

and forms and shall submit detailed plans of the proposed Concrete pours are to be made in accordance with approved

falsework and form construction to the Engineer on request pour sequences. Where approval of pour sequences is not

(see Specifications 1502 and 2401.3B). In accordance with required, pours should be with the form or falsework design

these Specifications, all working drawings are subject to and should provide balanced loading to the extent possible. A

review and approval or rejection by the Engineer prior to follow-up inspection during and after concrete placement

performance of the work involved. should be made to assure that the forms and/or falsework

function as intended with regard to deflections, tolerances, etc.

When trying new or untried devices or systems for falsework

and/or forms and when using materials with unknown strength

properties, it is the Contractors responsibility to verify to the

Engineers satisfaction the strength and safety of the device or

system and the workability of the device or system as related

to the desired end product. This verification has in the past

been provided in the form of (a) full scale field tests, (b) tests

by a reputable testing laboratory, (c) certified design

calculations, (d) manufacturers literature, or a combination of

the above items.

and forms in reasonably close conformity with the approved

falsework plans.

Engineer or required by the Contract, these plans should be

reviewed for acceptability as to strength, method of

construction, safety, potential problems, and ability to produce

the desired finished product. Approval to use such plans

should be noted as being approved as to type of construction

and should also bear a note that such acceptance is conditional

to making changes which the Engineer has noted thereon.

When evaluating a new or untried device or system, approval

(if given) should be given only on a performance basis. Such

approval of plans does not relieve the Contractor of

responsibility for results obtained by use of the plans (see

Specifications 1502 and Specifications 2401.3B).

engineer is required prior to acceptance of the completed

falsework. The inspector should be present during this review

and no use of the falsework should be permitted until this

engineer has completed the review and authorized use

(normally a written certification is provided).

Check the material that will be used for forms and falsework

for agreement with sizes, shapes and qualities shown on the

Contractors plans. If not in conformance with approved

plans, the material must be evaluated as to its ability to

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.201

Pile cut off

Pile cap

splice point

Corbel

braces

Bolt, nut

and washers

Chamfer strip

Strongback

Wood spreader

(tie bolt)

(tie rod)

Stud backed with sheathing

Lower plate

5-393.201 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The following symbols and abbreviations will apply to forms and falsework:

psf = pounds per square foot

pcf = pounds per cubic foot

A area in.2

D diameter inches

length (center to center of supports for beam spans; unsupported length for columns) inches

P concentrated load lb

V shearing force lb

deflection inches

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (1)

Form and falsework materials described below are listed with either an allowable maximum working stress or a basis for

determining safe load.

Working stresses, when shown, are based on use of sound material for temporary construction.

The material requirements for falsework piling are stated in Specifications 2401.3B. Maximum allowable pile loads are as

follows:

Cut-Off (inches) Friction (tons) Point Bearing (tons)

Butts smaller than 8 in. are not permitted

8 16 16 9000 lb per sqare inch of

10 20 20 point area (or least cross-

12 24 24 sectional area of the pile)

14 28 28

16 32

General requirements for lumber for falsework and forms are specified in Specifications 2401.3B1c. In addition to these general

requirements, it is specifically recommended that material used for studs and walers be sized and dressed to at least S2E to

provide for true concrete lines.

Lumber that must withstand stress should be checked for conformance with the appropriate allowable stresses shown in the table

of Allowable Working Stresses for Design of Wood Forms and Falsework in this section.

1. NEW LUMBER -Each piece of graded lumber is stamped. On new material, information as to timber species and grade or

stress rating can be obtained from this stamp for use with the allowable stress table in this section of the manual.

2. USED LUMBER -In the event the mill stamp is missing or eradicated, the species and grade or stress rating must either be

determined by visual examination or judgement or an assumed identification must be applied. In case of uncertainty, assume

Norway Pine common structural grade to be on the safe side.

3. Regardless of whether new or used lumber will be used, a visual check should be made of stressed members with the

following consideration in mind:

Any reduction in section in or near the middle 1/3 of the length of a beam reduces the capacity to resist bending. Such reduction

in section could be a damaged area, large knots, notches, or holes in the upper or lower 1/3 of the section. If such pieces are used

for beams, only the sound portion of the section can be considered as effective for calculating stresses.

Notches or reduction in beam depth near the support point will reduce the beams capacity to resist horizontal shear. Special

calculations are necessary to determine the horizontal shear stress when such pieces are used (see Section 5-393.204).

When forms or falsework are constructed of used material which is judged to be not equal in strength to sound material, the

allowable stresses in the table should be reduced by an appropriate amount.

The allowable stresses and modulus of elasticity (E) values listed in the chart below are in accordance with the recommendations

of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. A 25% stress increase has been included in these values (except E

values) in view of the anticipated short time loading. Stresses for species or grades not listed below should be obtained from the

Office of Bridges and Structures and conform to AASHTO Specifications.

5-393.202 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

FOR DESIGN OF WOOD FORMS AND FALSEWORK

Species and Commercial Size Horizontal Side End* Modulus of

grade Classification Bending Shear Bearing Bearing Elasticity, E, psi

Douglas Fir - larch,

No. 1 2 to 4 in. thick 1875 120 480 1562* 1,800,000

Southern Pine, No. 1 4 in. thick 1812 112 506 1562* 1,700,000

No. 2 1500 112 506 1250* 1,600,000

*The strength of a wood column is dependent on its /d ratio, which must not exceed 50. The allowable stress in a wood column

will be either

1. f = the allowable end bearing stress listed in this section for the wood species used

0.30 E

2. f = 2

d = dimension of least side of column

l

d

The maximum allowable compression stress for Douglas Fir columns and Norway Pine columns (as determined by the above

criteria) may be obtained from the graph below.

Douglas Fir-Larch

1500

1562 psi

d

Red Pine

1000

1030 psi

Allowable No

compressive .1

stress for Gr

columns, psi No ad

.1 e

Gr

ade

500

R

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

R/d

3. For convenience in making calculations involving dimension lumber, a tabulation of standard lumber sizes and their

respective properties has been included in Figure A 5-393.202.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (3)

Specifications 2401.3B. The plywood sheathing most

commonly used is Douglas Fir Associations Exterior

Plyform, which is available in two strength varieties known

as Class I and Class II. Both Classes are fabricated using

exterior glue and have sanded grade B face plies.

trademark stamped on the panels:

Plywood used the strong way

(Face ply grains are perpendicular to supports)

B-B PLYFORM

The data in Figure B 5-393.202 may be used for quickly

determining the safe spacing of studs or joists using Plyform

CLASS I Class I or Plyform Class II under two different loading

EXTERIOR conditions. These charts are recommended by the American

PS 1-66 000

Plywood Association. The applicable allowable stress values

for bending and horizontal shear are shown for each situation.

B-B PLYFORM

When the brand name or grade stamp is visible on the

plywood being used, the requirements of Specifications

2401.3B can be quickly verified. When no grade stamp is

CLASS II visible, it is the Contractors responsibility to verify to the

EXTERIOR satisfaction of the inspector that concrete form grade plywood

PS 1-66 000

has been furnished.

furnished but the specific Class of plywood is unknown, the

following limiting stress values will apply:

In considering the bending strength, shearing strength, or

deflection of a panel, only those plies have their grain Maximum allowable bending stress = 1,500 psi

perpendicular to the supporting joist or stud are assumed to be Maximum allowable shear stress = 70 psi

stressed. The safe span length is therefore dependent not only

on whether Class I or Class II Plyform is used but also on Modules of Elasticity = 1,600,000 psi

whether the grain of the face plies runs across supports

(perpendicular to the joist or stud), or parallel to supports Maximum allowable bearing stress at

(parallel to the joists or stud). right angle to the plane of the plywood = 285 psi

(Face ply grains are parallel to supports)

5-393.202 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Plywood section properties, which will be necessary for checking stresses when not using the plyform charts, are tabulated below:

Sanded Number Effective 12-in. width, used with face grain perpendicular to 12-in. width used with face grain parallel to

plywood, of plies thickness supports supports

net for shear

thickness, all

inc. grades,

using Area for Moment Effective Rolling Area for Moment Effective Rolling

exterior tension and of inertia section shear tension and of inertia section shear

glue compression I (in.4) modulus constant compression I (in.4) modulus constant

(in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.) (in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.)

3/8 3 0.305 1.680 0.040 0.181 0.309 1.050 0.004 0.044 -

1/2 5 0.450 2.400 0.080 0.271 0.436 1.200 0.016 0.096 0.215

5/8 5 0.508 2.407 0.133 0.360 0.557 1.457 0.040 0.178 0.315

3/4 5 0.567 2.778 0.201 0.456 0.687 2.200 0.088 0.305 0.393

7/8 7 0.711 2.837 0.301 0.585 0.704 2.893 0.145 0.413 0.531

1 7 0.769 3.600 0.431 0.733 0.763 3.323 0.234 0.568 0.632

1 1/8 7 0.825 3.829 0.566 0.855 0.849 3.307 0.334 0.702 0.748

Information from "Plywood Design Specification", American Plywood Association, Tacoma, Washington. Use listed S values in

bending calculations, and use I only in deflection calculations.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (5)

The reuse of plywood sheathing will be dependent on its The increasing use of special devices, (made of material other

condition with respect to damage due to prior use, amount of than wood) for forms and falsework has, in general, resulted in

permanent set from prior use, amount of face ply separation, a speed-up of work as well as improved quality of work.

and the nature of the concrete surface being formed (exposed However, there is usually a degree of uncertainty about each

or not exposed, etc.). Plywood that is no longer suitable for its new device until it is proven in use. A partial listing of

intended purpose must be rejected. devices which have been used both successfully, and in some

instances unsuccessfully, is as follows:

Form lining requirements both as to material and usage, are

specified in detail in Specifications 2401.3B. Forms 1. Wall Form Panels

incorporating form lining backed by sheathing will be used The form panels referred to are the mass produced brand

rarely except in the case of architectural treatment of concrete name form sections (constructed either of steel or steel

surfaces. In situations like this, special form lining material and wood) which are produced in small segments so as to

requirements will usually be specified in the contract. be adaptable to a variety of concrete shapes and a variety

of types of construction. Past experience with certain

When angles, channels, wide flange beams, H-piles or other brands of these form panels resulted in the

rolled shapes are used in critical portions of the falsework, the recommendation that form panel construction should not

section should be identified by making measurements of the be permitted for concrete exposed to view. The reason

depth, width and thickness. These dimensions can then be for dissatisfaction on the work referred to was as follows:

used to identify the member further by referring to the AISC

Steel Construction Manual, where all standard rolled sections a. Objectionable offsets existed at abutting panel edges.

are listed along with their dimensions, weights and the

necessary design properties. Since this material cannot be b. There were an excessive number of joints. (The

visually identified as to grade of steel, the following allowable frequency of panel joints should generally be no

stress limits should be assumed, unless the Contractor greater than in conventional plywood-form

furnishes satisfactory assurance that the steel is of a higher construction.)

grade.

c. After being reused a number of times, permanent set

Rolled Steel Shapes (Assume ASTM A36 Steel) (permanent deflection) in the panels became

Maximum allowable bending stress 25000 psi excessive.

*Maximum allowable compression stress (columns) =

d. Adequate provisions were not made for overall

KL

2 alignment of the form work nor for providing mortar-

16,980 - 0.53 x tight joints.

r

L = unsupported length these objections with respect to appearances can be

K = 1.0 for pinned ends considered for use on concrete surfaces exposed to view.

r = governing radius of gyration

Design of the forms, with respect to size and spacing of

L

* must not exceed 120. members, is normally furnished by the manufacturer

r either as part of the advertising literature or as a special

design for the job along with a safe rate of pour for

The values listed above will be sufficient for checking most concrete in the form system. These should be carefully

falsework problems involving rolled steel members. Any adhered to.

additional design considerations (as for steel falsework trusses

and other special cases) should conform to the provisions of 2. Circular Column Forms

AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Specific requirements for circular column forms are stated

as required in Specifications 2401.3B. in Specification 2401.3B. Such forms have been

fabricated of steel, fiberglass and paper or other fibers and

When used material is to be incorporated into the work, the all have been used with varying degrees of success.

extent of damage (caused by previous usage) and corrosion

should be evaluated. If corrosion is determined to have Since some circular forms can be damaged through

reduced the net thickness of a section, it is allowed to use the mishandling or improper storage, it is necessary to check

section properties of a rolled shape in the AISC manual with the roundness and smoothness when making a judgment

thickness dimensions compared to those of the intact material. as to acceptability of each individual form. The form

diameter on any axis should not be more than 1/2 inch

Additional requirements for structural shapes are given in under the specified diameter. This requirement is to

Specifications 2401.3B. assure proper cover on the column reinforcement. (Dents

in paper tubes are normally not so critical since concrete

5-393.202 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

pressures during filling will round out the tubes. a. Adjustable Steel Posts (See Figure C and D 5-

Flattened or elliptical tubes will not be perfectly round 393.202, types 4 and 5.)

when filled with concrete).

This system basically replaces the wood legs of the

Reusable steel forms are susceptible to damage in the wooden "horse" system with adjustable steel posts.

form of small dents and kinks. These result in unsightly These posts are normally supported on wood joists

dimples on the concrete surface. Repair of such forms spanning between the bottom flanges of adjacent

should normally be requested prior to permitting their use. beams. The strength of the system will normally be

In addition, abutting panels should be adjusted so as to controlled by the wood members in the system.

eliminate offsets at panel joints. If they have been

overpoured in the past, the face panels may be stretched. b. Steel Hangers (See Figure C and D 5-393.202, types

Straight edge for acceptability. 2, 3 and 6.)

This is basically a hardware item which is laid

Due to the possibility of very fast rates of concrete transversely across the top flange of the beam to

placement in column forms, the pressure at the bottom of receive a vertical bolt on either side of the flange.

the form can be extremely high. Fasteners for the vertical The bolt in turn supports the main falsework member.

form-joint on segmental forms (such as on steel or

fiberglass column forms) can readily be checked for Balanced loading of the two sides of the hanger

ability to withstand these pressures. (NOTE: These forms (simultaneous loading of both bolts) is important in

usually provide for a variable number of bolts or pins in the early stage of falsework construction unless

this joint.) measures are taken to hold the hangers in place.

Welding of these hangers to the shear connectors is a

Since circular paper or fibre forms are commercially permissible method of hold down; however, welding

mass-produced in several strength grades, the adequacy of to the beam flange is not permitted.

their design for a specific case will normally be

determined by checking the manufacturers literature. Safe working loads for steel hangers are listed in the

Note carefully whether this literature lists a safe loading manufacturers literature.

or a failure loading (or bursting pressure). When only the

bursting pressure is given, a safety factor must be applied c. Steel Bar Joints (See Figure D 5-393.202, Type 7.)

to determine a safe load. Normally a safety factor of 2 This is a steel falsework beam which can be adjusted

will be adequate. to a variety of lengths. Load capacity, allowable

spacing and deflection data are available from the

If paper tubes have become wet prior to use, they should manufacturers literature which should be used for

be inspected for weak areas in advance of concrete checking the system.

placement. Paper tubes should also be checked to assure

that no conspicuous seam ridges are present on the inside Such steel bar joists have been used as joists to

surface since these cause objectionable spiral ridges on support longitudinal falsework stringers and also

the finished concrete surface. used at closer spacing with the sheathing placed

directly on them. In the event the latter system is

3. Friction Collars For Pier Caps used, no wood nailer is available to hold down the

Friction collars for pier caps are steel devices which are sheathing and a system of wire ties or some other

clamped around the top of circular concrete columns to approved method of hold down is necessary.

support the pier cap falsework and pier cap concrete.

Serious failures have resulted because of inattention to the Precautions must be taken to allow for residual

placement of these collars. Since the entire falsework in camber in this type of falsework system. The amount

this case is dependent on the stability of the collar, the of residual camber anticipated after placement of the

tightening of the collars must be properly performed. The concrete should be determined (by field tests if

collars must be level to assure full bearing on the necessary) and adequate allowance made in setting

concrete. Manufacturers literature should be used to stool heights to obtain the specified slab thickness.

determine the necessary bolt tension. In addition, the

total applied vertical load must not exceed the safe load d. Corrugated Steel Forms

specified in the manufacturers literature. Corrugated Steel Forms are commercially mass-

produced corrugated sheet metal forms for the bottom

4. Slab Falsework - Interior Bays of the slab which require no additional supporting

Several types of slab falsework other than the all-wood falsework.

type which have been successfully used by contractors are

as follows: Each unit spans transversely from beam to beam on

the bridge and acts in the capacity of a complete

structural entity of falsework and sheathing. These

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (7)

units are galvanized and are normally intended to For either bracket, when unusual loading conditions are

remain in place at completion of the work. Safe encountered, a full scale field test is recommended. An

loads and deflections for each size of member are overload should be applied to assure that there is a safety

available in the manufacturers literature. factor.

Under the current policy, this type of falsework is not Since cantilever brackets tend to rotate the fascia beam

permitted unless specifically indicated in the Special (push the bottom flange inward), special bracing

Provisions. precautions, as specified in Specification 2401.3B4, are

occasionally necessary. For beams depths of 24 in. or

5. Slab Overhang Falsework less, the difficulty of obtaining good concrete lines

Several types of slab overhang falsework (other than the increases when this type of overhang falsework is used

all-wood type) that have been successfully used by and serious consideration should be given to the use of

contractors are steel hangers, which have been previously needle beams as shown in Type 1, Figure C 5-393.202.

discussed, and Steel Overhang Brackets.

6. Tubular Steel Scaffolding

Typical application of steel overhang brackets is shown in The basic components of Tubular Steel Scaffolding

Figures C and D 5-393.202, Types 3, 4, 5 and 6. Shoring as shown by the following picture are end frames

of various designs and dimensions which are assembled

Details and design data pertaining to two commonly used with diagonal bracing and lock clamps. Vertical

overhang brackets (Capitol and Superior) are given in adjustments are made by adjustable jacks either at the

Figures E and F 5-393.202. It is intended that spacing bottom or top of the frames. Frames are normally fitted

and deflection of these brackets be determined by these either with flat top plates or U-heads for supporting the

details as furnished by the manufacturer. However, falsework and forms.

several precautions must be observed as described below.

These towers are rated by the load carrying capacity of

Information for the Capitol brackets states that the either one leg or of one frame (two legs). The

brackets should be spaced at 6'0" centers. However, manufacturers rated capacity should not be exceeded.

experience has shown that the 6'0" spacing must be

reduced under certain conditions. For example, when the Adequate rigid bracing involving several units of steel

strike-off rails are placed on top of the coping forms or shoring should be provided. Full bearing for the base

when a very wide slab overhang is specified in the plans, plates should be provided, such as being set in fresh

a much higher load is applied to each bracket unless this mortar pads when resting on rock-like formations.

spacing is reduced. Mudsills placed on yielding earth should not be permitted

for supports.

When installing Capitol brackets, the 2" x 4" member

U-Head or other framing

placed in the top horizontal member of the bracket must

be firmly seated and the hanger chain must be tight. Cross braces

Poorly aligned concrete surfaces have resulted when

seating occurred during concrete placement.

Lock for

The influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202 for checking braces

the Superior brackets may be used with a variety of

loading conditions. The actual load in the critical End frames

members can be determined by use of this chart and joined here

checked against the safe working loads shown on the

Figure.

on prestressed concrete girders. This filler must be varied

as necessary to provide a bearing surface on the beam at

the end of the top horizontal member and at the end of the

diagonal member. The filler should not bear on the

End frames Adjustable jacks

vertical member of the Superior bracket.

The deflection graphs given for each of these brackets 7. Void Tubes For Voided Slab Spans

should be used only as a guide since the graphs apply Void tubes for voided slab spans are similar to the fibre

only to the specific loadings pictured on the tubes used for column forms except that galvanized steel

manufacturers details. tubes are also permitted. The circumferential crushing

pressure and straight crushing pressure of these tubes will

5-393.202 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

normally be listed in the manufacturers literature. When In this event, the safe load may be set by determining the

checking stresses, it is necessary to determine if the cross-sectional area of the member and the yield point of the

manufacturer has listed a safe pressure or a failure steel by tension test in the laboratory. The applied load should

pressure. not exceed 70% of the yield strength of the device. NOTE:

the yield point of the steel (psi) is not the same as the yield

Since stress in the void tube is very high at the tie-down strength of a particular bar. On portions of the structure

straps, a careful visual inspection is necessary at this exposed to view, form bolts must be so designed that all metal

location. Wetting of paper tubes can result in isolated can be removed to a depth of not less than 1 inch from the

weak spots where the waterproof coating has been concrete surface. Tie wires may be used only in locations

scratched or damaged and the water has penetrated into where they will not extend through surfaces exposed to view

the paper or fibre layers. Such pieces should be rejected in the finished work.

unless they can be satisfactorily reinforced.

The hardware used to secure form bolts against the forms is

Void tubes must be mortar tight. When several lengths of usually reusable. This hardware is normally designed to be

tube are necessary to make up the length of void shown in stronger than the portion of the device that remains in the

the Plans, each segment of tube should have sealed ends. concrete and, therefore, will not be the limiting strength factor

Butting tube ends together and taping around the in the form tie.

perimeter of the joint will normally not be acceptable

since deformation of one of the joined tubes during Crimp ties or snap ties are wire form ties with a notch or

concrete placement would likely rupture a taped splice. reduced cross-section at the point of break-back. These ties

are not reusable. After the concrete is set, the portion of the

Information pertaining to nails and spikes are located on wire which extends outside of the concrete surface is twisted

Figure H and I 5-393.202. off and removed. A washer is sometimes welded to the wire

at the face of the form to act as a form spreader. On concrete

General requirements governing bolts or form ties are given in surfaces exposed to view, a cone should be used in place of

Specifications 2401.3B. One specific provision is that a major the washer since satisfactory patching of the shallow

portion of the device must remain permanently in the concrete. depression left by the washer is very difficult.

Several types of commercially available form ties meeting this

description are shown below. Because these ties do not always break off at the intended

point, but sometimes break instead at the face of the concrete,

Normally the manufacturers literature will list the safe load plus the fact that they do not provide a rigid member for

that may be applied. However, when the load capacity is support of the workcrew, they are not recommended for use on

questionable or unknown, laboratory tests will be necessary to heavy construction. Their use is primarily restricted to light

determine the safe load. work such as box culverts, etc.

Coil bolt

Washer

COIL TYPE TIE WITH CONE SPREADER

Wedge shaped holder

Nut washer or May have hole for

other locking unit nailing to stud

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.202

load

MOMENT OF INERTIA SECTION MODULUS

NOMINAL PROPERTIES OF DRESSED SIZES 3 2

SIZE (S4S) I = bh bh inches3

4

h 12 inches S = 6

b

b h b h Area Weight

(in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) =bxh lb / lin. ft. S4S Full Sawn S4S Full Sawn

1 1/4 1 11.25 3.1 0.94 1.95 1.88 3.13

1 1/2 1 1/4 14.06 3.9 1.83 3.38 2.93 4.50

2 1 1/2 16.88 4.7 3.16 8.00 4.22 8.00

4 1 1/2 3 1/2 5.25 1.5 5.36 10.67 3.06 5.33

6 5 1/2 8.25 2.3 20.80 36.00 7.56 12.00

8 7 1/4 10.88 3.0 47.63 85.33 13.14 21.33

10 9 1/4 13.88 3.9 98.93 166.67 21.39 33.33

12 11 1/4 16.88 4.7 177.98 288.00 31.64 48.00

14 13 1/4 19.88 5.5 290.78 457.33 43.89 65.33

4 2 1/2 3 1/2 8.75 2.4 8.93 16.00 5.10 8.00

6 5 1/2 13.75 3.8 34.66 54.00 12.60 18.00

8 7 1/4 18.13 5.0 79.39 128.00 21.90 32.00

10 9 1/4 23.13 6.4 164.89 250.00 35.65 50.00

12 11 1/4 28.13 7.8 296.63 432.00 52.73 72.00

14 13 1/4 33.13 9.2 484.62 686.00 73.15 98.00

4 3 1/2 3 1/2 12.25 3.4 12.51 21.33 7.15 10.67

6 5 1/2 19.25 5.3 48.53 72.00 17.65 24.00

8 7 1/4 25.38 7.0 111.15 170.67 30.66 42.67

10 9 1/4 32.38 9.0 230.84 333.33 49.91 66.67

12 11 1/4 39.38 10.9 415.28 576.00 73.83 96.00

14 13 1/4 46.38 12.9 678.48 914.67 102.41 130.67

16 15 1/4 53.38 14.8 1034.42 1365.33 135.66 170.67

6 5 1/2 5 1/2 30.25 8.4 76.26 108.00 27.73 36.00

8 7 1/4 39.88 11.1 174.66 256.00 48.18 64.00

10 9 1/4 50.88 14.1 362.75 500.00 78.43 100.00

12 11 1/4 61.88 17.2 652.59 864.00 116.02 144.00

14 13 1/4 72.88 20.2 1066.18 1372.00 160.93 196.00

16 15 1/4 83.88 23.3 1625.51 2048.00 213.18 256.00

6 7 1/4 5 1/2 39.88 11.1 100.52 144.00 36.55 48.00

8 7 1/4 52.56 14.6 230.23 341.33 63.51 85.33

10 9 1/4 67.06 18.6 478.17 666.67 103.39 133.33

12 11 1/4 81.56 22.7 860.23 1152.00 152.93 192.00

14 13 1/4 96.06 26.7 1405.41 1829.33 212.14 261.33

16 15 1/4 110.56 30.7 2142.72 2730.67 281.01 341.33

6 9 1/4 5 1/2 50.88 14.1 128.25 180.00 46.64 60.00

8 7 1/4 67.06 18.6 293.75 426.67 81.03 106.67

10 9 1/4 85.56 23.8 610.08 833.33 131.91 166.67

12 11 1/4 104.06 28.9 1097.53 1440.00 195.12 240.00

14 13 1/4 133.56 34.0 1793.11 2286.67 270.66 326.67

16 15 1/4 141.06 39.2 2733.82 3413.33 358.53 426.67

6 11 1/4 5 1/2 61.88 17.2 155.98 216.00 56.72 72.00

8 7 1/4 81.56 22.7 357.26 512.00 98.55 128.00

10 9 1/4 104.06 28.9 741.99 1000.00 160.43 200.00

12 11 1/4 126.56 35.2 1334.84 1728.00 237.30 288.00

14 13 1/4 149.06 41.4 2180.82 2744.00 329.18 392.00

16 15 1/4 171.56 47.7 3324.92 4096.00 436.05 512.00

Figure B 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

PLYFORM CLASS I

FACE GRAIN ACROSS SUPPORTS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS

Panels continuous

1400 1400 across two or more

Panels continuous across two or more spans

spans

Shear stress

1200 Shear stress of 75 psi 1200 of 70 psi

CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

Flexure stress of 2000 psi Flexure stress

1000 1000 of 1700 psi

Average panel deflection of 1/270th Average panel

of span deflection of

800 800 1/270th of span

1-1/8

600 600

400 400 1

1-1/8 7/8

1

200 7/8 200 3/4

3/4

5/8 5/8

0 0

0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24 1/2

Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,

inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)

PLYFORM CLASS II

FACE GRAIN ACROSS SUPPORTS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS

1400 Panels continuous

Panels continuous across two or more 1400 across two or more

spans spans

1200 Shear stress of 70 psi Shear stress

1200 of 70 psi

CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

Flexure stress

1000 of 1500 psi

Average panel deflection of 1/270th 1000

of span Average panel

800 deflection of

1/270th of span

800

600

600

400

400

1-1/8 1-1/8

200 1

1

7/8 200 7/8

3/4 3/4

5/8 5/8

0 0 1/2

0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24

Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,

inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.202

Filler on top of each joist Sheathing Stringers

Joist

Joist

Posts under Cleat (preferably on both sides of each post)

each joist Posts under each joist

Wedges

Walk Runner Supporting bolts for needle beam

Needle beam

TYPE 1

Sheathing

Joist

Borg hanger

Bolt thru web

Wood overhang

bracket with Add struts as necessary

hanger support

TYPE 2

Steel overhang

bracket with

hanger support Add struts as necessary

TYPE 3

Stringers

Steel overhang

bracket supported Adjustable steel posts

by bolt thru

beam web

Add wedges when strutting

of fascia is necessary (both ends)

TYPE 4

Figure D 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Joist

Bolt anchorage

Adjustable steel posts

bracket supported

by bolt in

beam web TYPE 5

Joist

Wood filler

as necesary

Steel overhang

bracket with

hanger support

TYPE 6

Sheathing

Joist

Overhang falsework

similar to type 5 or 6

Borg hanger

TYPE 7

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure E 5-393.202

13" for 42" girder

15-1/2" for 54" girder

2x4

2 x 6 for 36 " girder

9"

2 x 8 for 42" girder

use a drive fit

brace as shown Adjustment 2

Adjustment 1

EOH

See anchor detail

that beam permits.

60" or 72" 1"

COH 7500

6-1/2" adjustable 22" Vertical

DOH 30"

Distance

22" 6000

Vertical

18"

Load - Lbs.

Distance

4500

Precast

BOH form

GENERAL DIMENSIONS 3000

ANCHOR DETAIL

Beam Precasting

1500

Deflection Inches

LOAD DEFLECTION CURVE

ITEM COH Plastic Cone ITEM BOH 3/4 x 3 Stud Tapped Reusable 4'-0"

Reusable

18"

Deflection taken as

shown above

ITEM AOH Special Anchor

9600 Capacity @ 2000 psi concrete CAPITAL OVERHANG BRACKET

Pat. Applied for

Figure F 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

ADJUSTABLE BRIDGE OVERHANG BRACKET

(As produced by Superior Concrete Accessories Inc.)

A

SlotA

SECTION A-A Coil wing

nut Coil rod

23"

9000 54"

Failure: Buckling

of Diagonal Member

7500

7100

Load (lbs)

6000

4500

3000

*

3 Point loading

1500 WF connection

0

0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25

Deflection (inches)

of concrete and forms

applied on the bracket by

the stringers

Slot A

A

Ductile coil 14" max.

23"

wing nut

9000 54" Coil rod

7500

Failure: Buckling

Load (lbs)

4750

4500

Filler block

3000

*

1500

concrete beam connection against beam

0

0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25

Deflection (inches)

Figure G 5-393.202

These influence curves indicate the effect a unit joist load, at any point along

the horizontal member, has on other members of the bracket. Loads are 6" 12" 12"

cumulative depending upon the number of joists that are used. Note that the Joist loads 400 lbs. 500 lbs. 200 lbs.

influence factor (vertical axis) has two unit designations, one for the vertical "C" "B" "A"

member and one for the coil rod.

5.0

45 Coil rod and diagonal member: lbs/lb of applied load

4.0

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

EXAMPLE

Determine load on 45 coil rod due to joist loads shown above.

INFLUENCE FACTOR

Joist "B" = (500 lb) (1.85) = 925

Joist "C" = (400 lb) (1.75) = 700

Total load on rod 2065 lb

A (Safe working load of rod 9000 lb)

2.0

B Rod

C Coil Loads on the diagonal member are determined in a similar

45 be

r

em manner.

M 2

al Area of diagonal member: 0.44 in. . Allowable load (lb) on

on

ag diagonal member 4733 lbs. Compare this allowable with actual

Di

1.0 load that is obtained from influence chart.

NOTE: Pres-steel hanger must also have a safe working load of 9000 lbs.

November 1, 2005

54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 0

Out board end NOTE: For use with Superior

JOIST LOCATIONS (Inches) brackets only.

of bracket

Figure H 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Driven into the side grain of seasoned wood. Load applied in any lateral direction.

At penetration in diameters noted for each group,

SIZE LENGTH DIAMETER into piece holding the point. SPECIES

PENNY (Note 1) D GROUPS

GROUP I GROUP II GROUP III GROUP IV

WEIGHT INCHES IN INCHES 10 x D 11 x D 13 x D 14 x D

COMMON NAILS (Flat Head, Diamond Point)

Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. GROUP I

6d 2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Ash, Elm,

Maple, Oak

8d 2 1/2 0.131 129 104 86 68

10d 3 0.148 154 126 102 82

GROUP II

12d 3 1/4 0.148 154 126 102 82

Douglas Fir,

16d 3 1/2 0.162 176 142 118 93 Larch,

SPIKES (Countersunk Head Diamond Point) Southern

Note (1) Length overall Pine

10d 3 0.192 228 186 151 121

12d 3 1/4 0.192 228 186 151 121 GROUP III

16d 3 1/2 0.207 254 206 168 134 Hemlock,

DUPLEX HEAD NAILS (Heavy Double Head, Diamond Point) Red Pine

Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point.

6d 1 3/4 0.113 104 84 68 54 GROUP IV

8d 2 1/4 0.131 129 104 86 68 Cedar,

10d 2 3/4 0.148 154 126 102 82 White &

16d 3 0.162 176 142 118 93 Balsam

20d 3 1/2 0.192 228 186 151 121 Fir,

30d 4 0.207 254 206 168 134 White

SMOOTH BOX NAILS (Large Flat Head, Diamond Point) Sugar

Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. Ponderosa

6d 2 0.099 84 68 56 44 and Lodgepole

7d 2 1/4 0.099 84 68 56 44 Pines,

8d 2 1/2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Cottonwood,

10d 3 0.138 136 101 83 67 Spruce,

Yellow

Poplar

COOLERS (Flat Head, Diamond Point). SINKERS (Flat Countersunk Head,

Diamond Point) as per BOX NAILS except length overall is 1/8 less than shown.

When the penetration in nail or spike diameters is less than that shown in the above heading for each timber species group, but

at least equal to 1/3 of that shown in the heading, the safe load may be determined by straight line interpolation between zero and

the load tabulated above. For example, driven only 7 diameters into Group II timber species, the safe load would be only 7 / 11 of

the tabulated load. Driven less than 1/3 that shown in the above heading, the nail or spike should not be considered as capable of

carrying any lateral load. For example, for Group II timber species, the minimum penetration should be 11 / 3 or 3 2/3

diameters, at when penetration the safe load would be 1/3 of the tabulated load.

End distance, side distance and spacing to be such that unusual splitting of the wood is avoided: pieces to be in close contact.

Stagger nails, with fairly uniform spacing, along contact surface.

Basic Formulas: Safe Load = 1.33 x K x D 3/2 Group I : K = 2040, Group II : K = 1650

Group III : K = 1350, Group IV : K = 1080

Formulas may be used when nails other than diameters listed are used.

* Based on values given in Natl. Design Spec., Stress Grade Lbr. and Its Fastenings, recommended by the Natl. Lbr. Mfg.

Assoc. latest Edition. The values given in this publication, which are for normal load duration of 10 years have been increased

by 1/3 due to short duration of static load on falsework and high factor of safety against failure in the values.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure I 5-393.202

NAILS

The following diagram may be used as an aid in size identification of nails used in formwork.

STOCK ITEMS

Length Gauge Diamond Approx.

Size

In. No. Head No. to Lb

2d 1 15 11/64 847

3d 1 1/4 14 13/64 543

4d 1 1/2 12 1/2 1/4 294

5d 1 3/4 12 1/2 1/4 254

6d 2 11 1/2 17/64 167

7d 2 1/4 11 1/2 17/64 150

8d 2 1/2 10 1/4 9/32 101

9d 2 3/4 10 1/4 9/32 92

10d 3 9 5/16 66

12d 3 1/4 9 5/16 61

16d 3 1/2 8 11/32 47

20d 4 6 13/32 29

30d 4 1/2 5 7/16 22

40d 5 4 15/32 17

50d 5 1/2 3 1/2 13

60d 6 2 17/32 10

Safe loads for nails shall conform to the values listed in Fig. H 5-393.202.

5-393.203 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.203 DEFLECTIONS AND ALIGNMENT deflection of the overhang falsework must not exceed 1/2

inch even though compensated for. When the main

Deflection will occur in any form or falsework member in overhang falsework support members (the overhang

which beam action is involved regardless of the design used or bracket, needle beam or equivalent) are spaced at less

the material of which the forms or falsework are constructed. than 48 inches, the anticipated deflection of these main

The surface and lines of the concrete being formed will reflect members must not exceed S/100, where S = member

these deflections. Such deflections may detract from the spacing in inches.

appearance of lines or surfaces which are exposed to view.

For this reason, a limit is placed on the amount of anticipated The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of

deflection of the form and falsework members which will be the Contractors form details with regard to deflection of

used for concrete exposed to view. structures that are exposed to view:

The anticipated deflection of the members involved should be 1. Deflection in any form member which acts as a beam

computed and checked against the allowable deflection should not exceed 1/270 of its span or 1/8 inch, whichever

described later in this section prior to approving a form or is least.

falsework system.

2. Concrete diaphragms for prestressed concrete girder spans

The dead loads and concrete pressures used to compute will normally not, for this purpose, be considered to be

deflections are the same as those used to check stresses in the exposed to view and their forms will not be subject to

member except that live load will normally not be included in deflection controls.

the deflection loading.

3. Except when used as pedestrian underpasses, the walls of

When it is anticipated that the allowable deflection will be box culverts will not be classified as concrete exposed to

exceeded, the size or spacing of the members must be view. Head walls and wings of box culverts, or the

modified. In lieu of such modification of the members, in projecting ends of interior walls of multiple opening box

certain cases it is possible to compensate for these deflections culverts, will be classified as concrete exposed to view.

during construction of the forms or falsework by use of profile

strips or wedging to induce reverse deflection equal in amount Forms for concrete surfaces that will be exposed to view must

to the computed deflection. Certain restrictions are placed on be so aligned and of sufficient stiffness that irregularities in

this practice of compensating for deflections which are any 10 foot length on the finished concrete surface will not

discussed below. exceed inch.

The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of When the Plans indicate that a bridge (or portions thereof) is

the Contractors falsework details with regard to deflection of to be constructed to a horizontal curve, the forms for edges of

structures that are exposed to view: slab, curbs, copings, medians and railings must be constructed

to their proper degree of curvature within a tolerance of 1/8

1. On concrete surfaces exposed to view the computed inch in 10 feet. Midordinates of 1/8 inch or more in 10 feet

deflection of any member shall not exceed 1/270 of its will occur with a degree of curvature of about 5Eor more. For

span or 1/4 inch, whichever is least, unless adequate a degree of curvature of less than 5E, concrete forms may be

provision is made to compensate for the deflection as was constructed on short chords along the intended curve line.

discussed above. (The 1/270 criteria will be applicable

for spans up to 67 inches.) It is intended that forms which can easily be placed to a

scribed line on the falsework or on previously placed concrete,

2. Between fascia beams, the falsework supporting the deck will be placed on the specified curved alignment. This would

slab will not be limited by the foregoing. In this area, a include forms for the edges of slabs, curbs and medians.

limiting cumulative deflection (deflection of sheathing

plus deflection of stringers plus deflection of joists, etc.) Forms for curved railings, however, cannot always be aligned

of inch should be applied. This limit is to avoid this easily. It is the intent of the Specification tolerance to

excessive addition of dead weight to the superstructure. permit rail construction on chords between railposts when the

curvature is small enough (5E or less) so that a chord

3. At locations of transverse construction joints in the construction would not be visually objectionable.

roadway slab, the falsework supporting the bulkhead must

be sufficiently strong to reduce the computed bulkhead No offsets should exist at abutting joints of sheathing or at

deflection to not more than 1/16 inch. abutting form panels.

4. Deflection of slab overhang falsework must normally be The variation from plumb or from the specified batter in the

compensated for by wedging or raising the edge of lines and surfaces of columns, piers and walls should not

overhang falsework by an amount equal to that of the exceed inch per 10 feet of height and, in any event, shall not

anticipated deflection. The anticipated cumulative exceed inch.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (1)

5-393.204 FORMULAS AND STANDARD LOADS term (R-2h) in place of R. This applies to both continuous and

simple spans.

Practically all falsework members act either as columns or as

beams. The internal stresses and the deflections in these V' based on loads in this area only

members due to the weight of the various construction loads

(weight of forms and falsework, weight of concrete, weight of

h h

equipment and workcrew, etc.) can be determined by standard h

methods of Engineering mechanics and compared to the

allowable stresses listed in Section 5-393.202 and the

allowable deflections listed in Section 5-393.203 to aid in

determining the acceptability of a proposed falsework system.

Typical examples of the calculations necessary for checking

the falsework systems are given in Sections 5-393.206 to

5-393.209. Concrete pressure on forms have formulas that are

recommended by ACI Committee 347. The formulas apply to

The following formulas will apply to falsework and form standard concrete weighing 150 pcf having a maximum slump

analysis: of 4 inches and internally vibrated during placement.

1. Flexure formula (bending stress) f = per hour, and for all column pours, the maximum lateral

S

pressure at a given point shall be equal to:

2. Direct stress formula

9000R1

P

a. p = 150 +

a. Direct tension stress f = T

A or b. p = 150h

P or c. p = 3000 psf

b. End bearing f =

A

Use whichever is least.

The allowable side bearing stress given in Section 5-

393.202 applies to bearing surfaces 6 inches or more in Note: R1 = rate of concrete placement per hour

length. For bearing surfaces less than 6 inches in length T = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

and located 3 inches or more from the end of the timber,

the allowable working stress may be increased by a factor The forms with a rate of concrete placement exceeding 7 feet

of per hour, the maximum lateral pressure at a given point shall

l + 3/8 be equal to:

l

where R is the length in bearing. (For circular bearing 43400 2800R1

areas, R= diameter.) Figure A 5-393.204 lists safe side a. P = 150 + +

T T

bearing loads for several common form and falsework or b. p = 150h

details as derived from the above formula.

or c. p = 2000 psf

3. Shearing stress formulas

Use whichever is least.

V

a. Shear stress in steel members v =

th In the event that the above conditions do not apply (for

example, if a greater than 4 inch slump is to be used), or if

b. Shear stress in plywood, known as rolling shear other factors are involved such as the proposed use of a

V retarder, the actual concrete pressure will increase and

v =

( I / Q) b appropriate adjustment must be made in the calculated

NOTE: I/Q is known as the rolling shear constant and pressures. Vibration and depth of placement in layers should

is tabulated in Section 5-393.202 for the various conform to Specifications if these formulas are to be

thicknesses. applicable.

V

c. Horizontal shear stress in timber beams H = 1.5

bh

To simplify the calculation for determining VN, use the

appropriate beam formula for determining shear but insert the

Figure A 5-393.204 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

CONTACT AREAS AND ALLOWABLE STRESS (1) = CONTACT AREA SQ. IN.

INCREASE FACTORS FOR STUDS AND WALERS (2) = ALLOWABLE STRESS INCREASE

FACTOR

WIDTH OF ONE WALER

STUD

WIDTH 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4

1 1/2 (1) 4.50 6.00 7.50 9.00 10.50 12.00

(2) 1.25 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09

Waler

width

3/4" Min.

2 (1) 6.50 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00

(2) 1.19 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09

2 1/2 (1) 7.50 10.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.00 Bearing Area

(2) 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09 Shown Hatched

Stud

3 (1) 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 21.00 24.00 width

(2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.11 1.09

NOTE: Allowable stress increase

3 1/2 (1) 10.50 14.00 17.50 21.00 24.50 28.00 factor = L+3/8 where L is the

(2) 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.09 L

length of bearing along grain.

4 (1) 12.00 16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 Use only if stud is less than 6"

(2) 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 and not nearer than 3"

from the end of a member

CONTACT AREAS AND ALLOWABLE STRESS Assume waler

INCREASE FACTORS FOR WALERS AND TIE PLATES @ 2" nominal width

L X Y CONTACT AREA ALLOWABLE STRESS

SQ. IN. INCREASE FACTOR

3 1/4" 3 3/4" 3/4" 9.75 1.12

5" 3 1/4" 3/4" 12.50 1.08 Y Tie plate

3 3/4" 3 1/2" 3/4" 10.31 1.10

3" *3 3/4" 3/4" 9.00 1.13

5" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.00 1.08

5 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.75 1.07

5 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 17.25 1.00 L

6" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.00 1.00

6 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.75 1.00

6 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 20.25 1.00 1 1/2 1 1/2

5" 3 3/4" 1" 13.75 1.08

5" * 4" 1" 15.00 1.08 X

5 1/4" * 4" 1" 15.75 1.07

5 3/4" * 4" 1" 17.25 1.00

6" * 4" 1" 18.00 1.00 X + 3"

6 1/4" * 4" 1" 18.75 1.00

6 3/4" * 4" 1" 20.25 1.00

* or more

BEARING AREA IN SQ. IN. BETWEEN CAPS AND PILES OF VARIOUS SIZES Bearing

(Piles assumed circular) area shown

hatched

ACTUAL WIDTH OF CAP IN INCHES

6 7 1/2 8 9 1/2 10 11 1/2 12 13 1/2 14 Cap W/2

Dia. of Pile at Cut-off in Inches

14 81.4 99.7 105.6 121.9 127.0 140.4 144.2 152.7 153.9 width

13 1/2 78.2 95.8 101.3 116.7 121.4 133.6 136.9 143.1 sin 0 =

13 75.1 91.8 97.0 111.4 115.7 126.6 129.4 132.7 W/2

12 1/2 72.0 87.8 92.7 106.0 109.9 119.4 121.5 122.7 R

12 68.9 83.7 88.3 100.6 104.1 111.9 113.1 Area = (W) (h)

11 1/2 65.7 79.7 83.9 95.1 98.1 103.9

11 62.6 75.6 79.5 89.4 91.9 95.0 0 ) (M) (R)2

+ ( 90 Pile

10 1/2 59.4 71.4 75.0 83.6 85.5 86.6 diameter

10 56.2 67.2 70.4 77.5 78.5

9 1/2 52.9 62.9 65.7 70.9

9 49.7 58.6 60.8 63.6 NOTE: Bearing area at rt. end of

8 1/2 46.4 54.0 55.8 56.7 each line = area of pile at cut-off of

8 43.0 49.3 50.3 diameter shown at left. Use when

cap width equals or exceeds pile diameter.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (2)

When the ends of a beam are notched, as shown below, the horizontal shear stress should be determined by use of the

accompanying formula. As shown by the formula, notching beams adds proportionately to the horizontal shear stress and

should be avoided.

he h

1

H = 1.5 V x h V = W

1

b(he) he 2 (L - 2he)

he

Beam

Support

PL

= AE

a. Simple span - uniformly loaded

w

2 4

wL wL wL 5wL

2 8 2 384 EI

L

w 3wL wL 3wL

3 R 1 = M3 = V1 = 3 =

8 14.2 8

2 4

5wL wL 5wL wL

1 L 2 L R 2 = M2 = V2 =

4 8 8 185 EI

2

w R 1 = 0.4 wL M 3 = 0.08 wL V 1 = 0.4 wL 3 =

3

4

0.0069 wL

1 L 2 L L R 2 = 1.1 wL M 2 = 0.10 wL2 V 2 = 0.6 wL

EI

w 2 =

2

wL

2 R 1 = wL M1 = V 1 = wL

2 4

wL

1 L 8 EI

A more complete listing of beam formulas for use with point loads or other load variations may be found in the AISC Steel Con-

struction Manual.

5-393.205 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The following loads and unit weights will be used in falsework analysis:

lumber - 40 pcf

steel - 490 pcf

plain concrete and

reinforced concrete - 150 pcf

construction live

load* - 50 psf on the

upper concrete

surface

*This live load is considered a minimum and must be increased where known concentrated loads may produce higher live loads

on the member. In addition, when a falsework platform extends outside of the concrete surface to provide working room, as for

most pier cap construction, the 50 psf live load should be applied to such walk space as well as to the upper concrete surface.

The inspector must be satisfied that the Contractors falsework plan or scheme is in conformance with the Specifications. A

common way to do this is to compute the maximum deflection and maximum stresses (bending, bearing, shear, etc) based on

plans of the proposed falsework and the assumed loading conditions. These computed stresses and deflections are then compared

with the allowable values. If the computed stress and deflection is less than or equal to the allowable value, the member qualifies

for use.

The examples of falsework investigation given in this section are presented as being representative of commonly used methods.

It is not intended that the Contractors methods be restricted to the details shown here. However, when it appears that unsafe or

improper methods are being used, these details may be suggested as a guide.

The American Concrete Institute recommends that three basic simplifications be used in checking forms and falsework. These

are as follows:

1. Beams such as joists, studs and walers should generally be assumed to be uniformly loaded with the exception of that when

only one or two point loads occur in a span then the assumption of uniform load should not be used.

2. Beams supported over three or more spans are regarded as continuous and the appropriate continuous beam formulas should

be used.

3. For beams continuous over two spans, design values for simple spans may be safely used except for reaction loads.

In the event that the results of the preliminary investigation of the falsework appear marginal, more exact methods should be used.

For very large members (falsework pier caps, etc.) more exact methods are recommended.

Formulas used in the following computations are found in Section 5-393.204. Allowable stresses are listed in Section 5-

393.202 and allowable deflections are listed in Section 5-393.203.

Particular attention should be given to writing the unit (inches, feet, pounds, etc.) with each number used in the calculations to

assure correct answers.

A check of the pier cap falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.206 would require the following investigation:

(NOTE: items above plyform for bottom of pier cap in this figure will be checked in Section 5-393.206.)

a. bending stress

b. rolling shear stress

c. deflection

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.206

A

37'-6"

A 2'-8" dia.

PIER ELEVATION

2'-10"

2" x 4" @ 16" O.C.

10"

washer spaced @ 4'-0"

3'-8"

2'-2"

2" x 4" Brace @

4' O.C. both sides

4' x 8' x 3/4" Plyform, Class I

8"

Friction Collar

3'-10"

SECTION A-A

All lumber to be used material (species unknown)

5-393.206 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

2. Joists

a. bending stress

b. horizontal shear stress

c. bearing stress

d deflection

a. bending stress

b. shear stress

c. deflection

4. Friction Collar

a. Check against manufacturers safe carrying capacity.

b. Tighten collar bolts to correct torque.

The necessary calculations corresponding to the above example items are as follows:

w

Determine applied uniform load, w:

3/4" 2"x6"

plywood .06 ft x 40 lb/ft 3

= 3 lb/ft 2

Plyform Joist

10"

2

Total load w = 603 lb/ft

From the chart for Class I Plyform in Figure B 5-393.202 for face grain parallel to supports, for a concrete pressure of 603

psf, the maximum allowable stud spacing would be about 11 inches. Therefore, the proposed 10 inch spacing is safe. (Note

that the 8 foot panels must be parallel to the joists in this detail and, therefore, the grain of face plies will be parallel to the

joist.)

In lieu of using the chart (as when the class of plywood is unknown), the following calculations would be necessary:

(Assume 3 span continuous design conditions.)

M

a. Bending stress f = M = 0.10 wL2 = 0.1 x 603 lb/ft x (10 in.)2 x 1 ft/12 in.

S

= 503 in. lb

503 in. lb

F= =1649 lb/in.2

0.305 in.3

This stress is higher than the allowable stress of 1500 psi (which would apply when the class of plywood is unknown).

Therefore, care must be taken in determining type of plyform used. NOTE: the allowable stress of 1700 psi can only be

used when it has been determined that a concrete form grade of plyform Class I is being used.

V

b. Rolling shear stress v = V = 0.6 wL

( I / Q) b

= 0.6 x 603 lb/ft x .83 ft

= 300 lb

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (2)

I 300 lb

From Section 5-393.202, = 0.393 in. b = 12 in. v= = 64 lb/in.2

Q 12 in. x 0.393 in.

0069 w L4

c. Deflection - = w = (603 lb/ft) - (50 lb/ft live load) = 553 lb/ft, L = 10 in.

EI

From Section 5-393.202 I = 0.088 in.4

= x = 0.023 in.

1,600,000 lb / in.2 0.088 in.4 12 in.

This span is less than 67 inches long; therefore, the allowable deflection = 1/270 x 10 in. = 0.037 in.

Since actual deflection (0.023 in.) is less than allowable, (0.037 in.) the sheathing is acceptable.

10"

Determine applied uniform load due to weight w

of forms per linear foot along cap:

Plyform

2"x6" joist

plywood = 16 ft x 1 ft x .062 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 39.7 lb 39.7 lb

12 in.

studs = 3.67 ft x 2 x x 1.5 lb/ft = 8.3 lb 8.3 lb

16 in.

forms = 74 lb / lf of cap x

12 in.

concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x

12 in.

5-393.206 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

This weight is spread over a length of 3.0 feet for all practical purposes; therefore, the corresponding uniform load on the

joists is:

form + concrete =

3 ft 3 ft

50 lb 10 in. 50 lb 9 in.

live load = x x

ft 2 12 in. ft 2 12 in.

M

a. Bending stress f =

S

2"

NOTE: for beams with a very wide bearing area (such as the 12

inches wide beam flange in this example), it is reasonable to 3'-0"

assume the span begins about 2 inches back from the edge of the Uniform load

support. For example span length would then be = (3'-10") - 8" =

3' - 2". To simplify calculations, assume the load w is for full

length of the 3'-2" span. This will result in only an insignificant

stress increase. Maximum bending stress in this example occurs 2" x 6"

Joist

with no load on the cantilevers.

L = 3'-2"

497 lb / ft x (3.17 ft ) 3'-10"

2

wL2

M = = = 624 ft lb

8 8

S = 7.56 in.3 (For the member sizes used here, all lumber will be S4S.)

624 ft lb 12 in.

f = x = 990 lb / in.2

7.56 in.3 1 ft

Allowable bending stress (assuming the proposed form lumber is used material with no visible grade stamp, the

allowable stress for Red Pine will be used) = 1375 psi. The member is acceptable with regard to bending stress.

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5 V1 = = = 560 lb

bh 2 2

1.5 x 560 lb

b = 1 in. h = 5 in. H= = 102 lb/in.2

15

. in. x 5.5 in.

This is more than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 88 psi for Red Pine and is, therefore, not acceptable. Thus,

reduce the 2" x 6" joist spacing from 10 inches to 9 inches. (9/10) x 102 = 92 psi about 88 psi and, therefore, acceptable.

Bending stress will reduce also, so it is also acceptable.

9

Form Lumber = 74 x = 55.5 lb / joist

12

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (4)

9 in.

Concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x = 1168.4 lb / joist

12 in.

9 in.

Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x 8 ft x = 300.0 lb / joist

12 in.

1547 lb

The bearing weight at each support = = 774 lb

2

P 8'-0"

Bearing stress f =

A

2"x6" joist x 10'-0" long

774

f = = 43 lb/in2

18

861 lb 861 lb

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 350 psi (for Red Pine).

d. Deflection of joist

Assume similar loading condition to that which causes maximum bending stress. w = 448 lb/lf (for 9 inch spacing)

5wL4

) = w = (448 lb/lf) - (37.5 lb/ft live load) = 410 lb/ft

384 EI

L = 38 in.

I = 22.53 in.4

= 4 x = 0.032 in.

2

384 x 1,300,000 lb / in. x 22.53 in. 12 in.

1

The allowable deflection = x 38 in. = 0.141 in.

270

Loads will be as determined for bearing stress in 2 c) above except that the live load can reasonably be reduced to 50 psf on only

the horizontal concrete surface area for this member.

Determine dead load on each joist which bears on the two HP 12x53 beams.

Form Lumber = 55.5 lb/joist

Concrete = 1168.4 lb/joist

Weight of Joist = 23 lb

Total Applied Dead Load = 1247 lb/joist

5-393.206 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Dead Load = x = 831 lb / ft

2 9 in.

2.83 ft

Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x = 71 lb / ft

2

= 53 lb / ft

Weight of Beam

w = 955 lb / ft

M

a. Bending stress f =

S

Bending stress must be checked at locations and . There are no available formulas to determine these moments

directly. Therefore, moments will be determined by combining two known loading conditions in the AISC Steel

Construction Manual as follows:

2 1

w = 955 lb/ft

HP12x53

20174 ft lb

71655 ft lb

51481 ft lb

1 1

2

2

955 lb / ft x (6.5 ft )

2

wL2

M1 = = = 20,174 ft lb

2 2

955 lb / ft x (24.5 ft )

2

wL2

M2 = = = 71,655 ft lb

8 8

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (6)

At location , f1 = = 3624 lb/in.2

66.8 in.3

At location , f2 = = 9248 lb/in.2

66.8 in.3

Assuming that the steel pile material would likely be ASTM A 36 grade, the allowable temporary bending stress is

25,000 psi. Therefore, this member qualified in bending.

955 lb/ft

V

b. Shear Stress in HP12x53 v =

th

Load Diagram at location

V1 = 6.5 ft x 955 lb/ft = 6208 lb

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

Shear Diagram at location

v2 = 955 lb/ft x = 11700 lb 1 2

height = 11.78 in.

11700 lb 1

At the point of maximum shear, v = = 2283 lb/in.2 2

0.435 in. x 11.78 in.

This is less than the allowable temporary shear stress of 15000 psi.

c. Deflection of HP12x53

The loading diagram will be as shown above for shear except that live load will not be included for deflection

computations. Therefore, w = (955 lb/ft) - (71 lb/ft live load) = 884 lb/ft.

Deflections must be determined at points and . Since there are no readily available formulas for determining these

deflections directly, this loading situation may be duplicated by combining two of the available loading diagrams in the

AISC Steel Construction Manual as follows:

1 w = 884 lb/ft

1 1 1

2 2 2

5-393.206 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Deflection at point (midspan) is determined by the following formulas from the AISC manual for the loading diagrams

shown above.

wx wa x

2

2 =

24EIL

( L4 2 L2 x 2 + Lx 3 2a 2 L2 + 2a 2 x 2 ) -

12EIL

(L2 x 2 )

w = 884 lb/ft

L = 24.5 ft

x = x 24.5 ft = 12.25 ft

a = 6.5 ft

E = 29,000,000 psi

884 lb / ft x 12.25 ft x (24.54 - (2 x 24.52 x 12.252 ) + (24.5 x 12.253 ) (2 x 6.52 x 24.52 ) + (2 x 6.52 x 12.253 ))

2 =

24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft

12 in. 12 in.

3 3

884 lb / ft x (6.5) ft) 2 x 12.25 ft

x -

1 ft 12 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft

x ( 24.5 2

- 12.25 2

) ft 2

) x

1 ft

The maximum allowable deflection in this member will be 1/4 inch. See Section 5-393.203 for further details. Since the

allowable deflection at this point is exceeded, the member must either be increased in size or wedges must be placed to

compensate for this deflection. (For example, at midspan 0.416 of wedging is necessary)

The deflection at point may be determined with sufficient accuracy by use of the following loading condition from the

AISC Manual:

w = 884 lb/ft

24'-6" 6'-6"

884 lb / ft x 6.5 ft x (4 x 6.52 x 24.5 - 24.53 + 6 x 6.52 x 6.5 - 4 x 6.5 x 6.52 + 6.53 ) ft 3 12 in. 3

1 = x

1 ft

= - 0.354

24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4

Since this exceeds the allowable deflection of 1/4", compensation (by wedging or other) must be made in the falsework

construction, in order to obtain true lines.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393-207 (1)

(without deflection compensation)

NOTE: The minus sign indicates an upward

0.416"

0.354"

as indicated in the diagram.

CL Columns

and friction collars

4. Friction Collar

The reaction on each side of the friction collar may be determined from the shear diagram in part b.

NOTE: The collar bolts shall be torqued adequately to develop friction collar load. This load should be checked against the

allowable load listed in the manufacturers literature for the proposed friction collars.

Assume the Contractor has proposed the slab falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.207. Assume also that rails for the

strike off machine will be placed on the fascia beams. The following investigations will then be necessary to determine the

acceptability of the proposed method:

1. Plywood Sheathing 1. Plywood sheathing

a. Bending stress a. Bending stress

b. Rolling shear stress b. Rolling shear stress

c. Deflection c. Deflection

2. Stringers 2. Stringers

a. Bending stress a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress c. Bearing stress

d. Deflection d. Deflection

3. Joists (double 2" x 12" member) 3. Steel overhang bracket

a. Bending stress a. Safe load

b. Horizontal shear stress b. Deflection

c. Bearing stress on washer 4. Hanger

d. Deflection a. Direct tension on bolt

4. Hanger b. Capacity of hanger

a. Direct tension on bolt

b. Capacity of hanger

Figure A 5-393.207 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

A

2" x 4" @ 1'-0" O.C.

Hangers @ 5'-0" O.C. 8" Min. conc. slab 3/4" Plyform, Class I

2" x 4" @

1/2" Dia. coil bolt (typ.) 12" O.C.

A

Superior overhang

bracket @ 5'-0" O.C.

2" x 10"

1/2" Dia. coil bolt 2" x 4" @ 12" O.C.

with 3" x 4" washer

5'-0" 5'-0"

SECTION A-A

All lumber to be Douglas Fir, No. 1.

Figure A 5-393.207

w

INTERIOR BAYS

1. Plywood Sheathing

Concrete 0.67 ft x 1 ft x 150 lb/ft3 = 100.0 lb/ft 2" x 4"

Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft 12" Stringers

Live Load = 50.0 lb/ft @ 12" O.C.

w= 152.5 lb/ft

a., b., and c. - Bending, Rolling Shear and Deflection are all automatically checked when using Figure B 5-393.202.

Assume face grains will be placed the weak way, (face grain parallel to supports). According to this Figure, 12 inch spacing

on inch plyform Class I will safely support about 550 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (2)

2. Stringers

12" w = 152.5 lb/ft

Determine applied load w per foot of stringer.

Weight of member (2 x 4) = 1.5 lb/ft

w = 154.0 lb/ft

2" x 4" Stringers

a. Bending Stress

A 2 or 3 span continuous situation will very likely apply for the spans given (5'-0"). Assume 2 span continuous for the

design check.

w = 155 lb/ft

5'-0" 5'-0" Waler spacing

154 lb / ft x (5 ft )

2

wL2

M = = = 481.2 ft lb

8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

M 481.2 ft lb 12 in.

F = = x = 1887 psi

S 3.06 in.3 1 ft

Since the allowable bending stress in Douglas Fir is 1875 psi, this member is acceptable in bending with slight

overstress.

V1

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5

bh

Assuming the stringers are continuous over two spans, the maximum shear occurs at the center support and is equal to V

= 5/8 wR. To convert this to the applicable horizontal shear, use L = (L-2h) as follows:

1 ft

V 1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 154 lb / ft 5 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x = 425 lb

12 in.

b = 1 in.

426 lb

h = 3 1/ 2 in. H = 1.5 x = 121 psi

1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

The allowable horizontal shear for Douglas Fir is 120 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable with regard to horizontal

shear with a slight overstress.

5-393.207 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

For a two span continuous stringer, the maximum P will be at the center reaction point.

5wL

P = R2 =

4

= 962.5 lb

4

1 5/8"

962.5 lb

f= = 214 psi

4.5 in.2 Bearing 2 - 2" x 12"

surface

(shaded)

1 1/2"

1 1/2"

The temporary allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi; therefore, member is acceptable.

wL4

d. Deflection of Stringers )=

185 EI

Since deflection is to be based on dead load only, the value for w will be:

L = 5 ft

E = 1,760,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

3

4 12 in.

104 lb / ft x 5 ft x

1 ft

= = 0.063 in.

185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in. 4

The surface being formed is not exposed to view and is, therefore, not subject to the normal deflection limitation.

However, this value will be used later to determine the cumulative deflection of the falsework.

Dead load is applied to this member through eight 2 x 4 stringers. As a general rule, when the concentrated loads are applied

through 3 or more crossing members, the assumption of uniform loading may be used.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (4)

8"

Double 2" x 10" (joist)

8'-2" O.C.

1 ft 3

Concrete 8 in. x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft x 5 ft = 500.0 lb

12 in.

1

Stringers 8 x 1.5 lb / 1f x 5 ft x = 8.2 lb

7.33

w = 778.5 lb/ft

2 - 2" x 10"

7'-4"

Assumed design condition

M

a. Bending Stress - f =

S

2

wL2

M= = = 5233 ft lb

8 8

12 in.

5233 ft lb x

1 ft

f = = 1468 psi

4278 in.3

5-393.207 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The allowable bending stress for Douglas Fir is 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.

V1

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5

bh

w (L - 2h) 1 ft

V1 = = 778.5 lb / ft x 7.333 ft - 2 x 9.5 in. x / 2 = 2238 lb

2 12 in.

b = 1 in.

h = 9 in.

1.5 x 1119 lb

H= = 118 psi

1.5 in. x 9.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is acceptable.

778.5 lb / ft x 7.33 ft

P= = 2853 lb

2 4"

3"

and assuming a 3/4 inch space is used

between the 2" x 10" members,

1 1/2"

2853 lb 1 1/2"

f= = 317 psi

9 in.2 3/4"

The allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi. A stress increase factor of 1.13 is permitted in accordance

with Figure A 5-393.204 resulting in a total allowable stress of 480 x 1.13 - 542 psi which is considerably more than the

actual stress.

5wL4

d. Deflection )= w = 778.5 lb/ft - 250 lb/ft = 528.5 lb/ft

384 EI

= 7' - 4"

E = 1,760,000 psi

3

12 in.

5 x 528.5 lb / ft x (7.333 ft) 4 x

1 ft

= = 0.097

384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (6)

The cumulative deflection of the falsework in the interior bays is limited to about 1/2 inch (see Section 5-393.203). It

can be seen that the cumulative deflection of stringers (0.063 in.) plus joists (0.097 in.) will be only 0.160 inches

(approximately 3/16 inch) and is, therefore, acceptable.

4. Hanger Rods

The load on each hanger rod will be equal to the bearing load on the plate washers, or 2853 pounds.

The inch diameter coil bolts for the hangers are manufactured in various strengths such as 6000 pound capacity, 9000

pound capacity, etc.. When required, the Contractor should furnish evidence of the safe capacity of the proposed coil bolts.

In addition to checking the coil bolt, the hanger must be checked for rated capacity. Most hangers are rated for the load

carrying capacity of the entire hanger. The load on either side should not exceed one-half of this value.

1. Plywood Sheathing

Maximum stress in the sheathing will occur adjacent to the beam, at the point where concrete depth is a maximum.

8" 3'-10"

8"

8"

8 3/4"

10 1/4"

9 1/2"

3"

54" (Top mem 4"

ber of superior

bracket)

for computation purposes only.

Assume the concrete stool plus flange thickness at the maximum depth will be 3 inches. Where this value is known to be

greater, use the known maximum value.

Determine uniform dead load on the sheathing based on this maximum thickness:

1 ft 3

Concrete 11 in x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 137.5 lb / ft

12 in.

5-393.207 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

From Figure B 5-393.202, the safe carrying load for Class I plywood placed weak way with supports at 12 inches is 550 psf.

Therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Stringers

The second stringer from the right will be the controlling stringer for design. (The stringer on the right carries only about

one-half as much load.) The average slab thickness at this controlling stringer can be determined by calculation or by scaling

the drawing. In this case, an average thickness of 10 inches was scaled. The uniform load on this stringer will be:

1 ft 3

1'-0"

Concrete 10.25 in. x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 128.1 lb / ft

12 in.

10 1/4"

(Ave.)

Plywood .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft

2" x 4" Stringer

Total w = 182.1 lb/ft

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/ft. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the stringers

on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be checked by ratios as follows:

182.1 lb / ft

a. Bending Stress F= x 1887 psi = 2231 psi

154 lb / ft

This is 19% over the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir. Therefore, this member should have its

spacings reduced 20% or down to 10 inch spacing.

1 ft 1 ft

Concrete 10.40 in. x x 10 in. x x 150 lb / ft

3

= 108.3 lb / ft

12 in. 12 in.

10 1/4"

(Ave.)

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/lf. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the

stringers on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be check by ratios as follows:

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (8)

153.6 lb / ft

a. Bearing Stress f= x 1887 psi = 1882 psi

154 lb / ft

This is about the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir; therefore, this member is acceptable in bending.

153.6 lb / ft

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H= x 121 psi = 120.7 psi

154 lb / ft

This is about the same as the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing Stress f= P

A

Using the Superior bracket as recommended by the manufacturer with a slotted 2" x 6" top bearing surface, the bearing

area is:

2 center slot

A = 4 in. x 1 1/2 in. = 6.0 in.

END VIEW

153.6 lb / ft 1-1/2" Wide slot

P= x 962.5 lb = 960 lb

1-5/8"

154 lb / ft

960 lb

f= = 160 psi

6.0 in.2

Contact surfaces

(shaded)

5 1/2"

PLAN VIEW

The allowable stress increase factor need not be figured since this stress is much less than the allowable stress of 490 psi.

wL4

d. Deflection of Stringers =

185EI

The uniform load is the only factor which differs from the calculation for deflection of the interior stringers. For this

member, w = 153.6 lb/ft - 41.7 lb/ft (live load) = 111.9 lb/ft. Deflection of the overhang stringers can be determined by

using a ratio of the uniform loads.

111.9 lb / ft

)= x 0.063 in. = 0.068 in.

104 lb / ft

Since this surface is considered to be exposed to view and the span length is less than 67 inches, the maximum allowable

deflection will be:

12 in.

5 ft x

1 ft

L / 270 = = 0.222 in.

270

The actual deflection is less than this; therefore, the member is acceptable.

5-393.207 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Superior brackets may be checked using the influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202. To use this chart, the load on individual

stringers must be determined and the distance from the outboard end of the bracket to each stringer must be determined. A

calculation summary of the loads and distances are on the next page.

50"

40"

30"

20"

10"

2"

A B C D E F

is to the right of "B".

for computation purposes only.

B C D E F

8"

8.15"*

11"**

8.90"

10.40"

9.65"

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (10)

3 1 ft 1 ft

Plywood load = x x (10 in.) x x (40) = 2.1 lbs / linear ft

4 in. 12 in. 12 in.

10 in.

Live load = (50 lbs / ft 2 ) x = 1.2 lbs / linear ft

12 in.

Concrete loads:

1 ft 1 ft. 1 in. 3

PA = 8.075 in. x x (2 in.) x x x 150 lbs / ft

12 in. 10 in.

= 1.7 lbs / linear ft

12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 1 ft 1 ft 9 in. 3

PB = 8.30 in. x x (5 in.) x + 8.075 in. x x (2 in.) x x x (150 lbs / ft )

12 in. 10 in.

= 58.4 lbs / linear ft

12 in. 12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3

PC = 8.90 in. x x (10 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft = 92.7 lbs / linear ft

12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3

PD = 9.65 in. x x (10 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft = 100.5 lbs / linear ft

12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3

PE = 10.4 in. x x (9 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft

12 in.

= 97.5 lbs / linear ft

12 in.

1 ft 8 in. 1 ft 3

PF = 10.7 in. x x x x 150 lbs / ft = 44.6 lbs / linear ft

12 in. 2 12 in.

w = dead load plus live load

PA = 25 lbs/linear ft PA = 188 lbs

PB = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PB = 646 lbs

PC = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PC = 861 lbs

PD = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PD = 909 lbs

PE = 37.5 lbs/linear ft PE = 865 lbs

PF = 16.7 lbs/linear ft PF = 403 lbs

Examples: Bracket load PA = 5/4 x (1.7 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 25) x (5.0') = 188 lbs

PB = 5/4 x (58.4 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 41.7) x (5.0') = 646 lbs

5-393.207 (11) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

B 646 lb x 1.3 = 840 lb 646 lb x 1.9 = 1227 lb

C 861 lb x 1.95 = 1679 lb 861 lb x 1.3 -= 1119 lb

D 909 lb x 1.7 = 1545 lb 909 lb x 0.80 = 727 lb

E 865 lb x 1.58 = 1367 lb 865 lb x 0.40 = 346 lb

F 403 lb x 1.45 = 584 lb 403 lb x 0.10 = 40 lb

Total Load = 6523 lb Total Load = 3967 lb

Manufacturers Manufacturers

Allowable Load = 9000 lb Allowable Load = 4733 lb*

Since the applied loads are less than the allowable load, the coil rod and diagonal are acceptable with regard to strength.

However, other bracket components such as the hanger assembly must also be checked for strength requirements as per

manufacturers allowable loads.

The manufacturers literature indicates that the deflection is determined by summarizing the total vertical weight on the

bracket. Only the weight of concrete need be applied since deflection due to dead weight of the falsework may be

allowed for prior to concrete placement.

8 in. + 11 in. 1 ft

Total weight of concrete = x 3.33 ft x 5 ft x 150 lb / ft x = 1977 lb

2 12 in.

Using Figure F 5-393.202 as a guide, the deflection resulting from a load of 1977 lb would be about 3/16 inch. The

cumulative deflection of the overhang falsework may now be summarized.

Deflection of stringers 0.068 in.

Deflection of brackets 0.190 in.

Seating of wood members (2 x 1/16")* 0.120 in.

*Abutting faces of wood members are assumed to crush about 1/16 inch when heavy load is applied. This value will be

less for tightly constructed falsework. In addition, wood fillers against the web as used on prestressed concrete girders

must be uniformly fitted and seated to prevent uneven overhang deflections.

The falsework along the edge of coping should, therefore, be set about 3/8 in. above final grade to compensate for the

anticipated deflection.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (1)

4. Hanger

a. The bolt on this hanger is actually the 45E coil rod which was checked in Item 3. above. Note that the manufacturer

specifies a 9000 lb capacity coil bolt.

b. Hangers are normally rated for vertical load carrying capacity. The vertical component on this hanger can be determined

as follows:

45

23

65

P

This value should not exceed 1/2 of the safe working load for the total hanger. Preferably, the manufacturer should

furnish information as to the safe load along the 45E angle for the overhang hangers. Note: The safe working loads

ascribed to these hangers only applies when the device has full bearing contact on the top flange of the beam and when

the hanger bolts are flush with the edge of the beam flange.

Assume the Contractor has proposed the falsework scheme shown in Figure A 5-393.208. In addition, assume they have stated

that a strike-off machine weighing 8000 pounds will be used and strike-off rails will be located as shown in the figure (outside

berm).

a. Bending stress a. Bending stress

b. Rolling shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Deflection c. Bearing stress

d. Deflection

2. Joist (2 x 6)

a. Bending stress 5. Pile - total reaction

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress 6. Strike-off machine support system

d. Deflection a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

3. Beams (6 x 14) c. Bearing stress

a. Bending stress d. Deflection

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress

d. Deflection

Figure A 5-393.208 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

strike-off machine

A

Concrete slab 3/4" Plyform sheathing

1'-9"

2" x 6" @ 1'-0" O.C.

Bolts

@ 5'-0" O.C.

2" x 12" Bracing

12" x 12" Pile cap

A Timber piles

butt dia. 12"

10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"

CROSS SECTION OF SLAB FALSEWORK

Concrete slab

2" x 12" Bracing

Timber piles

SECTION A-A

All lumber to be Douglas Fir, Construction Grade

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (2)

lb

Concrete 1.75 ft x 1 ft x 150 = 262.5 lb/ft

ft 3

lb

Plywood 0 .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 = 2.5 lb/ft

ft 3

Figure B 5-393.202 indicates that even the lowest grade plyform (Class II) placed in the weak direction will safely support

about 500 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Joist (2 x 6)

Since these members are spaced at 1'-0", the applied uniform load = 315 lb/ft + 2.3 lb/ft (weight of joist) = 317.3 lb/ft.

Assume two span continuous design with L = 5 feet.

a. Bending Stress

317.3 lb / ft x (5 ft )

2

M wL2

f= M= = = 991.5 ft/lb

S 8 8

S = 7.56 in.3

12 in.

991.5 ft / lb

1 ft

f = = 1574 psi

7.56

Since this is less than the 1875 psi allowable stress, it is acceptable.

V1

b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5

bh

1 ft

At the center support, V1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 317.3 lb / ft x 5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x = 809.8 lbs

12 in.

b = 1 1/2 in. h = 5 1/2 in

809.8 lb

H = 1.5 = 147.2 psi

1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

Allowable horizontal shear is 120 psi; therefore, this is not acceptable, so reduce joist spacing to 10 inch.

1 ft

w = 264.8 V 1 = 5 / 8 (264.8) x 5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x = 675.8 lbs

12 in.

1.5 (675.8)

H = = 122.9 psi 120 psi allowable.

1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

5-393.208 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

P

c. Bearing Stress f =

A Bearing

For two span continuous, maximum P is at the surface 6" x 14" Beam

center support.

5wL 5 x 264.8 lb / ft x 5 ft

P = R2 = = = 1655 lbs

4 4

2" x 6" Joist

A = 1 1/2 in. x 5.5 in. = 8.25 in.2

cut and, therefore, will have the full 6 x 14

dimensions and the area will be 1 1/2 in x 6.0 in. = 9.0 in.2.

1655 lb

f= = 201 psi

8.25 in.2

This is much less than the 480 psi allowable and is, therefore, acceptable.

wL4

d. Deflection of 2 x 6 joist ) =

185EI

L = 5 feet

3

12 in.

223.1 lb / ft x (5 ft) 4 x

1 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2 = = 0.035 in.

185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 20.80 in.4

I = 20.80 in.4

L 12 in.

The limiting deflection is = 5 ft x = 0.22 in. (as specified in Section 5- 393.202).

270 1 ft

Since .035 inches is less than the allowable, the member is acceptable)

3. Beams (6 x 14)

Assume the Contractor has stated that these beams will be furnished in 22 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will

then apply. Determine applied, uniform load:

Live load, concrete, sheathing and joists = 264.8 lb/ft2 x 5 ft = 1324.0 lb/ft

1 ft

2

Weight of 6 x 14 member (rough cut) = 6 in. x 14 in. x x 40 lb / ft 3 = 23.3 lb / ft

144 in. 2

w = 1347.3 lb/ft

NOTE: It can be assumed that the ends of joists will be staggered so that the critical load determined in 2c. above will not

occur on any one beam.

M

a. Bending stress f=

S

1347.3 lb / ft x (10 ft )

2

wL2

M= = = 16841.3 ft lb

8 8

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (4)

12 in.

16841.3 x

1 ft

f = = 1031 psi

196.0 in. 3

1.5 V1

b. Horizontal shear stress H=

bh

1 ft

5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x 10 ft - 2 x (14 in.) x

1 5w (L - 2h) 12 in.

For 2 span continuous, V = = = 6456 lb

8 8

1.5 x 6456 lb

b = 6 in. h = 14 in. H = = 115 psi

6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P

c. Side bearing stress f =

A

For 2 span continuous, the maximum P will be over the center support.

5wL 5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x 10 ft

P = R2 = = = 16841 lb

4 4

16841 lb

A = 6 in. x 14 in. = 84 in.2 f = = 200 psi

84 in.2

wL4

d. Deflection ) =

185 EI

L = 120 in.

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

3

12 in.

1139.0 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x

1 ft

= = 0.043 in.

185 x 1,800,000 lb / in. 2 x 1372 in. 4

This is less than the allowable deflection of 1/4 inch for the member but must also be checked later as part of the

cumulative deflection.

NOTE: A simple span reaction will be used since the higher reaction R2 determined in Step 3 c) above will occur at random

locations rather than all on one pier cap. This simplification is also in agreement with ACI recommendations.

Live load, concrete, sheathing, joist and beam = 1347.3 lb/lf of beam

Load on pile cap = 1374.3 lb/ft x 10 ft = 1347.3 lb per beam

5-393.208 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Assume the Contractor has stated that pile caps will be furnished in 20 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will apply.

The following loading diagram will be typical of each two span segment:

w = 40 lb/ft (due to

weight of pile cap)

1 2 12" x 12" Pile cap

10'-0" 10'-0" Pile spacing

To determine the bending moments in the cap, use the applicable load diagrams from the AISC Manual. For this

example, there is no identical loading diagram in the manual, but it is possible to obtain the moments by summarizing

diagrams for each of the individual loads as follows:

13473 lb 13473 lb

2 w = 40 lb/ft

2 2

1 1 1

Note: The load from the 6 x 14 beams directly over the piles are not shown since they do not cause bending in the pile

cap.

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )

2

13 3 wL2 13 3

M = PL - 1 / 2 PL + = x 13473 lb x 10 ft - x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 21333 ft lb

64 32 14.2 64 64 14.2

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )

2

3 wL2 3

M = 2x PL + = 2x x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 25762 ft lb

32 8 32 8

M

f = for 12" x 12" rough cut, S = 288 in.3

S

12 in.

25762 ft lb x

f = 1 ft. = 1073 psi

288 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is therefore acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (6)

1.5 V1

b. Horizontal shear stress in pile cap H =

bh

This stress will be maximum over the center support. Summarize the shear formulas for the three diagrams used to

determine bending moments.

1 ft

5 x 40 lb / ft 10 ft - 2 x 12 in. x

1

19

1 3 5w (L - 2h) 20.5 12 in.

V = P + P + = x 13473 lb + = 8831 lb

32 2 32 8 32 8

1.5 x 8831 lb

H= = 92 psi

144 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P

c. Bearing stress of pile cap on pile. f =

A

The maximum P will be over the center support. Use the applicable formulas for reactions for the load diagrams used to

determine bending moments.

11 5wL

P = R2 = 2 x P + (Reaction from beam directly over the pile) +

16 4

11 5 x 40 lb / ft x 10 ft

=2x x 13473 lb + 13473 lb + = 32498 lb

16 4

Assuming 12 inch diameter piles under the 12 x 12 cap, the contact area would be:

A = Br2 = 3.14 x 62 = 113.1 in.2 [This value may also be determined by Figure A 5-393.204]

32498

f= = 287 psi

113.1 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi on the 12 x 12; therefore, it is acceptable.

The exact deflection of the pile cap cannot be readily determined since a formula to cover this load situation is not

available in the AISC Manual. However, formulas are available to determine an approximate value of the deflection,

assuming a simple span loading condition as shown below: (NOTE: This deflection will be slightly greater than the

actual deflection of the two span continuous pier cap.)

40 lb/ft

10'-0"

5-393.208 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

PL 3 5wL4

At , ) = +

48EI 384EI

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

w = 40 lb/ft

3 3

12 in. 12 in.

10973 lb x (10 ft)3 x 5 x 40 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x

1 ft 1 ft

) = + = 0.130 in.

48 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1728 in.4 384 x 1,800,000 lb / in2 x 1728 in.4

The maximum cumulative deflection of the joists, beams and pile caps will be as follows:

.

Joists 0.035 in.

It can be concluded that deflections will approach a value of 1/4 inch at points of maximum deflection. Each of the

individual members (joists, beam and pile cap) are within the limiting deflection value of 1/4 inch and the cumulative

deflection is also close enough to this value to be acceptable.

5. Pile Load

The maximum pile load will be as shown in 4c above. P = 32498 lb = 16.25 tons. This pile load is not an average pile load

but rather is based on the assumption of two span continuous action of the pile caps.

The average load per pile is as follows (assume each pile supports a 10 foot square area above it since piles are spaced at 10

feet in both directions):

The chart of page 5-393.202 indicates that piles having 12 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 18 tons and that piles

having 14 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 21 tons. In consideration of the relative values of the maximum pile load

and the average pile load shown above, it would be reasonable to permit the use of piles having 12 inch butts for the

falsework in this example. Had the maximum pile load been significantly larger, some falsework revision would have been

necessary.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (8)

Assume the Contractor (for this example) has provided information regarding the strike-off machine which indicates a total

weight of 8000 pounds. Assume also that the machine wheel base is 5' 0" and that posts for the strike-off rail are spaced at

5'0". The maximum loads on the 6 x 14 beams supporting the strike-off machine can then be determined.

= 1618 lb/ft = 1415 lb/ft = 202 lb/ft

Wt. of strike-

Conc. slab off machine 8000 lb

2 x 6 Joist

6 x 14 Beams

@ 5'-0" O.C.

Pile cap 1 2 3

Falsework piles

NEAR EDGE OF SLAB

Beam will support the full design loads determined in part 2. of this section. With the edge of slab ending midway

between beams and and, assuming the joists are simple spans, it can be shown that beam will carry about 7/8 of the

load carried by beam , and beam will carry about 1/8 of the load carried by beam (plus the weight of the strike-off

machine). This will result in the following loading diagram for beam :

off machine

Rail support posts

ELEVATION OF BEAM 3

2000 lb 2000 lb

w = 202 lb/ft

10'-0" 10'-0"

5-393.208 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The position of the strike-off machine shown in the load diagram will result in the maximum bending stress and maximum

deflection of the 6 x 14 beam. Note that the rail support posts are placed in locations which will have approximately equal

deflections. This is preferable to placing one post over the non-deflecting pier cap and having the remaining posts fall at

mid-span where deflection is greatest.

The strike-off machine will not appreciably affect the falsework joists since the rail supports fall directly over the 6 x 14

beams. In addition, the strike-off machine will not cause bending, deflection or horizontal shear in the pile cap, since the

supporting beams fall directly over the outside row of piles. Therefore, only the 6 x 14 beam (beam ) will be investigated.

To simplify calculations, this will be assumed to be a simple span rather than two span continuous. (Use the left half of the

load diagram shown above.)

M

a. Bending stress in 6 x 14 beam f=

S

wL2

M= + Pa (formulas from AISC Manual)

8

202 lb / ft x (10 ft )

2

+ 2000 lb x 2.5 ft = 7525 ft/lb

8

12 in.

7525 ft / lb x

1 ft

f = = 461 psi

196.0 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

1.5 V1

b. Horizontal shear stress in 6 x 14 beam H=

bh

1 ft

202 lb / ft x 10 ft - 2 x 14 in. x

12 in.

1

V = 2000 lb + = 2774 lbs

2

6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P

c. Bearing stress on 6 x 14 beam f=

A

This critical bearing load would occur with the strike-off machine centered over a pile cap. The following load diagram

would apply:

2000 lb 2000 lb

202 lb/ft

2'-6" 2'-6"

10'-0" 10'-0" CL pile bents

R1 R2

LOADING CONDITION FOR HORIZONTAL SHEAR IN BEAM 3

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (10)

Pa wL

P = R2 = 2 x + 2 x

L 2

2000 lb x 7.5 ft

= 2x + 201 lb / ft x 10 ft

10 ft

= 5010 lb

5010 lb

f= = 69.6 psi

72 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

5wL4 Pa

)= + (3L2 - 4a2) (formulas from AISC Manual)

384 EI 24 EI

w = 202 lb/ft

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 psi

I = 1372 in.4

a = 2.5 ft

P = 2000 lb

3 3

12 in. 12 in.

5 x 202 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x 2000 lb x 2.5 ft x

1 ft 1 ft

= =

384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4 24 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4

) = 0.58 in.

This represents a deflection of approximately 1/16 inch and could be ignored. However a provision should be made for

seating of wood members (about 1/16 inch per wood interface) when setting strike-off rail to grade.

5-393.209 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Assume that a Contractor is submitting slab falsework plans for a bridge which has shallow steel beams. Due to the difficulty of

preventing rotation of the fascia beam which would occur with a cantilevered overhang bracket, they have proposed a scheme

which includes the needle beam falsework shown in Figure A 5-393.209. Assume the strike-off machine will be run on the

fascia beams. The following stressed items must be investigated:

1. Sheathing

a. Bending stress

b. Rolling shear stress

c. Deflection

2. Joist (2 x 4)

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress on runner

d. Deflection

3. Runner (4 x 4)

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress on post

d. Deflection

5. Needle beams

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress on plate washer

d. Deflection

6. Supporting bolt

a. Tension

6" inside runner = 1'-4" outside runner = 2'-0"

8"

9.8"

11"

1'-7" 1'-7"

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.209

A

8'-0" 3'-10"

3/4" Plyform

Class II

First. Interior W 24x104 4x4 Runner

2" x 4" Post @ 5'-0" O.C.

beam

3/4" Dia. bolt 5'-0" O.C. 1" x 4" Braces

4" x 5" Washer 2" x 6" Plate

Fascia beam Wedges

Filler plate

2" x 4" Posts

Bracing W24x104

Wedges

(as necessary)

5'-0" 5'-0"

SECTION A-A

5-393.209 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

1. Sheathing

Sheathing is supported on joists spaced at 16 inches. The maximum load on the sheathing will be near the beam flange with

an estimated concrete depth of 11 inches.

1 ft

Concrete 150 lb / ft 3 x 1 ft x 11 in. x = 137.5 lb / ft

12 in.

Sheathing 40 lb/ft3 x 1 ft x 0.06 ft = 2.5 lb/ft

w = 190 lb/ft

For 3/4 inch thick Class II Plyform placed the strong way (which is most likely here) the safe load for 16 inch spacing is

about 240 psf. The sheathing is therefore acceptable.

2. Joists (2 x 4)

Check the joists using the average slab thickness of 9.8 inches. Determine uniform applied load:

1 ft 1 ft 3

Concrete 9.8 in. x x 16 in. x x 150 lb / ft = 163.3 lb / ft

12 in. 12 in.

w = 234.8 lb/ft

M

a. Bending stress f =

S

wL2

M = L = 3' 2"

8

234.8 lb / ft x (3.167 ft )

2

M = = 294.4 ft/lb

8

S = 3.06 in.3

12 in.

294.4 ft / lb x

1 ft

f = = 1155 psi

3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (3)

1.5 V1

H =

bh

1 ft

234.8 lb / ft x 3.167 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x

w (L - 2h) 12 in.

V1 = = = 303.3 lbs

2 2

b = 1.50 in.

h = 3.50 in.

H = = 86.7 psi

1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P

c. Bearing stress on runner f =

A

Determine the reaction on the outer runner by assuming that the outer 2' 0" of slab concrete is supported on this runner as

indicated on the previous sketch.

Concrete = x x 2 ft x 150 lb / ft = 222.5 lb / f

2 12 in.

(for falsework and for edge of slab form)

(for falsework joist and edge of slab form)

w = 348.9 lb/ft

Since joists are spaced at 16 inches or 1.333 ft, the reaction per joist is:

464.4 lbs

f = = 88.6 psi

5.25 in.2

This is much less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore acceptable.

5wL4

d. Deflection of joist =

384 EI

Use the same loading criteria for deflection as was used for determining bending stress except that live load is deleted

from the uniform load.

L = 3' 2"

5-393.209 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

( )

3

12 in.

5 x 168.1 lb / ft 3.167 ft) 4 x

1 ft

= = 0.039 in.

384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in.4

Since this is a surface that is exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

12 in.

3,167 ft x

L 1 ft

= = 0.141 in.

270 270

3. Runners (4 x 4)

Approximately 3 joists will bear on each runner span; therefore, assume the joists produce a uniform load on the runners.

This uniform load has been determined in part c) above.

w = 348.9 lb/ft

M

a. Bending stress in runners f =

S

Assume the runners will be furnished in lengths of two spans or more. In following the recommended ACI design

simplifications, simple span design will be used.

L = 5 ft

348.9 lb / ft x (5 ft )

2

wL2

M = = = 1090.3 ft lb

8 8

S = 7.15 in.3

12 in.

1090.3 ft lb x

1 ft

f = = 1830 psi

7.15 in.3

Since this is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi, the member is acceptable in bending.

1.5 V1

b. Horizontal shear stress in runners H =

bh

1 ft

348.9 lb / ft x 5 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x

w ( L - 2h) 12 in.

V1 = = = 770.5 lbs

2 2

b = 3.5 in.

h = 3.5 in.

H = = 94.3 psi

3.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (5)

P

c. Bearing stress on 2 x 4 post f =

A

1744 lb

f = = 332 psi

3.5 in. x 1.5 in.

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable

d. Deflection of runner

5wL4

=

384 EI

L = 5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 12.51 in.4

3

12 in.

5 x 248.4 lb / ft x (5 ft ) x

4

1 ft

= = 0.155 in.

384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 12.51 in.4

Since this concrete surface will be exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

12 in.

5 ft x

L 1 ft

= = 0.222 in.

270 270

The actual deflection is less than the allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. 2x4 Post

The total load and the resulting bearing stress on this post was determined in part c. above (f = 332 psi). By measurement on

the falsework plan, the post height is determined to be about 15 inches. The L/d ratio can then be determined:

L 15 in.

= = 10.0

d 1.5 in.

The allowable column stress will be 1562 psi as determined by the graph in Section 5-393.202. Actual stress (332 psi) less

than allowable stress; therefore, the column is acceptable.

5. Needle Beam

Assume each needle beam supports 5 feet of falsework. (Although the runners are continuous members, they are quite

flexible; therefore, simple span reactions can be safely used to determine the applied load on the needle beam.)

5-393.209 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

beam Supporting bolt

Runner Walkway

Needle beam

Weight of member

8'-6" 2.92'

3.00'

5.25'

6.00'

M

a. Bending stress in needle beam f =

S

Maximum bending moment will be at the supporting bolt. The bending moment is determined as follows:

1758 lb x 2.92 ft = 5133.4 ft lb

265 lb x 5.25 ft = 1391.3 ft lb

46.8 lb x 3.00 ft = 140.4 ft lb

2069.8 lb Total = 6665.1 ft lb

12 in.

6665.1 ft lb x

1 ft

f = = 1869.6 psi

42.78

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (7)

1.5 V1

b. Horizontal shear stress in needle beam H =

bh

The shear in this member can most easily be visualized by drawing a shear diagram. To do this, the reaction (P) at the

first interior beam must be determined.

M 6665.1 ft / lb

P = = = 784.1 lb

L 8.50 ft

on fascia beam

265 lb

784.1 lb

784.1 lb

Zero shear

1758 lb

CLWalkway

2069.8 lb

CLRunner

SHEAR DIAGRAM

The maximum shear (V1) will be about 2069.8 pounds. (Since there is no significantly large uniform load, the shear is not

noticeably reduced by using the shear at a distance h from the support.)

h = 9.25 in.

1.5 x 2069.8 lb

H = = 111.9 psi

3.00 in. x 9.25 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

5-393.209 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

P

c. Bearing stress on plate washer f =

A

The bearing reaction, as determined from the shear diagram above, will be:

The area of contact for a 4 x 5 washer, as determined from Figure A 5-393.204 is:

A = 15.0 in.

2853.9 lb.

f = = 190.3 psi

15.0 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

The needle beam can be set to plan elevation after the deflection due to weight of the members has occurred. Therefore,

the calculations for deflection must only determine the additional amount of deflection due to the weight of concrete

applied through the runner.

The uniform weight of concrete on the outside runner has already been determined to be 222.5 pounds per foot. The

concrete load on each needle beam will be:

1112.5 lb

Needle beam

Supporting bolt

8.50' 2.92'

R1 x 8.50 ft = 1112.5 lb x 2.9167 ft

R1 = 381.7 lb R1 1112.5 lb

R2 = 1112.5 l + 381.7 lb R2

Beam in

deflected

= 1494.2 lb position

The formula for determining this deflection, which can be found in the AISC Manual, is as follows:

Pa 2

= (L + a)

3EI

P = 1112.5 lb

L = 8.5 ft

a = 2.9167 ft

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.210

2

12 in. 12 in.

x (2.9167 ft ) x

2

112.5 lb x (8.5 ft + 2.9167 ft) x

1 ft 1 ft

= = 0.175 in.

3 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4

The falsework should be set 0.175 inches high at the outer runner to compensate for deflection of the needle beam. In

addition, five or more wood to wood surfaces should exist in the support falsework, all of which will tend to seat (deflection

downward), when the concrete load is applied. A commonly used practice is to set the falsework high by 1/16 inch per

interface or 5/16 inch in this example. The net height adjustment to the outer runner would then be:

1. Wood column

2. Steel column

1. Wood Column

A Douglas Fir 6 x 8 S4S member will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 16,000 pounds. The unsupported

length of the column is 14 feet. To determine if this member is acceptable with regard to calculated stresses, the following

computations are necessary:

P 16000 lb

The actual stress in the member = f = = = 401.3 psi

A 5.5 in. x 7.25 in.

14 ft 12 in.

L/d = x = 30.55

5.5 in. 1 ft

From the graph in Section 5-393.202, the allowable stress for a Douglas Fir column with L/d ration of 30.55 is 578 psi.

Since the actual stress (401.3 psi) is less than the allowable stress, the column is acceptable.

2. Steel Column

A length of new HP10x42 piling will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 40,000 pounds. The unsupported

length of the column is 16 feet. The following calculations are necessary to determine acceptability of this column.

P

The actual stress in the member will be f = = Area of HP 10 x 42 = 12.4 in.2

A

40,000 lb

= = 3226 psi

12.4 in.2

The allowable stress is determined by the appropriate formula from Section 5-393.202.

2

kL

allowable f = 16980 - 0.53 x

r

12 in.

L = 16 ft x = 192 in.

1 ft

5-393.211 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

2

192 in.

allowable f = 16,980 - 0.53 x = 13616 psi

2.41 in.

The member will obviously qualify for use with regard to stress.

The following bridge deck falsework Joist and Stringer Tables can be used as an aid to checking slab falsework. These tables

show the maximum allowable spans and dead load deflections for joists and stringers for commonly used allowable bending and

shear stresses. The applied dead load and live load per square foot and allowable lumber stresses must be known to obtain the

allowable span lengths from the tables. See the following example illustrating the use of the tables.

8 1/4"

min.

9'-6"

FALSEWORK EXAMPLE

1. Stringers

1 ft 3

Concrete 8.25 in. x x 150 lb / ft = 103.1 lb / sf

12 in.

1 ft 3

Plywood 0.75 in. x x 40 lb / ft = 2.5 lb / sf

12 in.

1

2" x 6" Stringer 2.3 lb / ft x = 1.2 lb / sf

2 ft (Spacing)

Read the allowable span from the stringer table using the 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for

lumber having an allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, 4.22 feet which is greater than the

4' 0" joist spacing and, therefore, the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflection may be estimated

from the table value as 0.017 inches. The stringer bearing stress should be checked as indicated in previous examples in the

Bridge Construction Manual.

2. Joists

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (2)

1

Double 2 x 10 - 2 x 4.3 lb / ft x = 2.2 lb / square foot

4 ft (spacing)

Read the allowable span from joist table using 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for lumber, having an

allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, is 8.48 feet which is approximately the 8'8" joist span and

therefore the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflections will be slightly greater than the 0.144 in.

shown in the table.

The bearing stress in the lumber and the stress in the hanger hardware should be checked as indicated elsewhere in the Bridge

Construction Manual.

If lumber is used which has allowable stresses differing from those used in the tables, and the tables indicate that the design is

questionable, exact formulas which are shown in the Bridge Construction Manual should be used to check the falsework design.

M = H = V, = =

8 bh 8 185 EI

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending

(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear

inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000

Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )

Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches

2x4 12" 150 5.05 0.063 4.09 0.035

(1 x 3 ) 12" 160 4.78 0.056 3.87 0.031

12" 170 4.54 0.049 3.68 0.027

12" 180 4.32 0.044 3.51 0.025

2x6 12" 150 7.94 0.099 6.43 0.055

(1 x 5 ) 12" 160 7.52 0.088 6.09 0.048

12" 170 7.13 0.077 5.78 0.043

12" 180 6.78 0.068 5.51 0.039

2x4 16" 150 3.94 0.031 3.22 0.018

(1 x 3 ) 16" 160 3.73 0.028 3.05 0.016

16" 170 3.55 0.025 2.91 0.014

16" 180 3.38 0.022 2.78 0.013

2x6 16" 150 6.20 0.049 5.05 0.028

(1 x 5 ) 16" 160 5.87 0.043 4.79 0.025

16" 170 5.58 0.039 4.57 0.022

16" 180 5.32 0.035 4.36 0.020

2x4 24" 150 2.82 0.012 2.34 0.007

(1 x 3 ) 24" 160 2.68 0.011 2.23 0.007

24" 170 2.56 0.010 2.13 0.006

24" 180 2.45 0.009 2.05 0.006

2x6 24" 150 4.44 0.019 3.67 0.012

(1 x 5 ) 24" 160 4.22 0.017 3.50 0.011

24" 170 4.02 0.016 3.35 0.010

24" 180 3.85 0.014 3.21 0.009

5-393.211 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5 w DL L4 w L2 1.5 V1 w (L - 2h)

= M = H = V, =

384 EI 8 bh 2

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending

(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear

inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000

Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )

Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches

2x8 2'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074

(1 x 7 ) 2'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066

2'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060

2'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055

2 x 10 2'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094

(1 x 9 ) 2'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085

2'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077

2'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070

Double 2'-0" 150 10.46 0.315 8.75 0.200

2x8 2'-0" 160 10.13 0.304 8.48 0.192

(1 x 7 ) 2'-0" 170 9.83 0.294 8.22 0.185

2'-0" 180 9.55 0.284 7.99 0.179

Double 2'-0" 150 13.35 0.402 11.17 0.253

2 x 10 2'-0" 160 12.93 0.388 10.81 0.244

(1 x 9 ) 2'-0" 170 12.54 0.375 10.49 0.236

2'-0" 180 12.19 0.362 10.20 0.229

2x8 3'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033

(1 x 7 ) 3'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030

3'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028

3'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026

2 x 10 3'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042

(1 x 9 ) 3'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038

3'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035

3'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033

Double 3'-0" 150 8.54 0.210 7.15 0.132

2x8 3'-0" 160 8.27 0.203 6.89 0.125

(1 x 7 ) 3'-0" 170 8.03 0.197 6.55 0.112

3'-0" 180 7.65 0.176 6.26 0.101

Double 3'-0" 150 10.90 0.268 9.12 0.169

2 x 10 3'-0" 160 10.56 0.259 8.79 0.160

(1 x 9 ) 3'-0" 170 10.24 0.251 8.36 0.143

3'-0" 180 9.76 0.224 7.98 0.128

2x8 4'-0" 150 4.11 0.030 3.48 0.020

(1 x 7 ) 4'-0" 160 3.93 0.028 3.34 0.018

4'-0" 170 3.77 0.025 3.21 0.017

4'-0" 180 3.63 0.024 3.10 0.01

2x8 4'-0" 150 5.24 0.038 4.44 0.025

(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 160 5.01 0.035 4.26 0.024

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (4)

Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending

(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear

inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000

Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )

Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches

2 x 10 4'-0" 170 4.81 0.032 4.10 0.022

(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 180 4.63 0.030 3.96 0.021

Double 4'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074

2x8 4'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066

(1 x 7 ) 4'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060

4'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055

Double 4'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094

2 x 10 4'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085

(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077

4'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070

2x8 5'-0" 150 3.53 0.020 3.03 0.014

(1 x 7 ) 5'-0" 160 3.38 0.019 2.91 0.013

5'-0" 170 3.26 0.018 2.81 0.013

5'-0" 180 3.14 0.017 2.72 0.012

2 x 10 5'-0" 150 4.50 0.026 3.86 0.018

(1 x 9 ) 5'-0" 160 4.32 0.024 3.72 0.017

5'-0" 170 4.15 0.023 3.59 0.016

5'-0" 180 4.01 0.021 3.47 0.015

Double 5'-0" 150 5.85 0.077 4.84 0.046

2x8 5'-0" 160 5.56 0.069 4.62 0.042

(1 x 7 ) 5'-0" 170 5.30 0.062 4.42 0.039

5'-0" 180 5.08 0.057 4.24 0.035

Double 5'-0" 150 7.46 0.098 6.18 0.059

2 x 10 5'-0" 160 7.09 0.088 5.89 0.054

(1 x 9 ) 5'-0" 170 6.77 0.079 5.63 0.049

5'-0" 180 6.48 0.072 5.41 0.045

2x8 6'-0" 150 3.14 0.015 2.72 0.011

(1 x 7 ) 6'-0" 160 3.02 0.014 2.63 0.011

6'-0" 170 2.91 0.014 2.54 0.010

6'-0" 180 2.82 0.013 2.47 0.010

2 x 10 6'-0" 150 4.01 0.020 3.47 0.014

(1 x 9 ) 6'-0" 160 3.85 0.018 3.35 0.014

6'-0" 170 3.72 0.017 3.25 0.013

6'-0" 180 3.60 0.017 3.15 0.013

Double 6'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033

2x8 6'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030

(1 x 7 ) 6'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028

6'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026

Double 6'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042

2 x 10 6'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038

(1 x 9 ) 6'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035

6'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033

5-393.212 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

All of the comments in Section 5-393.205 regarding Falsework Details and Analysis apply equally to this Section on Form

Details and Analysis. In addition to the formulas used in the falsework examples, the formula for lateral concrete pressure (see

Section 5-393.204) will be used here for the examples concerning form plans. The pressure determined by these formulas is

based on anticipated concrete temperatures and an anticipated rate of concrete placement. The actual value of these two items

must be determined during the operation of concrete placement. Any deviation from the anticipated values used for checking

stresses must be evaluated to assure that unsafe (over stressed) conditions will not result.

Assume the Contractor has proposed that pier cap form plans shown in Figure A 5-393.206. Assume all lumber will be Douglas

Fir, No. 1. The members which require stress investigation are as follows: (NOTE: Items defined as falsework are checked in

Section 5-393.205.)

1. Sheathing

a. Bending stress

b. Rolling Shear Stress

c. Deflection

2. Studs

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress on walers

d. Deflection

3. Walers

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing on tie plates

d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods

a. Tension stress or manufacturers safe load

The lateral concrete pressure is the only load applied on the forms. About 17 cubic yards of concrete are required for the pier cap.

Assume the Contractor anticipates placing this concrete in a thirty minute period.

30 minutes 1 hour

The formula for rate of pour exceeding 7 feet/hour would then apply. The three conditions for determining this pressure are as

follows:

T T

70 70

2. P = 150h = 150 x 3.667 feet = 550 psf (at bottom of cap forms)

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (1)

h=0

(Top of concrete) p=0

(Bottom of pier cap)

p = 1060

Only the cross-hatched portion of the pressure diagram applies in this example.

1. Sheathing

When a triangular shaped pressure diagram is involved, check sheathing for the maximum pressure. In this case, check

the sheathing for a pressure of 550 psf on a stud spacing of 16 inches. The sheathing material is 7/8 inch plyform, Class

I. The chart for face grain across (see Figure B 5-393.202) indicates that 7/8 inch plyform with 16 inch stud spacing can

safely carry just 550 psf. It must be verified later that the Contractor actually places the plyform the strong way.

2. Studs

The studs in this example should be checked as a simple span. In the following sketches, the stud will be shown

horizontal to more clearly illustrate its beam action.

550 psf

450 psf

125 psf

1'-1" 1'-1" 2 x 4 stud

CL Walers

a. Bending stress

The pressure at mid span (287.5 psf) may be used as a uniform load for computing bending moments. The results will

be slightly more conservative than would result from use of the actual loading.

The pressure of 287.5 psf must be converted to a load per linear foot on the studs with a 16 inch spacing.

12 in.

5-393.213 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

f = M = 1 ft = 882.3 psi

S 3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir and is, therefore, acceptable.

This should be checked by assuming that the load at the left support (450 psf) extends uniformly across the

simple span. Results will be slightly more conservative than would result from the use of the actual loading.

First convert the load to a uniform load for studs at 16 inch spacing.

12 in.

V1 = w (L-2h) = 12 in. = 475 lb

2 2

bh 1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

and is not acceptable. Therefore, reduce the

stud spacing to 12", then H = 101.8 psi, which is

less than the allowable value of 120 psi.

14.5" 29.5"

c. Bearing stress of studs on walers

1009.3

The maximum reaction will be at the lower waler.

Actual reactions at each waler can be determined

as follows:

8" 26" 10"

= (550 lb/ft x 3.67 ft x 1/2) x 12 in. x 1 ft = 1009.3 lb 3.67' = 44"

12 in.

1009.3

1009.3 lb x 19.3 in. = R1 x 26 in. 6.7" 19.3"

R1 = 749.2 lb

R2 = 1009.3 - 749.2 = 260.1 lb

R1 26" R2

Bearing Stress f = P

A

P = 749.2 lb

A = 4.50 in.2 [from Figure A 5-393.204]

4.50 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (3)

d. Deflection of studs - The load condition used for determining maximum bending stress will be used for

determining deflection.

= 5wL4

384EI

w = 287.5 lb/ft

L = 2.167 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

= ft = 0.015 in.

384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 5.36 in.4

2.167 ft x 12 in.

Allowable deflection = 1 ft = 0.096 in.

270

3. Walers

The bottom waler will be checked since the higher stud reaction was found to exist at this location. A condition of

uniform loading may be assumed to exist since three studs bear on each waler span (between tie rods).

w = 749.2 lb/ft

S

The waler span length is equal to the tie rod spacing (4 feet).

This member will be continuous over two or more spans. In keeping with the recommended simplifications, the

assumption of simple spans may be used here.

8 8

f = 1 ft = 1189.2 psi

15.12 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

bh

V1 = w(L - 2h) = 12 in. = 1155 lb

2 2

5-393.213 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

2 x 1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

A

A = 15.0 in.2

15 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of waler

= 5wL4

384EI

w = 749.2 lb/ft

L = 4 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

= 1 ft = 0.058 in.

384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 41.60 in.4

This surface is exposed to view. The allowable deflection of the span will be 1/8 inch since the L/270 value for

this span is greater than 1/8 inch.

4 ft x 12 in.

(NOTE: L = 1 ft = 0.178 in.)

270 270

Actual deflection is less than allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. Tie Rods f = P

A

The form plan indicates that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolts (and coil ties) will be used as form ties. The manufacturers

literature must indicate a load capacity of at least 2996.8 pounds for both the coil bolt and the coil tie.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (1)

A check for the abutment forms shown in Figure A 5-393.214 would require the following investigations. The anticipated rates

of concrete placement are indicated on the figure.

1. Sheathing

a. Bending stress

b. Rolling shear stress

c. Deflection

2. Studs

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing stress on walers

d. Deflection

3. Walers

a. Bending stress

b. Horizontal shear stress

c. Bearing on tie plate

d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods

a. Tension stress or manufacturers safe loading

The stress investigation listed above will be necessary for both the main wall forms and the parapet forms.

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The Contractor has indicated a proposed rate of pour of 3 feet per hour in

this example. Assuming this concrete will be placed in mid-July, an anticipated temperature of 75 may be used. The three

pressure criteria for rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

a. p = 150 + 9000R1

T

R1 = 3 ft per hour

T = 75

= 150 + 9000 x 3

75

This formula will only apply to the upper portion of the pressure diagram on a high pour such

as this: 150 h = 510 psf.

150 psf

Figure A 5-393.214 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Strongbacks 2 x 4 Studs

150h as necessary @ 1'-0" O.C.

Class I

7 Spaces @ 2'-6"

2 x 6 Studs

18'-6"

@ 1'-0" O.C.

510 psf

Double 2 x 6 waler

coil ties, and

3 x 4 flat washers

spaced @ 3'-0"

6"

Rate of pour = 3 ft/hr

Class I 2 x 4 Studs

@ 1'-0" O.C.

4.43"

4 Spaces @ 1'-10"

with 3 x 4

washers spaced

@ 2'-6"

8'-6"

Double 2 x 6

664 psf walers

6"

Estimated conc. temp. = 70

Rate of pour = 4 ft/hr

PARAPET FORMS

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (2)

1. Sheathing

The sheathing must support a pressures of 510 psf over a stud spacing of one foot. Assume the Class I Plyform will be

placed the "strong" way (face grain across supports). From Figure B 5-393.202 for 3/4" Plyform, it can be seen that the

safe load is about 760 psf. The sheathing is, therefore, acceptable.

2. Studs

The 2 x 6 studs are spaced at one foot with a uniform load of 510 psf. Span length is 2' 6". Assume these are continuous

for more than three spans.

S

For 3 span continuous, M = 0.1wL2 = 0.1 x 510 lb/ft (2.5 ft)2 = 318.8 ft lb

f = 1 ft = 506 psi

7.56 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

bh

For 3 span continuous, V1 = 0.6 w (L-2h) = 0.6 x 510 lb/ft x 2.5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x 1 ft = 484.5 lb

12 in.

1.5 in. x (5.5 in.)

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore is acceptable.

A

For 3 span continuous, P = 1.1wL = 1.1 x 510 lb/ft x (2.5 ft) = 1402.5 lb

4.5

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

d. Deflection of studs

EI

w = 510 lb/ft

L = 2.5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in2

I = 20.80 in.4

5-393.214 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

= 1 ft = 0.006 in.

1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 20.80 in.4

2.5 ft x 12 in.

The allowable deflection is L = 1 ft = 0.111 in.

270 270

Since actual deflection is less than allowable, the studs are acceptable. However, cumulative deflection of sheathing plus

studs plus walers must not exceed 1/8 inch to meet the alignment and stiffness criteria of Section 5-393.203.

Tie rods are spaced 3' 0". Assume walers will be continuous for three spans or more and use the three span continuous

formulas. Since studs are spaced at 12 inches, there are at least 3 studs in each waler span and a condition of uniform

load may be assumed on the walers.

S

f = 1 ft = 524 psi

26.28 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

bh

12 in.

2 (1.5 in.) (7.25 in.)

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

A

P = R2 = 1.1 wL

From Figure A 5-393.204, for a 3 x 4 flat washer with a 3/4 in. Spacer between the waler members, A = 9.0 in.2.

9 in.2

Allowable stress = 480 psi x 1.13 (stress increase factor) = 542.4 psi

Since actual stress is less than allowable stress, the member is acceptable.

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (4)

The tension load as shown in part 3 c. above is 4207.5 pounds. The form details indicate that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolt

and coil tie will be used. The manufacturers literature must be checked to determine that these bolts and ties will safely

carry the 4207.5 pound load.

Calculations for checking the parapet forms (see Figure A 5-393.214) are as follows:

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The form plan indicates a proposed rate of concrete placement of 4

feet per hour. Assuming concrete placement will be late in August, a concrete temperature of 70 may reasonably be

used. The three criteria for determining form pressure with rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

T

= 150 + 9000 x 4

70

Form pressure will be determined by this formula above the point where pressure is 664 psf.

h = 664 = 4.43 ft

150

The resulting concrete pressure diagram is shown on Figure A 5-393.214. The actual stress calculations for the

parapet forms will be similar to those for the main wall forms and, therefore, will not be repeated in this

example. However, it would be necessary to perform these calculations since the concrete pressure and member

spacings differ from those of the main wall forms.

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