Você está na página 1de 81

November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.

200

FALSEWORK AND FORMS


5-393.200
(Note: This section uses English units only)

5-393.201 INTRODUCTION Dressed or surfaced lumber - lumber which, to attain


smoothness has been planed on a planing machine on either
The finished appearance of a concrete structure is dependent one side (S1S), two sides (S2S), one edge (S1E), two edges
to a large extent on the forms and falsework used in the (S2E) or a combination thereof (including complete planing
concrete construction. Concrete lines and surfaces will S4S)
usually reflect the degree of care and skill used in the design
and construction of the forms and falsework. Unsatisfactory Rough timber - lumber which has not been dressed but has
concrete construction due to faulty form and falsework design been sawn to the extent of showing saw marks on the full
or construction is very difficult to correct after the concrete is width of each of the 4 faces, also described as full sawn
cast. In an extreme case, the result of a faulty design or lumber.
careless workmanship on the forms and falsework could lead
to their collapse during construction operations, with serious Sized lumber - lumber, either rough or dressed, which is
consequences. The Department, by its Specifications, has prepared in standard dimension increments, with a plus and
placed certain restrictions on the design and construction of minus tolerance assigned to each size.
forms and falsework. These restrictions do not prohibit the
Contractor from exercising ingenuity in the construction of Nominal dimensions - the cross-section dimensions of the
form details and the economical selection of materials. The piece in inches as a full sawn piece (dimension prior to
Specifications do provide guidelines for forms and falsework surfacing).
that should be safe and that will result in satisfactory concrete
lines and surfaces. B. Falsework Requirements

A. Definitions and Nomenclature Usually the need for falsework is self-evident; however,
bridge plans often require the construction of some concrete
Forms are those members (usually vertical) that are required to item at or below ground level which has no footing. Typical
maintain plastic concrete in its desired shape until it has set of these are:
up. Forms resist the fluid pressure of the plastic concrete, the
additional fluid pressure generated by mechanical vibration of 1. cantilevered wingwalls on the abutments,
the concrete and the impact of placing the concrete in the 2. tie beams between concrete walls or between footings,
forms. Forms may be stripped when the concrete is set up and 3. high abutment side walls (or curtain walls) as on box type
its fluid pressure is reduced to zero. abutments.

Falsework is the supporting framework required to maintain a Judgment must then be exercised as to whether the existing
concrete unit in the desired position (when it cannot be soil can adequately support the weight of the concrete without
supported directly on the ground, as a footing or on previously settlement, or if falsework support is necessary. (Note, the
cast concrete) until the concrete is strong enough to carry its falsework referred to is in addition to that which is used to
own dead weight. Falsework must be strong enough to carry hold sheathing to shape the lower concrete surface, as on the
its own dead weight, the dead weight of the forms and bottom of most abutment wingwalls.)
concrete and the live load of construction crews and their
equipment. Wingwalls and tie beams can normally be formed directly on
the underlying soil, providing that the soil is stable and well
Sheathing used on the underside of a concrete unit, such as compacted. (Beware of plastic soils that will become unstable
sheathing under deck slabs or pier caps, serves the dual with rain.) However, the higher abutment sidewalls will
purpose of a form and a falsework member but, for design, is usually require falsework and falsework piling when the
classified as a falsework member, as the dead weight of the underlying material is not rock.
concrete plus live load is used in the design loading rather than
the fluid concrete pressure. Specific falsework requirements are given in Specifications
2401.3B4. For certain structures, the special provisions will
Common terminology for members of a falsework pile bent contain requirements for falsework plans and construction.
and for a typical form system are shown on Figure A 5- These requirements are in addition to those contained in
393.201. In addition, the following nomenclature will be used construction specifications and this Manual.
in this manual when referring to form lumber:
Forms must be used on all vertical or battered surfaces except
Side = wider face }regardless of how the piece is positioned the portions of footings that extend into solid rock. Casting
Edge = narrower face} concrete against an earth face will not be permitted (see
Specifications 2401.3B). One exception to the above is that
5-393.201 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

the 1 inch radius required at the front face of sidewalks can function as intended. See Section 5-393.202 for more
normally be shaped with a 1 inch radius edger. However, the information.
3 inch radius required at the front face of 6 inch high curbs
must normally be shaped by a form built to the specified A continuing inspection should be made during placement of
radius since hand shaping of this radius is seldom performed form and falsework members to assure conformance with
satisfactorily. approved plans (if used), to assure structural soundness and
accuracy, and to minimize the need for last minute corrections.
C. Contractor Responsibilities This inspection is discussed in more detail in Section
5-393.208.
The Contractor is responsible for the design of all falsework
and forms and shall submit detailed plans of the proposed Concrete pours are to be made in accordance with approved
falsework and form construction to the Engineer on request pour sequences. Where approval of pour sequences is not
(see Specifications 1502 and 2401.3B). In accordance with required, pours should be with the form or falsework design
these Specifications, all working drawings are subject to and should provide balanced loading to the extent possible. A
review and approval or rejection by the Engineer prior to follow-up inspection during and after concrete placement
performance of the work involved. should be made to assure that the forms and/or falsework
function as intended with regard to deflections, tolerances, etc.
When trying new or untried devices or systems for falsework
and/or forms and when using materials with unknown strength
properties, it is the Contractors responsibility to verify to the
Engineers satisfaction the strength and safety of the device or
system and the workability of the device or system as related
to the desired end product. This verification has in the past
been provided in the form of (a) full scale field tests, (b) tests
by a reputable testing laboratory, (c) certified design
calculations, (d) manufacturers literature, or a combination of
the above items.

The Contractor is responsible for constructing the falsework


and forms in reasonably close conformity with the approved
falsework plans.

D. Engineer's (Inspector's) Responsibilities

When falsework and/or form plans are requested by the


Engineer or required by the Contract, these plans should be
reviewed for acceptability as to strength, method of
construction, safety, potential problems, and ability to produce
the desired finished product. Approval to use such plans
should be noted as being approved as to type of construction
and should also bear a note that such acceptance is conditional
to making changes which the Engineer has noted thereon.
When evaluating a new or untried device or system, approval
(if given) should be given only on a performance basis. Such
approval of plans does not relieve the Contractor of
responsibility for results obtained by use of the plans (see
Specifications 1502 and Specifications 2401.3B).

For certain types of structures, a review by the Contractor's


engineer is required prior to acceptance of the completed
falsework. The inspector should be present during this review
and no use of the falsework should be permitted until this
engineer has completed the review and authorized use
(normally a written certification is provided).

Check the material that will be used for forms and falsework
for agreement with sizes, shapes and qualities shown on the
Contractors plans. If not in conformance with approved
plans, the material must be evaluated as to its ability to
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.201

Bridging Sheathing Stringers


Pile cut off
Pile cap

Drift bolts Pile cap


splice point
Corbel

Posts or piles Sway


braces

Bolt, nut
and washers

TYPICAL FALSEWORK PILE BENT

Concrete strike-off elevation Upper plate

Chamfer strip

Strongback
Wood spreader

Waler Form bolt


(tie bolt)
(tie rod)

Sheathing or form lining


Stud backed with sheathing

Tie plate (washer) Tie cone

Lower plate

CROSS SECTION OF VERTICAL FORMS


5-393.201 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Symbols and Units

The following symbols and abbreviations will apply to forms and falsework:

psi = pounds per square inch


psf = pounds per square foot
pcf = pounds per cubic foot

Symbol Description Units

A area in.2

B width of beam inches

h depth of beam inches

t thickness of web for steel member inches

w uniform load per foot of length lb/lin.ft

d least dimension of a column inches

D diameter inches

length (center to center of supports for beam spans; unsupported length for columns) inches

E modulus of elasticity psi

I moment on inertia in.4

c distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber inches

S section modulus in.3

r least radius of gyration (for steel columns) inches

P concentrated load lb

p lateral pressure of concrete psf

R reaction at beam support lb

R1 rate or pour for concrete ft/hour

T concrete temperature in Fahrenheit at time of placement F

v shear stress psi

V shearing force lb

V1 the vertical force causing horizontal shear in a timber beam lb

M external bending moment inch lb

f stress in member psi

H maximum horizontal shear stress in timber beams psi

deflection inches
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (1)

5-393.202 FORM AND FALSEWORK MATERIALS

Form and falsework materials described below are listed with either an allowable maximum working stress or a basis for
determining safe load.

Working stresses, when shown, are based on use of sound material for temporary construction.

In general, used material is permitted, provided it is in good condition.

The material requirements for falsework piling are stated in Specifications 2401.3B. Maximum allowable pile loads are as
follows:

Size of Dia. At Timber (tons) Steel Steel


Cut-Off (inches) Friction (tons) Point Bearing (tons)
Butts smaller than 8 in. are not permitted
8 16 16 9000 lb per sqare inch of
10 20 20 point area (or least cross-
12 24 24 sectional area of the pile)
14 28 28
16 32

General requirements for lumber for falsework and forms are specified in Specifications 2401.3B1c. In addition to these general
requirements, it is specifically recommended that material used for studs and walers be sized and dressed to at least S2E to
provide for true concrete lines.

Lumber that must withstand stress should be checked for conformance with the appropriate allowable stresses shown in the table
of Allowable Working Stresses for Design of Wood Forms and Falsework in this section.

The following notes apply to use of this table:

1. NEW LUMBER -Each piece of graded lumber is stamped. On new material, information as to timber species and grade or
stress rating can be obtained from this stamp for use with the allowable stress table in this section of the manual.

2. USED LUMBER -In the event the mill stamp is missing or eradicated, the species and grade or stress rating must either be
determined by visual examination or judgement or an assumed identification must be applied. In case of uncertainty, assume
Norway Pine common structural grade to be on the safe side.

3. Regardless of whether new or used lumber will be used, a visual check should be made of stressed members with the
following consideration in mind:

Any reduction in section in or near the middle 1/3 of the length of a beam reduces the capacity to resist bending. Such reduction
in section could be a damaged area, large knots, notches, or holes in the upper or lower 1/3 of the section. If such pieces are used
for beams, only the sound portion of the section can be considered as effective for calculating stresses.

Notches or reduction in beam depth near the support point will reduce the beams capacity to resist horizontal shear. Special
calculations are necessary to determine the horizontal shear stress when such pieces are used (see Section 5-393.204).

When forms or falsework are constructed of used material which is judged to be not equal in strength to sound material, the
allowable stresses in the table should be reduced by an appropriate amount.

The allowable stresses and modulus of elasticity (E) values listed in the chart below are in accordance with the recommendations
of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. A 25% stress increase has been included in these values (except E
values) in view of the anticipated short time loading. Stresses for species or grades not listed below should be obtained from the
Office of Bridges and Structures and conform to AASHTO Specifications.
5-393.202 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES


FOR DESIGN OF WOOD FORMS AND FALSEWORK

Max. Allowable Fiber Stress, psi


Species and Commercial Size Horizontal Side End* Modulus of
grade Classification Bending Shear Bearing Bearing Elasticity, E, psi
Douglas Fir - larch,
No. 1 2 to 4 in. thick 1875 120 480 1562* 1,800,000
Southern Pine, No. 1 4 in. thick 1812 112 506 1562* 1,700,000
No. 2 1500 112 506 1250* 1,600,000

*The strength of a wood column is dependent on its /d ratio, which must not exceed 50. The allowable stress in a wood column
will be either

1. f = the allowable end bearing stress listed in this section for the wood species used

0.30 E
2. f = 2
d = dimension of least side of column
l

d

Use whichever allowable stress value is smallest.

The maximum allowable compression stress for Douglas Fir columns and Norway Pine columns (as determined by the above
criteria) may be obtained from the graph below.

Douglas Fir-Larch
1500
1562 psi
d

Red Pine
1000
1030 psi
Allowable No
compressive .1
stress for Gr
columns, psi No ad
.1 e
Gr
ade
500
R

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
R/d

3. For convenience in making calculations involving dimension lumber, a tabulation of standard lumber sizes and their
respective properties has been included in Figure A 5-393.202.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (3)

General requirements for plywood sheathing are specified in


Specifications 2401.3B. The plywood sheathing most
commonly used is Douglas Fir Associations Exterior
Plyform, which is available in two strength varieties known
as Class I and Class II. Both Classes are fabricated using
exterior glue and have sanded grade B face plies.

New panels of plyform can be identified by the following


trademark stamped on the panels:
Plywood used the strong way
(Face ply grains are perpendicular to supports)
B-B PLYFORM
The data in Figure B 5-393.202 may be used for quickly
determining the safe spacing of studs or joists using Plyform
CLASS I Class I or Plyform Class II under two different loading
EXTERIOR conditions. These charts are recommended by the American
PS 1-66 000
Plywood Association. The applicable allowable stress values
for bending and horizontal shear are shown for each situation.
B-B PLYFORM
When the brand name or grade stamp is visible on the
plywood being used, the requirements of Specifications
2401.3B can be quickly verified. When no grade stamp is
CLASS II visible, it is the Contractors responsibility to verify to the
EXTERIOR satisfaction of the inspector that concrete form grade plywood
PS 1-66 000
has been furnished.

When it is determined that form grade plywood has been


furnished but the specific Class of plywood is unknown, the
following limiting stress values will apply:
In considering the bending strength, shearing strength, or
deflection of a panel, only those plies have their grain Maximum allowable bending stress = 1,500 psi
perpendicular to the supporting joist or stud are assumed to be Maximum allowable shear stress = 70 psi
stressed. The safe span length is therefore dependent not only
on whether Class I or Class II Plyform is used but also on Modules of Elasticity = 1,600,000 psi
whether the grain of the face plies runs across supports
(perpendicular to the joist or stud), or parallel to supports Maximum allowable bearing stress at
(parallel to the joists or stud). right angle to the plane of the plywood = 285 psi

Plywood used the weak way


(Face ply grains are parallel to supports)
5-393.202 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Plywood section properties, which will be necessary for checking stresses when not using the plyform charts, are tabulated below:

EFFECTIVE SECTION PROPERTIES FOR PLYWOOD (12-IN. WIDTHS)*

Sanded Number Effective 12-in. width, used with face grain perpendicular to 12-in. width used with face grain parallel to
plywood, of plies thickness supports supports
net for shear
thickness, all
inc. grades,
using Area for Moment Effective Rolling Area for Moment Effective Rolling
exterior tension and of inertia section shear tension and of inertia section shear
glue compression I (in.4) modulus constant compression I (in.4) modulus constant
(in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.) (in.2) S (in.3) I/Q (in.)

1/4 3 0.241 1.680 0.013 0.091 0.179 0.600 0.001 0.016 -


3/8 3 0.305 1.680 0.040 0.181 0.309 1.050 0.004 0.044 -
1/2 5 0.450 2.400 0.080 0.271 0.436 1.200 0.016 0.096 0.215
5/8 5 0.508 2.407 0.133 0.360 0.557 1.457 0.040 0.178 0.315
3/4 5 0.567 2.778 0.201 0.456 0.687 2.200 0.088 0.305 0.393
7/8 7 0.711 2.837 0.301 0.585 0.704 2.893 0.145 0.413 0.531
1 7 0.769 3.600 0.431 0.733 0.763 3.323 0.234 0.568 0.632
1 1/8 7 0.825 3.829 0.566 0.855 0.849 3.307 0.334 0.702 0.748

Information from "Plywood Design Specification", American Plywood Association, Tacoma, Washington. Use listed S values in
bending calculations, and use I only in deflection calculations.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (5)

The reuse of plywood sheathing will be dependent on its The increasing use of special devices, (made of material other
condition with respect to damage due to prior use, amount of than wood) for forms and falsework has, in general, resulted in
permanent set from prior use, amount of face ply separation, a speed-up of work as well as improved quality of work.
and the nature of the concrete surface being formed (exposed However, there is usually a degree of uncertainty about each
or not exposed, etc.). Plywood that is no longer suitable for its new device until it is proven in use. A partial listing of
intended purpose must be rejected. devices which have been used both successfully, and in some
instances unsuccessfully, is as follows:
Form lining requirements both as to material and usage, are
specified in detail in Specifications 2401.3B. Forms 1. Wall Form Panels
incorporating form lining backed by sheathing will be used The form panels referred to are the mass produced brand
rarely except in the case of architectural treatment of concrete name form sections (constructed either of steel or steel
surfaces. In situations like this, special form lining material and wood) which are produced in small segments so as to
requirements will usually be specified in the contract. be adaptable to a variety of concrete shapes and a variety
of types of construction. Past experience with certain
When angles, channels, wide flange beams, H-piles or other brands of these form panels resulted in the
rolled shapes are used in critical portions of the falsework, the recommendation that form panel construction should not
section should be identified by making measurements of the be permitted for concrete exposed to view. The reason
depth, width and thickness. These dimensions can then be for dissatisfaction on the work referred to was as follows:
used to identify the member further by referring to the AISC
Steel Construction Manual, where all standard rolled sections a. Objectionable offsets existed at abutting panel edges.
are listed along with their dimensions, weights and the
necessary design properties. Since this material cannot be b. There were an excessive number of joints. (The
visually identified as to grade of steel, the following allowable frequency of panel joints should generally be no
stress limits should be assumed, unless the Contractor greater than in conventional plywood-form
furnishes satisfactory assurance that the steel is of a higher construction.)
grade.
c. After being reused a number of times, permanent set
Rolled Steel Shapes (Assume ASTM A36 Steel) (permanent deflection) in the panels became
Maximum allowable bending stress 25000 psi excessive.
*Maximum allowable compression stress (columns) =
d. Adequate provisions were not made for overall
KL
2 alignment of the form work nor for providing mortar-
16,980 - 0.53 x tight joints.
r

Only a form panel system which adequately overcomes


L = unsupported length these objections with respect to appearances can be
K = 1.0 for pinned ends considered for use on concrete surfaces exposed to view.
r = governing radius of gyration
Design of the forms, with respect to size and spacing of
L
* must not exceed 120. members, is normally furnished by the manufacturer
r either as part of the advertising literature or as a special
design for the job along with a safe rate of pour for
The values listed above will be sufficient for checking most concrete in the form system. These should be carefully
falsework problems involving rolled steel members. Any adhered to.
additional design considerations (as for steel falsework trusses
and other special cases) should conform to the provisions of 2. Circular Column Forms
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Specific requirements for circular column forms are stated
as required in Specifications 2401.3B. in Specification 2401.3B. Such forms have been
fabricated of steel, fiberglass and paper or other fibers and
When used material is to be incorporated into the work, the all have been used with varying degrees of success.
extent of damage (caused by previous usage) and corrosion
should be evaluated. If corrosion is determined to have Since some circular forms can be damaged through
reduced the net thickness of a section, it is allowed to use the mishandling or improper storage, it is necessary to check
section properties of a rolled shape in the AISC manual with the roundness and smoothness when making a judgment
thickness dimensions compared to those of the intact material. as to acceptability of each individual form. The form
diameter on any axis should not be more than 1/2 inch
Additional requirements for structural shapes are given in under the specified diameter. This requirement is to
Specifications 2401.3B. assure proper cover on the column reinforcement. (Dents
in paper tubes are normally not so critical since concrete
5-393.202 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

pressures during filling will round out the tubes. a. Adjustable Steel Posts (See Figure C and D 5-
Flattened or elliptical tubes will not be perfectly round 393.202, types 4 and 5.)
when filled with concrete).
This system basically replaces the wood legs of the
Reusable steel forms are susceptible to damage in the wooden "horse" system with adjustable steel posts.
form of small dents and kinks. These result in unsightly These posts are normally supported on wood joists
dimples on the concrete surface. Repair of such forms spanning between the bottom flanges of adjacent
should normally be requested prior to permitting their use. beams. The strength of the system will normally be
In addition, abutting panels should be adjusted so as to controlled by the wood members in the system.
eliminate offsets at panel joints. If they have been
overpoured in the past, the face panels may be stretched. b. Steel Hangers (See Figure C and D 5-393.202, types
Straight edge for acceptability. 2, 3 and 6.)
This is basically a hardware item which is laid
Due to the possibility of very fast rates of concrete transversely across the top flange of the beam to
placement in column forms, the pressure at the bottom of receive a vertical bolt on either side of the flange.
the form can be extremely high. Fasteners for the vertical The bolt in turn supports the main falsework member.
form-joint on segmental forms (such as on steel or
fiberglass column forms) can readily be checked for Balanced loading of the two sides of the hanger
ability to withstand these pressures. (NOTE: These forms (simultaneous loading of both bolts) is important in
usually provide for a variable number of bolts or pins in the early stage of falsework construction unless
this joint.) measures are taken to hold the hangers in place.
Welding of these hangers to the shear connectors is a
Since circular paper or fibre forms are commercially permissible method of hold down; however, welding
mass-produced in several strength grades, the adequacy of to the beam flange is not permitted.
their design for a specific case will normally be
determined by checking the manufacturers literature. Safe working loads for steel hangers are listed in the
Note carefully whether this literature lists a safe loading manufacturers literature.
or a failure loading (or bursting pressure). When only the
bursting pressure is given, a safety factor must be applied c. Steel Bar Joints (See Figure D 5-393.202, Type 7.)
to determine a safe load. Normally a safety factor of 2 This is a steel falsework beam which can be adjusted
will be adequate. to a variety of lengths. Load capacity, allowable
spacing and deflection data are available from the
If paper tubes have become wet prior to use, they should manufacturers literature which should be used for
be inspected for weak areas in advance of concrete checking the system.
placement. Paper tubes should also be checked to assure
that no conspicuous seam ridges are present on the inside Such steel bar joists have been used as joists to
surface since these cause objectionable spiral ridges on support longitudinal falsework stringers and also
the finished concrete surface. used at closer spacing with the sheathing placed
directly on them. In the event the latter system is
3. Friction Collars For Pier Caps used, no wood nailer is available to hold down the
Friction collars for pier caps are steel devices which are sheathing and a system of wire ties or some other
clamped around the top of circular concrete columns to approved method of hold down is necessary.
support the pier cap falsework and pier cap concrete.
Serious failures have resulted because of inattention to the Precautions must be taken to allow for residual
placement of these collars. Since the entire falsework in camber in this type of falsework system. The amount
this case is dependent on the stability of the collar, the of residual camber anticipated after placement of the
tightening of the collars must be properly performed. The concrete should be determined (by field tests if
collars must be level to assure full bearing on the necessary) and adequate allowance made in setting
concrete. Manufacturers literature should be used to stool heights to obtain the specified slab thickness.
determine the necessary bolt tension. In addition, the
total applied vertical load must not exceed the safe load d. Corrugated Steel Forms
specified in the manufacturers literature. Corrugated Steel Forms are commercially mass-
produced corrugated sheet metal forms for the bottom
4. Slab Falsework - Interior Bays of the slab which require no additional supporting
Several types of slab falsework other than the all-wood falsework.
type which have been successfully used by contractors are
as follows: Each unit spans transversely from beam to beam on
the bridge and acts in the capacity of a complete
structural entity of falsework and sheathing. These
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.202 (7)

units are galvanized and are normally intended to For either bracket, when unusual loading conditions are
remain in place at completion of the work. Safe encountered, a full scale field test is recommended. An
loads and deflections for each size of member are overload should be applied to assure that there is a safety
available in the manufacturers literature. factor.

Under the current policy, this type of falsework is not Since cantilever brackets tend to rotate the fascia beam
permitted unless specifically indicated in the Special (push the bottom flange inward), special bracing
Provisions. precautions, as specified in Specification 2401.3B4, are
occasionally necessary. For beams depths of 24 in. or
5. Slab Overhang Falsework less, the difficulty of obtaining good concrete lines
Several types of slab overhang falsework (other than the increases when this type of overhang falsework is used
all-wood type) that have been successfully used by and serious consideration should be given to the use of
contractors are steel hangers, which have been previously needle beams as shown in Type 1, Figure C 5-393.202.
discussed, and Steel Overhang Brackets.
6. Tubular Steel Scaffolding
Typical application of steel overhang brackets is shown in The basic components of Tubular Steel Scaffolding
Figures C and D 5-393.202, Types 3, 4, 5 and 6. Shoring as shown by the following picture are end frames
of various designs and dimensions which are assembled
Details and design data pertaining to two commonly used with diagonal bracing and lock clamps. Vertical
overhang brackets (Capitol and Superior) are given in adjustments are made by adjustable jacks either at the
Figures E and F 5-393.202. It is intended that spacing bottom or top of the frames. Frames are normally fitted
and deflection of these brackets be determined by these either with flat top plates or U-heads for supporting the
details as furnished by the manufacturer. However, falsework and forms.
several precautions must be observed as described below.
These towers are rated by the load carrying capacity of
Information for the Capitol brackets states that the either one leg or of one frame (two legs). The
brackets should be spaced at 6'0" centers. However, manufacturers rated capacity should not be exceeded.
experience has shown that the 6'0" spacing must be
reduced under certain conditions. For example, when the Adequate rigid bracing involving several units of steel
strike-off rails are placed on top of the coping forms or shoring should be provided. Full bearing for the base
when a very wide slab overhang is specified in the plans, plates should be provided, such as being set in fresh
a much higher load is applied to each bracket unless this mortar pads when resting on rock-like formations.
spacing is reduced. Mudsills placed on yielding earth should not be permitted
for supports.
When installing Capitol brackets, the 2" x 4" member
U-Head or other framing
placed in the top horizontal member of the bracket must
be firmly seated and the hanger chain must be tight. Cross braces
Poorly aligned concrete surfaces have resulted when
seating occurred during concrete placement.
Lock for
The influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202 for checking braces
the Superior brackets may be used with a variety of
loading conditions. The actual load in the critical End frames
members can be determined by use of this chart and joined here
checked against the safe working loads shown on the
Figure.

A wood filler block is required when using these brackets


on prestressed concrete girders. This filler must be varied
as necessary to provide a bearing surface on the beam at
the end of the top horizontal member and at the end of the
diagonal member. The filler should not bear on the
End frames Adjustable jacks
vertical member of the Superior bracket.

The deflection graphs given for each of these brackets 7. Void Tubes For Voided Slab Spans
should be used only as a guide since the graphs apply Void tubes for voided slab spans are similar to the fibre
only to the specific loadings pictured on the tubes used for column forms except that galvanized steel
manufacturers details. tubes are also permitted. The circumferential crushing
pressure and straight crushing pressure of these tubes will
5-393.202 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

normally be listed in the manufacturers literature. When In this event, the safe load may be set by determining the
checking stresses, it is necessary to determine if the cross-sectional area of the member and the yield point of the
manufacturer has listed a safe pressure or a failure steel by tension test in the laboratory. The applied load should
pressure. not exceed 70% of the yield strength of the device. NOTE:
the yield point of the steel (psi) is not the same as the yield
Since stress in the void tube is very high at the tie-down strength of a particular bar. On portions of the structure
straps, a careful visual inspection is necessary at this exposed to view, form bolts must be so designed that all metal
location. Wetting of paper tubes can result in isolated can be removed to a depth of not less than 1 inch from the
weak spots where the waterproof coating has been concrete surface. Tie wires may be used only in locations
scratched or damaged and the water has penetrated into where they will not extend through surfaces exposed to view
the paper or fibre layers. Such pieces should be rejected in the finished work.
unless they can be satisfactorily reinforced.
The hardware used to secure form bolts against the forms is
Void tubes must be mortar tight. When several lengths of usually reusable. This hardware is normally designed to be
tube are necessary to make up the length of void shown in stronger than the portion of the device that remains in the
the Plans, each segment of tube should have sealed ends. concrete and, therefore, will not be the limiting strength factor
Butting tube ends together and taping around the in the form tie.
perimeter of the joint will normally not be acceptable
since deformation of one of the joined tubes during Crimp ties or snap ties are wire form ties with a notch or
concrete placement would likely rupture a taped splice. reduced cross-section at the point of break-back. These ties
are not reusable. After the concrete is set, the portion of the
Information pertaining to nails and spikes are located on wire which extends outside of the concrete surface is twisted
Figure H and I 5-393.202. off and removed. A washer is sometimes welded to the wire
at the face of the form to act as a form spreader. On concrete
General requirements governing bolts or form ties are given in surfaces exposed to view, a cone should be used in place of
Specifications 2401.3B. One specific provision is that a major the washer since satisfactory patching of the shallow
portion of the device must remain permanently in the concrete. depression left by the washer is very difficult.
Several types of commercially available form ties meeting this
description are shown below. Because these ties do not always break off at the intended
point, but sometimes break instead at the face of the concrete,
Normally the manufacturers literature will list the safe load plus the fact that they do not provide a rigid member for
that may be applied. However, when the load capacity is support of the workcrew, they are not recommended for use on
questionable or unknown, laboratory tests will be necessary to heavy construction. Their use is primarily restricted to light
determine the safe load. work such as box culverts, etc.

CONE NUTS AND INSIDE THREADED RODS

Coil bolt

Washer
COIL TYPE TIE WITH CONE SPREADER
Wedge shaped holder

CRIMPED TIE WITH DISCONNECTING ENDS


Nut washer or May have hole for
other locking unit nailing to stud

PLAIN TIE WITH SHE-BOLT DISCONNECTING ENDS


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.202

DESIGN PROPERTIES FOR AMERICAN STANDARD LUMBER SIZES


load
MOMENT OF INERTIA SECTION MODULUS
NOMINAL PROPERTIES OF DRESSED SIZES 3 2
SIZE (S4S) I = bh bh inches3
4
h 12 inches S = 6
b
b h b h Area Weight
(in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) =bxh lb / lin. ft. S4S Full Sawn S4S Full Sawn

1 11 1/4 3/4 8.44 2.3 0.40 1.00 1.05 2.00


1 1/4 1 11.25 3.1 0.94 1.95 1.88 3.13
1 1/2 1 1/4 14.06 3.9 1.83 3.38 2.93 4.50
2 1 1/2 16.88 4.7 3.16 8.00 4.22 8.00
4 1 1/2 3 1/2 5.25 1.5 5.36 10.67 3.06 5.33
6 5 1/2 8.25 2.3 20.80 36.00 7.56 12.00
8 7 1/4 10.88 3.0 47.63 85.33 13.14 21.33
10 9 1/4 13.88 3.9 98.93 166.67 21.39 33.33
12 11 1/4 16.88 4.7 177.98 288.00 31.64 48.00
14 13 1/4 19.88 5.5 290.78 457.33 43.89 65.33
4 2 1/2 3 1/2 8.75 2.4 8.93 16.00 5.10 8.00
6 5 1/2 13.75 3.8 34.66 54.00 12.60 18.00
8 7 1/4 18.13 5.0 79.39 128.00 21.90 32.00
10 9 1/4 23.13 6.4 164.89 250.00 35.65 50.00
12 11 1/4 28.13 7.8 296.63 432.00 52.73 72.00
14 13 1/4 33.13 9.2 484.62 686.00 73.15 98.00
4 3 1/2 3 1/2 12.25 3.4 12.51 21.33 7.15 10.67
6 5 1/2 19.25 5.3 48.53 72.00 17.65 24.00
8 7 1/4 25.38 7.0 111.15 170.67 30.66 42.67
10 9 1/4 32.38 9.0 230.84 333.33 49.91 66.67
12 11 1/4 39.38 10.9 415.28 576.00 73.83 96.00
14 13 1/4 46.38 12.9 678.48 914.67 102.41 130.67
16 15 1/4 53.38 14.8 1034.42 1365.33 135.66 170.67
6 5 1/2 5 1/2 30.25 8.4 76.26 108.00 27.73 36.00
8 7 1/4 39.88 11.1 174.66 256.00 48.18 64.00
10 9 1/4 50.88 14.1 362.75 500.00 78.43 100.00
12 11 1/4 61.88 17.2 652.59 864.00 116.02 144.00
14 13 1/4 72.88 20.2 1066.18 1372.00 160.93 196.00
16 15 1/4 83.88 23.3 1625.51 2048.00 213.18 256.00
6 7 1/4 5 1/2 39.88 11.1 100.52 144.00 36.55 48.00
8 7 1/4 52.56 14.6 230.23 341.33 63.51 85.33
10 9 1/4 67.06 18.6 478.17 666.67 103.39 133.33
12 11 1/4 81.56 22.7 860.23 1152.00 152.93 192.00
14 13 1/4 96.06 26.7 1405.41 1829.33 212.14 261.33
16 15 1/4 110.56 30.7 2142.72 2730.67 281.01 341.33
6 9 1/4 5 1/2 50.88 14.1 128.25 180.00 46.64 60.00
8 7 1/4 67.06 18.6 293.75 426.67 81.03 106.67
10 9 1/4 85.56 23.8 610.08 833.33 131.91 166.67
12 11 1/4 104.06 28.9 1097.53 1440.00 195.12 240.00
14 13 1/4 133.56 34.0 1793.11 2286.67 270.66 326.67
16 15 1/4 141.06 39.2 2733.82 3413.33 358.53 426.67
6 11 1/4 5 1/2 61.88 17.2 155.98 216.00 56.72 72.00
8 7 1/4 81.56 22.7 357.26 512.00 98.55 128.00
10 9 1/4 104.06 28.9 741.99 1000.00 160.43 200.00
12 11 1/4 126.56 35.2 1334.84 1728.00 237.30 288.00
14 13 1/4 149.06 41.4 2180.82 2744.00 329.18 392.00
16 15 1/4 171.56 47.7 3324.92 4096.00 436.05 512.00
Figure B 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

PLYWOOD SHEATHING FOR CONCRETE FORMS

PLYFORM CLASS I
FACE GRAIN ACROSS SUPPORTS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS

Panels continuous
1400 1400 across two or more
Panels continuous across two or more spans
spans
Shear stress
1200 Shear stress of 75 psi 1200 of 70 psi
CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf


Flexure stress of 2000 psi Flexure stress
1000 1000 of 1700 psi
Average panel deflection of 1/270th Average panel
of span deflection of
800 800 1/270th of span

1-1/8
600 600

400 400 1
1-1/8 7/8
1
200 7/8 200 3/4
3/4
5/8 5/8
0 0
0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24 1/2
Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,
inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)

PLYFORM CLASS II
FACE GRAIN ACROSS SUPPORTS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS
1400 Panels continuous
Panels continuous across two or more 1400 across two or more
spans spans
1200 Shear stress of 70 psi Shear stress
1200 of 70 psi
CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

Flexure stress of 1500 psi


CONCRETE PRESSURE, psf

Flexure stress
1000 of 1500 psi
Average panel deflection of 1/270th 1000
of span Average panel
800 deflection of
1/270th of span
800
600
600
400
400
1-1/8 1-1/8
200 1
1
7/8 200 7/8
3/4 3/4
5/8 5/8
0 0 1/2
0 8 12 16 20 24 32 1/2 0 8 12 16 20 24
Stud or joist spacing, Stud or joist spacing,
inches. (center to center) inches. (center to center)
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure C 5-393.202

TYPICAL SLAB FALSEWORK DETAILS


Filler on top of each joist Sheathing Stringers

Joist
Joist
Posts under Cleat (preferably on both sides of each post)
each joist Posts under each joist
Wedges
Walk Runner Supporting bolts for needle beam

Needle beam

TYPE 1
Sheathing

Joist
Borg hanger
Bolt thru web

Wood overhang
bracket with Add struts as necessary
hanger support

TYPE 2

Hanger Stringers Hanger

Steel overhang
bracket with
hanger support Add struts as necessary

TYPE 3

Stringers

Bolt thru web


Steel overhang
bracket supported Adjustable steel posts
by bolt thru
beam web
Add wedges when strutting
of fascia is necessary (both ends)
TYPE 4
Figure D 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Sheathing Stringer Sheathing

Joist

Bolt anchorage
Adjustable steel posts

Steel overhang Support for steel posts


bracket supported
by bolt in
beam web TYPE 5

Sheathing Hanger Stringer Sheathing Hanger

Joist

Wood filler
as necesary
Steel overhang
bracket with
hanger support
TYPE 6

Sheathing

Joist
Overhang falsework
similar to type 5 or 6
Borg hanger

TYPE 7
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure E 5-393.202

11" for 36 " girder


13" for 42" girder
15-1/2" for 54" girder
2x4
2 x 6 for 36 " girder
9"
2 x 8 for 42" girder

For light beams


use a drive fit
brace as shown Adjustment 2
Adjustment 1

EOH
See anchor detail

Adjustable. Use max. AOH


that beam permits.
60" or 72" 1"
COH 7500
6-1/2" adjustable 22" Vertical
DOH 30"
Distance
22" 6000
Vertical
18"

Load - Lbs.
Distance
4500
Precast
BOH form
GENERAL DIMENSIONS 3000
ANCHOR DETAIL
Beam Precasting
1500

1" 01/2 1 1-1/2


Deflection Inches
LOAD DEFLECTION CURVE

ITEM DOH 1/4 x 2 Cap Screw


ITEM COH Plastic Cone ITEM BOH 3/4 x 3 Stud Tapped Reusable 4'-0"
Reusable

18"

Deflection taken as
shown above

ITEM EOH 3/4 x 3 Bolt


ITEM AOH Special Anchor
9600 Capacity @ 2000 psi concrete CAPITAL OVERHANG BRACKET
Pat. Applied for

CAPITAL ENGINEERING CO.


Figure F 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

DEFLECTION GRAPHS FOR


ADJUSTABLE BRIDGE OVERHANG BRACKET
(As produced by Superior Concrete Accessories Inc.)

A
SlotA

Ductile A 14" max.


SECTION A-A Coil wing
nut Coil rod

23"
9000 54"
Failure: Buckling
of Diagonal Member
7500
7100
Load (lbs)

6000
4500

3000
*

3 Point loading
1500 WF connection

0
0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25
Deflection (inches)

* LOAD is the total weight


of concrete and forms
applied on the bracket by
the stringers
Slot A

A
Ductile coil 14" max.
23"

wing nut
9000 54" Coil rod

7500
Failure: Buckling
Load (lbs)

6000 of Diagonal Member


4750
4500
Filler block
3000
*

3 Point loading 4 Bracket support points


1500
concrete beam connection against beam
0
0 .25 .50 .75 1.00 1.25
Deflection (inches)
Figure G 5-393.202

USE OF INFLUENCE LINES FOR OVERHANG BRACKET Joist spacing


These influence curves indicate the effect a unit joist load, at any point along
the horizontal member, has on other members of the bracket. Loads are 6" 12" 12"
cumulative depending upon the number of joists that are used. Note that the Joist loads 400 lbs. 500 lbs. 200 lbs.
influence factor (vertical axis) has two unit designations, one for the vertical "C" "B" "A"
member and one for the coil rod.
5.0
45 Coil rod and diagonal member: lbs/lb of applied load

4.0
BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

EXAMPLE
Determine load on 45 coil rod due to joist loads shown above.
INFLUENCE FACTOR

3.0 Joist "A" = (200 lb) (2.2) = 440


Joist "B" = (500 lb) (1.85) = 925
Joist "C" = (400 lb) (1.75) = 700
Total load on rod 2065 lb
A (Safe working load of rod 9000 lb)
2.0
B Rod
C Coil Loads on the diagonal member are determined in a similar
45 be
r
em manner.
M 2
al Area of diagonal member: 0.44 in. . Allowable load (lb) on
on
ag diagonal member 4733 lbs. Compare this allowable with actual
Di
1.0 load that is obtained from influence chart.
NOTE: Pres-steel hanger must also have a safe working load of 9000 lbs.
November 1, 2005

54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 0
Out board end NOTE: For use with Superior
JOIST LOCATIONS (Inches) brackets only.
of bracket
Figure H 5-393.202 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

SAFE LATERAL (SHEAR) LOADS ON NAILS AND SPIKES


Driven into the side grain of seasoned wood. Load applied in any lateral direction.

*SAFE LATERAL LOAD ON EACH, IN LBS TIMBER


At penetration in diameters noted for each group,
SIZE LENGTH DIAMETER into piece holding the point. SPECIES
PENNY (Note 1) D GROUPS
GROUP I GROUP II GROUP III GROUP IV
WEIGHT INCHES IN INCHES 10 x D 11 x D 13 x D 14 x D
COMMON NAILS (Flat Head, Diamond Point)
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. GROUP I
6d 2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Ash, Elm,
Maple, Oak
8d 2 1/2 0.131 129 104 86 68
10d 3 0.148 154 126 102 82
GROUP II
12d 3 1/4 0.148 154 126 102 82
Douglas Fir,
16d 3 1/2 0.162 176 142 118 93 Larch,
SPIKES (Countersunk Head Diamond Point) Southern
Note (1) Length overall Pine
10d 3 0.192 228 186 151 121
12d 3 1/4 0.192 228 186 151 121 GROUP III
16d 3 1/2 0.207 254 206 168 134 Hemlock,
DUPLEX HEAD NAILS (Heavy Double Head, Diamond Point) Red Pine
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point.
6d 1 3/4 0.113 104 84 68 54 GROUP IV
8d 2 1/4 0.131 129 104 86 68 Cedar,
10d 2 3/4 0.148 154 126 102 82 White &
16d 3 0.162 176 142 118 93 Balsam
20d 3 1/2 0.192 228 186 151 121 Fir,
30d 4 0.207 254 206 168 134 White
SMOOTH BOX NAILS (Large Flat Head, Diamond Point) Sugar
Note (1) Length from underside of head to tip of point. Ponderosa
6d 2 0.099 84 68 56 44 and Lodgepole
7d 2 1/4 0.099 84 68 56 44 Pines,
8d 2 1/2 0.113 104 84 68 54 Cottonwood,
10d 3 0.138 136 101 83 67 Spruce,
Yellow
Poplar
COOLERS (Flat Head, Diamond Point). SINKERS (Flat Countersunk Head,
Diamond Point) as per BOX NAILS except length overall is 1/8 less than shown.

When the penetration in nail or spike diameters is less than that shown in the above heading for each timber species group, but
at least equal to 1/3 of that shown in the heading, the safe load may be determined by straight line interpolation between zero and
the load tabulated above. For example, driven only 7 diameters into Group II timber species, the safe load would be only 7 / 11 of
the tabulated load. Driven less than 1/3 that shown in the above heading, the nail or spike should not be considered as capable of
carrying any lateral load. For example, for Group II timber species, the minimum penetration should be 11 / 3 or 3 2/3
diameters, at when penetration the safe load would be 1/3 of the tabulated load.

End distance, side distance and spacing to be such that unusual splitting of the wood is avoided: pieces to be in close contact.
Stagger nails, with fairly uniform spacing, along contact surface.

Basic Formulas: Safe Load = 1.33 x K x D 3/2 Group I : K = 2040, Group II : K = 1650
Group III : K = 1350, Group IV : K = 1080
Formulas may be used when nails other than diameters listed are used.

* Based on values given in Natl. Design Spec., Stress Grade Lbr. and Its Fastenings, recommended by the Natl. Lbr. Mfg.
Assoc. latest Edition. The values given in this publication, which are for normal load duration of 10 years have been increased
by 1/3 due to short duration of static load on falsework and high factor of safety against failure in the values.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure I 5-393.202

NAILS

The following diagram may be used as an aid in size identification of nails used in formwork.

60d 50d 40d 30d 20d 16d 12d 10d 9d 8d 7d 6d 5d 4d 3d 2d

COMMON NAILS - Flat Head Diamond Point

STOCK ITEMS
Length Gauge Diamond Approx.
Size
In. No. Head No. to Lb
2d 1 15 11/64 847
3d 1 1/4 14 13/64 543
4d 1 1/2 12 1/2 1/4 294
5d 1 3/4 12 1/2 1/4 254
6d 2 11 1/2 17/64 167
7d 2 1/4 11 1/2 17/64 150
8d 2 1/2 10 1/4 9/32 101
9d 2 3/4 10 1/4 9/32 92
10d 3 9 5/16 66
12d 3 1/4 9 5/16 61
16d 3 1/2 8 11/32 47
20d 4 6 13/32 29
30d 4 1/2 5 7/16 22
40d 5 4 15/32 17
50d 5 1/2 3 1/2 13
60d 6 2 17/32 10

Length from underside of head to tip of point.

Safe loads for nails shall conform to the values listed in Fig. H 5-393.202.
5-393.203 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.203 DEFLECTIONS AND ALIGNMENT deflection of the overhang falsework must not exceed 1/2
inch even though compensated for. When the main
Deflection will occur in any form or falsework member in overhang falsework support members (the overhang
which beam action is involved regardless of the design used or bracket, needle beam or equivalent) are spaced at less
the material of which the forms or falsework are constructed. than 48 inches, the anticipated deflection of these main
The surface and lines of the concrete being formed will reflect members must not exceed S/100, where S = member
these deflections. Such deflections may detract from the spacing in inches.
appearance of lines or surfaces which are exposed to view.
For this reason, a limit is placed on the amount of anticipated The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of
deflection of the form and falsework members which will be the Contractors form details with regard to deflection of
used for concrete exposed to view. structures that are exposed to view:

The anticipated deflection of the members involved should be 1. Deflection in any form member which acts as a beam
computed and checked against the allowable deflection should not exceed 1/270 of its span or 1/8 inch, whichever
described later in this section prior to approving a form or is least.
falsework system.
2. Concrete diaphragms for prestressed concrete girder spans
The dead loads and concrete pressures used to compute will normally not, for this purpose, be considered to be
deflections are the same as those used to check stresses in the exposed to view and their forms will not be subject to
member except that live load will normally not be included in deflection controls.
the deflection loading.
3. Except when used as pedestrian underpasses, the walls of
When it is anticipated that the allowable deflection will be box culverts will not be classified as concrete exposed to
exceeded, the size or spacing of the members must be view. Head walls and wings of box culverts, or the
modified. In lieu of such modification of the members, in projecting ends of interior walls of multiple opening box
certain cases it is possible to compensate for these deflections culverts, will be classified as concrete exposed to view.
during construction of the forms or falsework by use of profile
strips or wedging to induce reverse deflection equal in amount Forms for concrete surfaces that will be exposed to view must
to the computed deflection. Certain restrictions are placed on be so aligned and of sufficient stiffness that irregularities in
this practice of compensating for deflections which are any 10 foot length on the finished concrete surface will not
discussed below. exceed inch.

The following criteria will govern acceptance or rejection of When the Plans indicate that a bridge (or portions thereof) is
the Contractors falsework details with regard to deflection of to be constructed to a horizontal curve, the forms for edges of
structures that are exposed to view: slab, curbs, copings, medians and railings must be constructed
to their proper degree of curvature within a tolerance of 1/8
1. On concrete surfaces exposed to view the computed inch in 10 feet. Midordinates of 1/8 inch or more in 10 feet
deflection of any member shall not exceed 1/270 of its will occur with a degree of curvature of about 5Eor more. For
span or 1/4 inch, whichever is least, unless adequate a degree of curvature of less than 5E, concrete forms may be
provision is made to compensate for the deflection as was constructed on short chords along the intended curve line.
discussed above. (The 1/270 criteria will be applicable
for spans up to 67 inches.) It is intended that forms which can easily be placed to a
scribed line on the falsework or on previously placed concrete,
2. Between fascia beams, the falsework supporting the deck will be placed on the specified curved alignment. This would
slab will not be limited by the foregoing. In this area, a include forms for the edges of slabs, curbs and medians.
limiting cumulative deflection (deflection of sheathing
plus deflection of stringers plus deflection of joists, etc.) Forms for curved railings, however, cannot always be aligned
of inch should be applied. This limit is to avoid this easily. It is the intent of the Specification tolerance to
excessive addition of dead weight to the superstructure. permit rail construction on chords between railposts when the
curvature is small enough (5E or less) so that a chord
3. At locations of transverse construction joints in the construction would not be visually objectionable.
roadway slab, the falsework supporting the bulkhead must
be sufficiently strong to reduce the computed bulkhead No offsets should exist at abutting joints of sheathing or at
deflection to not more than 1/16 inch. abutting form panels.

4. Deflection of slab overhang falsework must normally be The variation from plumb or from the specified batter in the
compensated for by wedging or raising the edge of lines and surfaces of columns, piers and walls should not
overhang falsework by an amount equal to that of the exceed inch per 10 feet of height and, in any event, shall not
anticipated deflection. The anticipated cumulative exceed inch.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (1)

5-393.204 FORMULAS AND STANDARD LOADS term (R-2h) in place of R. This applies to both continuous and
simple spans.
Practically all falsework members act either as columns or as
beams. The internal stresses and the deflections in these V' based on loads in this area only
members due to the weight of the various construction loads
(weight of forms and falsework, weight of concrete, weight of
h h
equipment and workcrew, etc.) can be determined by standard h
methods of Engineering mechanics and compared to the
allowable stresses listed in Section 5-393.202 and the
allowable deflections listed in Section 5-393.203 to aid in
determining the acceptability of a proposed falsework system.
Typical examples of the calculations necessary for checking
the falsework systems are given in Sections 5-393.206 to
5-393.209. Concrete pressure on forms have formulas that are
recommended by ACI Committee 347. The formulas apply to
The following formulas will apply to falsework and form standard concrete weighing 150 pcf having a maximum slump
analysis: of 4 inches and internally vibrated during placement.

M For forms with rate of concrete placement not exceeding 7 feet


1. Flexure formula (bending stress) f = per hour, and for all column pours, the maximum lateral
S
pressure at a given point shall be equal to:
2. Direct stress formula
9000R1
P
a. p = 150 +
a. Direct tension stress f = T
A or b. p = 150h

P or c. p = 3000 psf
b. End bearing f =
A
Use whichever is least.
The allowable side bearing stress given in Section 5-
393.202 applies to bearing surfaces 6 inches or more in Note: R1 = rate of concrete placement per hour
length. For bearing surfaces less than 6 inches in length T = temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
and located 3 inches or more from the end of the timber,
the allowable working stress may be increased by a factor The forms with a rate of concrete placement exceeding 7 feet
of per hour, the maximum lateral pressure at a given point shall
l + 3/8 be equal to:
l
where R is the length in bearing. (For circular bearing 43400 2800R1
areas, R= diameter.) Figure A 5-393.204 lists safe side a. P = 150 + +
T T
bearing loads for several common form and falsework or b. p = 150h
details as derived from the above formula.
or c. p = 2000 psf
3. Shearing stress formulas
Use whichever is least.
V
a. Shear stress in steel members v =
th In the event that the above conditions do not apply (for
example, if a greater than 4 inch slump is to be used), or if
b. Shear stress in plywood, known as rolling shear other factors are involved such as the proposed use of a
V retarder, the actual concrete pressure will increase and
v =
( I / Q) b appropriate adjustment must be made in the calculated
NOTE: I/Q is known as the rolling shear constant and pressures. Vibration and depth of placement in layers should
is tabulated in Section 5-393.202 for the various conform to Specifications if these formulas are to be
thicknesses. applicable.

V
c. Horizontal shear stress in timber beams H = 1.5
bh
To simplify the calculation for determining VN, use the
appropriate beam formula for determining shear but insert the
Figure A 5-393.204 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

CONTACT AREAS AND ALLOWABLE STRESS (1) = CONTACT AREA SQ. IN.
INCREASE FACTORS FOR STUDS AND WALERS (2) = ALLOWABLE STRESS INCREASE
FACTOR
WIDTH OF ONE WALER
STUD
WIDTH 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4
1 1/2 (1) 4.50 6.00 7.50 9.00 10.50 12.00
(2) 1.25 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09

Waler
width
3/4" Min.
2 (1) 6.50 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00
(2) 1.19 1.19 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09
2 1/2 (1) 7.50 10.00 12.50 15.00 17.50 20.00 Bearing Area
(2) 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.11 1.09 Shown Hatched
Stud
3 (1) 9.00 12.00 15.00 18.00 21.00 24.00 width
(2) 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.11 1.09
NOTE: Allowable stress increase
3 1/2 (1) 10.50 14.00 17.50 21.00 24.50 28.00 factor = L+3/8 where L is the
(2) 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.09 L
length of bearing along grain.
4 (1) 12.00 16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 Use only if stud is less than 6"
(2) 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 and not nearer than 3"
from the end of a member
CONTACT AREAS AND ALLOWABLE STRESS Assume waler
INCREASE FACTORS FOR WALERS AND TIE PLATES @ 2" nominal width
L X Y CONTACT AREA ALLOWABLE STRESS
SQ. IN. INCREASE FACTOR
3 1/4" 3 3/4" 3/4" 9.75 1.12
5" 3 1/4" 3/4" 12.50 1.08 Y Tie plate
3 3/4" 3 1/2" 3/4" 10.31 1.10
3" *3 3/4" 3/4" 9.00 1.13
5" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.00 1.08
5 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 15.75 1.07
5 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 17.25 1.00 L
6" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.00 1.00
6 1/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 18.75 1.00
6 3/4" *3 3/4" 3/4" 20.25 1.00 1 1/2 1 1/2
5" 3 3/4" 1" 13.75 1.08
5" * 4" 1" 15.00 1.08 X
5 1/4" * 4" 1" 15.75 1.07
5 3/4" * 4" 1" 17.25 1.00
6" * 4" 1" 18.00 1.00 X + 3"
6 1/4" * 4" 1" 18.75 1.00
6 3/4" * 4" 1" 20.25 1.00
* or more

BEARING AREA IN SQ. IN. BETWEEN CAPS AND PILES OF VARIOUS SIZES Bearing
(Piles assumed circular) area shown
hatched
ACTUAL WIDTH OF CAP IN INCHES
6 7 1/2 8 9 1/2 10 11 1/2 12 13 1/2 14 Cap W/2
Dia. of Pile at Cut-off in Inches

14 81.4 99.7 105.6 121.9 127.0 140.4 144.2 152.7 153.9 width
13 1/2 78.2 95.8 101.3 116.7 121.4 133.6 136.9 143.1 sin 0 =
13 75.1 91.8 97.0 111.4 115.7 126.6 129.4 132.7 W/2
12 1/2 72.0 87.8 92.7 106.0 109.9 119.4 121.5 122.7 R
12 68.9 83.7 88.3 100.6 104.1 111.9 113.1 Area = (W) (h)
11 1/2 65.7 79.7 83.9 95.1 98.1 103.9
11 62.6 75.6 79.5 89.4 91.9 95.0 0 ) (M) (R)2
+ ( 90 Pile
10 1/2 59.4 71.4 75.0 83.6 85.5 86.6 diameter
10 56.2 67.2 70.4 77.5 78.5
9 1/2 52.9 62.9 65.7 70.9
9 49.7 58.6 60.8 63.6 NOTE: Bearing area at rt. end of
8 1/2 46.4 54.0 55.8 56.7 each line = area of pile at cut-off of
8 43.0 49.3 50.3 diameter shown at left. Use when
cap width equals or exceeds pile diameter.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.204 (2)

When the ends of a beam are notched, as shown below, the horizontal shear stress should be determined by use of the
accompanying formula. As shown by the formula, notching beams adds proportionately to the horizontal shear stress and
should be avoided.

he h

1
H = 1.5 V x h V = W
1

b(he) he 2 (L - 2he)
he

Beam
Support

Column deflection formula (elastic shortening)

PL
= AE

Beam Formulas - Reactions, Moments, Shears and Deflections.

max. R max. M max. V max.


a. Simple span - uniformly loaded
w
2 4
wL wL wL 5wL
2 8 2 384 EI
L

b. 2 continuous spans - uniformly loaded 2


w 3wL wL 3wL
3 R 1 = M3 = V1 = 3 =
8 14.2 8
2 4
5wL wL 5wL wL
1 L 2 L R 2 = M2 = V2 =
4 8 8 185 EI

c. 3 or more spans - uniformly loaded


2
w R 1 = 0.4 wL M 3 = 0.08 wL V 1 = 0.4 wL 3 =
3

4
0.0069 wL
1 L 2 L L R 2 = 1.1 wL M 2 = 0.10 wL2 V 2 = 0.6 wL
EI

d. Cantilever beam - uniformly loaded


w 2 =
2
wL
2 R 1 = wL M1 = V 1 = wL
2 4
wL
1 L 8 EI

A more complete listing of beam formulas for use with point loads or other load variations may be found in the AISC Steel Con-
struction Manual.
5-393.205 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The following loads and unit weights will be used in falsework analysis:
lumber - 40 pcf
steel - 490 pcf
plain concrete and
reinforced concrete - 150 pcf
construction live
load* - 50 psf on the
upper concrete
surface

*This live load is considered a minimum and must be increased where known concentrated loads may produce higher live loads
on the member. In addition, when a falsework platform extends outside of the concrete surface to provide working room, as for
most pier cap construction, the 50 psf live load should be applied to such walk space as well as to the upper concrete surface.

5-393.205 FALSEWORK DETAILS AND ANALYSIS

The inspector must be satisfied that the Contractors falsework plan or scheme is in conformance with the Specifications. A
common way to do this is to compute the maximum deflection and maximum stresses (bending, bearing, shear, etc) based on
plans of the proposed falsework and the assumed loading conditions. These computed stresses and deflections are then compared
with the allowable values. If the computed stress and deflection is less than or equal to the allowable value, the member qualifies
for use.

The examples of falsework investigation given in this section are presented as being representative of commonly used methods.
It is not intended that the Contractors methods be restricted to the details shown here. However, when it appears that unsafe or
improper methods are being used, these details may be suggested as a guide.

The American Concrete Institute recommends that three basic simplifications be used in checking forms and falsework. These
are as follows:

1. Beams such as joists, studs and walers should generally be assumed to be uniformly loaded with the exception of that when
only one or two point loads occur in a span then the assumption of uniform load should not be used.

2. Beams supported over three or more spans are regarded as continuous and the appropriate continuous beam formulas should
be used.

3. For beams continuous over two spans, design values for simple spans may be safely used except for reaction loads.

In the event that the results of the preliminary investigation of the falsework appear marginal, more exact methods should be used.
For very large members (falsework pier caps, etc.) more exact methods are recommended.

Formulas used in the following computations are found in Section 5-393.204. Allowable stresses are listed in Section 5-
393.202 and allowable deflections are listed in Section 5-393.203.

Particular attention should be given to writing the unit (inches, feet, pounds, etc.) with each number used in the calculations to
assure correct answers.

5-393.206 PIER CAP FALSEWORK EXAMPLE

A check of the pier cap falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.206 would require the following investigation:
(NOTE: items above plyform for bottom of pier cap in this figure will be checked in Section 5-393.206.)

1. Plyform for Bottom of Pier Cap


a. bending stress
b. rolling shear stress
c. deflection
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.206

EXAMPLE: PIER CAP FORMS AND FALSEWORK


A
37'-6"

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

A 2'-8" dia.

PIER ELEVATION

2'-10"

3/4" Plyform, Class I


2" x 4" @ 16" O.C.
10"

1/2" dia. coil bolt with 4"x5"


washer spaced @ 4'-0"
3'-8"

2'-2"

2 - 2" x 6" (walers)


2" x 4" Brace @
4' O.C. both sides
4' x 8' x 3/4" Plyform, Class I
8"

HP 12x53 x 40' long 2" - 6" x 10' Long @ 10" O.C.

Friction Collar

3'-10"
SECTION A-A
All lumber to be used material (species unknown)
5-393.206 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

2. Joists
a. bending stress
b. horizontal shear stress
c. bearing stress
d deflection

3. Main Support Beams (HP12x53)


a. bending stress
b. shear stress
c. deflection

4. Friction Collar
a. Check against manufacturers safe carrying capacity.
b. Tighten collar bolts to correct torque.

The necessary calculations corresponding to the above example items are as follows:

1. Plyform for bottom of pier cap


w
Determine applied uniform load, w:

concrete 3.67 ft x 150 lb/ft3 = 550 lb/ft2


3/4" 2"x6"
plywood .06 ft x 40 lb/ft 3
= 3 lb/ft 2
Plyform Joist

live load = 50 lb/ft2


10"
2
Total load w = 603 lb/ft

From the chart for Class I Plyform in Figure B 5-393.202 for face grain parallel to supports, for a concrete pressure of 603
psf, the maximum allowable stud spacing would be about 11 inches. Therefore, the proposed 10 inch spacing is safe. (Note
that the 8 foot panels must be parallel to the joists in this detail and, therefore, the grain of face plies will be parallel to the
joist.)

In lieu of using the chart (as when the class of plywood is unknown), the following calculations would be necessary:
(Assume 3 span continuous design conditions.)

M
a. Bending stress f = M = 0.10 wL2 = 0.1 x 603 lb/ft x (10 in.)2 x 1 ft/12 in.
S

= 503 in. lb

S = 0.305 in.3 [from Section 5-393.202]

503 in. lb
F= =1649 lb/in.2
0.305 in.3

This stress is higher than the allowable stress of 1500 psi (which would apply when the class of plywood is unknown).
Therefore, care must be taken in determining type of plyform used. NOTE: the allowable stress of 1700 psi can only be
used when it has been determined that a concrete form grade of plyform Class I is being used.

V
b. Rolling shear stress v = V = 0.6 wL
( I / Q) b
= 0.6 x 603 lb/ft x .83 ft

= 300 lb
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (2)

I 300 lb
From Section 5-393.202, = 0.393 in. b = 12 in. v= = 64 lb/in.2
Q 12 in. x 0.393 in.

This is acceptable since it is less than the allowable stress of 70 psi.

0069 w L4
c. Deflection - = w = (603 lb/ft) - (50 lb/ft live load) = 553 lb/ft, L = 10 in.
EI

NOTE: live load is not to be included in deflection computations.

From Section 5-393.202 E = 1,600,000 lb/in.2


From Section 5-393.202 I = 0.088 in.4

0.0069 x 553 lb / ft x (10 in.) 4 1 ft.


= x = 0.023 in.
1,600,000 lb / in.2 0.088 in.4 12 in.

This span is less than 67 inches long; therefore, the allowable deflection = 1/270 x 10 in. = 0.037 in.

Since actual deflection (0.023 in.) is less than allowable, (0.037 in.) the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Joists Width of applied load


10"
Determine applied uniform load due to weight w
of forms per linear foot along cap:

Plyform

2"x6" joist
plywood = 16 ft x 1 ft x .062 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 39.7 lb 39.7 lb

12 in.
studs = 3.67 ft x 2 x x 1.5 lb/ft = 8.3 lb 8.3 lb
16 in.

plates = 4 x 1 ft x 1.5 lb/ft = 6.0 lb 6.0 lb

walers = 8 x 1 ft x 2.5 lb/ft = 20.0 lb 20.0 lb .

Total 74.0 lb/lf of cap 74.0 lb/lf of cap

10 in. = 62 lb/joist 55.5 lb/joist


forms = 74 lb / lf of cap x
12 in.

10 in. = 1298 lb/joist 1168.4 lb/joist


concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x
12 in.

Total 1360 lb/joist 1224 lb/joist

(10 in. Spacing) (9 in. Spacing)


5-393.206 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

This weight is spread over a length of 3.0 feet for all practical purposes; therefore, the corresponding uniform load on the
joists is:

1360 lb / joist 1224 lb / joist


form + concrete =
3 ft 3 ft

= 453.3 lb/lf of joist 408 lb/lf of joist

50 lb 10 in. 50 lb 9 in.
live load = x x
ft 2 12 in. ft 2 12 in.

= 41.7 lb/lf of joist 37.5 lb/lf of joist

weight of joist = 2.3 lb/lf 2.3 lb/lf

Total uniform w = 497 lb/lf = 448 lb/lf

(10 in. Spacing) (9 in. Spacing)

M
a. Bending stress f =
S
2"
NOTE: for beams with a very wide bearing area (such as the 12
inches wide beam flange in this example), it is reasonable to 3'-0"
assume the span begins about 2 inches back from the edge of the Uniform load
support. For example span length would then be = (3'-10") - 8" =
3' - 2". To simplify calculations, assume the load w is for full
length of the 3'-2" span. This will result in only an insignificant
stress increase. Maximum bending stress in this example occurs 2" x 6"
Joist
with no load on the cantilevers.
L = 3'-2"
497 lb / ft x (3.17 ft ) 3'-10"
2
wL2
M = = = 624 ft lb
8 8
S = 7.56 in.3 (For the member sizes used here, all lumber will be S4S.)

624 ft lb 12 in.
f = x = 990 lb / in.2
7.56 in.3 1 ft

Allowable bending stress (assuming the proposed form lumber is used material with no visible grade stamp, the
allowable stress for Red Pine will be used) = 1375 psi. The member is acceptable with regard to bending stress.

V1 w (L - 2h) 497 lb / ft (3.17 ft - 2 x 5.5 in./12 in./ft )


b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5 V1 = = = 560 lb
bh 2 2

1.5 x 560 lb
b = 1 in. h = 5 in. H= = 102 lb/in.2
15
. in. x 5.5 in.

This is more than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 88 psi for Red Pine and is, therefore, not acceptable. Thus,
reduce the 2" x 6" joist spacing from 10 inches to 9 inches. (9/10) x 102 = 92 psi about 88 psi and, therefore, acceptable.
Bending stress will reduce also, so it is also acceptable.

c. Bearing stress in joist on the HP12x53 beam

Determine total load of joist


9
Form Lumber = 74 x = 55.5 lb / joist
12
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (4)

9 in.
Concrete = 2.83 ft x 3.67 ft x 150 lb / ft 3 x = 1168.4 lb / joist
12 in.

9 in.
Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x 8 ft x = 300.0 lb / joist
12 in.

Weight of Joist = 2.3 lb/ft x 10 ft = 23.0 lb

Total = 1547 lb/joist

1547 lb
The bearing weight at each support = = 774 lb
2

P 8'-0"
Bearing stress f =
A

P= 774 lb Live load Dead load + live load

A = 1 1/2 in. x 12 in. = 18.0 in.2


2"x6" joist x 10'-0" long
774
f = = 43 lb/in2
18
861 lb 861 lb
This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 350 psi (for Red Pine).

d. Deflection of joist

Assume similar loading condition to that which causes maximum bending stress. w = 448 lb/lf (for 9 inch spacing)

5wL4
) = w = (448 lb/lf) - (37.5 lb/ft live load) = 410 lb/ft
384 EI
L = 38 in.

E = 1,300,000 psi (Red Pine)

I = 22.53 in.4

5 x 410 lb / ft x (38 in.) 4 1 ft.


= 4 x = 0.032 in.
2
384 x 1,300,000 lb / in. x 22.53 in. 12 in.

1
The allowable deflection = x 38 in. = 0.141 in.
270

Since actual deflection is less than allowable, the member is acceptable.

3. Main Support Beams (HP12x53)

Loads will be as determined for bearing stress in 2 c) above except that the live load can reasonably be reduced to 50 psf on only
the horizontal concrete surface area for this member.

Determine dead load on each joist which bears on the two HP 12x53 beams.
Form Lumber = 55.5 lb/joist
Concrete = 1168.4 lb/joist
Weight of Joist = 23 lb
Total Applied Dead Load = 1247 lb/joist
5-393.206 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Convert to uniform load on each 12HPx53 beam.

1247 lb / joist 12 in.


Dead Load = x = 831 lb / ft
2 9 in.
2.83 ft
Live Load = 50 lb / ft 2 x = 71 lb / ft
2
= 53 lb / ft
Weight of Beam
w = 955 lb / ft

M
a. Bending stress f =
S

Bending stress must be checked at locations and . There are no available formulas to determine these moments
directly. Therefore, moments will be determined by combining two known loading conditions in the AISC Steel
Construction Manual as follows:

2 1
w = 955 lb/ft

HP12x53

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"

Friction collar supports

w = 955 lb/ft w = 955 lb/ft w = 955 lb/ft

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"


20174 ft lb
71655 ft lb

This results in the following bending moment diagrams:


51481 ft lb

1 1

2
2

955 lb / ft x (6.5 ft )
2
wL2
M1 = = = 20,174 ft lb
2 2

955 lb / ft x (24.5 ft )
2
wL2
M2 = = = 71,655 ft lb
8 8
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.206 (6)

For an HP12x53, S = 66.8 in.3 (from AISC Manual).

Use moments from summarized diagram at right above.

20,174 ft lb (12 in./1 ft )


At location , f1 = = 3624 lb/in.2
66.8 in.3

51,481 ft lb (12 in./1 ft )


At location , f2 = = 9248 lb/in.2
66.8 in.3

Assuming that the steel pile material would likely be ASTM A 36 grade, the allowable temporary bending stress is
25,000 psi. Therefore, this member qualified in bending.
955 lb/ft
V
b. Shear Stress in HP12x53 v =
th
Load Diagram at location
V1 = 6.5 ft x 955 lb/ft = 6208 lb
6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"
Shear Diagram at location
v2 = 955 lb/ft x = 11700 lb 1 2

From AISC Manual, for HP12x53, web thickness =0.435 in.


height = 11.78 in.

11700 lb 1
At the point of maximum shear, v = = 2283 lb/in.2 2
0.435 in. x 11.78 in.

This is less than the allowable temporary shear stress of 15000 psi.

c. Deflection of HP12x53

The loading diagram will be as shown above for shear except that live load will not be included for deflection
computations. Therefore, w = (955 lb/ft) - (71 lb/ft live load) = 884 lb/ft.

Deflections must be determined at points and . Since there are no readily available formulas for determining these
deflections directly, this loading situation may be duplicated by combining two of the available loading diagrams in the
AISC Steel Construction Manual as follows:

1 w = 884 lb/ft

1 1 1

2 2 2
5-393.206 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Deflection at point (midspan) is determined by the following formulas from the AISC manual for the loading diagrams
shown above.

wx wa x
2

2 =
24EIL
( L4 2 L2 x 2 + Lx 3 2a 2 L2 + 2a 2 x 2 ) -
12EIL
(L2 x 2 )

w = 884 lb/ft

L = 24.5 ft

x = x 24.5 ft = 12.25 ft

a = 6.5 ft

E = 29,000,000 psi

I = 393 in.4 (from AISC manual)

884 lb / ft x 12.25 ft x (24.54 - (2 x 24.52 x 12.252 ) + (24.5 x 12.253 ) (2 x 6.52 x 24.52 ) + (2 x 6.52 x 12.253 ))
2 =
24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft

12 in. 12 in.
3 3
884 lb / ft x (6.5) ft) 2 x 12.25 ft
x -
1 ft 12 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4 x 24.5 ft
x ( 24.5 2
- 12.25 2
) ft 2
) x
1 ft

)2 = 0.523 in. - 0.106 in. = 0.416 in.

The maximum allowable deflection in this member will be 1/4 inch. See Section 5-393.203 for further details. Since the
allowable deflection at this point is exceeded, the member must either be increased in size or wedges must be placed to
compensate for this deflection. (For example, at midspan 0.416 of wedging is necessary)

The deflection at point may be determined with sufficient accuracy by use of the following loading condition from the
AISC Manual:

w = 884 lb/ft

24'-6" 6'-6"

884 lb / ft x 6.5 ft x (4 x 6.52 x 24.5 - 24.53 + 6 x 6.52 x 6.5 - 4 x 6.5 x 6.52 + 6.53 ) ft 3 12 in. 3
1 = x
1 ft
= - 0.354
24 x 29,000,000 psi x 393 in.4

Since this exceeds the allowable deflection of 1/4", compensation (by wedging or other) must be made in the falsework
construction, in order to obtain true lines.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393-207 (1)

HP 12x53 in deflected position


(without deflection compensation)
NOTE: The minus sign indicates an upward

0.416"
0.354"

deflection of the ends of the HP 12x53


as indicated in the diagram.

6'-6" 24'-6" 6'-6"


CL Columns
and friction collars

4. Friction Collar

The reaction on each side of the friction collar may be determined from the shear diagram in part b.

F = 6208 lb + 11700 lb = 17908 lb

Total load on each friction collar = 17908 lb x 2 beams = 35816 lb

NOTE: The collar bolts shall be torqued adequately to develop friction collar load. This load should be checked against the
allowable load listed in the manufacturers literature for the proposed friction collars.

5-393.207 ROADWAY SLAB FALSEWORK EXAMPLE

Assume the Contractor has proposed the slab falsework details shown in Figure A 5-393.207. Assume also that rails for the
strike off machine will be placed on the fascia beams. The following investigations will then be necessary to determine the
acceptability of the proposed method:

Interior Bays Slab Overhang Falsework


1. Plywood Sheathing 1. Plywood sheathing
a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection c. Deflection
2. Stringers 2. Stringers
a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection d. Deflection
3. Joists (double 2" x 12" member) 3. Steel overhang bracket
a. Bending stress a. Safe load
b. Horizontal shear stress b. Deflection
c. Bearing stress on washer 4. Hanger
d. Deflection a. Direct tension on bolt
4. Hanger b. Capacity of hanger
a. Direct tension on bolt
b. Capacity of hanger
Figure A 5-393.207 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

EXAMPLE: ROADWAY SLAB FALSEWORK


A
2" x 4" @ 1'-0" O.C.
Hangers @ 5'-0" O.C. 8" Min. conc. slab 3/4" Plyform, Class I

Double 2" x 10" @ 5'-0" O.C.


2" x 4" @
1/2" Dia. coil bolt (typ.) 12" O.C.
A
Superior overhang
bracket @ 5'-0" O.C.

3'-10" 8'-2" (typical)

CROSS SECTION OF DECK FALSEWORK

8" Min. conc. slab 3/4" Plyform, Class I

2" x 10"
1/2" Dia. coil bolt 2" x 4" @ 12" O.C.
with 3" x 4" washer
5'-0" 5'-0"
SECTION A-A
All lumber to be Douglas Fir, No. 1.

Figure A 5-393.207
w
INTERIOR BAYS

1. Plywood Sheathing

Determine applied load w. 3/4" Plyform


Concrete 0.67 ft x 1 ft x 150 lb/ft3 = 100.0 lb/ft 2" x 4"
Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft 12" Stringers
Live Load = 50.0 lb/ft @ 12" O.C.
w= 152.5 lb/ft

a., b., and c. - Bending, Rolling Shear and Deflection are all automatically checked when using Figure B 5-393.202.
Assume face grains will be placed the weak way, (face grain parallel to supports). According to this Figure, 12 inch spacing
on inch plyform Class I will safely support about 550 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (2)

2. Stringers
12" w = 152.5 lb/ft
Determine applied load w per foot of stringer.

Concrete, plywood and live load = 152.5 lb/ft


Weight of member (2 x 4) = 1.5 lb/ft
w = 154.0 lb/ft
2" x 4" Stringers

a. Bending Stress

A 2 or 3 span continuous situation will very likely apply for the spans given (5'-0"). Assume 2 span continuous for the
design check.

w = 155 lb/ft

2" x 4" Stringer


5'-0" 5'-0" Waler spacing

154 lb / ft x (5 ft )
2
wL2
M = = = 481.2 ft lb
8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

M 481.2 ft lb 12 in.
F = = x = 1887 psi
S 3.06 in.3 1 ft

Since the allowable bending stress in Douglas Fir is 1875 psi, this member is acceptable in bending with slight
overstress.

V1
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5
bh

Assuming the stringers are continuous over two spans, the maximum shear occurs at the center support and is equal to V
= 5/8 wR. To convert this to the applicable horizontal shear, use L = (L-2h) as follows:

1 ft
V 1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 154 lb / ft 5 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x = 425 lb
12 in.
b = 1 in.

426 lb
h = 3 1/ 2 in. H = 1.5 x = 121 psi
1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

The allowable horizontal shear for Douglas Fir is 120 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable with regard to horizontal
shear with a slight overstress.
5-393.207 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

c. Bearing Stress - f = P/A


For a two span continuous stringer, the maximum P will be at the center reaction point.

5wL
P = R2 =
4

5 x 154 lb / ft x 5 ft 2" x 4" Stringer


= 962.5 lb
4

A = 2 (1 in.) (1 in.) = 4.5 in.2

1 5/8"
962.5 lb
f= = 214 psi
4.5 in.2 Bearing 2 - 2" x 12"
surface
(shaded)
1 1/2"
1 1/2"

The temporary allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi; therefore, member is acceptable.

wL4
d. Deflection of Stringers )=
185 EI

Since deflection is to be based on dead load only, the value for w will be:

w = 154 lb/ft - 50 lb/ft = 104 lb/ft

L = 5 ft

E = 1,760,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

3
4 12 in.
104 lb / ft x 5 ft x
1 ft
= = 0.063 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in. 4

The surface being formed is not exposed to view and is, therefore, not subject to the normal deflection limitation.
However, this value will be used later to determine the cumulative deflection of the falsework.

3. Joists (double 2 x 10 member)

Dead load is applied to this member through eight 2 x 4 stringers. As a general rule, when the concentrated loads are applied
through 3 or more crossing members, the assumption of uniform loading may be used.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (4)

7'-4" (Concrete carried by joist)

8"
Double 2" x 10" (joist)

8'-2" O.C.

Determine uniform load on the joist:

1 ft 3
Concrete 8 in. x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft x 5 ft = 500.0 lb
12 in.

Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 x 5 ft = 12.5 lb

1
Stringers 8 x 1.5 lb / 1f x 5 ft x = 8.2 lb
7.33

Double 2 x 10 2 x 3.9 lb/lf = 7.8 lb

Live Load 50 lb/ft2 x 5 ft x 1 ft = 250.0 lb

Total w = 778.5 lb/lf

w = 778.5 lb/ft

2 - 2" x 10"

7'-4"
Assumed design condition

M
a. Bending Stress - f =
S

778.5 lb / ft x (7.333 ft.)


2
wL2
M= = = 5233 ft lb
8 8

for two (2) 2 x 10's, S4S, S = 2 x 21.39 in.3 = 42.78 in.3

12 in.
5233 ft lb x
1 ft
f = = 1468 psi
4278 in.3
5-393.207 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The allowable bending stress for Douglas Fir is 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.

V1
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5
bh

w (L - 2h) 1 ft
V1 = = 778.5 lb / ft x 7.333 ft - 2 x 9.5 in. x / 2 = 2238 lb
2 12 in.

Half of this amount is carried on each 2 x 10 or V1 = 1119 lb per 2 x 10.

b = 1 in.

h = 9 in.

1.5 x 1119 lb
H= = 118 psi
1.5 in. x 9.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is acceptable.

c. Bearing Stress on Washer f = P/A

778.5 lb / ft x 7.33 ft
P= = 2853 lb
2 4"

With a 3" x 4" washer placed as shown,


3"
and assuming a 3/4 inch space is used
between the 2" x 10" members,

A = 3 in. x 3 in. = 9.0 in.2


1 1/2"
2853 lb 1 1/2"
f= = 317 psi
9 in.2 3/4"

The allowable side bearing stress for Douglas Fir is 480 psi. A stress increase factor of 1.13 is permitted in accordance
with Figure A 5-393.204 resulting in a total allowable stress of 480 x 1.13 - 542 psi which is considerably more than the
actual stress.

5wL4
d. Deflection )= w = 778.5 lb/ft - 250 lb/ft = 528.5 lb/ft
384 EI

= 7' - 4"

E = 1,760,000 psi

For 2-2 x 10's I = 2 x 98.93 in4 = 197.86 in.4

3
12 in.
5 x 528.5 lb / ft x (7.333 ft) 4 x
1 ft
= = 0.097
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (6)

The cumulative deflection of the falsework in the interior bays is limited to about 1/2 inch (see Section 5-393.203). It
can be seen that the cumulative deflection of stringers (0.063 in.) plus joists (0.097 in.) will be only 0.160 inches
(approximately 3/16 inch) and is, therefore, acceptable.

4. Hanger Rods

The load on each hanger rod will be equal to the bearing load on the plate washers, or 2853 pounds.

The inch diameter coil bolts for the hangers are manufactured in various strengths such as 6000 pound capacity, 9000
pound capacity, etc.. When required, the Contractor should furnish evidence of the safe capacity of the proposed coil bolts.

In addition to checking the coil bolt, the hanger must be checked for rated capacity. Most hangers are rated for the load
carrying capacity of the entire hanger. The load on either side should not exceed one-half of this value.

SLAB OVERHANG FALSEWORK

1. Plywood Sheathing

Maximum stress in the sheathing will occur adjacent to the beam, at the point where concrete depth is a maximum.

8" 3'-10"
8"
8"

8 3/4"

10 1/4"
9 1/2"

3"

2" 1'-0" 1'-0" 1'-0" 1'-0"


54" (Top mem 4"
ber of superior
bracket)

* Stool height is an estimated value


for computation purposes only.

Assume the concrete stool plus flange thickness at the maximum depth will be 3 inches. Where this value is known to be
greater, use the known maximum value.

Determine uniform dead load on the sheathing based on this maximum thickness:

1 ft 3
Concrete 11 in x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 137.5 lb / ft
12 in.

Plywood 0.06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft

Total w = 190.0 lb/ft


5-393.207 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

From Figure B 5-393.202, the safe carrying load for Class I plywood placed weak way with supports at 12 inches is 550 psf.
Therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Stringers

The second stringer from the right will be the controlling stringer for design. (The stringer on the right carries only about
one-half as much load.) The average slab thickness at this controlling stringer can be determined by calculation or by scaling
the drawing. In this case, an average thickness of 10 inches was scaled. The uniform load on this stringer will be:

1 ft 3
1'-0"
Concrete 10.25 in. x x 1 ft x 150 lb / ft = 128.1 lb / ft
12 in.

10 1/4"
(Ave.)
Plywood .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.5 lb/ft

Stringer = 1.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft


2" x 4" Stringer
Total w = 182.1 lb/ft

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/ft. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the stringers
on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be checked by ratios as follows:

182.1 lb / ft
a. Bending Stress F= x 1887 psi = 2231 psi
154 lb / ft

This is 19% over the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir. Therefore, this member should have its
spacings reduced 20% or down to 10 inch spacing.

1 ft 1 ft
Concrete 10.40 in. x x 10 in. x x 150 lb / ft
3
= 108.3 lb / ft
12 in. 12 in.

Plywood 0.06 ft x 0.833 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 2.1 lb/ft

Stringer = 1.5 lb/ft

Live Load 50 lb/ft2 x (0.833 ft) = 41.7 lb/ft

10" Total w = 153.6 lb/ft


10 1/4"
(Ave.)

2" x 4" Stringer

Repeat a. and b. steps as follows:

The uniform load on interior stringers was 154 lb/lf. Since stringers on the overhang have the same span length as the
stringers on the interior bays, their stresses may quickly be check by ratios as follows:
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (8)

153.6 lb / ft
a. Bearing Stress f= x 1887 psi = 1882 psi
154 lb / ft

This is about the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir; therefore, this member is acceptable in bending.

153.6 lb / ft
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H= x 121 psi = 120.7 psi
154 lb / ft

This is about the same as the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing Stress f= P
A

Using the Superior bracket as recommended by the manufacturer with a slotted 2" x 6" top bearing surface, the bearing
area is:

2" x 4" Stringer

2" x 6" with


2 center slot
A = 4 in. x 1 1/2 in. = 6.0 in.
END VIEW
153.6 lb / ft 1-1/2" Wide slot
P= x 962.5 lb = 960 lb
1-5/8"

154 lb / ft

960 lb
f= = 160 psi
6.0 in.2
Contact surfaces
(shaded)
5 1/2"
PLAN VIEW

The allowable stress increase factor need not be figured since this stress is much less than the allowable stress of 490 psi.

wL4
d. Deflection of Stringers =
185EI

The uniform load is the only factor which differs from the calculation for deflection of the interior stringers. For this
member, w = 153.6 lb/ft - 41.7 lb/ft (live load) = 111.9 lb/ft. Deflection of the overhang stringers can be determined by
using a ratio of the uniform loads.

111.9 lb / ft
)= x 0.063 in. = 0.068 in.
104 lb / ft

Since this surface is considered to be exposed to view and the span length is less than 67 inches, the maximum allowable
deflection will be:

12 in.
5 ft x
1 ft
L / 270 = = 0.222 in.
270

The actual deflection is less than this; therefore, the member is acceptable.
5-393.207 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

3. Steel Overhang Brackets

Superior brackets may be checked using the influence lines in Figure F 5-393.202. To use this chart, the load on individual
stringers must be determined and the distance from the outboard end of the bracket to each stringer must be determined. A
calculation summary of the loads and distances are on the next page.

50"
40"
30"
20"
10"
2"

A B C D E F

Spacing of brackets = 5'-0"

* Use 8.30' because most of concrete section


is to the right of "B".

** Stool height is an estimated 3"


for computation purposes only.

B C D E F
8"

8.15"*

11"**
8.90"

10.40"
9.65"

SLAB DEPTHS AT STRINGER LOCATIONS


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.207 (10)

3 1 ft 1 ft
Plywood load = x x (10 in.) x x (40) = 2.1 lbs / linear ft
4 in. 12 in. 12 in.

Stringer load = 1.2 lbs/linear ft

10 in.
Live load = (50 lbs / ft 2 ) x = 1.2 lbs / linear ft
12 in.

Concrete loads:

1 ft 1 ft. 1 in. 3
PA = 8.075 in. x x (2 in.) x x x 150 lbs / ft
12 in. 10 in.
= 1.7 lbs / linear ft
12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 1 ft 1 ft 9 in. 3
PB = 8.30 in. x x (5 in.) x + 8.075 in. x x (2 in.) x x x (150 lbs / ft )
12 in. 10 in.
= 58.4 lbs / linear ft
12 in. 12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3
PC = 8.90 in. x x (10 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft = 92.7 lbs / linear ft
12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3
PD = 9.65 in. x x (10 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft = 100.5 lbs / linear ft
12 in. 12 in.

1 ft 1 ft 3
PE = 10.4 in. x x (9 in. ) x x 150 lbs / ft
12 in.
= 97.5 lbs / linear ft
12 in.

1 ft 8 in. 1 ft 3
PF = 10.7 in. x x x x 150 lbs / ft = 44.6 lbs / linear ft
12 in. 2 12 in.

TOTAL =395.4 lbs/linear ft

LIVE LOADS BRACKET LOADS = 5/4 wL


w = dead load plus live load
PA = 25 lbs/linear ft PA = 188 lbs
PB = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PB = 646 lbs
PC = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PC = 861 lbs
PD = 41.7 lbs/linear ft PD = 909 lbs
PE = 37.5 lbs/linear ft PE = 865 lbs
PF = 16.7 lbs/linear ft PF = 403 lbs

Examples: Bracket load PA = 5/4 x (1.7 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 25) x (5.0') = 188 lbs
PB = 5/4 x (58.4 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 41.7) x (5.0') = 646 lbs
5-393.207 (11) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Stringer No. Load On 45ECoil Rod Load on Diagonal Member

A 188 lb x 2.7 = 508 lb 188 lb x 2.7 = 508 lb


B 646 lb x 1.3 = 840 lb 646 lb x 1.9 = 1227 lb
C 861 lb x 1.95 = 1679 lb 861 lb x 1.3 -= 1119 lb
D 909 lb x 1.7 = 1545 lb 909 lb x 0.80 = 727 lb
E 865 lb x 1.58 = 1367 lb 865 lb x 0.40 = 346 lb
F 403 lb x 1.45 = 584 lb 403 lb x 0.10 = 40 lb
Total Load = 6523 lb Total Load = 3967 lb

Manufacturers Manufacturers
Allowable Load = 9000 lb Allowable Load = 4733 lb*

* This load is only for overhang brackets on steel beams.

Since the applied loads are less than the allowable load, the coil rod and diagonal are acceptable with regard to strength.
However, other bracket components such as the hanger assembly must also be checked for strength requirements as per
manufacturers allowable loads.

b. Deflection of Overhang Bracket

The manufacturers literature indicates that the deflection is determined by summarizing the total vertical weight on the
bracket. Only the weight of concrete need be applied since deflection due to dead weight of the falsework may be
allowed for prior to concrete placement.

8 in. + 11 in. 1 ft
Total weight of concrete = x 3.33 ft x 5 ft x 150 lb / ft x = 1977 lb
2 12 in.

Using Figure F 5-393.202 as a guide, the deflection resulting from a load of 1977 lb would be about 3/16 inch. The
cumulative deflection of the overhang falsework may now be summarized.

Deflection of sheathing negligible


Deflection of stringers 0.068 in.
Deflection of brackets 0.190 in.
Seating of wood members (2 x 1/16")* 0.120 in.

Total Deflection at center of stringer span = 0.378 in.

*Abutting faces of wood members are assumed to crush about 1/16 inch when heavy load is applied. This value will be
less for tightly constructed falsework. In addition, wood fillers against the web as used on prestressed concrete girders
must be uniformly fitted and seated to prevent uneven overhang deflections.

The falsework along the edge of coping should, therefore, be set about 3/8 in. above final grade to compensate for the
anticipated deflection.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (1)

4. Hanger

a. The bolt on this hanger is actually the 45E coil rod which was checked in Item 3. above. Note that the manufacturer
specifies a 9000 lb capacity coil bolt.

b. Hangers are normally rated for vertical load carrying capacity. The vertical component on this hanger can be determined
as follows:

P = 0.707 x 6523 lb = 4612 lb

45

23
65
P

This value should not exceed 1/2 of the safe working load for the total hanger. Preferably, the manufacturer should
furnish information as to the safe load along the 45E angle for the overhang hangers. Note: The safe working loads
ascribed to these hangers only applies when the device has full bearing contact on the top flange of the beam and when
the hanger bolts are flush with the edge of the beam flange.

5-393.208 SLAB SPAN FALSEWORK

Assume the Contractor has proposed the falsework scheme shown in Figure A 5-393.208. In addition, assume they have stated
that a strike-off machine weighing 8000 pounds will be used and strike-off rails will be located as shown in the figure (outside
berm).

The following stress investigation would be necessary.

1. Sheathing 4. Pile Cap


a. Bending stress a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Deflection c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection
2. Joist (2 x 6)
a. Bending stress 5. Pile - total reaction
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress 6. Strike-off machine support system
d. Deflection a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
3. Beams (6 x 14) c. Bearing stress
a. Bending stress d. Deflection
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress
d. Deflection
Figure A 5-393.208 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

EXAMPLE: FALSEWORK FOR SLAB SPAN CL Supporting rail for


strike-off machine
A
Concrete slab 3/4" Plyform sheathing

1'-9"
2" x 6" @ 1'-0" O.C.

Bolts

6" x 14" Beams Drift pins


@ 5'-0" O.C.
2" x 12" Bracing
12" x 12" Pile cap

A Timber piles
butt dia. 12"
10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
CROSS SECTION OF SLAB FALSEWORK
Concrete slab

2" x 6" @ 1'-0" O.C.

12" x 12" cap 6" x 14" @ 5'-0" O.C.


2" x 12" Bracing

Timber piles

10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"


SECTION A-A
All lumber to be Douglas Fir, Construction Grade
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (2)

Calculations are as follows:

1. 3/4 inch Sheathing

Determine applied uniform load

lb
Concrete 1.75 ft x 1 ft x 150 = 262.5 lb/ft
ft 3

lb
Plywood 0 .06 ft x 1 ft x 40 = 2.5 lb/ft
ft 3

Live Load = 50.0 lb/ft

Total w = 315.0 lb/ft

Figure B 5-393.202 indicates that even the lowest grade plyform (Class II) placed in the weak direction will safely support
about 500 psf; therefore, the sheathing is acceptable.

2. Joist (2 x 6)

Since these members are spaced at 1'-0", the applied uniform load = 315 lb/ft + 2.3 lb/ft (weight of joist) = 317.3 lb/ft.
Assume two span continuous design with L = 5 feet.

a. Bending Stress

317.3 lb / ft x (5 ft )
2
M wL2
f= M= = = 991.5 ft/lb
S 8 8

S = 7.56 in.3

12 in.
991.5 ft / lb
1 ft
f = = 1574 psi
7.56

Since this is less than the 1875 psi allowable stress, it is acceptable.

V1
b. Horizontal Shear Stress H = 1.5
bh

1 ft
At the center support, V1 = 5 / 8 w (L - 2h) = 5 / 8 x 317.3 lb / ft x 5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x = 809.8 lbs
12 in.
b = 1 1/2 in. h = 5 1/2 in

809.8 lb
H = 1.5 = 147.2 psi
1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

Allowable horizontal shear is 120 psi; therefore, this is not acceptable, so reduce joist spacing to 10 inch.

1 ft
w = 264.8 V 1 = 5 / 8 (264.8) x 5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x = 675.8 lbs
12 in.
1.5 (675.8)
H = = 122.9 psi 120 psi allowable.
1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

Also, bending is OK with the reduced spacing.


5-393.208 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

P
c. Bearing Stress f =
A Bearing
For two span continuous, maximum P is at the surface 6" x 14" Beam
center support.

5wL 5 x 264.8 lb / ft x 5 ft
P = R2 = = = 1655 lbs
4 4
2" x 6" Joist
A = 1 1/2 in. x 5.5 in. = 8.25 in.2

NOTE: The 6 x 14 beams will normally be rough PLAN VIEW


cut and, therefore, will have the full 6 x 14
dimensions and the area will be 1 1/2 in x 6.0 in. = 9.0 in.2.

1655 lb
f= = 201 psi
8.25 in.2

This is much less than the 480 psi allowable and is, therefore, acceptable.

wL4
d. Deflection of 2 x 6 joist ) =
185EI

w = 264.8 lb/ft - 41.7 lb/ft (live load) = 223.1 lb/ft

L = 5 feet
3
12 in.
223.1 lb / ft x (5 ft) 4 x
1 ft
E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2 = = 0.035 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 20.80 in.4

I = 20.80 in.4

L 12 in.
The limiting deflection is = 5 ft x = 0.22 in. (as specified in Section 5- 393.202).
270 1 ft

Since .035 inches is less than the allowable, the member is acceptable)

3. Beams (6 x 14)

Assume the Contractor has stated that these beams will be furnished in 22 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will
then apply. Determine applied, uniform load:

Live load, concrete, sheathing and joists = 264.8 lb/ft2 x 5 ft = 1324.0 lb/ft
1 ft
2
Weight of 6 x 14 member (rough cut) = 6 in. x 14 in. x x 40 lb / ft 3 = 23.3 lb / ft
144 in. 2
w = 1347.3 lb/ft

NOTE: It can be assumed that the ends of joists will be staggered so that the critical load determined in 2c. above will not
occur on any one beam.

M
a. Bending stress f=
S
1347.3 lb / ft x (10 ft )
2
wL2
M= = = 16841.3 ft lb
8 8

S = 196.0 in.3 (for rough cut 6 x 14)


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (4)

12 in.
16841.3 x
1 ft
f = = 1031 psi
196.0 in. 3

The allowable bending stress is 1875 psi; therefore, this is acceptable.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress H=
bh
1 ft
5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x 10 ft - 2 x (14 in.) x
1 5w (L - 2h) 12 in.
For 2 span continuous, V = = = 6456 lb
8 8

1.5 x 6456 lb
b = 6 in. h = 14 in. H = = 115 psi
6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P
c. Side bearing stress f =
A
For 2 span continuous, the maximum P will be over the center support.

5wL 5 x 1347.3 lb / ft x 10 ft
P = R2 = = = 16841 lb
4 4

16841 lb
A = 6 in. x 14 in. = 84 in.2 f = = 200 psi
84 in.2

Allowable side bearing stress is 480 psi; therefore, this is acceptable.

wL4
d. Deflection ) =
185 EI

w = 1347.3 lb/ft - 41.67 lb/ft2 x 5 ft (live load) = 1139.0 lb ft

L = 120 in.

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 1372 in.4 (rough cut)


3
12 in.
1139.0 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x
1 ft
= = 0.043 in.
185 x 1,800,000 lb / in. 2 x 1372 in. 4

This is less than the allowable deflection of 1/4 inch for the member but must also be checked later as part of the
cumulative deflection.

4. Pile cap (12 x 12)

The reaction of the 6 x 14 beams on the pile cap will be as follows:

NOTE: A simple span reaction will be used since the higher reaction R2 determined in Step 3 c) above will occur at random
locations rather than all on one pier cap. This simplification is also in agreement with ACI recommendations.

Live load, concrete, sheathing, joist and beam = 1347.3 lb/lf of beam
Load on pile cap = 1374.3 lb/ft x 10 ft = 1347.3 lb per beam
5-393.208 (5) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Assume the Contractor has stated that pile caps will be furnished in 20 foot lengths. Two span continuous design will apply.
The following loading diagram will be typical of each two span segment:

13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb 13473 lb


w = 40 lb/ft (due to
weight of pile cap)
1 2 12" x 12" Pile cap
10'-0" 10'-0" Pile spacing

a. Bending Stress in Pile Cap

Maximum bending stresses should be checked at points and .

To determine the bending moments in the cap, use the applicable load diagrams from the AISC Manual. For this
example, there is no identical loading diagram in the manual, but it is possible to obtain the moments by summarizing
diagrams for each of the individual loads as follows:

13473 lb 13473 lb
2 w = 40 lb/ft
2 2

1 1 1

Note: The load from the 6 x 14 beams directly over the piles are not shown since they do not cause bending in the pile
cap.

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )
2
13 3 wL2 13 3
M = PL - 1 / 2 PL + = x 13473 lb x 10 ft - x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 21333 ft lb
64 32 14.2 64 64 14.2

40 lb / ft x (10 ft )
2
3 wL2 3
M = 2x PL + = 2x x 13473 lb x 10 ft + = 25762 ft lb
32 8 32 8

M
f = for 12" x 12" rough cut, S = 288 in.3
S

12 in.
25762 ft lb x
f = 1 ft. = 1073 psi
288 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is therefore acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (6)

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in pile cap H =
bh

This stress will be maximum over the center support. Summarize the shear formulas for the three diagrams used to
determine bending moments.

1 ft
5 x 40 lb / ft 10 ft - 2 x 12 in. x
1
19
1 3 5w (L - 2h) 20.5 12 in.
V = P + P + = x 13473 lb + = 8831 lb
32 2 32 8 32 8

1.5 x 8831 lb
H= = 92 psi
144 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P
c. Bearing stress of pile cap on pile. f =
A

The maximum P will be over the center support. Use the applicable formulas for reactions for the load diagrams used to
determine bending moments.

11 5wL
P = R2 = 2 x P + (Reaction from beam directly over the pile) +
16 4

11 5 x 40 lb / ft x 10 ft
=2x x 13473 lb + 13473 lb + = 32498 lb
16 4

Assuming 12 inch diameter piles under the 12 x 12 cap, the contact area would be:

A = Br2 = 3.14 x 62 = 113.1 in.2 [This value may also be determined by Figure A 5-393.204]

32498
f= = 287 psi
113.1 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi on the 12 x 12; therefore, it is acceptable.

d. Deflection of pile cap

The exact deflection of the pile cap cannot be readily determined since a formula to cover this load situation is not
available in the AISC Manual. However, formulas are available to determine an approximate value of the deflection,
assuming a simple span loading condition as shown below: (NOTE: This deflection will be slightly greater than the
actual deflection of the two span continuous pier cap.)

13473 lb minus live load


40 lb/ft

10'-0"
5-393.208 (7) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

PL 3 5wL4
At , ) = +
48EI 384EI

P = Total reaction minus live load

= 13473 lb - (50 lb/ft2 x 5 ft x 10 ft) = 10973 lb

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 1728 in.4 (full sawn)

w = 40 lb/ft

3 3
12 in. 12 in.
10973 lb x (10 ft)3 x 5 x 40 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x
1 ft 1 ft
) = + = 0.130 in.
48 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1728 in.4 384 x 1,800,000 lb / in2 x 1728 in.4

The maximum cumulative deflection of the joists, beams and pile caps will be as follows:
.
Joists 0.035 in.

Beams 0.043 in.

Pile Cap 0.130 in. (conservative value)

Total 0.208 in.

It can be concluded that deflections will approach a value of 1/4 inch at points of maximum deflection. Each of the
individual members (joists, beam and pile cap) are within the limiting deflection value of 1/4 inch and the cumulative
deflection is also close enough to this value to be acceptable.

5. Pile Load

The maximum pile load will be as shown in 4c above. P = 32498 lb = 16.25 tons. This pile load is not an average pile load
but rather is based on the assumption of two span continuous action of the pile caps.

The average load per pile is as follows (assume each pile supports a 10 foot square area above it since piles are spaced at 10
feet in both directions):

Sheathing, concrete and live load 315.0 lb/ft2 x 10 ft x 10 ft = 31500 lb

Joists 12 x 10 ft x 2.3 lb/ft = 276 lb

Beams 2 x 10 ft x 23.3 lb/ft = 467 lb

Pile cap 1 x 10 ft x 40 lb/ft = 400 lb

Total = 32643 lb = 16.32 tons

The chart of page 5-393.202 indicates that piles having 12 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 18 tons and that piles
having 14 inch butts may be used for loads of up to 21 tons. In consideration of the relative values of the maximum pile load
and the average pile load shown above, it would be reasonable to permit the use of piles having 12 inch butts for the
falsework in this example. Had the maximum pile load been significantly larger, some falsework revision would have been
necessary.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (8)

6. Strike-off Machine Support

Assume the Contractor (for this example) has provided information regarding the strike-off machine which indicates a total
weight of 8000 pounds. Assume also that the machine wheel base is 5' 0" and that posts for the strike-off rail are spaced at
5'0". The maximum loads on the 6 x 14 beams supporting the strike-off machine can then be determined.

Load on beam 1 Load on beam 2 Load on beam 3


= 1618 lb/ft = 1415 lb/ft = 202 lb/ft

Wt. of strike-
Conc. slab off machine 8000 lb

2 x 6 Joist
6 x 14 Beams
@ 5'-0" O.C.
Pile cap 1 2 3

Falsework piles

CROSS SECTION OF FALSEWORK


NEAR EDGE OF SLAB
Beam will support the full design loads determined in part 2. of this section. With the edge of slab ending midway
between beams and and, assuming the joists are simple spans, it can be shown that beam will carry about 7/8 of the
load carried by beam , and beam will carry about 1/8 of the load carried by beam (plus the weight of the strike-off
machine). This will result in the following loading diagram for beam :

Strike-off machine Rail for strike-


off machine
Rail support posts

6" x 14" Beam

12" x 12" Cap

2'-6" 5'-0" 2'-6" Falsework pile

ELEVATION OF BEAM 3

2000 lb 2000 lb
w = 202 lb/ft

10'-0" 10'-0"

ASSUMED CRITICAL LOAD CONDITION FOR BEAM 3


5-393.208 (9) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The position of the strike-off machine shown in the load diagram will result in the maximum bending stress and maximum
deflection of the 6 x 14 beam. Note that the rail support posts are placed in locations which will have approximately equal
deflections. This is preferable to placing one post over the non-deflecting pier cap and having the remaining posts fall at
mid-span where deflection is greatest.

The strike-off machine will not appreciably affect the falsework joists since the rail supports fall directly over the 6 x 14
beams. In addition, the strike-off machine will not cause bending, deflection or horizontal shear in the pile cap, since the
supporting beams fall directly over the outside row of piles. Therefore, only the 6 x 14 beam (beam ) will be investigated.
To simplify calculations, this will be assumed to be a simple span rather than two span continuous. (Use the left half of the
load diagram shown above.)

M
a. Bending stress in 6 x 14 beam f=
S

wL2
M= + Pa (formulas from AISC Manual)
8

202 lb / ft x (10 ft )
2
+ 2000 lb x 2.5 ft = 7525 ft/lb
8

for rough cut 6 x 14, S = 196.0 in.3

12 in.
7525 ft / lb x
1 ft
f = = 461 psi
196.0 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in 6 x 14 beam H=
bh

1 ft
202 lb / ft x 10 ft - 2 x 14 in. x

12 in.
1
V = 2000 lb + = 2774 lbs
2

H = 1.5 x 2774 lb = 49.5 psi


6 in. x 14 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P
c. Bearing stress on 6 x 14 beam f=
A

This critical bearing load would occur with the strike-off machine centered over a pile cap. The following load diagram
would apply:
2000 lb 2000 lb
202 lb/ft

2'-6" 2'-6"
10'-0" 10'-0" CL pile bents
R1 R2
LOADING CONDITION FOR HORIZONTAL SHEAR IN BEAM 3
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.208 (10)

Assume two simple spans:

Pa wL
P = R2 = 2 x + 2 x
L 2

a = 10 ft less 2' 6" = 7' 6"

(First portion of formula from AISC Manual)

2000 lb x 7.5 ft
= 2x + 201 lb / ft x 10 ft
10 ft
= 5010 lb

(Area of 6 x 14 beam on pile cap = 6 in. x 12 in. = 72 in.2)

5010 lb
f= = 69.6 psi
72 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of 6 x 14 beam under strike-off machine

Assume simple span with loading as for maximum bending stress.

5wL4 Pa
)= + (3L2 - 4a2) (formulas from AISC Manual)
384 EI 24 EI

w = 202 lb/ft

L = 10 ft

E = 1,800,000 psi

I = 1372 in.4

a = 2.5 ft

P = 2000 lb

3 3
12 in. 12 in.
5 x 202 lb / ft x (10 ft) 4 x 2000 lb x 2.5 ft x
1 ft 1 ft
= =
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4 24 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 1372 in.4

x [3 x (10 ft)2 - 4 (2.5 ft)2 ]

) = 0.58 in.

This represents a deflection of approximately 1/16 inch and could be ignored. However a provision should be made for
seating of wood members (about 1/16 inch per wood interface) when setting strike-off rail to grade.
5-393.209 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.209 NEEDLE BEAM EXAMPLE

Assume that a Contractor is submitting slab falsework plans for a bridge which has shallow steel beams. Due to the difficulty of
preventing rotation of the fascia beam which would occur with a cantilevered overhang bracket, they have proposed a scheme
which includes the needle beam falsework shown in Figure A 5-393.209. Assume the strike-off machine will be run on the
fascia beams. The following stressed items must be investigated:

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection

2. Joist (2 x 4)
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on runner
d. Deflection

3. Runner (4 x 4)
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on post
d. Deflection

4. Post (2 x 4) end bearing stress-column stress

5. Needle beams
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on plate washer
d. Deflection

6. Supporting bolt
a. Tension

Calculations will be based on the assumed loading condition shown below:

Conc. supported on Conc. supported on


6" inside runner = 1'-4" outside runner = 2'-0"
8"
9.8"
11"

1'-7" 1'-7"

3" 3'-2" 5" CL of 4 x 4 runners


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL Figure A 5-393.209

EXAMPLE: NEEDLE BEAM OVERHANG FALSEWORK


A
8'-0" 3'-10"

2" x 4" Joist @ 16" O.C.

3/4" Plyform
Class II

4x4 Runner 2" x 4" Post @


First. Interior W 24x104 4x4 Runner
2" x 4" Post @ 5'-0" O.C.
beam
3/4" Dia. bolt 5'-0" O.C. 1" x 4" Braces
4" x 5" Washer 2" x 6" Plate
Fascia beam Wedges
Filler plate

Needle beam Supporting bolt

2 - 2" x 10" @ 5'-0" O.C. 3" 3'-2"

6" 5'-3" 9"

2" x 4" Joists @ 16" O.C. Sheathing Conc. slab

4" x 4" Runner


2" x 4" Posts
Bracing W24x104
Wedges
(as necessary)

5'-0" 5'-0"

SECTION A-A

All material to be Douglas Fir, Construction Grade


5-393.209 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

1. Sheathing

Sheathing is supported on joists spaced at 16 inches. The maximum load on the sheathing will be near the beam flange with
an estimated concrete depth of 11 inches.

Determine the uniform applied load:

1 ft
Concrete 150 lb / ft 3 x 1 ft x 11 in. x = 137.5 lb / ft
12 in.
Sheathing 40 lb/ft3 x 1 ft x 0.06 ft = 2.5 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft

w = 190 lb/ft

Refer to Figure B 5-393.152:

For 3/4 inch thick Class II Plyform placed the strong way (which is most likely here) the safe load for 16 inch spacing is
about 240 psf. The sheathing is therefore acceptable.

2. Joists (2 x 4)

Check the joists using the average slab thickness of 9.8 inches. Determine uniform applied load:

1 ft 1 ft 3
Concrete 9.8 in. x x 16 in. x x 150 lb / ft = 163.3 lb / ft
12 in. 12 in.

Live Load 1.33 ft x 50 lb/ft2 = 66.7 lb/ft

Sheathing 40 lb/ft3 x 1.33 ft x .06 ft = 3.3 lb/ft

Joist = 1.5 lb/ft

w = 234.8 lb/ft

M
a. Bending stress f =
S

Check joists as a simple span.

wL2
M = L = 3' 2"
8

234.8 lb / ft x (3.167 ft )
2
M = = 294.4 ft/lb
8

S = 3.06 in.3

12 in.
294.4 ft / lb x
1 ft
f = = 1155 psi
3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (3)

b. Horizontal shear stress


1.5 V1
H =
bh
1 ft
234.8 lb / ft x 3.167 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x
w (L - 2h) 12 in.
V1 = = = 303.3 lbs
2 2

b = 1.50 in.

h = 3.50 in.

1.5 x (303.3 lbs)


H = = 86.7 psi
1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

P
c. Bearing stress on runner f =
A
Determine the reaction on the outer runner by assuming that the outer 2' 0" of slab concrete is supported on this runner as
indicated on the previous sketch.

9.9 in. + 8 in. 1 ft 3


Concrete = x x 2 ft x 150 lb / ft = 222.5 lb / f
2 12 in.

Sheathing = 5 ft x .06 ft x 40 lb/ft3 = 12.5 lb/ft


(for falsework and for edge of slab form)

2x4 = 7 lf/ft x 1.5 lb/ft = 10.5 lb/ft


(for falsework joist and edge of slab form)

Runner (4 x 4) = 3.4 lb/ft

Live Load = 50 lb/ft2 x 2 ft = 100 lb/ft

w = 348.9 lb/ft

Since joists are spaced at 16 inches or 1.333 ft, the reaction per joist is:

P = 1.333 ft x 348.9 lb/ft = 465.2 lb

A = 1.5 in. x 3.5 in. = 5.25 in.2

464.4 lbs
f = = 88.6 psi
5.25 in.2

This is much less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore acceptable.

5wL4
d. Deflection of joist =
384 EI

Use the same loading criteria for deflection as was used for determining bending stress except that live load is deleted
from the uniform load.

w = 234.8 - 66.7 = 168.1 lb/ft

L = 3' 2"
5-393.209 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

( )
3
12 in.
5 x 168.1 lb / ft 3.167 ft) 4 x
1 ft
= = 0.039 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 5.36 in.4

Since this is a surface that is exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

12 in.
3,167 ft x
L 1 ft
= = 0.141 in.
270 270

3. Runners (4 x 4)

Approximately 3 joists will bear on each runner span; therefore, assume the joists produce a uniform load on the runners.
This uniform load has been determined in part c) above.

w = 348.9 lb/ft

M
a. Bending stress in runners f =
S

Assume the runners will be furnished in lengths of two spans or more. In following the recommended ACI design
simplifications, simple span design will be used.

L = 5 ft

348.9 lb / ft x (5 ft )
2
wL2
M = = = 1090.3 ft lb
8 8

S = 7.15 in.3

12 in.
1090.3 ft lb x
1 ft
f = = 1830 psi
7.15 in.3

Since this is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi, the member is acceptable in bending.

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in runners H =
bh

1 ft
348.9 lb / ft x 5 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x
w ( L - 2h) 12 in.
V1 = = = 770.5 lbs
2 2

b = 3.5 in.

h = 3.5 in.

1.5 x 770.5 lbs


H = = 94.3 psi
3.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (5)

P
c. Bearing stress on 2 x 4 post f =
A

P = 348.9 lb/ft x 5 ft = 1744 lbs

1744 lb
f = = 332 psi
3.5 in. x 1.5 in.

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable

d. Deflection of runner

5wL4
=
384 EI

w = 348.9 lb/ft - 100 lb/ft (live load) = 248.9 lb/ft

L = 5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 12.51 in.4

3
12 in.
5 x 248.4 lb / ft x (5 ft ) x
4

1 ft
= = 0.155 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 12.51 in.4

Since this concrete surface will be exposed to view, the allowable deflection is:

12 in.
5 ft x
L 1 ft
= = 0.222 in.
270 270

The actual deflection is less than the allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. 2x4 Post

The total load and the resulting bearing stress on this post was determined in part c. above (f = 332 psi). By measurement on
the falsework plan, the post height is determined to be about 15 inches. The L/d ratio can then be determined:

L 15 in.
= = 10.0
d 1.5 in.

The allowable column stress will be 1562 psi as determined by the graph in Section 5-393.202. Actual stress (332 psi) less
than allowable stress; therefore, the column is acceptable.

5. Needle Beam

Assume each needle beam supports 5 feet of falsework. (Although the runners are continuous members, they are quite
flexible; therefore, simple span reactions can be safely used to determine the applied load on the needle beam.)
5-393.209 (6) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

The loading diagram for the needle beam is as follows:

First interior Fascia beam


beam Supporting bolt
Runner Walkway

Needle beam

Weight of member
8'-6" 2.92'
3.00'
5.25'
6.00'

Determine loads on needle beam:

Concrete, live load, sheathing, joists, runner = 348.9 lbs/ft x 5 ft = 1744.5 lb

Post = 1.5 lb/ft x 1.3 ft = 2.0 lb

2 x 6 plate = 2.3 lb/ft x 5 ft = 11.5 lb

Total reaction at runner = 1758.0 lb

2 x 8 walk plank = 3.0 lb/ft x 5 ft = 15.0 lb

Live load on walkway = 5 ft. x 50 lb/ft = 250.0 lb

Total reaction at walkway = 265.0 lb

Weight of cantilevered needle beam = 3.9 lb/ft x 2 x 6 ft = 46.8 lb

M
a. Bending stress in needle beam f =
S

Maximum bending moment will be at the supporting bolt. The bending moment is determined as follows:

Reaction x distance = Moment


1758 lb x 2.92 ft = 5133.4 ft lb
265 lb x 5.25 ft = 1391.3 ft lb
46.8 lb x 3.00 ft = 140.4 ft lb
2069.8 lb Total = 6665.1 ft lb

for two 2 x 10's S = 21.39 in.3 x 2 = 42.78 in.3

12 in.
6665.1 ft lb x
1 ft
f = = 1869.6 psi
42.78

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi; therefore, the member is acceptable in bending.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.209 (7)

1.5 V1
b. Horizontal shear stress in needle beam H =
bh

The shear in this member can most easily be visualized by drawing a shear diagram. To do this, the reaction (P) at the
first interior beam must be determined.

M 6665.1 ft / lb
P = = = 784.1 lb
L 8.50 ft

CLFirst interior beam CL Supporting bolt


on fascia beam

265 lb
784.1 lb
784.1 lb

Zero shear

1758 lb
CLWalkway
2069.8 lb

CLRunner

SHEAR DIAGRAM

The maximum shear (V1) will be about 2069.8 pounds. (Since there is no significantly large uniform load, the shear is not
noticeably reduced by using the shear at a distance h from the support.)

b = 2 x 1.50 in. = 3.00 in.

h = 9.25 in.

1.5 x 2069.8 lb
H = = 111.9 psi
3.00 in. x 9.25 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
5-393.209 (8) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

P
c. Bearing stress on plate washer f =
A

The bearing reaction, as determined from the shear diagram above, will be:

P = 7841 lb + 2069.8 lb = 2853.9 lb

The area of contact for a 4 x 5 washer, as determined from Figure A 5-393.204 is:

A = 15.0 in.

2853.9 lb.
f = = 190.3 psi
15.0 in.

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of needle beam

The needle beam can be set to plan elevation after the deflection due to weight of the members has occurred. Therefore,
the calculations for deflection must only determine the additional amount of deflection due to the weight of concrete
applied through the runner.

The uniform weight of concrete on the outside runner has already been determined to be 222.5 pounds per foot. The
concrete load on each needle beam will be:

P = 222.5 lb/ft x 5 ft = 1112.5 lb


1112.5 lb

Needle beam

Supporting bolt

8.50' 2.92'
R1 x 8.50 ft = 1112.5 lb x 2.9167 ft

R1 = 381.7 lb R1 1112.5 lb
R2 = 1112.5 l + 381.7 lb R2
Beam in
deflected
= 1494.2 lb position

The formula for determining this deflection, which can be found in the AISC Manual, is as follows:

Pa 2
= (L + a)
3EI

P = 1112.5 lb

L = 8.5 ft

a = 2.9167 ft

for two 2 x 10s, I = 2 x 98.93 in.2 = 197.86 in.4


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.210

2
12 in. 12 in.
x (2.9167 ft ) x
2
112.5 lb x (8.5 ft + 2.9167 ft) x
1 ft 1 ft
= = 0.175 in.
3 x 1,800,000 lb / in.2 x 197.86 in.4

The falsework should be set 0.175 inches high at the outer runner to compensate for deflection of the needle beam. In
addition, five or more wood to wood surfaces should exist in the support falsework, all of which will tend to seat (deflection
downward), when the concrete load is applied. A commonly used practice is to set the falsework high by 1/16 inch per
interface or 5/16 inch in this example. The net height adjustment to the outer runner would then be:

0.175 in. + 0.31 in. = 0.485 in. (above plan elevation)

5-393.210 COLUMN EXAMPLES

1. Wood column

2. Steel column

1. Wood Column

A Douglas Fir 6 x 8 S4S member will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 16,000 pounds. The unsupported
length of the column is 14 feet. To determine if this member is acceptable with regard to calculated stresses, the following
computations are necessary:

P 16000 lb
The actual stress in the member = f = = = 401.3 psi
A 5.5 in. x 7.25 in.

Allowable stress is dependent on the L/d ratio.

14 ft 12 in.
L/d = x = 30.55
5.5 in. 1 ft

From the graph in Section 5-393.202, the allowable stress for a Douglas Fir column with L/d ration of 30.55 is 578 psi.
Since the actual stress (401.3 psi) is less than the allowable stress, the column is acceptable.

2. Steel Column

A length of new HP10x42 piling will be used as a falsework column to support a load of 40,000 pounds. The unsupported
length of the column is 16 feet. The following calculations are necessary to determine acceptability of this column.

P
The actual stress in the member will be f = = Area of HP 10 x 42 = 12.4 in.2
A

40,000 lb
= = 3226 psi
12.4 in.2

(NOTE: Areas of steel members are found in the AISC Manual.)

The allowable stress is determined by the appropriate formula from Section 5-393.202.

2
kL
allowable f = 16980 - 0.53 x
r

12 in.
L = 16 ft x = 192 in.
1 ft
5-393.211 (1) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

from the AISC Manual, r = 2.41 (use the smallest r value)


2
192 in.
allowable f = 16,980 - 0.53 x = 13616 psi
2.41 in.

The member will obviously qualify for use with regard to stress.

5-393.211 JOIST AND STRINGER TABLES

The following bridge deck falsework Joist and Stringer Tables can be used as an aid to checking slab falsework. These tables
show the maximum allowable spans and dead load deflections for joists and stringers for commonly used allowable bending and
shear stresses. The applied dead load and live load per square foot and allowable lumber stresses must be known to obtain the
allowable span lengths from the tables. See the following example illustrating the use of the tables.

9" 4 sps. @ 2'-0" (2" x 6" stringers) 9"

8 1/4"
min.

Double 2" x 10" joists @ 4'-0" O.C.

5" 8'-8" 5"


9'-6"

FALSEWORK EXAMPLE
1. Stringers

Determine applied load per square foot:

1 ft 3
Concrete 8.25 in. x x 150 lb / ft = 103.1 lb / sf
12 in.

1 ft 3
Plywood 0.75 in. x x 40 lb / ft = 2.5 lb / sf
12 in.

1
2" x 6" Stringer 2.3 lb / ft x = 1.2 lb / sf
2 ft (Spacing)

Live Load = 50.0 lb/sf

Dead Load + Live Load = 156.8 lb/sf

Read the allowable span from the stringer table using the 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for
lumber having an allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, 4.22 feet which is greater than the
4' 0" joist spacing and, therefore, the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflection may be estimated
from the table value as 0.017 inches. The stringer bearing stress should be checked as indicated in previous examples in the
Bridge Construction Manual.

2. Joists

Determine applied load per square foot:

Stringer - Dead Load + Live Load = 156.9 lb/square foot


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (2)

1
Double 2 x 10 - 2 x 4.3 lb / ft x = 2.2 lb / square foot
4 ft (spacing)

Total = 159.1 lb/square foot

Read the allowable span from joist table using 160 psf load. The maximum allowable span in the column for lumber, having an
allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and an allowable shear of 120 psi, is 8.48 feet which is approximately the 8'8" joist span and
therefore the stringer design meets shear and bending requirements. The deflections will be slightly greater than the 0.144 in.
shown in the table.

The bearing stress in the lumber and the stress in the hanger hardware should be checked as indicated elsewhere in the Bridge
Construction Manual.

If lumber is used which has allowable stresses differing from those used in the tables, and the tables indicate that the design is
questionable, exact formulas which are shown in the Bridge Construction Manual should be used to check the falsework design.

STRINGER TABLE (for two continuous spans)

wL2 1.5 V1 5 w (L - 2h) wL4


M = H = V, = =
8 bh 8 185 EI

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress


Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2x4 12" 150 5.05 0.063 4.09 0.035
(1 x 3 ) 12" 160 4.78 0.056 3.87 0.031
12" 170 4.54 0.049 3.68 0.027
12" 180 4.32 0.044 3.51 0.025
2x6 12" 150 7.94 0.099 6.43 0.055
(1 x 5 ) 12" 160 7.52 0.088 6.09 0.048
12" 170 7.13 0.077 5.78 0.043
12" 180 6.78 0.068 5.51 0.039
2x4 16" 150 3.94 0.031 3.22 0.018
(1 x 3 ) 16" 160 3.73 0.028 3.05 0.016
16" 170 3.55 0.025 2.91 0.014
16" 180 3.38 0.022 2.78 0.013
2x6 16" 150 6.20 0.049 5.05 0.028
(1 x 5 ) 16" 160 5.87 0.043 4.79 0.025
16" 170 5.58 0.039 4.57 0.022
16" 180 5.32 0.035 4.36 0.020
2x4 24" 150 2.82 0.012 2.34 0.007
(1 x 3 ) 24" 160 2.68 0.011 2.23 0.007
24" 170 2.56 0.010 2.13 0.006
24" 180 2.45 0.009 2.05 0.006
2x6 24" 150 4.44 0.019 3.67 0.012
(1 x 5 ) 24" 160 4.22 0.017 3.50 0.011
24" 170 4.02 0.016 3.35 0.010
24" 180 3.85 0.014 3.21 0.009
5-393.211 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

JOIST TABLE (for a simple span)


5 w DL L4 w L2 1.5 V1 w (L - 2h)
= M = H = V, =
384 EI 8 bh 2

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress


Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2x8 2'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074
(1 x 7 ) 2'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066
2'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060
2'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055
2 x 10 2'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094
(1 x 9 ) 2'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085
2'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077
2'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070
Double 2'-0" 150 10.46 0.315 8.75 0.200
2x8 2'-0" 160 10.13 0.304 8.48 0.192
(1 x 7 ) 2'-0" 170 9.83 0.294 8.22 0.185
2'-0" 180 9.55 0.284 7.99 0.179
Double 2'-0" 150 13.35 0.402 11.17 0.253
2 x 10 2'-0" 160 12.93 0.388 10.81 0.244
(1 x 9 ) 2'-0" 170 12.54 0.375 10.49 0.236
2'-0" 180 12.19 0.362 10.20 0.229
2x8 3'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033
(1 x 7 ) 3'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030
3'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028
3'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026
2 x 10 3'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042
(1 x 9 ) 3'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038
3'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035
3'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033
Double 3'-0" 150 8.54 0.210 7.15 0.132
2x8 3'-0" 160 8.27 0.203 6.89 0.125
(1 x 7 ) 3'-0" 170 8.03 0.197 6.55 0.112
3'-0" 180 7.65 0.176 6.26 0.101
Double 3'-0" 150 10.90 0.268 9.12 0.169
2 x 10 3'-0" 160 10.56 0.259 8.79 0.160
(1 x 9 ) 3'-0" 170 10.24 0.251 8.36 0.143
3'-0" 180 9.76 0.224 7.98 0.128
2x8 4'-0" 150 4.11 0.030 3.48 0.020
(1 x 7 ) 4'-0" 160 3.93 0.028 3.34 0.018
4'-0" 170 3.77 0.025 3.21 0.017
4'-0" 180 3.63 0.024 3.10 0.01
2x8 4'-0" 150 5.24 0.038 4.44 0.025
(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 160 5.01 0.035 4.26 0.024
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.211 (4)

Nominal Ctr. to Ctr. DL+LL Allowable Stress Allowable Stress


Stringer Size Spacing of lb/ft2 1875 psi -bending 1312 psi -bending
(actual size) Stringers 120 psi- shear 94 psi - shear
inches E = 1,800,000 E = 1,400,000
Allowable DL ) Allowable DL )
Span in ft in inches Span in ft In inches
2 x 10 4'-0" 170 4.81 0.032 4.10 0.022
(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 180 4.63 0.030 3.96 0.021
Double 4'-0" 150 7.01 0.127 5.75 0.074
2x8 4'-0" 160 6.65 0.113 5.47 0.066
(1 x 7 ) 4'-0" 170 6.33 0.101 5.22 0.060
4'-0" 180 6.04 0.091 4.99 0.055
Double 4'-0" 150 8.94 0.162 7.34 0.094
2 x 10 4'-0" 160 8.48 0.144 6.98 0.085
(1 x 9 ) 4'-0" 170 8.07 0.129 6.66 0.077
4'-0" 180 7.71 0.116 6.37 0.070
2x8 5'-0" 150 3.53 0.020 3.03 0.014
(1 x 7 ) 5'-0" 160 3.38 0.019 2.91 0.013
5'-0" 170 3.26 0.018 2.81 0.013
5'-0" 180 3.14 0.017 2.72 0.012
2 x 10 5'-0" 150 4.50 0.026 3.86 0.018
(1 x 9 ) 5'-0" 160 4.32 0.024 3.72 0.017
5'-0" 170 4.15 0.023 3.59 0.016
5'-0" 180 4.01 0.021 3.47 0.015
Double 5'-0" 150 5.85 0.077 4.84 0.046
2x8 5'-0" 160 5.56 0.069 4.62 0.042
(1 x 7 ) 5'-0" 170 5.30 0.062 4.42 0.039
5'-0" 180 5.08 0.057 4.24 0.035
Double 5'-0" 150 7.46 0.098 6.18 0.059
2 x 10 5'-0" 160 7.09 0.088 5.89 0.054
(1 x 9 ) 5'-0" 170 6.77 0.079 5.63 0.049
5'-0" 180 6.48 0.072 5.41 0.045
2x8 6'-0" 150 3.14 0.015 2.72 0.011
(1 x 7 ) 6'-0" 160 3.02 0.014 2.63 0.011
6'-0" 170 2.91 0.014 2.54 0.010
6'-0" 180 2.82 0.013 2.47 0.010
2 x 10 6'-0" 150 4.01 0.020 3.47 0.014
(1 x 9 ) 6'-0" 160 3.85 0.018 3.35 0.014
6'-0" 170 3.72 0.017 3.25 0.013
6'-0" 180 3.60 0.017 3.15 0.013
Double 6'-0" 150 5.08 0.052 4.24 0.033
2x8 6'-0" 160 4.83 0.047 4.05 0.030
(1 x 7 ) 6'-0" 170 4.62 0.043 3.88 0.028
6'-0" 180 4.43 0.039 3.73 0.026
Double 6'-0" 150 6.48 0.067 5.41 0.042
2 x 10 6'-0" 160 6.17 0.060 5.16 0.038
(1 x 9 ) 6'-0" 170 5.89 0.055 4.95 0.035
6'-0" 180 5.65 0.050 4.76 0.033
5-393.212 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

5-393.212 FORM DETAILS

All of the comments in Section 5-393.205 regarding Falsework Details and Analysis apply equally to this Section on Form
Details and Analysis. In addition to the formulas used in the falsework examples, the formula for lateral concrete pressure (see
Section 5-393.204) will be used here for the examples concerning form plans. The pressure determined by these formulas is
based on anticipated concrete temperatures and an anticipated rate of concrete placement. The actual value of these two items
must be determined during the operation of concrete placement. Any deviation from the anticipated values used for checking
stresses must be evaluated to assure that unsafe (over stressed) conditions will not result.

5-393.213 PIER CAP FORM EXAMPLE

Assume the Contractor has proposed that pier cap form plans shown in Figure A 5-393.206. Assume all lumber will be Douglas
Fir, No. 1. The members which require stress investigation are as follows: (NOTE: Items defined as falsework are checked in
Section 5-393.205.)

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling Shear Stress
c. Deflection

2. Studs
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on walers
d. Deflection

3. Walers
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing on tie plates
d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods
a. Tension stress or manufacturers safe load

Calculations would be as follows:

The lateral concrete pressure is the only load applied on the forms. About 17 cubic yards of concrete are required for the pier cap.
Assume the Contractor anticipates placing this concrete in a thirty minute period.

The rate of placement would then be:

3.67 feet or 7.33 feet


30 minutes 1 hour

The formula for rate of pour exceeding 7 feet/hour would then apply. The three conditions for determining this pressure are as
follows:

(Assume T = 70F) T = 70 and R1 = 7.33 feet/hour

1. P = 150 + 43400 + 2800R1


T T

= 150 + 43400 + 2800 x 7.33


70 70

= 1063.2 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

2. P = 150h = 150 x 3.667 feet = 550 psf (at bottom of cap forms)
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (1)

3. Neither of the above can exceed 2000 psf.

The following sketch illustrates the concrete pressure as determined above.

h=0
(Top of concrete) p=0

h = 3.67 ft p = 550 psf


(Bottom of pier cap)

p = 1060

Only the cross-hatched portion of the pressure diagram applies in this example.

1. Sheathing

When a triangular shaped pressure diagram is involved, check sheathing for the maximum pressure. In this case, check
the sheathing for a pressure of 550 psf on a stud spacing of 16 inches. The sheathing material is 7/8 inch plyform, Class
I. The chart for face grain across (see Figure B 5-393.202) indicates that 7/8 inch plyform with 16 inch stud spacing can
safely carry just 550 psf. It must be verified later that the Contractor actually places the plyform the strong way.

2. Studs

The studs in this example should be checked as a simple span. In the following sketches, the stud will be shown
horizontal to more clearly illustrate its beam action.

550 psf
450 psf

287.5 psf @ mid span

125 psf
1'-1" 1'-1" 2 x 4 stud

8" 2'-2" 10"


CL Walers

a. Bending stress

The pressure at mid span (287.5 psf) may be used as a uniform load for computing bending moments. The results will
be slightly more conservative than would result from use of the actual loading.

The pressure of 287.5 psf must be converted to a load per linear foot on the studs with a 16 inch spacing.

w = 287.5 lb/ft2 x 16 in. x 1 ft = 383.3 lb/ft


12 in.
5-393.213 (2) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

M = wl2 = 383.3 lb/ft x (2.167 ft)2 = 225 ft lb


8 8

S = 3.06 in.3

225 ft/lb 12 in.


f = M = 1 ft = 882.3 psi
S 3.06 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi for Douglas Fir and is, therefore, acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress

This should be checked by assuming that the load at the left support (450 psf) extends uniformly across the
simple span. Results will be slightly more conservative than would result from the use of the actual loading.

First convert the load to a uniform load for studs at 16 inch spacing.

w = 450 lb/ft2 x (16 in.) x 1 ft = 600 lb/ft


12 in.

600 lb/ft x 2.167 ft - 2 x 3.5 in. x 1 ft


V1 = w (L-2h) = 12 in. = 475 lb
2 2

H = 1.5 V1 = 1.5 x 475 lb = 135.7 psi


bh 1.5 in. x 3.5 in.

This is more than the allowable stress of 120 psi


and is not acceptable. Therefore, reduce the
stud spacing to 12", then H = 101.8 psi, which is
less than the allowable value of 120 psi.
14.5" 29.5"
c. Bearing stress of studs on walers
1009.3
The maximum reaction will be at the lower waler.
Actual reactions at each waler can be determined
as follows:

The total weight of the pressure block on each stud is:


8" 26" 10"
= (550 lb/ft x 3.67 ft x 1/2) x 12 in. x 1 ft = 1009.3 lb 3.67' = 44"
12 in.
1009.3
1009.3 lb x 19.3 in. = R1 x 26 in. 6.7" 19.3"
R1 = 749.2 lb
R2 = 1009.3 - 749.2 = 260.1 lb
R1 26" R2
Bearing Stress f = P
A

P = 749.2 lb
A = 4.50 in.2 [from Figure A 5-393.204]

f = 749.2 lb = 166.5 psi


4.50 in.2

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.213 (3)

d. Deflection of studs - The load condition used for determining maximum bending stress will be used for
determining deflection.

= 5wL4
384EI

w = 287.5 lb/ft

L = 2.167 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

I = 5.36 in.4

5 x 287.5 lb/ft x (2.167 ft)4 x 12 in. 3


= ft = 0.015 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 5.36 in.4

2.167 ft x 12 in.
Allowable deflection = 1 ft = 0.096 in.
270

The studs are, therefore, acceptable with regard to deflection.

3. Walers

The bottom waler will be checked since the higher stud reaction was found to exist at this location. A condition of
uniform loading may be assumed to exist since three studs bear on each waler span (between tie rods).

w = 749.2 lb/ft

a. Bending stress in waler f = M


S

The waler span length is equal to the tie rod spacing (4 feet).

This member will be continuous over two or more spans. In keeping with the recommended simplifications, the
assumption of simple spans may be used here.

M = wL2 749.2 lb/ft x (4 ft)2 = 1498.4 ft/lb


8 8

For two 2 x 6s S = 2 x 7.56 in.3 = 15.12 in.3

1498.4 ft/lb x 12 in.


f = 1 ft = 1189.2 psi
15.12 in.3

This is less than the allowable bending stress of 1875 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in walers H = 1.5V1


bh

749.2 lb/ft x 4 ft - 2 x 5 1/2 in. x 1 ft


V1 = w(L - 2h) = 12 in. = 1155 lb
2 2
5-393.213 (4) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

H = 1.5 x 1155 lb = 105.0 psi


2 x 1.5 in. x 5.5 in.

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and, therefore, is acceptable.

c. Bearing stress of waler on plate washer f = P


A

P = 749.2 lb/ft x 4 ft = 2996.8 lb

From Figure A 5-393.204, for a 4" x 5" plate washer:

A = 15.0 in.2

f = 2996.8 lb = 199.8 psi


15 in.2

This is less than the allowable side bearing stress of 480 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

d. Deflection of waler

Using the assumption of simple span:


= 5wL4
384EI

w = 749.2 lb/ft

L = 4 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in.2

For two 2 x 6's I = 20.80 in.4 x 2 = 41.60 in.4

5 x 749.2 lb/ft x (4 ft)4 x 12 in. 3


= 1 ft = 0.058 in.
384 x 1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 41.60 in.4

This surface is exposed to view. The allowable deflection of the span will be 1/8 inch since the L/270 value for
this span is greater than 1/8 inch.

4 ft x 12 in.
(NOTE: L = 1 ft = 0.178 in.)
270 270

Actual deflection is less than allowable deflection; therefore, the member is acceptable.

4. Tie Rods f = P
A

As determined in part 3 c. above, P = 2996.8 pounds

The form plan indicates that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolts (and coil ties) will be used as form ties. The manufacturers
literature must indicate a load capacity of at least 2996.8 pounds for both the coil bolt and the coil tie.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (1)

5-393.214 ABUTMENT WALL FORM EXAMPLE

A check for the abutment forms shown in Figure A 5-393.214 would require the following investigations. The anticipated rates
of concrete placement are indicated on the figure.

1. Sheathing
a. Bending stress
b. Rolling shear stress
c. Deflection

2. Studs
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing stress on walers
d. Deflection

3. Walers
a. Bending stress
b. Horizontal shear stress
c. Bearing on tie plate
d. Deflection

4. Tie Rods
a. Tension stress or manufacturers safe loading

The stress investigation listed above will be necessary for both the main wall forms and the parapet forms.

Calculations for the main wall forms are as follows:

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The Contractor has indicated a proposed rate of pour of 3 feet per hour in
this example. Assuming this concrete will be placed in mid-July, an anticipated temperature of 75 may be used. The three
pressure criteria for rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

a. p = 150 + 9000R1
T

R1 = 3 ft per hour

T = 75

= 150 + 9000 x 3
75

= 510 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

b. p = 150h - (150 x 18 feet) = 2700 psf (this will not govern)

This formula will only apply to the upper portion of the pressure diagram on a high pour such
as this: 150 h = 510 psf.

h = 510 psf = 3.4 feet


150 psf

c. Neither of the above can exceed 3000 psf.

The resulting pressure diagram is shown on Figure A 5-393.214.


Figure A 5-393.214 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

Strongbacks 2 x 4 Studs
150h as necessary @ 1'-0" O.C.

3'-4" 3/4" Plyform


Class I

7 Spaces @ 2'-6"
2 x 6 Studs

18'-6"
@ 1'-0" O.C.

510 psf
Double 2 x 6 waler

1/2" Dia. coil bolt,


coil ties, and
3 x 4 flat washers
spaced @ 3'-0"

Concrete Pressure Diagram


6"

Estimated conc. temp. = 75


Rate of pour = 3 ft/hr

MAIN WALL FORMS

Example Abutment Forms 3/4" Plyform


Class I 2 x 4 Studs
@ 1'-0" O.C.
4.43"

4 Spaces @ 1'-10"

150h 1/2" Coil ties


with 3 x 4
washers spaced
@ 2'-6"
8'-6"

Double 2 x 6
664 psf walers
6"

Concrete Pressure Diagram


Estimated conc. temp. = 70
Rate of pour = 4 ft/hr

PARAPET FORMS

All lumber to be Douglas Fir, Construction grade.


November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (2)

1. Sheathing

The sheathing must support a pressures of 510 psf over a stud spacing of one foot. Assume the Class I Plyform will be
placed the "strong" way (face grain across supports). From Figure B 5-393.202 for 3/4" Plyform, it can be seen that the
safe load is about 760 psf. The sheathing is, therefore, acceptable.

2. Studs

The 2 x 6 studs are spaced at one foot with a uniform load of 510 psf. Span length is 2' 6". Assume these are continuous
for more than three spans.

a. Bending stress in studs f = M w = 510 psf


S

For 3 span continuous, M = 0.1wL2 = 0.1 x 510 lb/ft (2.5 ft)2 = 318.8 ft lb

For one 2 x 6, S = 7.56 in.3

318.8 ft/lb x 12 in.


f = 1 ft = 506 psi
7.56 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in studs H = 1.5V1


bh

For 3 span continuous, V1 = 0.6 w (L-2h) = 0.6 x 510 lb/ft x 2.5 ft - 2 x 5.5 in. x 1 ft = 484.5 lb
12 in.

H = 1.5 x (484.5 lb) = 88.1 psi


1.5 in. x (5.5 in.)

This is less than the allowable stress of 120 psi and is, therefore is acceptable.

c. Bearing stress of stud on waler f = P


A

For 3 span continuous, P = 1.1wL = 1.1 x 510 lb/ft x (2.5 ft) = 1402.5 lb

A = 1.50 in. x 1.50 in. x 2 = 4.5 in.2

f = 1402.5 = 311.7 psi


4.5

This is less than the allowable stress of 480 psi and, therefore is acceptable.

d. Deflection of studs

For 3 span continuous, = 0.0069 wL4


EI

w = 510 lb/ft

L = 2.5 ft

E = 1,800,000 lb/in2

I = 20.80 in.4
5-393.214 (3) BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL November 1, 2005

0.0069 x 510 lb/ft x (2.5 ft)4 x 12 in. 3


= 1 ft = 0.006 in.
1,800,000 lb/in.2 x 20.80 in.4

2.5 ft x 12 in.
The allowable deflection is L = 1 ft = 0.111 in.
270 270

Since actual deflection is less than allowable, the studs are acceptable. However, cumulative deflection of sheathing plus
studs plus walers must not exceed 1/8 inch to meet the alignment and stiffness criteria of Section 5-393.203.

3. Walers (double 2 x 8 member)

Tie rods are spaced 3' 0". Assume walers will be continuous for three spans or more and use the three span continuous
formulas. Since studs are spaced at 12 inches, there are at least 3 studs in each waler span and a condition of uniform
load may be assumed on the walers.

Uniform load w = 510 lb/ft2 x 2.5 ft = 1275 lb/ft of waler

a. Bending stress of waler f = M


S

M = 0.10 wL2 = 0.1 x 1275 lb/ft x (3.0 ft)2 = 1147.5 ft/lb

For two 2 x 8's S = 13.14 in.3 x 2 = 26.28 in.3

1147.5 ft/lb x 12 in.


f = 1 ft = 524 psi
26.28 in.3

This is less than the allowable stress of 1875 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

b. Horizontal shear stress in waler H = 1.5 V1


bh

V1 = 0.6 w (L-2h) = 0.6 x 1275 lb/ft x 3.0 ft - 2 x 7.25 in. 1 ft = 1370.6 lb


12 in.

H = 1.5 (1370.6 lb) = 94.5 psi


2 (1.5 in.) (7.25 in.)

This is less than the allowable horizontal shear stress of 120 psi and is, therefore, acceptable.

c. Bearing on tie plate f = P


A

P = R2 = 1.1 wL

= 1.1 x 1275 lb/ft x (3.0 ft) = 4207.5 lb

From Figure A 5-393.204, for a 3 x 4 flat washer with a 3/4 in. Spacer between the waler members, A = 9.0 in.2.

f = 4207.5 lb = 467.5 psi


9 in.2

Allowable stress = 480 psi x 1.13 (stress increase factor) = 542.4 psi

Since actual stress is less than allowable stress, the member is acceptable.
November 1, 2005 BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL 5-393.214 (4)

4. Tie Rods - Tension Stress

The tension load as shown in part 3 c. above is 4207.5 pounds. The form details indicate that 1/2 inch diameter coil bolt
and coil tie will be used. The manufacturers literature must be checked to determine that these bolts and ties will safely
carry the 4207.5 pound load.

Calculations for checking the parapet forms (see Figure A 5-393.214) are as follows:

First determine the amount of pressure on the forms. The form plan indicates a proposed rate of concrete placement of 4
feet per hour. Assuming concrete placement will be late in August, a concrete temperature of 70 may reasonably be
used. The three criteria for determining form pressure with rates of pour less than 7 feet per hour are as follows:

a. p = 150 + 9000R1 R1 = 4 ft per hour T = 70


T

= 150 + 9000 x 4
70

= 664 psf (maximum pressure at any depth)

b. p = 150 h = 150 x 8.5 ft = 1275 psf (this will not govern)

Form pressure will be determined by this formula above the point where pressure is 664 psf.

150 h = 664 psf

h = 664 = 4.43 ft
150

c. Neither of the above can exceed 3000 psf.

The resulting concrete pressure diagram is shown on Figure A 5-393.214. The actual stress calculations for the
parapet forms will be similar to those for the main wall forms and, therefore, will not be repeated in this
example. However, it would be necessary to perform these calculations since the concrete pressure and member
spacings differ from those of the main wall forms.