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Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond with a

constantelement of Romanticism. From the late19th century, Neo classicism had oftenbeen considered to
be anti-modern; and by the mid-19th century, severalEuropean countries were transformed into museums of
Neo-classical architecture.

With the continuous element of Romanticism throughout this time, Neo-Classicism begun the Romanticism
(Gothik)movement which dates back between 1770's and the 1820's; it began in Germany and Englandbut
rapidly travelled throughout Europe andeventually became worldwide. Romanticism transformed poetry,
sculpture andmusic, especially opera. It was also known as the 'Picturesque' and wasinterpreted as an artistic
and intellectual movement, Romanticism emphasisesstrong emotion, spirituality and creativity, drama and
religion. The Romanticin architecture era was like a fairytale setting which aimed to stress theimportance of
nature with grand castles and extremely decorative towers basedupon medieval cathedrals, only in a more
fanciful than Gothic style. Buildingsduring this time represented eccentric natural expression and beauty,
thebigger and more decorative the better. Romanticism in Architecture became verypopular, especially with
the aristocracy, this being the reason why many richpeople begun to alter their homes to become a part of
the perceived heroicfairytale fantasy. Some of the richer people went to great extremes, such asWilliam
Beckford (October 1, 1760 May 2, 1844), an English Novelist who was born inFonthill, Wiltshire. He was a
huge fan of this particular style; Following thedeath of his father, twice Lord Mayor of London and at the time
the richest manin England, Beckford inherited a small fortune from which he made his dreamsbecome reality.
He was so fascinated with Romanticism that he employed anArchitect called James Wyatt to design Fonthill
Abbey; Fonthill Abbey was a huge 6,000 acre estate on which a rather eccentric gothik style castle/cathedral
wascompleted in 1807. William Beckford wasa very impatient man who was known to not be very sensible
with his financesand was therefore named The Fool of Fonthill an easy target for others totake advantage.
James Wyatt was one of these people. During his planning forFonthill Abbey, he did not include the
foundations, obviously leading to theeventual collapse of this magical Abbey on 21 December 1825.
Obviously between 1700 AD andthe 1770s, many changes occurred throughout the design movements in
both Styleand Philosophy, However some elements remain similar. In both the Classicismand Romanticism
style, it is fair to say that both forms and architecture arerepresented by such a grand scale and detailed
stonework as well as beingrecognized for their decorative characteristics. Even from early Classicismthrough
to Neo-classicism the design movement saw some fascinating changes instyle and decoration.

The Temple of Hephaestos -a typical example of early Classicism, stands as asymbolic structural landmark.
Consisting of Doric posts it can be easilyidentified as one of the early attempts in decorative architecture, its
styleis not only basic, but very rough and untidy. The style of The Temple ofHephaestos expresses symmetry
by the even number of Doric posts as well as andharmony with its simplistic, basic design and structure. In
the early stages,Classical architecture was renowned for the levels of mathematics and science
used.Education was one of the main philosophical reasons for this design movement,Science and
mathematics were classed as great areas of importance throughoutthis time; as was language such as Latin
and Greek.

High levels of decoration were not considered as important until theGothicism period between 100 and
1200AD. Grand buildings such as Notre Dame Cathedralincorporated high standards of decoration and
craftsmanship into architecture; itwas at this time that buildings became more realistic and stylish due to
extrassuch as stained glass windows, plaster mouldings and fabrics. The Gothic movementrepresented
spirituality, mystery and darkness; it had unique design featuressuch as asymmetrical, eccentric scale and
structure. It was after Gothic whenNeo-Classicism brought back buildings such as TheNational Library, The
National University of Athens. The intention of the Neo-classicismmovement was to address the basic
principals of early classicism and perfectthe imperfections; Rules and principals of Classicism were aligned by
the ageof rationalism. Grand buildings such as town halls, churches and temples werereformed in a more
decorative manor with high quality craftsmanship and stoneworkwhilst maintaining the original features of
earlier Classicism.

As many European countries adopted Neo-classicism, England associated the style with
Romanticism,otherwise known as the 'Picturesque' Romanticism was thought to representstrong emotion
and expressed spiritual and religious beliefs. Similar to Gothic,an Asymmetrical theme was used to show
creativity and drama. Romanticism isoften associated with allegory - it is as though the movement has
hiddenmeanings expressing beauty and strangeness. The style was very fanciful andtruly exaggerated with a
wide selection of beautiful designs which includedmouldings, paintings and other materials and
fabrics which is where the word 'Picturesque'originated.Calton Hill monuments in Edinburgh are a typical
representation ofthe fairy tail castle upon a hill scenario which made this period inarchitecture have an
extreme effect on people of the time, Many poems, novels and paintings like 'Raft of the Medusa,1819' were
inspired by the Romantic period.

Overall, Grand changes were made, especiallybetween the Classicism and Romanticism movements. The
Classical Philosophyaltered from mathematics, education and symbolic state to the Romantic ofexpression,
drama and emotion with spiritual and religious meaning. Design andStyle evolved widely from simplistic
symmetrical, geometry to asymmetricalcreative and decorative 'picturesque' beauty.

Romantismul n arhitectur nu are caracteristici de stil sine stttoare. La mijlocul secolul al 18-lea Horace
Walpole i-a construit castelul Stawberry Hill astfel, nct arhitectura castelului s corespund exact
caracterului i minii sale care explora neobosit trecutul. n acest scop a folosit elementele goticii i n ciuda
faptului c pentru acest lucru a fost luat n derdere de contemporanii lui, de fapt a creat arhitectura
neogotic. n arhitectura curentului romantic prima dat curentul neogotic a avut rol primordial. Astfel a fost
construit la Londra Houses of Parliament dup proiectele lui Charles Barry, apoi Tower Bridge. Apoi a aprut
un alt curent care folosea elemente din arhitectura indian, a Orientului Apropiat, adugnd apoi elemente
din arhitectura maur i bizantin.
La mijlocul secolului apar construciile pe baz de schelet din oel, care la acea vreme era nc o curiozitate.
La expoziia mondial din 1851 Joseph Paxton proiecteaz Palatul de cristal din Londra din font i sticl,
avnd o suprafa de 72 000 metri ptrai. n anii 1880 Eiffel construiete turnul su devenit celebru.

Romantic architecture takes its cue from the movement calledRomanticism, which first developed in Englan
d during the late 18th century and the Industrial Revolution of the19th century. It was motivated by a reactio
n against the rational, classical ideals of the 18th century and introduceda more nuanced understanding of ae
sthetics, emotions, the deeper sensibilities that motivate people, and ofcourse, the sublime, which draws upo
n the image of a vast, untamed, and powerful nature for its inspiration. Romanticism spread from Europe to t
he United States, and is best known in literature, seen in the writings ofFranois-
Ren Chateaubriand and Jean-
Jacques Rousseau in France, William Blake and William Wordsworth inEngland, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
and J. C. Friedrich von Schiller in Germany, and Ralph Waldo Emersonand Edgar Allan Poe in the United State
In architecture, Romanticism often evokes past styles, such as the Gothic style, seen in the mid-19th-
centuryGothic Revival. Other types of Romantic architecture are illustrated in a variety of styles considered "e
xotic" dueto their displacement into a "foreign" setting in a more fanciful, less accurate format. Examples of e
xoticarchitectural styles include Egyptian-influenced homes, Asian-
styled homes, and even Swiss chalets. Thesehomes contain such "exotic" elements as Egyptian columns and s
mall sphinx sculptures, or Japanese-inspiredrooflines, or a Swiss chalet A-
frame as a decorative overlay to the traditional European building type. Inspired byNapoleon's military camp
aign to Egypt, which initiated the first modern, sustained research on Ancient Egyptianculture, Egyptian-
influenced architecture was very popular in France and England from the 1790s through the firstdecades of t
he 19th century.
The Oriental Revival of the early 1800s can be attributed to increased trade with India and China in the later
years of the 18th century. The most famous example of this fanciful, Indian-
inspired style is seen in the RoyalPavilion in Brighton, England, built by John Nash in 1815-
1822 as a seaside home for King George IV when hewas the prince regent. The building features a series of on
ion domes along the roof, with minarets flanking thecentral dome while the roofline features exotic-
styled pointed crenellations capped by balls. The front porch ispartially covered with a latticework screen wit
h Moorish horseshoe arches and pseudo-Gothic bifurcated windows.
The interior of the pavilion is done in a Chinese style, with richly decorated rooms suited to a vacation hom
e. Neo-Classicism also enjoyed a continued popularity in the form of the mid-19th-
century Greek Revival style, which can be considered a Romantic style. Romanticism is also seen in the introd
uction of the Italian country villastyle during this period, called the Italianate style. However, what makes the
Italianate style different from thenearly continuous classical revival that characterizes architecture from antiq
uity onward is the motivation for itsuse. In this case, it specifically refers to the more Romantic notion of a no
stalgic longing for this ItalianRenaissance building type rather than to the more noble philosophical and some
times political issues that aretraditionally pinned to the various classical revivals.
In America, these ideas can be seen in the most ornate Italianate style house in the United States, which is t
hefamous "Breakers House" built overlooking the ocean in Newport, Rhode Island. Designed by Richard Morr
isHunt in the 1890s for Cornelius Vanderbilt, this 70-room mansion features a three-
part stone faade whereporticoes open at both the ground level and the upper story to allow views of the sur
rounding countryside. Thecentral porticoes are flanked by wings on either side. While many more modest Ital
ianate homes are made ofwood and feature modified Victorian woodwork, this stone house represents the
more monumental form of theItalianate style. Clearly a vacation home for the wealthy, The Breakers takes its
cue from the Italian Renaissancevilla type to create a visual reference between the Vanderbilt family and the
established aristocratic families ofEurope, who were widely viewed at this time as more culturally refined tha
n their American counterparts.
The Swiss chalet-
style home, also considered a vacation home, became popular in both Europe and the UnitedStates after it w
as introduced in a pattern book published in 1850 by Andrew Jackson Downing. This type of home, originatin
g in the Alps, was more economically amenable to the middle-
class than the more "exotic" Indian style, and therefore it found favor during the first several decades of the 2
0th century, primarily in the mountain regionsof the United States.
Finally, the Octagon House, with its eight-
sided shape, was introduced during this era as well, and severalhundred of them, built on the East Coast and i
n the Midwest during the 1850s and 1860s, survive today. Introduced in a pattern book published by Orson S.
Fowler in 1849, the octagonal house was considered to bevery economical, efficient in floor plan, and better
lighted than a traditional square building. Fowler's ideas onindoor plumbing and central heating were very for
looking for his day, and although the Octagon House didnot ultimately become widely successful, its economi
cal design and practical features paved the way forsubsequent designs created to accommodate the influx of
middle-class homeowners in the 20th century.

Arhitectura neobrncoveneasc s-a concretizat n Romnia n contextul istorismului european de la

sfritul secolului al 19-lea i a continuat pn ctre cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial. Reprezentanii de seam
ai acestei micri, precum Ion Mincu, au receptat formele stilului brncovenesc, pe care l-au folosit n operele
Stilul neobrncovenesc reprezint un amestec de elemente rsritene bizantine (de exemplu, arcada scurt,
coloanele mici i groase etc.) i motive arhitecturale i etnografice rneti locale, precum i de anumite
modele de art otoman, la care se adaug i teme de renatere italian trzie, preluate din arhitectura
palatelor construite pentru domnitorul Constantin Brncoveanu (1688-1714) de ctre arhiteci italieni, ntr-o
manier care a mprumutat mult din vilele de Renatere trzie din nordul Italiei.
Arhitectul Ion Mincu este considerat de drept i de fapt iniiatorul micrii arhitecturale, n 1886 cu Casa
Lahovari, care adpostete azi o anex a spitalului Cantacuzino, precum i promotorul celor mai
cunoscute cldiri realizate n aceast manier estetic.
Arhitectura neobrncoveneasc a fost mai degrab o micare programatic dect un stil unitar. Ea s-a aplicat
ndeosebi tipurilor de cldiri ale structurilor administraiei locale (administraii financiare, primrii, vmi,
etc.), construciilor din investiii publice (locuine ieftine, coli rurale, muzee, faculti, biserici - mai ales
catedralele ortodoxe construite n Ardeal dup 1918), dar a fost preluat i de locuinele luxuoase (vile i
chiar imobile de raport) i de unele construcii monumentale private, n special bnci.
Printre numeroii arhiteci care au mbriat maniera arhitectural a stilului neo-romnesc mbrind o
linie proprie se numr i Petre Antonescu, Carol Benesch, Nicolae Ghica-Budeti, Cristofi Cerchez, Grigore
Cerchez, Alexandru Clavel, Paul Smrndescu, Florea Stnculescu, State Ciortan, Constantin Iotzu, I.D.
Traianescu, Toma T. Socolescu i alii.