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Dr.

Semsein Szekeres Edit

ENGLISH FOR EARTH SCIENCES

Lektorlta: Dr. Nyilas Istvnn

A segdanyagot ksztettk:
Szabn Enyedi Gabriella,
Papp Eszter,
John Graham,
Farkas Jnos,
Hajdu Zita,
Dr. Nyilas Istvnn
Dr. Laczkn Rcz Edit,
Louis J. Mattia,
Major Judit,
George Seel

TMOP-4.1.2.D-12/1/KONV-2012-0008

Debrecen

2014
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Unit 1 What is Earth Science?

Unit 2 Plate Tectonics

Unit 3 Earthquakes

Unit 4 Volcanoes

Unit 5 Tourism

Unit 6 Population

Unit 7 Weather and Climate

Unit 8 Energy Resources

Unit 9 Environmental Issues

Unit 10 The European Union

Keys

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Unit 1 What is Earth Science?

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with the most important fields and aspects of
Earth Science studies.

You will also acquire the language skills that will prepare you for the start of your career.

1.1

READING

After reading this short introduction about Earth Sciences match the paragraphs (1-8) with the
appropriate heading (A-H).

What is Earth Science?

http://geology.com/articles/what-is-earth-science.shtml

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A Meteorology: Science of the Atmosphere

B Astronomy: Science of the Universe

C Earth Science Careers

D The Four Earth Sciences

E Oceanography: Science of the Oceans

F Geology: Science of the Earth

G Introduction

H The Importance of Earth Science

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Earth Science is the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. It is an exciting science
with many interesting and practical applications. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge
of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact
of human activity on Earth's environment and design methods to protect the planet. Some
use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes and hurricanes
to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

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Many different sciences are used to learn about the earth, however, the four basic areas of
Earth science study are: geology, meteorology, oceanography and astronomy. A brief
explanation of these sciences is provided below.

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3

Geology is the primary Earth science. The word means "study of the Earth". Geology deals
with the composition of Earth materials, Earth structures, and Earth processes. It is also
concerned with the organisms of the planet and how the planet has changed over time.
Geologists search for fuels and minerals, study natural hazards, and work to protect Earth's
environment.
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Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and how processes in the atmosphere
determine Earth's weather and climate. Meteorology is a very practical science because
everyone is concerned about the weather. How climate changes over time in response to
the actions of people is a topic of urgent worldwide concern. The study of meteorology is of
critical concern for protecting Earth's environment.

Oceanography is the study of Earth's oceans - their composition, movement, organisms and
processes. The oceans cover most of our planet and are important resources for food and
other commodities. They are increasingly being used as an energy source. The oceans also
have a major influence on the weather and changes in the oceans can drive or moderate
climate change. Oceanographers work to develop the ocean as a resource and protect it
from human impact. The goal is to utilize the oceans while minimizing the effects of our
actions.

Astronomy is the study of the universe. Here are some examples of why studying space
beyond Earth is important: the moon drives the ocean's tidal system, asteroid impacts have
repeatedly devastated Earth's inhabitants and energy from the sun drives our weather and
climates. Knowledge of astronomy is essential to understanding the Earth. Astronomers can
also use knowledge of Earth materials, processes and history to understand other planets -
even those outside of our own solar system.

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7

Today we live in a time when the Earth and its inhabitants face many challenges. Our
climate is changing and that change is being caused by human activity. Earth scientists
recognized this problem and will play a key role in efforts to resolve it. We are also
challenged to: develop new sources of energy that will have minimal impact on climate;
locate new sources of metals and other mineral resources as known sources are depleted;
and, determine how Earth's increasing population can live and avoid serious threats such as
volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslides, floods and more. These are just a few of the
problems where solutions depend upon a deep understanding of Earth science.

If you are a pre-college student you can start preparing for a career in Earth science by
enrolling in the college preparation program and doing well in all of your courses. Science
courses are especially important but math, writing, and other disciplines are also used by
Earth scientists during every working day.

Some universities have Earth Science programs but most offer more specific training in
programs such as geology, meteorology, oceanography or astronomy. In these programs
you will be required to take some challenging courses such as chemistry, physics, biology
and math. Earth science is an integrated science and professionals in that field must solve
problems that require knowledge of several fields of science.

At present, job opportunities in many areas of the Earth sciences are better than average -
even with the down economy. Opportunities in geology are especially good.

Visit the website of a school that offers a geology degree, get in touch with the geology
department, let them know you are interested and make arrangements to visit the campus.
Don't be hesitant. Good schools and professors want to be contacted by interested
students.

http://geology.com/articles/what-is-earth-science.shtml

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1.2

Reading

http://www.agiweb.org/education/aapg/enrich/earth.jpg

Obviously, the 'study of the earth' is quite a broad concept, so there are many sub disciplines within the
Earth sciences. In general, geology is the scientific study of the earth- the material of which it is made, the
processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms
since origin. Geology now includes the study of other planets as well. And geophysics focuses on the
application of physical laws and principles to a study of the earth. However, these two very broad

categories can be broken down futher into many sub disciplines. Listed below is a brief description
of some of the major research areas.

Write the names of the disciplines on the line next to their description

Mineral Physics Sedimentology Geochronology Fluid Dynamics

Paleontology Geologic Mapping and Resource Evaluation Biomagnetism

Seismology Paleomagnetism Numerical Modeling

Rock and Mineral Magnetism Oceanography Exploration Geophysics


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Mineralogy Geobiology Structural Geology and Tectonics Limnology

Volcanology Petrology Geostatistics Paleoclimatology


Environmental Geology Hydrogeology Geochemistry Geofluids

--------------------- : The study of magnetic bacteria and their relationship to the earth's magnetic field.

--------------------------------------- : The interdisciplinary study of the interaction of humans with the geologic
environment including the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and to some extent the
atmosphere.

-----------------------------: Application of seismology, gravity and magnetics to the location of petroleum and
ore deposits.

----------------------------- : Application of physics and mathematics to the flow of fluids and solids.

-------------------------- : The study of processes at the interface between organic and inorganic materials, and
the role of microbes on the origin of life.

---------------------------- : The study of the distribution and amounts of chemical elements and their isotopes
in minerals, ores, rocks, soils, waters, and the atmosphere.

----------------------------- : Study of time in relationship to the history of the earth.

------------------------------ : Study of fluids in and on Earth and other planets.

---------------------------------------------------------- : Determining the distribution of different rocks at the earth's


surface and economic implications.

---------------------------- : Application of statistics to the analysis of geological and geophysical data.

---------------------------- : The study of water flow and chemistry at and below the earth's surface.

----------------------------- : The study of lake sediments, most often used to determine past climate and
ecological environments.

------------------------------ : The study of how minerals respond to forces.

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------------------------------ : The study of minerals: formation, occurrence, properties, composition, crystal
structure, and classification.

------------------------------------ : Supercomputer applications to a wide variety of problems involving flow of


geological materials.

--------------------------------------- : The study of the ocean, including its boundaries and bottom topography,
the physics and chemistry of sea water, the types of currents, and the many phases of marine biology.

-------------------------------------- : The study of past climatic and ecological environments.

-------------------------------------- : The study of the magnetic record in rocks and implications for plate tectonics
and the origin of the earth's magnetic field.

--------------------------------- : The study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plant and animals, their
relationships to existing plants, animals and environments, and the chronology of Earth's history.

--------------------------------- : The study of the formation of rocks at depth in the earth.

------------------------------------ : The study of how rocks and minerals record magnetic information.

------------------------------------ : The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and the processes by which they
were formed: the description, classification, and interpretation of sediments. Includes basin analysis, river
studies, surface processes, stratigraphy, and geochronology.

------------------------------ : Study of seismic waves to determine the internal structure of the earth and the
origin and location of earthquakes.

---------------------------------- : The study of mountain building, movement of tectonic plates, and deformation
of the earth's crust.

------------------------------------- : The scientific study of the dynamics of volcanoes.

http://www.esci.umn.edu/whatis

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1.3

http://eix.dyndns.org/~s17science/catalog/images/categories/earthsci.jpg

Writing

Visit the English version of the NEPTUN system and choose the five most important subjects that
you have studied or are studying at the university.

Give a short description of the disciplines and state why they are relevant in your studies and for
your future career.

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1.4

Listening

Watch the video about Earth Sciences and complete the sentences below with the missing words.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxbIJH4fTYo

1. Understanding how our planet works is important for everyone and that's what ..
is all about.
2. are investigating how it has changed over time and trying to understand where it is
now what may happen to in the future.
3. They investigate earth and how its systems works, they study earth in and its relationship
with our ..and the wider .. .
4. They measure the change over time from the beginning .years ago through all the ages
of time.
5. You can learn about the forces that form ., how Earth's continents formed,
.. and continue to change, how .. have opened and closed.
6. You can learn how mountains rise up then are worn down by .. and how sediment is
. and how the venturi becomes rock once more.
7. You can go where nobody has gone before to study what happens .. ..
8. It's important for everyone to learn how the earth and its work, only then can
. make informed . that affect our planet.

9. We now know that there are some .. that humans will have to . such as climate
change, natural hazards and the availability of . such as energy, clean water
and soil to grow food.
10. Earth science it's the key to making wise decisions about. , resources and
.

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1.5
Speaking

What kind of a person are you? What have you achieved so far? What ideas do you have for the
future? Discuss these questions with your partner.

1. Where are you studying?

Im studying at the University of ..,

at the Faculty of

on the . course

2. Which year are you in?

Im in my second year / final year

Im a second year student

3. Is there anything youre really interested in?

At the moment Im specializing in ..

Im particularly interested in

Im not quite sure what I want to do, but I think Id prefer to work in the public sector / private
sector / financial sector / industrial sector / creative industries / medical sector

4. What are you working on at the moment?

At the moment Im working on (writing) my dissertation / thesis. Its about ..

5. What do you enjoy / find difficult about studying?

I particularly enjoy / I find quite difficult

6. Why did you choose to study this subject / why did you choose this kind of work?

I chose because Ive always been interested in / had an interest in

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I think it will help me find a good job

I think its an interesting subject which can help you in many different ways.

7. Have you started to look for a job yet?

At the moment Im concentrating on my studies / dissertation, but in a couple of months Ill


start to look for a job.

Yes, Ive already done a few internet searches and Ive sent my CV off to various companies.

8. What do you think youll get from this course?

I think the course here will give me a good understanding of the .

Ill be able to analyze information more quickly and more accurately.

Maybe it will help me to make better decisions.

Its always good to have a theoretical background, but I think you can only really learn through
practical experience.

9. What kind of job would you like? / Where would you like to work?

Id like to work in the financial sector / medical sector / social care sector / agricultural sector /
legal sector because you can use the skills you have learnt, you have to think quickly, there
is usually quite a lot of variety in the work and the financial rewards are quite good.

Id like to be a doctor / social worker / lawyer, because .

The disadvantage is that its quite risky, and there is a lot of stress.

10. What kind of organization would you like to work in? What kind of company would you like to
work for?

My ideal job would be for a small to medium size company where I would be able to use my
initiative and also work in a small team
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Ideally Id like to work for a large organization because theres more chance for promotion and
you can learn a lot more.

I think Id probably prefer to be self-employed, because it gives you so much more freedom to
do the things you want to do.

11. What do you think are your main strengths?

I think Im quite good at understanding problems.

I usually manage to find ways of doing things quite efficiently

I always think carefully before making a decision

12. Do you have any weaknesses?

Im not so good at working in a big group

I dont find it easy to tolerate other people if theyre slow or not concentrating on the job

I tend to give up if things get difficult

1.6

Speaking

Choosing a career
Discuss the following questions with your partner or in a small group

1. Make a list of things, subjects or skills that you feel you are good at; discuss your list.

2. Which factors do you take into consideration when choosing a job? Put them in order of
importance!

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location
working with people
working hours
salary
promotion
fringe benefits
job satisfaction
boss
individual work

3. What is the most difficult or most pleasant job you can imagine?

4. Imagine that you are a careers adviser! What advice would you give someone who is:

money-motivated and prepared to take risks


a very talented musician who is not necessarily money-motivated
an achiever who has a background in IT and is a very confident person
suffering from a lack of satisfaction in their present job?

1.7

Listening

What employees are looking for

In the following recording Elsie Hunt, a member of a graduate recruitment team, is talking about
what employers are looking for in candidates. Listen to the recording and put a tick () next to the
item that you hear in the recording.

ability to work in a team

a degree with a good result

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good language skills

motivation

computer literacy

knowledge about the firm

work experience

http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/56/91656-004-
65060872.jpg

1.8

Reading

Starting your career


Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right.

1. Resume/rsum [AmE] a) a job that lasts for a short time


that a student does in order to
gain experience

b) the former student of a


2. internship [AmE] school/college
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3. Alumni c) someone whose job is to give
people advice about jobs and
professional training

4. CEO d) curriculum vitae

5. HR e) the person with the most


authority in a large company

6. Careers adviser/officer f) the department in a company


counsellor [AmE] that deals with employing &
training people

g) earning money by selling your


7. bonus/perks work to several organisations

8. freelance h) something you receive as well as


your wage for doing a particular
job

1.9

Listening

Steve Jobs

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Do you know this man? How did he become famous?

Watch this video (13-16 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

Find the meaning of the following expressions:

dawn on somebody

visions began to diverge

screw up

side with somebody

have a falling out

let somebody down

drop the baton

1. opinions or interests are different from each other

2. have a quarrel with someone

3. support a person or a group

4. not do something that someone expects you to do

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5. fail to do something

6. make a bad mistake or do something stupid

7. you realize it for the first time

Discuss these questions with your partner or in a small group:

1. How did Jobs enterprise start?

2. How did Apple progress in the following years?

3. What happened when he turned 30?

4. What was the reason why he was fired?

5. How did his feelings change over time?

6. What was the irony of fate in his career?

7. What advice is he giving to the graduating students?

1.10

Reading

How to find a graduate job using social media?


Read this article about how you can use social media to help you find a job. Then answer the
questions after the article.

Using social media wisely at university can help land the perfect graduate job. Ajaz Hussain offers his
tips on how to make the most of LinkedIn and Facebook as a student.

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Photo: ALAMY

Facebook will automatically turn as many adverts as possible into so-called "sponsored stories",
which aim to replicate the effect of word-of-mouth marketing online.

For most students, using social media and applying for graduate jobs are entirely separate activities.
After all, status updates about your "excellent communication skills" and A* in English Literature are

as likely to interest your friends as embarrassing drunken photos are likely to impress prospective
employers. But get it right and social media can play a key role in landing the perfect graduate job
once you leave university.

Over 90 per cent of employers will use social recruiting, and among the many tools available to
students you would do well to consider your professional online brand using LinkedIn. From a
professional-looking photo, keyword-aware headline statement and summary section, to identifying
your top skills and achieving an all-star profile, there are many aspects to building an online
presence that reflects your career ambitions.

With the relationship changes between Twitter and LinkedIn, you can also ensure you have an
integrated strategy pushing your professional communications or status updates from LinkedIn to
Twitter, ensuring you have a consistent message to potential recruiters.

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A useful framework for preparing your 120-character maximum headline statement is to consider
your skills, qualifications, experiences, attributes and knowledge in the form of an impact statement.
Many students need to move beyond the Student at University headline commonly seen for
university students to something more aspiring, for example: MSc Management student at LUMS /
Founder Lancaster University South-East European Society / seeking graduate analyst role /
Consultancy.

As in your CV, you need to say more with less, and think about your past achievements and future
ambitions, considering the language of the industry and company of interest. This improves your
chances of appearing in the search results of potential recruiters, businesses and suppliers.

There are currently over 2.9 million company pages on LinkedIn, which means you have access to
local and global companies from HP (who recently exceeded 1 million followers) to Tata Consultancy
Services (India). Use the company pages to research, be the first to share breaking news of new
products and services and let your network know about your passion and interest for a particular
industry.

You can also see new jobs and which companies people have joined. As a student you can use
LinkedIn to research companies before an interview, analyze patterns of people who have joined and
move on and begin to generate your own career ideas.

Both employers and university careers services are increasingly placing emphasis on Facebook and
LinkedIn with targeted campaigns. There are over 1.6 million groups on LinkedIn check out if your
university alumni group have a presence (if not, why not create one), join the group and seek out
groups either in the UK or overseas that you could join. Groups will allow you to accelerate your
career ambitions in ways not possible previously.

Ajaz Hussain is Postgraduate Careers Adviser at Lancaster University Management School.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/universityeducation/student-life/10010861/How-to-find-a-
graduate-job-using-social-media.html

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1. Decide whether these statements are TRUE or FALSE!

a. When graduates apply for a job they usually do not use social media.

b. Before an interview you can get information about the company and the people.

c. Prospective employers arent likely to be influenced by embarrassing photos.

d. According to the writer the majority of employers seek candidates via social media.

e. The more you write in your headline statement, the more chances you will have with
recruiters.

2. Answer these questions!

1. What elements should your headline statement include?

2. How can a graduate student take advantage of LinkedIn?

3. What does the writer mean by professional online brand?

4. Apart from employers what other groups use information on Facebook and LinkedIn?

5. What is their purpose?

3. Put the words below in the proper place in the text:

How to find a graduate job using social media?

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with

up

current

aware

embarrassing

chances

policy

posts

suitability

employees

The nature of social media is that it is social, but you should be1.. that it is not just your friends who
may read your 2.. or comments, or view your photos.

Things you do online can affect your future career and employment 3 Many employers check the
social networking accounts (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) of possible 4.. to gauge their character and
5.. for roles.

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To make a positive impression 6.. employers through your social media accounts, you should:

think before you post - don't post negative comments about 7.. or former employers (venting
your anger or frustrations about your work online can be a career limiting move)

clean 8.. your accounts - remove potentially 9.. or offensive content, including
inappropriate images (even ones where your friends have tagged you)

change your privacy settings to hide certain content from work colleagues

respect your employer's social media 10.. - many employers have a 'no social networks
allowed' policy while at work.

http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/images/earth_science_apps%282%29.jpg

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1.11

Reading

The rules of social recruiting

With more employers using LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook to hire staff, Graham Snowdon explains
how jobseekers can use them to their advantage

Laws of the social recruiting jungle: it can be tricky to be spotted with so many candidates vying for
the attention of recruiters. Photograph: Richard Allen

Chances are you are already familiar with social networks as tools for keeping in touch with friends,
or to broadcast your thoughts. But if their value as a way of connecting with potential employers has
passed you by, it's time to wise up (1) fast. A recent US survey showed that nearly 90% of employers
either use, or plan to use, social media for recruiting. However, the use of social networking to by
both jobseekers and recruiters raises several tricky questions of ethics and etiquette.

On the web, if it can be known, it will be known

A recent article in the New York Times told the story of Social Intelligence, a company used by some
US firms to scour (2) the web for information about potential recruits.

Much of Social Intelligence's data reportedly comes from non-social internet use an individual's
comments on blogs or eBay activity records, for example. For many, it is a disturbing vision, and

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Robert Hohman, chief executive of Glassdoor.com, a website that lets employees anonymously
review their employers (see below), foresees a backlash (3) against such data mining that will lead to
government regulation.

"When we get down to personal information, there are two types," he says. "There's that which you
have willingly shared with the world on social networks, and I think that's completely fair game. Then
there's information which you had no intention of sharing which, by some mechanism, is being made
available morally it runs foul of what we think of as privacy."

Tarnowski points out that the Facebook data of real interest to employers may lie beyond drunken
holiday snaps and in your primary and secondary connections which, collectively, paint a far more
accurate picture.

"The list of people I choose to be friends with says a lot about the kind of person I am," Tarnowski
says. "Past job titles say a lot about what I'm likely to do in the future. The courses I've done say a lot
about what might be suitable jobs. All these snippets, (4) if you amass them, could be incredibly
valuable."

For now, there remains an understandable risk for Facebook users regarding the kind of information
employers might be party to. The network's data privacy rules remain notoriously slack, (5) and it is
hard to delete permanently a Facebook profile. Google+, a new attempt to rival Facebook, attempts
to bridge these problems by allowing users to group their contacts into "circles" of family, friends
and work and share different updates with each, as well as deploying much stronger data privacy
rules.

Perhaps, thankfully for jobseekers, there is a silver lining (6) in that transparency can work both ways.
Jeffrey likens the situation for those checking out employers to that of researching a hotel on
Tripadvisor: "I don't trust the spin (7) in the brochures, I see what other people have written and
trust them to help me make my holiday decisions. You can see the same in recruitment."

For many larger employers, such openness has taken a bit of getting used to. "Companies building
social media communities are no longer in charge of the message, which is a bit scary," says Jeffery.
"In the old days, you could put a message out there in print or broadcast, and there was no way to
respond to it. In the social media age, everyone is talking out there. So whatever companies say
about themselves has to be realistic, or else we're going to get shot down. (8)"

Mirror image

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Four years ago, Robert Hohman was working for the travel website Expedia and wondering about his
own next career move when he had the idea for GlassDoor.com. Seeing how easy it was for
employers to research potential recruits, why, he wondered, was it so difficult for jobseekers to see
the other way through the mirror?

"There's a tremendous information asymmetry (9) between the jobseeker and the employer,"
Hohman says. "You're asking people to make some of the most important decisions of their entire
life and asking them to do it with almost no information. But it's not because it doesn't exist."

At GlassDoor workers can anonymously rate their employers on a range of criteria such as
management structure, career prospects, salary and staff morale (10). Collectively the data 1.75m
entries covering 120,000 companies so far builds up an intriguing and, at times, brutally honest
picture of corporate working life.

Hohman says the aim was to build a "constructive, balanced and fair community where we could
collect information in a responsible way". All content is reviewed by GlassDoor employees before it
goes live (11), and there are strict guidelines about what can go up. "For example, you have to give us
some good things and some things that could be improved. We don't want a puff piece, (12) or a rant
piece. (13)"

Originally a US concept, GlassDoor is now taking off globally, with the UK being the site's next highest
source of traffic. But what do employers under the microscope think of such warts-and-all (14)
exposure of their pay and practices? Hohman says much of the initial suspicion has faded away as
companies see the wisdom in being honest and open online.

"You can view employer sentiment changing as the years have gone by," he says. "I wanted to build a
community that was safe for employers. If they didn't feel that, we had failed. I think we've largely
succeeded."

Extract from:

http://www.theguardian.com/money/2011/aug/19/rules-social-recruiting-linkedin-twitter-
facebook/print

27
Unit 2 Plate Tectonics
Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with the structure of the Earth and the theory of
plate tectonics.

You will also have the language skills that will prepare you to write a successful CV and to prepare
for a successful interview to find a job that suits your qualifications the best.

2.1

Reading

Look at the figure below and put the missing words (1-6) in the appropriate places(A-F) in
the text:

1. core 2. granitic 3. mantle 4. seismic 5.crust 6.basalt

.The Earth is an oblate spheroid. It is composed of a number of different layers as determined by


deep drilling and (A) evidence. These layers are:

The (B) .which is approximately 7000 kilometers in diameter (3500 kilometers in


radius) and is located at the Earth's center.
The (C) which surrounds the core and has a thickness of 2900 kilometers.
The (D)floats on top of the mantle. It is composed of (E) rich oceanic crust
and (F) .rich continental crust.

Layers beneath the Earth's surface.

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Some sentences have been removed from the text. Put them back in their appropriate
places:

The core is a layer rich in iron and nickel that is composed of two layers: the inner and outer
cores. The inner core is theorized to be solid with a density of about 13 grams per cubic
centimeter and a radius of about 1220 kilometers. The outer core is liquid and has a density
of about 11 grams per cubic centimeter. (1)

The mantle is almost 2900 kilometers thick and comprises about 83% of the Earth's volume.
It is composed of several different layers. The upper mantle exists from the base of the crust
downward to a depth of about 670 kilometers. (2)..

The top layer of the upper mantle, 100 to 200 kilometers below surface, is called the
asthenosphere. (3) .

The rocks in this upper portion of the mantle are more rigid and brittle because of cooler
temperatures and lower pressures. Below the upper mantle is the lower mantle that
extends from 670 to 2900 kilometers below the Earth's surface. This layer is hot and plastic.
(4)..

The lithosphere is a layer that includes the crust and the upper most portion of the mantle
(Figure 10h-2). This layer is about 100 kilometers thick and has the ability to glide over the
rest of the upper mantle. Because of increasing temperature and pressure, deeper portions
of the lithosphere are capable of plastic flow over geologic time. The lithosphere is also the
zone of earthquakes, mountain building, volcanoes, and continental drift.

The topmost part of the lithosphere consists of crust. This material is cool, rigid, and brittle.
Two types of crust can be identified: oceanic crust and continental crust .

(5) Ocean crust


is thin and measures between 5 to 10 kilometers thick. It is also composed of basalt and has
a density of about 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter.
29
The continental crust is 20 to 70 kilometers thick and composed mainly of lighter granite
(Figure 10h-2). The density of continental crust is about 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter. It is
thinnest in areas like the Rift Valleys of East Africa and in an area known as the Basin and
Range Province in the western United States (centered in Nevada this area is about 1500
kilometers wide and runs about 4000 kilometers North/South). Continental crust is thickest
beneath mountain ranges and extends into the mantle.

(6) ..

Convection currents within the mantle cause these plates to move slowly across the
asthenosphere.

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10h.html

A The higher pressure in this layer causes the formation of minerals that are different
from those of the upper mantle.

B Both of these types of crust are less dense than the rock found in the underlying
upper mantle layer.

C This region of the Earth's interior is thought to be composed of peridotite, an


ultramafic rock made up of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.

D It surrounds the inner core and has an average thickness of about 2250 kilometers.

E Scientific studies suggest that this layer has physical properties that are different
from the rest of the upper mantle.

F Both of these crust types are composed of numerous tectonic plates that float on top
of the mantle.

30
2.3

Listening

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MFr2cC3erk

Listen to the video on the Earth structure and complete the statements below:

1. The earth is approximately 8,000 miles or 30 thousand kilometers in . from the


North Pole to the South Pole.

2. At the center we have what we call the inner core, which is like a metal ball.

3. It is under extreme .. and is believed to be at least 5000 degrees Fahrenheit or


27, 160 degrees Celsius surrounding the inner core.

4. The outer core form this area is about 1400 miles and is believed to be .. or liquid
form.

31
5. Nickel and . are probably the main elements in the outer core.

6. Geologists think that most of the is solid rock.

7. However, towards the top of this . an area of hot, thick, molten rock exists, that is
called the asthenosphere.

8. Above this area is the cool and outer shell of the earth, which we call the crust.

9. A rock that is similar to the common rock .. makes up most of this section of the
crust.
10. Under the the crust there is a much thinner layer of rock, similar to basalt.

2.4

Reading

Read the following text from the Wikipedia and give short answers to the following
questions:

Plate tectonics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Contdrift.shtml

32
The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek: "pertaining to building") is
a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on
the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of the 20th
century. The geoscientific community accepted the theory after the concepts of seafloor spreading
were developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the crust and upper mantle),
is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight major plates (depending on how
they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet, their relative motion determines the
type of boundary; convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-
building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative
movement of the plates typically varies from zero to 100 mm annually.

Tectonic plates are composed of oceanic lithosphere and thicker continental lithosphere, each
topped by its own kind of crust. Along convergent boundaries, subduction carries plates into the
mantle; the material lost is roughly balanced by the formation of new (oceanic) crust along divergent
margins by seafloor spreading. In this way, the total surface of the globe remains the same. This
prediction of plate tectonics is also referred to as the conveyor belt principle. Earlier theories (that
still have some supporters) propose gradual shrinking (contraction) or gradual expansion of the
globe.

Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earth's lithosphere has a higher strength than the
underlying asthenosphere. Lateral density variations in the mantle result in convection. Plate
movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from the
spreading ridge (due to variations in topography and density of the crust, which result in differences
in gravitational forces) and drag, downward suction, at the subduction zones. Another explanation
lies in the different forces generated by the rotation of the globe and the tidal forces of the Sun and
Moon. The relative importance of each of these factors and their relationship to each other is
unclear, and still the subject of much debate.

33
1. Which concept supports the plate tectonics theory?

2. What made the scientific community accept the theory?

3. What is the lithosphere broken up into?

4. What are the main types of boundaries? (3 )

5. List the 4 main activities associated with plate boundaries.

6. What motion carries the plates into the mantle?

2.5

Reading

The headings have been removed from the text. Put the appropriate headings next to the
paragraphs:

A Transform-Fault Boundaries

B Oceanic-Continental Convergence

C Divergent Boundaries

D Plate boundaries

E Continental-Continental Convergence

F Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence

G Convergent Boundaries:

34
(1)..

There are 3 primary types of Tectonic Plate boundaries: Divergent boundaries; Convergent
boundaries; and Transform boundaries. As the giant plates move, diverging [pulling apart] or
converging [coming together] along their borders, tremendous energies are unleashed resulting in
tremors that transform Earths surface. While all the plates appear to be moving at different relative
speeds and independently of each other, the whole jigsaw puzzle of plates is interconnected. No
single plate can move without affecting others, and the activity of one can influence another
thousands of miles away. For example, as the Atlantic Ocean grows wider with the spreading of the
African Plate away from the South American Plate, the Pacific sea floor is being consumed in deep
subduction trenches over ten thousand miles away. (All graphics courtesy of USGS.org).

(2).

At divergent boundaries new crust is created as two or more plates pull away from each other.
Oceans are born and grow wider where plates diverge or pull apart. As seen below, when a
diverging boundary occurs on land a 'rift', or separation will arise and over time that mass of land
will break apart into distinct land masses and the surrounding water will fill the space between
them.

Iceland offers scientists a natural laboratory for


studying - on land - the processes that occur
along submerged parts of a divergent boundary.
Iceland is splitting along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
- a divergent boundary between the North
American and Eurasian Plates. As North
America moves westward and Eurasia
eastward, new crust is created on both sides of
the diverging boundary. While the creation of
new crust adds mass to Iceland on both sides of
the boundary, it also creates a rift along the
boundary. Iceland will inevitably break apart

35
into two separate land masses at some point in
the future, as the Atlantic waters eventually
rush in to fill the widening and deepening space
between.

(3)

Here crust is destroyed and recycled back into the interior of the Earth as one plate dives under
another. These are known as Subduction Zones - mountains and volcanoes are often found where
plates converge. There are 3 types of convergent boundaries: Oceanic-Continental Convergence;
Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence; and Continental-Continental Convergence.

(4)

When an oceanic plate pushes into and


subducts under a continental plate, the
overriding continental plate is lifted up and a
mountain range is created. Even though the
oceanic plate as a whole sinks smoothly and
continuously into the subduction trench, the
deepest part of the subducting plate breaks into
smaller pieces. These smaller pieces become
locked in place for long periods of time before
moving suddenly and generating large
earthquakes. Such earthquakes are often
accompanied by uplift of the land by as much as
a few meters.

36
(5)

When two oceanic plates converge one is


usually subducted under the other and in the
process a deep oceanic trench is formed. The
Marianas Trench, for example, is a deep trench
created as the result of the Philippine Plate
subducting under the Pacific Plate.

Oceanic-oceanic plate convergence also results


in the formation of undersea volcanoes. Over
millions of years, however, the erupted lava and
volcanic debris pile up on the ocean floor until a
submarine volcano rises above sea level to form
an island volcano. Such volcanoes are typically
strung out in chains called island arcs.

(6).

When two continents meet head-on, neither is


subducted because the continental rocks are
relatively light and, like two colliding icebergs,
resist downward motion. Instead, the crust
tends to buckle and be pushed upward or
sideways. The collision of India into Asia 50
million years ago caused the Eurasian Plate to
crumple up and override the Indian Plate. After
the collision, the slow continuous convergence
of the two plates over millions of years pushed
up the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau to
their present heights. Most of this growth
occurred during the past 10 million years.

37
(7)
Transform-Fault Boundaries are where two plates are sliding horizontally past one another. These
are also known as transform boundaries or more commonly as faults.

Most transform faults are found on the ocean


floor. They commonly offset active spreading
ridges, producing zigzag plate margins, and are
generally defined by shallow earthquakes. A
few, however, occur on land. The San Andreas
fault zone in California is a transform fault that
connects the East Pacific Rise, a divergent
boundary to the south, with the South Gorda --
Juan de Fuca -- Explorer Ridge, another
divergent boundary to the north. The San
Andreas is one of the few transform faults
exposed on land. The San Andreas fault zone,
which is about 1,300 km long and in places tens
of kilometers wide, slices through two thirds of
the length of California. Along it, the Pacific
Plate has been grinding horizontally past the
North American Plate for 10 million years, at an
average rate of about 5 cm/yr. Land on the west
side of the fault zone (on the Pacific Plate) is
moving in a northwesterly direction relative to
the land on the east side of the fault zone (on
the North American Plate).

http://www.platetectonics.com/book/page_5.asp

38
2.6

Reading

http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/continental-drift/deck/3346088

The text below has been mixed, put the paragraphs in a logical order:

A
Wegener believed that all the continentsnot just Africa and South Americahad once been joined
in a single supercontinent. This huge ancient landmass is known as Pangaea, which means all lands
in Greek. Pangaea existed about 240 million years ago. By about 200 million years ago, this
supercontinent began breaking up. Over millions of years, Pangaea separated into pieces that moved
away from one another. These pieces slowly assumed their present positions as the continents.

39
B
Wegener noticed that the coasts of western Africa and eastern South America looked like the edges
of interlocking pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. He was not the first to notice this, but he was the first to
formally present evidence suggesting that the two continents had once been connected.

C
Wegener was convinced that the two continents were once part of an enormous, single landmass
that had split apart. He knew that the two areas had many geological and biological similarities. For
example, fossils of the ancient reptile mesosaurus are only found in southern Africa and South
America. Mesosaurus, a freshwater reptile only one meter (3.3 feet) long, could not have swum the
Atlantic Ocean. The presence of mesosaurus suggests a single habitat with many lakes and rivers.

In the early 20th century, German scientist Alfred Wegener published a book explaining his theory
that the continental landmasses, far from being immovable, were drifting across the Earth. He called
this movement continental drift.
http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/continental-
drift/?ar_a=1

http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html

40
2.7

Reading

Should you pay someone to write your CV?

If you have not much time (or confidence), it is possible to find a professional to write your CV for you.
Read this article and answer the questions that follow.

In a recent Question and Answer session on switching between the public and private sectors, one of
the panelists said: "Getting someone else to write your CV for you, especially a CV writing business, is
a mistake. I would always want to see how you describe yourself, rather than someone else do it for
you. Professionally-written CVs look generic and sterile and do not create a good impression with the
reader."

In my view, the belief that the individual is the best person to write their own CV is not always true.
Although many people can write their own CVs, and do it well, others struggle with a variety of
problems; such as incorrect English, not knowing how to structure a CV and not knowing how to best
highlight their most relevant strengths.

Through in-depth consultation, a professional CV writer can help identify the key achievements and
skills necessary for a particular role or sector, cut out unnecessary or irrelevant details, and pinpoint
what makes the individual stand out. This level of objectivity is one of the major benefits in working
with a professional writer. It's often difficult to be able to stand back from your own career history to
assess what's relevant or not, or to choose the most appropriate qualities.

If you do choose to work with a professional, here are some tips for working with a CV writer:

Be prepared to invest your time

You'll probably need to answer an in-depth email questionnaire or be interviewed before any writing
actually starts. The more information you can give your CV writer to work with, the better, so the
promise of a quick turnaround time isn't always going to result in the best possible CV. Take the time
to think about your career aims, your past achievements, and the value you bring, before you start
the whole process.

41
Your CV will probably be used as a springboard for questions at interview, so you need to make sure
you feel happy with the way it's written and with the choice of words. Being involved in the writing
process means your CV sounds authentic.

Look for experience in your field

Ask for a CV writer who has industry experience in your sector. HR professionals and recruiters with
relevant experience can also have valuable insights into what companies are looking for.

Choose a professional writer

The UK CV-writing market is not regulated as in the USA, where the letters CPRW (Certified
Professional Resume Writer) indicate that the writer is a trained professional. This means you'll need
to do some research and shop around to find someone with the appropriate writing skills. Look for
someone who's prepared to take the time to unearth your core accomplishments, choose exactly the
right words for maximum impact and who understands what and where to edit. Ask to see before
and after samples of their work or use personal recommendations before you choose a CV writing
service.

http://jobs.theguardian.com/article/4170823/should-you-pay-someone-to-write-your-cv-/

1. Why did one of the panelists believe that you should always write your own CV?

2. According to the author, what three main difficulties do people often encounter when they
try to write a CV?

3. What benefits can a professional CV writer bring?

4. Why is preparation of the CV important?

5. Why is it more difficult to find a professional CV writer in the UK than in the USA?

6. What should you check before you employ a CV writer?

42
2.8

Writing

How to create your CV - With the help of this guideline create your own CV!

1. Name and Address

Begin your CV with your full name and contact details. If you have a LinkedIn page you could include
the address here.

2. Personal Profile

Follow this section with a personal profile a short paragraph describing your background and why
you are right for the job. Be specific, cite specific achievements.

3. Areas of Expertise

Next, list three or four areas of expertise strengths you possess that will convince the employer
youll perform well in the position.

4. Work History

Outline your work history, most recent job first. Include dates worked, job title, employer, a brief
description of the role and its responsibilities and any goals you achieved. Place most emphasis on
the skills the prospective employer is looking for.

5. Education

Provide your education history. Include the name of the institution, dates you attended, courses
taken and qualifications gained.

6. Hobbies

Briefly mention your hobbies and interests. Pay attention to what they say about you. Are you a
team player? Are you a creative thinker?

7. Referees

List the details of two referees, preferably your last two managers. Alternatively, mention that they
can be supplied upon request.

43
8. To the Point

Keep your CV clear and to the point, dont use fancy fonts, pictures or colored paper. Try not to
exceed two pages in length. Write in a manner that allows the document to be read quickly your CV
will probably be looked at for no more than 60 seconds in the first instance.

http://howto.yellow.co.nz/careers-and-work/job-search/writing-your-cv-%E2%80%93-a-quick-guide/

2.9

Speaking

Discuss these questions with your partner or in a small group

What are some of the different methods you can use to try to find a job?

What is social networking?

Can you use social media to find a job?

Do you already use Linkedin or know anyone who does?

2.10

Reading

44
Read this short introduction to LinkedIn

LinkedIn is the worlds largest professional social network on the internet, currently counting 225
million users. It is used by industry experts and leaders (e.g. presidents and vice presidents),
university students, recent graduates and generally by anyone who is interested in advancing their
career. You can build and manage your online professional identity and power your career by
discovering job opportunities, business deals and new ventures

What do the numbers say?

77% of all job openings are posted on LinkedIn

48% of recruiters post jobs on LinkedIn and nowhere else on social media

89% of recruiters have filled a position using LinkedIn at some point in time

97% of all HR and staffing professionals use LinkedIn in their recruiting efforts.

45
2.11

Reading

Read the following text about how to make a great student profile on LinkedIn and answer the
questions that follow.

Building a Great Student Profile - Showcase your experience and professional interests on
LinkedIn!

1. Write an informative profile headline. Your headline is a short, memorable professional slogan.
For example, Honors student seeking marketing position. Check out the profiles of students and
recent alumni you admire for ideas.

2. Pick an appropriate photo. LinkedIn isnt Facebook. Upload a high-quality photo (your profile will
be 7 times more likely to be viewed) of you alone, professionally dressed. No party shots, cartoon
avatars, or pictures of your puppy!

3. Show off your education. Include all your high schools, major(s) and minor, courses, and study
abroad or summer programs. Dont be shy LinkedIn is an appropriate place to show off your test
scores, and honors or awards.

4. Develop a professional Summary. Your Summary statement is like the first few paragraphs of your
best-written cover letter concise and confident about your qualifications and goals. Include
relevant work and extracurricular activities.

5. Fill Skills & Expertise with keywords. This section is the place to include keywords and phrases
that recruiters search for. Find relevant ones in job listings that appeal to you and profiles of people
who have the kinds of roles you want.

6. Update your status regularly. Posting updates helps to keep you on the radar and build your
professional image. Mention your projects, professional books, articles, or events youre attending.
Many recruiters read your updates!

7. Show your connectedness. Groups you join appear at the bottom of your profile. Joining some
shows that you want to engage in professional communities and learn the lingo. Start with your
university and industry groups.

46
8. Collect diverse recommendations. The best profiles have at least one recommendation for each
position a person has held. Recruiters are most impressed by recommendations from people who
have directly managed you.

9. Claim your unique LinkedIn URL. To increase the professional results that appear when people
search for you online, set your LinkedIn profile to public and create a unique URL (e.g.,
www.linkedin.com/in/JohnSmith).

10. Share your work. You can also add actual examples of your writing, design work, or other
accomplishments on your profile, where you can share rich media or documents. What better way to
sell your skills than to show employers exactly what you can produce?

http://university.linkedin.com/content/dam/university/global/en_US/site/pdf/TipSheet_BuildingaGr
eatProfile.pdf

Now answer the questions.

Match the meaning of the word or phrase from the article with the definition below:

diverse to be on the radar lingo


unique memorable shy
connectedness rich engage in

(1) worth remembering or easily remembered

(2) fearful; hesitant; reluctant

(3) to be in the spotlight, the focus of attention

(4) having social or professional relationships, especially with influential or powerful persons

(5) become involved in

(6) the language and speech, especially the jargon or slang of a particular field or group

(7) different; of various kinds or forms

(8) existing as the only one or as the sole example; single

(9) of great value or worth; valuable

47
Answer these questions.

1. Your profile headline should be:

a. short and informative

b. memorable and long

c. clever and admirable

2. Having a photo:

a. will not help, it can be distracting

b. will help, but it should be something fun like a picture of your puppy

c. will result in more people looking at your profile

3. One of the following should be done frequently:

a. Developing your summary

b. Including keywords in the Skills and Expertise section

c. Updating your status

4. One way to show that you have professional relationships is by:

a. joining groups

b. learning the industry jargon

c. getting your own, unique URL

5. Sharing your work on LinkedIn will help you to:

a. make some money

b. promote your ability

c. make fewer connections

48
A final word!

The benefits of LinkedIn are almost endless with no downside to having a LinkedIn profile. Get
involved in forums, join groups and meet like-minded individuals like yourself. Best of all LinkedIn is
totally free. Job seeking is a tough business and applying for online jobs each and every day is a job in
itself! From a job seekers perspective, LinkedIn is another tool that you can use to help get ahead
when searching for a new job.

Dont forget one important aspect. While the advantages and benefits of having a LinkedIn profile
can help open up doors to opportunities that may never have existed previously, having an
incomplete or unprofessional LinkedIn profile can actually have a detrimental effect and portray a
negative impression of being lazy or having a lack of attention to detail. If you choose to create a
LinkedIn profile prepare it properly and utilize everything that LinkedIn has to offer.

http://www.redstarresume.com/the-advantages-and-benefits-of-creating-a-linkedin-profile/

2.12

Writing

Getting started on LinkedIn create your profile at www.linkedin.com

It is really easy to start building your profile on LinkedIn. Use the advice from the text above and from
this link: http://daily.undergradsuccess.com/5-tips-to-build-your-student-linkedin-profile/ to get
started:

1. Write your LinkedIn profile headline

2. Add your education

3. Write your profile summary

4. Include any work placements in the experience section

5. List your skills and expertise (5-10 skills are enough to get started)

6. Add any publications, certifications, honors and awards and the languages you speak

49
Now that you have your LinkedIn profile up and running you will need to start building connections
and networking.

2.13

Speaking

Think about these questions and discuss them with your partner or in a small group

1. Do you think having a Linkedin profile and actively using Linkedin could help you find a job?

2. Will you use Linkedin?

3. Social media is only one place where we can we build our Networks, we can also physically go out
and network. What are some of the events or places where people can go to network
professionally?

2.14

Speaking

Discuss these questions with a partner or in a small group

Which factors and characteristics do you think are the most important in order to have a successful
interview?

Skills / Experience / Attractiveness / Dress / Personality / Punctuality /


References / Manners / Confidence / Eye Contact / Smiling / Knowing the
interviewer

50
2.15

Listening

Interviews

www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSylCmes5dw

Listen to this clip and answer the following questions

Top 5 job interview tips

1. Jeff and Mike are The interview guys. Listen to the first part of their discussion and answer
these questions.

a. What do they like to do when they are talking about job interviews?

b. Why does Mike think that Jeff is speaking so quickly?

c. Jeff says that understanding the 5 tips will help you do what?

2. Listen to the second part and write down the 5 tips.

a. .

b. .

c. .

d. .

e. .

3. Listen to the second part again and fill in the following sentences.

a. Its important to know exactly what they do ., and any current


events related to the company.

b. Its important that you prepare perfect answers to some of the most commonly asked and

51
c. A success story is a story from your past, work or ... that highlights an
achievement and reflects one of your strengths.

d. Asking the interviewer questions shows that you are prepared about the job.

e. You need to find out beforehand exactly what the position calls for in an employee, as well as
exactly what makes up the

2.16

Language practice

Reported interview questions

Your resume has been successful, they have seen and liked your LinkedIn profile and now they want to
interview you. Well done!

Interviewing for a job requires a lot of preparation and practice. A large part of your success in an
interview will be determined by how well you answer the interviewers questions. Some of the most
common graduate interview questions are listed below.

Imagine that after the interview you tell your friend what the interviewer asked you. Report the
interviewers questions below to your friend.

Interviewers questions Reported questions

1. Why do you want this job? He asked me why I wanted the job.

2. What are you studying at university?

3. Why did you choose your degree subject?

4. What is your usual role in a team?

5. Have you got any questions?

6. Have you led a team before?

7. What do you expect to be doing in 5 years


time?

52
8. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

9. What other jobs have you applied for?

10. How would your worst enemy describe you?

11. Why did you choose your university and what


factors influenced your choice?

12. What has been your greatest achievement?

13. Who do you think are, or will be, our main


competitors?

14. What will you be doing in 10 years time?

15. How long would you stay with this company?

2.17

Speaking

Using the previous list or one of your own ideas, what is the most difficult question you could be
asked in an interview?

Interviewers sometimes ask unusual questions that test your thinking style and ability. If you were
asked the following set of questions in an interview how would you answer them?

1. How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator?

2. How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator?

3. The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. All the animals attend ... except one. Which animal
does not attend?

4. There is a river you must cross but it is used by crocodiles, and you do not have a boat. How do
you manage it?

53
Unit 3 EARTHQUAKES

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with the causes and the processes of
earthquakes, their measurement, the damage they make.

You will also have the language skills that will prepare you to work in an office environment during
your future career.

http://www.whoi.edu/main/topic/earthquakes

3.1

Speaking

Recall the latest earthquake disasters that you have heard about. When and where did they
happen? what damage did they cause?

3.2

Reading

Read the following brief introduction about earthquakes and answer the questions.

Technically, an earthquake is a vibration that travels through the Earth's crust. Quakes can be caused
by a variety of things, including meteor impacts and volcanic eruptions, and even sometimes man-

54
made events like mine collapses and underground nuclear tests [source: Hamilton]. But most
naturally occurring earthquakes are caused by movement of pieces of the Earth's surface, which are
called tectonic plates.

The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that, each year, there are as many as 1.3 million quakes with a
magnitude greater than 2.0, the threshold at which humans can feel the vibrations [source: USGS].
The vast majority of them are very small, and many occur in remote areas far from people, so we
don't usually even notice them. The earthquakes that capture our attention are the rare big ones
that strike near heavily populated areas. Such earthquakes have caused a great deal of property
damage over the years, and they've claimed many lives. Over the last decade alone, earthquakes and
the tsunamis, avalanches and landslides caused by them -- have killed 688,000 people around the
world [source: Stoddard].

Perhaps the most lethal quake in history had a magnitude of 8.0 and struck China's Shanxi Province in
1556. According to historical accounts, city walls, temples, government buildings and houses all
crumbled, and more than 830,000 people were killed. A scholar named Qin Keda, who survived the
quake, later provided what may have been the first earthquake preparedness advice in history: "At
the very beginning of the earthquake, people indoors should not go out immediately," he
recommended. "Just crouch down and wait for chances. Even if the nest is collapsed, some eggs in it
may still be kept intact" [source: Science Museums of China].

http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/earthquake1.htm

1. What can be the possible causes of earthquakes?


2. When can humans feel the earthquakes?
3. What other disasters may they cause?
4. List some of the property damage caused by the 1556 earthquake!
5. What did one survivor suggest in case an earthquake happened?

55
3.3

Reading

The following words (A-N) have been removed from the text, put them back into the
appropriate places (1-14):

A-composition B-surface C-shear D-fault line E-seismology


F-Earths crust G-release H-hypocenter I-energy J-mantle
K-tectonic L-measure M-waves N-seismograph

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves

When an earthquake occurs, rocks at a (1) slip or break, and two sections of (2)
physically move relative to one another. That movement releases (3) , and two types of
seismic (4) . radiate outward from the earthquake through Earths interior and along its (5)
Compression waves alternately compress and (6). rocks in the direction
the waves are moving (similar to the air compression we hear as sound). (7) waves move
rocks perpendicular to the direction the waves are moving.

56
(8) (seismometers and associated recording systems) detect and (9)
.. these waves. Compression and shear waves travel through the planet at different speeds.
By measuring the arrival times of the waves at different locations around the world, scientists draw
inferences about the temperature, (10), and degree of deformation of the material that
the waves travel through. These details provide a more thorough understanding of hidden processes
that occur Earths core, (11) .., and crust.

With seismic measurements scientists can also pinpoint an earthquakes (12) .--its source
beneath the surface. The characteristics of an earthquake itself, such as its location, magnitude, fault
orientation, and fault slip, are important for understanding (13) processes at global and
regional scales, and (14) is essential for understanding the physics of earthquake initiation
and rupture.

http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=83377&tid=3622&cid=78930

3.4

Speaking

In the following 3 text you will read some vital information and advice about things to do or
not to do before, during and after an earthquake. In 3 groups discuss the pieces of advice,
explain why they are important or useful. Then summarize the most important information
for the members of the other two groups.

Group I

http://phys.org/news/2012-09-sumatra-earthquake-triggered-temblors-worldwide.html
57
Before an Earthquake

The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family and your property in the event of
an earthquake.

To begin preparing, you should build an emergency kit and make a family communications
plan.
Fasten shelves securely to walls.
Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with
latches.
Fasten heavy items such as pictures and mirrors securely to walls and away from beds,
couches and anywhere people sit.
Brace overhead light fixtures and top heavy objects.
Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.
Get appropriate professional help. Do not work with gas or electrical lines yourself.
Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings are more resistant to
breakage.
Secure your water heater, refrigerator, furnace and gas appliances by strapping them to the
wall studs and bolting to the floor. If recommended by your gas company, have an automatic
gas shut-off valve installed that is triggered by strong vibrations.
Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of
structural defects.
Be sure the residence is firmly anchored to its foundation.
Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with
latches and on bottom shelves.
Locate safe spots in each room under a sturdy table or against an inside wall. Reinforce this
information by moving to these places during each drill.
Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover and hold on.

58
Group II

http://www.quaketrip.com/

During an Earthquake

Drop, cover and hold on. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and if you
are indoors, stay there until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.

If Indoors

DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture;
and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isnt a table or desk near you, cover your face
and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as
lighting fixtures or furniture.
Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with
a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. In that case, move to the
nearest safe place.
Do not use a doorway except if you know it is a strongly supported, load-bearing doorway
and it is close to you. Many inside doorways are lightly constructed and do not offer
protection.
Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Do not exit a building during
the shaking. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings
attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave.
DO NOT use the elevators.
Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.

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If Outdoors

Stay there.
Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly
outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the
1933 Long Beach earthquake occurred when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed
by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom
the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing
walls, flying glass, and falling objects.

If in a Moving Vehicle

Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under
buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.
Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that
might have been damaged by the earthquake.

If Trapped Under Debris

Do not light a match.


Do not move about or kick up dust.
Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only
as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.

60
Group III

http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/14649717

After an Earthquake

When the shaking stops, look around to make sure it is safe to move. Then exit the building.
Expect aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main
quake but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures and can
occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.
Help injured or trapped persons. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special
assistance such as infants, the elderly and people with access and functional needs. Give first
aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate
danger of further injury. Call for help.
Look for and extinguish small fires. Fire is the most common hazard after an earthquake.
Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information.
Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. These are also known as seismic
sea waves (mistakenly called "tidal waves"). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning,
assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.
Use the telephone only for emergency calls.

61
Go to a designated public shelter if your home had been damaged and is no longer safe. Text
SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example:
shelter 12345).
Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away unless your assistance has been specifically
requested by police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorities say it is
safe.
Be careful when driving after an earthquake and anticipate traffic light outages.
After it is determined that its safe to return, your safety should be your primary priority as
you begin clean up and recovery.
Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.
Find out how to keep food safe during and after and emergency by visiting:
http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/emergency/index.html
Put on long pants, a long-sleeved shirt, sturdy shoes and work gloves to protect against injury
from broken objects.
Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave
the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.
Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire.
Inspect utilities.
o Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window
and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can
and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any
reason, it must be turned back on by a professional.
o Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if
you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit
breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an
electrician first for advice.
o Check for sewage and water lines damage. If you suspect sewage lines are damaged,
avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the
water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by
melting ice cubes.

62
3.5

Writing

While reading the text write an appropriate heading for each paragraph.

(1)

Shortly after 4.00am on Sunday 20th May, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 struck the Emilia-
Romagna region of the Po valley in Northern Italy, about 22 miles north-northwest of Bologna.

Jolts and aftershocks were felt over a large area and although the death toll was reported to have
been in single figures, more than 4,000 people were forced to seek temporary shelter or sleep in cars
as more than 100 aftershocks, two of which had magnitudes of 5.1, rattled the region.

(2)

Experts consider that this has been the most damaging earthquake to Italy's cultural heritage since
the two earthquakes that damaged the basilica of St Francis of Assisi in 1997. The Italian culture
minister, Lorenzo Ornaghi is reported as saying that the cost of restoration will run to tens of
thousands of Euros.

In just one small town, Finale Emilia, the cathedral, the town hall, three churches and a castle were
all seriously damaged and a clock tower built in 1213 completely collapsed.

(3)

One of the problems in Italy is that although the risk of earthquake is forever present, precautions
are negligible. In the 20th May earthquake, although two people reportedly died of shock, the other
deaths were entirely due to the collapse of buildings. An old lady of 106 died in her own bed when
she was hit by a falling beam, but four night-shift workers died in three different factories that
collapsed.

(4) ..

One of the worrying factors was that these factories were among a significant number of collapsed
buildings that were constructed within the last ten years. Italy has a number of laws that govern the

63
construction of buildings in areas where there is a high-risk level of earthquakes, but application of
the law has dragged its feet, chiefly because of the high costs of applying it.

(5) .

Since the last major earthquake occurred as long ago as 1570 in nearby Ferrara, the area was never
considered to have been particularly dangerous. However, it was reclassified in 2004 after fractures
were discovered in the Apennines. As Gian Vito Graziano, head of the Italian Council of Geologists
pointed out, last Sunday's events showed this new classification to be quite correct. The problem was
that very little notice was taken of the warning.

Meanwhile earthquakes continue to happen and the big fear in Italy is that a much stronger
earthquake will hit one of the southern regions like Calabria or Sicily where it is confidently predicted
that the death toll would run into tens of thousands.

(6) .

In recent years the biggest loss of life due to seismic activity was on 11th March 2011, in northeastern
Japan when over 21,000 people lost their lives following a massive earthquake a few miles offshore
that created a tsunami. This became world news, but the focus of the news was largely on the results
of the earthquake, rather than the quake itself. The devastation, the loss of life and the serious risk
of a massive nuclear catastrophe all took centre stage.

(7)

Earthquake news is generally very short-lived unless there is a long-running human-interest element,
such as people continuing to be found in rubble a number of days after the event.

It is not considered newsworthy to report that earthquakes continue to hit Japan, with 2,055 having
occurred since the disastrous one of 11th March 2011.

Similarly, in Christchurch New Zealand, in the 20 months following the destructive 7.7 magnitude
earthquake of 4th September 2010, there have been a further 10,402 earthquakes, including 25 with
magnitudes in excess of 5.2.

64
(8) .

The fact is that earthquakes are happening all the time, because the earth's crust is notoriously
unstable. At the time of writing, during the past 30 days in various parts of the world, there have
been 6,945 earthquakes. Many have been relatively insignificant, but nearly 250 have had
magnitudes greater than 2.5.

(9) ..

The problem is that earthquakes have always happened and nobody has yet found a certain way of
predicting where and when. As far back as 373 BC the advice was to keep an eye on rats, weasels,
snakes and centipedes since they would flee their homes shortly before an earthquake struck. As
recently as 2009 an Italian study suggested that toads were particularly good predictors.

(10).

Often more scientific predictions will give dates, but these tend to be of the "within the next ten
years" variety, while what people really want to know is if there will be one tomorrow.

Seismologists around the world are working hard at devising ways to predict earthquakes and if
possible to provide some form of early warning. One exciting development is the discovery that
electromagnetic signals are released from the earth's crust immediately prior to an earthquake.

(11) ..

Russia and the United Kingdom have agreed that in 2015 they will jointly deploy two satellites that
will measure these signals. There are high hopes that this project will be able to help with future
predictions and potentially save thousands of lives.

(12)

Read more at http://www.earthtimes.org/scitech/earthquake-prediction-


news/2018/#6bvYPf2Kdf8WrIfM.99

- See more at: http://www.earthtimes.org/scitech/earthquake-prediction-


news/2018/#sthash.2hAjvPYR.dpuf

http://www.earthtimes.org/scitech/earthquake-prediction-news/2018/

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3.6

Listening

Watch the following video on earthquakes and answer the questions.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zNyVPsj8zc

1. Why are earthquakes so scary?


2. How many earthquakes a day shake the earth?
3. Where do they occur?
4. What is released in the form of seismic waves?
5. Why are the great heat flows important for the earth?
6. What do earthquakes create?

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140115-earthquakes-california-faults-
science/

66
3.7

Speaking

The office layout dilemma: open-plan cubicles or separate offices? Discuss in pairs which environment
you would like to work in. Give reasons for your choice. You can find some ideas for your discussion
under the pictures.

isolation from colleagues non-hierarchical

boosts creativity easy to communicate

lack of privacy unpleasant smells of food, body odour

team building everyone hears others

others might disturb difficult to concentrate

high noise level (ringing phones, pinging emails)

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3.8

Writing

Now write down your ideas using the model below.

Working in an open-plan office has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side
...................................................................................................................................... .

Another positive feature is ......................................................................................................................

............................................ . We should not forget about ...........................................


........................................................... However, there are a couple of drawbacks of an open plan
office, as well. First, .............................................................................................. . Another
disadvantage ........................................................................................................... . Finally,
............................................................................... ..................................................... . All in all, I would
prefer (not) to work in such an environment because in my opinion
...................................................................................................................................................................

http://www.home-designing.com/2013/05/workspaces-with-views-that-wow
68
3.9

Reading

You are going to read an article about how you can make a good impression from the very first day at
work. Choose the best heading from the list for each paragraph. There are two extra headings that
you do not need to choose.

Get there early

Don't bolt at the end of the day

Prepare how to introduce yourself

Be a good listener

Plan what you are going to wear

Dont forget to take a snack with you

Take advantage of your new status to ask good questions

Remember names

Organize your workspace

Be the last to leave

Be positive

(1) _____________________________________________________

Perhaps, in the excitement of getting a job, you haven't thought much about what to wear to the
office each day. Make sure you find out the expected attire. While many workplaces are "business
casual," if your job is "suit and tie," you don't want to be worrying about going shopping on your way
home from your first day because you don't have the right clothing. Plan everything in advance, as
you would for an interview, so you will be comfortable and suitably attired from the start.

(2)______________________________________________________

Make sure that you find out how long it is going to take you to get to work. Do not put yourself in a
position of offering excuses for being late on the first day because you didn't understand the traffic

69
patterns. "The early bird gets the worm" isn't just a cliche; it's a reminder that when you appear
prepared and ready, you'll put yourself in a position to succeed.

(3) ______________________________________________________

You thought your "elevator pitch" was history now that you have a job? Not so fast. How do you
want to introduce yourself to new colleagues? Think beyond, "My name is ... " What do you want
them to remember about you? What do you want to be known for? Be sure to work on your eye
contact, a pleasant smile and a firm handshake. All of this will contribute to the first impression that
your colleagues have of you.

(4) ______________________________________________________

Don't be the one who tells everyone you're "not good with names." People will be impressed with
someone who takes the time and effort to learn their names. Make this a priority. A few tips: Use
people's names as soon as they are introduced. Say, "Nice to meet you, Sara." If you didn't catch the
name, or are unsure of the pronunciation, ask the person to repeat his or her name, and make a real
effort to learn it. Take notes so you'll remember people later. For example, jot down something to
help you match a new colleague's name and face. Another trick? Make an association with the
person's name. If Tom is tall, think, "Tall Tom" and you're more likely to remember it later.

(5) ______________________________________________________
Look around to see how other people organize their areas. If no one else has personal items or
photos out, consider keeping your area clear of those types of things. Keep in mind, if you look
sloppy at work, people will assume you aren't well organized enough to manage important projects.

(6) ______________________________________________________
There's never a better time to ask questions than when you start a job. Don't miss this opportunity to
find out what you'll need to know to do your job well. Be careful, though, not to ask questions that
sound like you are challenging the status quo as soon as you start the job. Keep your questions to

70
things that you are curious about and try to save the "Why do you do it that way instead of this other
way?" types of inquiries for later on.

(7) ______________________________________________________
No one at work wants to try to teach you something and to later find out that you were daydreaming
instead of listening. Make sure that you stay focused and listen carefully, especially when you first
start a job. If you have a tendency to let your mind wander, be on alert and prevent it from affecting
your work.

(8)_______________________________________________________
Everyone expects you to be happy at work when you start a new job. Stay positive and upbeat, and
make sure to appear delighted to be there. Even if it isn't your dream job, act as if it is.

(9) _____________________________________________________
Especially when you start a new job, don't be a clock watcher. It can't hurt to stay a little beyond your
designated hours so that everyone sees that you're more interested in getting the job done and less
interested in running for the door. http://jobs.aol.com/articles/2013/06/12/first-day-on-job-make-
good-impression/

71
3.10

Reading

The following text is about fringe benefits (Br) or perks (US) from the point of view of start-ups. Look
at the highlighted expressions in the text and choose the correct meaning.

Perks play an important role for any company, whether that company is a small start-up or a major
league player1. Aside from enticing potential new hires2, perks vastly improve both the company
culture and the mental and physical well-being of the current employees.

Smaller start-ups sometimes do not have the budgets that giants like Facebook and Google have to
offer insanely awesome3 office spaces and perks. Thus, they can become entrenched and fixated on
perks that are industry standard4 and within the reach of tight budgets5.

Telecommuting, catered lunches6, paid conference visits, and life coaching7 are worth considering,
but startups need to remember that there is a whole world of creative perks they can offer
employees. There are some great ideas that can build team chemistry8, attract new hires, and will
not break the bank. Always remember that even if your company is small, you can still pack a big
punch when it comes to perks.

http://tech.co/20-perks-make-startup-attractive-potential-hires-2013-09

1. a major league player a) someone playing in the first division

b) a big and financially stable company

2. potential new hires a) candidates with good chances to get the position

b) candidates who have good abilities

72
3. insanely awesome a) incredibly fabulous

b) mad

4. industry standards a) very typical in the particular industry

b) common measures in industry

5. tight budgets a) strictly monitored income and expenditure

b) high deficits

6. catered lunches a) meals provided by a company free of charge

b) meals taken to work

7. life coaching a) training to improve ones quality of life

b) a lifesaving vehicle

8. team chemistry a) a team in the chemical industry

b) relationship between members of a team

3.11

Speaking

What do you think your boss should do to motivate you? Discuss with a partner which of the following
perks you would like to get.

73
Offer in-house yoga classes

Offer the option for a dog-friendly office space

Host poker nights at the office

Send staff to telecommute in exotic locations

Host a Liquor Friday

Have employees invite their mom or dad to cook lunch with them at the office

Host an employee awards ceremony

Provide onsite massages

Offer free music lessons

Teach employees new languages

Can you add any more?

______________________________

______________________________

--------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------

74
3.12

Reading

Make word partnerships from the words below.

two-word three-word
partnerships partnerships
face-to-face environment formal casual clothing
work accessories dress business environment
company contact business down day
appropriate logo fashion brand names

Now insert the word partnerships into the text.

Many workplaces have dress codes, particularly workplaces in industries in which image is highly
valued and workplaces in which employees have regular ______________ (1)with customers. In a
________________________ (2) the standard of dressing for men and women is a suit, a jacket and
pants or a skirt, or a dress with____________________________ (3).

Clothing that reveals too much cleavage, your back, your chest, your feet, your stomach or your
underwear is not appropriate for a place of business. In our___________________(4) , clothing
should be pressed and never wrinkled. Torn, dirty, or frayed clothing is unacceptable. Any clothing
that has words, terms, or pictures that may be offensive to other employees is unacceptable.

Certain days can be declared__________________________ (5), generally Fridays. On these days,


_____________________________ (6) is allowed. Clothing that has the __________________ (7) is
encouraged. Sports team, university, and ___________________ (8) on clothing are generally
acceptable. You might want to keep a jacket in your office for the days when a client unexpectedly
appears on a dress down day, especially if the client is wearing a suit.

Adapted from: http://www.onecarebhs.com/uploads/OneCare_Employment_Manual.pdf p.39

75
3.13

Writing

Read the memo below quickly, and answer the questions.

What is the purpose of the memo?


What is the tone of the memo like?

The computer spell-checker has found eight spelling mistakes in the memo. Can you correct them?

Date: March 10, 2013

To: All staff

From: Head of HR

Subject: Dress Code

Our firm has provided the benefit of most Fridays allowing (1) business casual attire, that is BUSINESS
casual, not business CASUAL and certainly not CASUAL. That is FRIDAYS, the rest of the week is
BUSINESS (professional) attire.

Unfortunately (2), each week there appears to be some confusion as to what is appropriate and what
day of the week it is. Please let common sense than fashion sense be your quide (3) when you dress
for work each day.

Denim, in particular (4), has reached new heights of controversy. Therefore, no article of denim
fabric (5) is appropriate at any time.

No message (6) on any kind of clothing is allowed at any time.

Ms Brown will exercise the right to send employees home, without (7) pay, who are inappropriately
dressed and will take disciplinary (8) actions for repeated violations.

76
3.14

Reading

You are going to read about company policies concerning emails at work. Some words are missing
from the text. Choose the most appropriate answer for each gap in the text.

Many workplaces rely on email to help employees stay connected and (1) ____________ with clients.
However, many companies lack a clear policy (2) ______________ how employees can and can't use
email in the workplace. If companies don't (3) _____________ these issues, they could find
themselves in an ethical and legal quandary.

Employees sometimes assume their emails are private, but a growing number of employers (4)
________________ monitor employee emails sent from company accounts or computers.

Some companies prohibit personal email (5) ______________ in the workplace, on the basis that it
distracts employees or threatens the company's computer systems. (6) _____________ use also
increases the risk of computer viruses. Or, employers may not want employees to use company
computers to send emails containing objectional (7) _______________, images or material, or
messages with religious, political or other (8) _________________ controversial content. Some allow
limited personal use, for example only during lunch breaks.

Adapted from: http://work.chron.com/ethical-issues-email-accounts-workplace-16688.html

1. a) communicating b) to communicate c) reply

2. a) regarding b) with regard c) regarded

3. a) talk b) speak c) address

4. a) routinely b) routinously c) as routine

5. a) using b) usage c) use

6. a) personal b) personality c) personally

7. a) word b) context c) language

8. a) possible b) possibly c) possibility

77
Unit 4 VOLCANOES

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with the causes of volcanicity, the formation of
volcanoes and their classification. You will also learn about the destruction made by volcanic
eruptions

You will also have the language skills that will prepare you to study abroad during your university
years.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/natural_disasters/volcano

78
4.1

Speaking

Discuss in small groups the great volcanic eruptions you have learnt about that affected
human life and history. You may refer to historic examples and recent ones.

4.2

Reading

A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary mass object, such as the Earth, which allows hot
lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Earth's volcanoes occur because the planet's crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that
float on a hotter, softer layer in the Earth's mantle. Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally
found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific
Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. Volcanoes can also
form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's interior plates, e.g., in the East African Rift
and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of
volcanism falls under the umbrella of "plate hypothesis" volcanism. Volcanism away from plate
boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example
Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the coremantle boundary,
3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past
one another.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/natural_disasters/volcano

Give examples for geographic regions of volcanic activity associated with the following mass tectonic
movements:

1. diverging plates .
2. convergent plates ......................................................................
3. thinning of the crust .
4. plates slide past each other ..
79
4.3

Writing

Label the diagram by using the following list of words:

Vent Large magma chamber Bedrock Base Sill Crater


Dike Layers of ash emitted by the volcano Parasitic cone Ash cloud Flank
Throat Lava flow Conduit (pipe)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcano#mediaviewer/File:Volcano_scheme.svg
80
1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8. ..

9. .. 10. .

11. .. 12.

13. 14.

15. ..

4.4

Reading

http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Volcanoes,_list/El_Chichon
81
Read the following classification of volcanoes and identify the types with the help of the
diagram. Put in the missing headings into the text. Two of them are not included.

1. .

These volcanoes have no central crater at all. Instead, giant cracks open in the ground and expel vast
quantities of lava. This lava spreads far and wide to form huge pools that can cover almost everything
around. When these pools of lava cool and solidify, the surface remains mostly flat. Since the source
cracks are usually buried, there is often nothing "volcano-like" to see - only a flat plain.
This kind of eruption occurred at the Los Pilas volcano in Nicaragua in 1952.

2.

These are simple volcanoes which have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and steep sides.
They only grow to about a thousand feet, the size of a hill.
They usually are created of eruptions from a single opening, unlike a strato-volcano or shield volcano
which can erupt from many different openings. These cones are typically are made of piles of lava,
not ash. During the eruption, blobs ("cinders") of lava are blown into the air and break into
small fragments that fall around the opening of the volcano.
The pile forms an oval-shaped small volcano. Famous cones like this include Paricutin in Mexico and
the one in the middle of Crater Lake in Oregon.

3. .

These volcanoes can grow to be very big. In fact, the oldest continental regions of Earth may be the
remains of ancient volcanoes. These volcanoes are tall and broad with flat, rounded shapes.
They have low slopes and almost always have large craters at their summits.
The Hawaiian volcanoes exemplify the common type of this volcano.
They are built by countless outpourings of lava that advance great distances from a central summit
vent or group of vents.

82
The outpourings of lava are typically not accompanied by pyroclastic material, which make these
volcanoes relatively safe during eruptions.
Mauna Loa, the volcano on the "big" island of Hawaii, is the largest single mountain in the world,
rising over 30,000 feet above the ocean floor and reaching almost 100 miles across at its base.

4.

The most majestic of the volcanoes are these types of volcanoes, also known as strato-volcanoes.
These volcanoes are tall, symmetrically shaped, with steep sides, sometimes rising 10,000
feet high. They are built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, and cinders.
Famous examples of these volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Shasta and Mount Lassen
in California, Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington State, Mount Hood in Oregon, and
Mount Etna in Italy

https://www.dnr.sc.gov/geology/images/Volcanoes-pg.pdf

4.5

Speaking and reading

After reading the following text make notes about the positive and negative effects of
volcanoes. You may add your own ideas. Then compare and discuss them with your partner.

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/surface_and_interior/composite_volcano

Volcanoes have been around for millions of years. They are both incredibly destructive and
beautifully life-forming. Volcanoes are openings on the surface of the Earth that allow hot liquids and
gases to come forth from below. When the volcano erupts, it releases these liquids and gases, along
with ash and very small to very large debris. The chemical composition of everything consisting from
the explosion greatly determines how it will affect the surrounding area.

In very many ways, volcanoes are quite hazardous. The liquids released from below the surface are
incredibly hot and, depending on viscosity (how thick or fluid-like), will reach various distances.
Everything along the path of this lava is destroyed. Lahars (flows of volcanic material) can easily be
the most dangerous. Some of the gases released into the air from the volcanic explosion are quite
toxic. If any of these gases reach the stratosphere, chemical reactions will take place, resulting in a
detrimental effect to our ozone. Some of these gases settle in the clouds and enter the water cycle as
acid rain. In addition, the hot gases and liquids from the eruption also affect the overall temperature
of the Earth, which, in turn, affects the habitats of many living creatures worldwide. Rock fragments
that explode from the volcano may land on vegetation, homes, or other infrastructure.

84
Still, there are certainly many benefits of a volcano. Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen are two main
gases that release into the air during the eruption. This provides food for plants and also bonds with
Oxygen to create more water. The breakdown of volcanic rocks and ash provide a great deal of
nutrition in the creation of soil. This newly fertile soil is great for the growth of new seedlings, and
the combination of carbon dioxide and water make for a wonderful growth environment.

When the lava cools, the chemical composition changes. Volcanoes are well-known sites for a wide
variety of gemstones and minerals, such as diamonds, pumice, copper, and gold. The immense
number of deposits that form due to the eruption of a volcano provides mining jobs for many people,
as well as expensive goods for interested buyers. In addition, companies that focus on the use of
geothermal energy for electric power can utilize the powerful and renewable energy that results
from a volcanic eruption.

Even the sheer size and grandeur of the volcano are enough to attract tourists worldwide; not to
mention the geysers and hot-springs. This is good for local economy, family bonding, education, even
creativity in writing and the arts. Tourism itself provides a wide variety of jobs in various industries.

Some may say that living near an active volcano is too dangerous. In current times, we have
technology that is highly sophisticated and very accurate - this can provide us with adequate
warnings in the event of a potential catastrophe. For those individuals who are willing to let go of the
material world and just live life in the hands of nature, living near a volcano can prove to be very
fulfilling in very many ways.

http://www.sciences360.com/index.php/hazards-and-benefits-of-living-near-an-active-volcano-
14137/

4.6

Reading

After reading the text about the prediction of the volcanic eruptions decide whether the
following statements are true or false.

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The prediction of volcanic eruptions is difficult because, to be of practical use, they must be made
before eruptions! Its a lot easier to see patterns in monitoring data after an eruption has occurred.
But great progress has been made because of the lessons learned over many years at Kilauea volcano
in Hawaii, and applied and modified at Mt. St. Helens before and during in eruption sequence in the
1980s.

Meaningful prediction requires careful monitoring of a volcanos vital signs. Seismometers can be
used to pinpoint earthquakes which track the rise of magma and its movement along fissures.
Measurements of the tilt of the entire mountain provide additional information about the
breathing of the volcano as magma moves inside it. Instruments that sniff SO2, CO2 and other gases
also can signal changes in the volcano. At some volcanoes the seismic information seems most
reliable, at others the tilt tells the story. But the best predictions come from the combination of all of
these methods into a volcano monitoring and prediction system.

You must remember that each volcano is unique. The pattern of events that signifies an eruption at
one volcano may not occur before an eruption at a different volcano. And the same volcano may
change its eruptive behavior at any time! The good news is that general trends in precursor behavior
our being observed at a variety of volcanoes around the world so that volcanologists are getting
better at predicting eruptions.

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Volcanologists use many different kinds of tools including instruments that detect and record
earthquakes (seismometers and seismographs), instruments that measure ground deformation
(EDM, Leveling, GPS, tilt), instruments that detect and measure volcanic gases (COSPEC), instruments
that determine how much lava is moving underground (VLF, EM-31), video and still cameras, infrared
cameras, satellite images, webcams, etc!

In the past several decades, our short-term forecasting of large volcanic eruptions has improved by
leaps and bounds. The success of scientists at Pinatubo was no fluke! But in reference to explosive
volcanic behavior, short-term usually means hours to days, and rarely a week or more.

Volcanologists and seismologists who monitor active volcanoes have integrated several methods to
track the state of an active volcano. The key ingredients in this integrated approach are: seismic
monitoring, gas monitoring, and deformation studies.

Seismic monitoring consists of deploying a network of portable seismometers around the volcano.
The seismometers are capable of detecting rock movement in the Earths crust. Some rock
movements may be associated with the rise of magma beneath an awakening volcano.
Volcanologists that monitor gases often use a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) that measures
sulfur dioxide (SO2) in plumes rising out of volcanic craters. An increase in SO2 may indicate an
increase in magma near the Earths surface. Deformation studies monitor minute changes on the
order of several mm in the shape of a volcano. When used together, these methods are capable of
providing precise short-term information on volcanic behavior.

The science of monitoring volcanoes is still growing. Some volcanologists are using satellites to
monitor active volcanoes. For example, the path of the volcanic plume erupted at Pinatubo was
tracked using AVHRR weather satellites. Dr. Bill Rose and his students at Michigan Technological
University are collecting and analyzing images of volcanic plumes from different eruptions to
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understand the evolution of plume in its journey through the atmosphere. Dr. Peter Francis (Open
University) uses images from the LANDSAT multispectral satellite(s) to study the size and distribution
of deposits from caldera-forming eruptions; this information provides important clues on the nature
of future eruptions.

Other scientists are looking at the gases emitted from volcanoes. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the
gases to first leaves a magma as it creeps up into the Earths upper crust. If we could monitor CO2
accurately we might have a valuable tool for monitoring the state of unrest at volcanoes. The
abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere has defeated us in the past, but volcanologist, Dr. Stanley
Williams (Arizona State University), is working with the engineers who designed the COSPEC to
design a similar tool that will detect CO2. In another few years we may be measuring both SO2 and
CO2.

Still other scientists are using Geographical Positioning Systems satellites (GPS) to continuously
monitor deformation at volcanoes. Dr. Tim Dixon (University of Miami) has monitored small changes
(millimeters to centimeters) in the floor of the Long Valley caldera in California.

In short, the future is pretty good for forecasting volcanic eruptions over the short-term and in most
cases (i.e., Rainier) loss of life can probably be minimized. Of course, an essential ingredient to
mitigating volcanic hazards is international cooperation and rapid deployment of trained personnel
and technology. The U.S. is a leader in international volcanic hazard mitigation, and right now, the
Volcanic Action Crisis Team (VCAT), of the U. S. Geological Survey, is in Mexico assisting Mexican
volcanologists monitor volcano Popocatepetl outside of Mexico City. Members of the VCAT crew cut
their teeth on Mt. St. Helens in 1980, and later worked with the Philippine Institute of Volcanology
and Seismology to forecast the powerful eruption at Pinatubo.

A caveat: eruption size is not always the controlling factor in the number of deaths incurred. The
1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, was, compared to Pinatubo, a rather small and
insignificant eruption. Unfortunately, 25,000 people in the town of Armero were killed when a lahar,
produced by melting of a summit glacier, swept through the town.

http://volcanoworld.wordpress.com/2009/03/06/how-do-volcanologists-predict-volcanic-eruptions

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1. The prediction of volcanic eruptions is practical, because scientists can learn the lessons
before eruptions. True False

2. There is not a single method for predicting volcanic activity, but a combined monitoring and
prediction system serves the purpose the best. True False

3. Each volcano is special and different events signify each eruption that may not occur before
the eruptions of other volcanoes. True False

4. Volcanologists use several kinds of instruments that detect, measure and record earthquakes
and ground deformation. True False

5. In the past several decades, the long -term prediction of large volcanic eruptions has
improved by leaps and bounds. True False

6. Deformation studies monitor changes happening every minute in the shape of a volcano.
True False

7. The information provided by satellites is used by scientists to obtain important clues on the
nature of future eruptions. True False

8. W e could monitor CO2 accurately therefore we might have a valuable tool for monitoring
the state of unrest at volcanoes. True False

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9. We have good hope for accurately forecasting volcanic eruptions over the short-term and in
most cases we can save a lot of human lives. True False

10. The eruption size is responsible for the number of deaths incurred during a volcanic eruption.
True False

4.7

Reading

Should I Study Abroad? Advantages and Disadvantages

http://collegeinformations.com/tag/studying-abroad/

Every year thousands and thousands of people leave the comforts of their homes to learn English in
countries such as the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. Why do they do it? Many feel
that by studying a language in a country where it is spoken, they will be able to learn it more quickly.
Others feel that studying abroad gives them a kind of prestige in their home country. It may even
lead to a better job. And quite a few people want to study abroad for the pure pleasure and
excitement it brings.

90
But living and studying in another country can also have its problems. Almost everyone experiences
some level of homesickness. And a few people go home earlier than expected because their ideas
about living in another country were different from reality.
Is learning English abroad something you are interested in? Whether to learn a language by studying
abroad is a big decision. You should be aware of what you are getting into before you start packing
your bags.

Disadvantages of Studying Abroad

Studying abroad does not mean you will learn English magically. Many people think that they just
need to live in another country and they will learn the local language. This is not completely true. You
still need to pay attention and study. There are people who live in foreign countries for many, many
years without knowing the language well. However, it will probably come to you easier and faster
than if you just studied the language in your home country.
Studying abroad can be hard. You will probably have times when you miss your family, friends, food,
and everything familiar. Almost everyone goes through some culture shock. You will have to realize
and accept that it will take some time to adjust to a new way of living.
Studying abroad can be expensive. There is no doubt that it takes money to study abroad. It can vary
from kind of expensive to very expensive. Most places don't allow international students to work.
You will have to have the money before you arrive in the country or have someone from home
support you. Is this something that you and/or your family can afford?

Advantages of Studying Abroad

You are surrounded by English. Yes, you need to pay attention and do some studying, but everything
comes faster when you do because English is everywhere- on the streets, in the stores, on the TV-
you can't get away from it.
Your eyes are opened to the world. We often grow up thinking that our way of doing things is the
only way, or sometimes the best way. But living in a new culture helps us realize new ways of doing
things, and also helps us to see that even though we are different, we are all human. And in many
cases, not only will you get to know the natives of the country you are visiting, you may get to know
classmates from all over the world.

91
You learn to take care of yourself. Living in another country, even if it is with a host family, means
you might be doing things you may not have done in your home country. These include cooking,
cleaning, grocery shopping, washing clothes, figuring out transportation, making living arrangements,
setting up accounts for cell phones and utilities, etc. You may think of this as a disadvantage, but
many international students go home proud that they have become very self-sufficient.
Your life will be forever changed. One of the greatest things that happens when you do something
as big as live in another country is- you become a changed person- your outlook on life is different.
Your new maturity can help lead you to new places in your life.
You make memories that will last a lifetime. Your pictures, journals, and souvenirs will help you
remember your time abroad, but your memories and emotions of this special time will also be a part
of your life until you are very old.
So how can you know if studying abroad is right for you? First, start by talking to people who have
already done it. Of course everyone will have his or her own experience and point of view, but it can
be really helpful to hear what other people have to say. If you don't know anyone who has studied
abroad, ask others about their experiences through the internet. Dave's ESL Cafe is a good place to
start.
If you do decide that you are interested in going abroad, take a look at websites like
www.HyperStudy.com to search for schools and get advice on where to go.
Studying abroad can really change your life. And hopefully if you decide to do it, it will be a
wonderful experience for you. The very best of luck to you.
http://www.5minuteenglish.com/study_abroad.htm
Comprehension

Select a phrase to finish the sentence:

1. Studying abroad means you will learn the language .


very quickly
almost not at all
a little more quickly

2. Studying abroad can be


really easy
hard due to culture shock
an experience that requires little adjustment
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3. Financing a study abroad experience
will be no problem
is easy because you can find scholarships
needs to be something you can afford

4. Living in a new country


will not be much different
can open your eyes to the world
helps us see that everyone does pretty much the same thing

5. When living in another country


a host family can take care of all your needs
you can pay someone to do your chores
you will have to learn to become self-sufficient

6. An experience of living abroad


will make you a changed person
is not much different than living at home
will make you less mature as you depend on others

7. A study experience abroad will give you


a lot of headaches and few memories
many low moments and depression
a lifetime of memories of a special time in your life

8. To know if studying abroad is right for you


watch television for inspiration
go to Google
talk to people who have done it before

93
4.8

Listening

My Study Abroad Experience

http://blog.openstudy.com/2010/04/22/5-steps-to-your-best-study-abroad-experience/

Listen to this YouTube audio: Georgia Sanders, University of Exeter

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywaV5NRkFik

Listen to the presentation and answer the questions

1. Where did she study abroad?

..

2. What did she find as her best experience in her class?

3. Why did she believe that study abroad would better prepare her for her future?

4. What does she emphasize people should do if they want to get a study abroad?

94
5. Who can you talk to if you have any questions or to get great tips?

6. What is her field of study?

Listen to the text again and circle the correct answer.

7. What is her main reason for studying abroad?

a) earning some money


b) knowing other cultures
c) opening up career possibilities

8. What other reason does she think is important to study abroad?

a) experience of cultural diversity


b) making awesome friends
c) tasting other food

9. What was her work ethic discovery related to her classes?

a) there were too many students in the class


b) much of the school work was performed at home
c) the school used continual assessment and emphasized class participation

10. What slang or jargon does she use too much of?

a) You know
b) Uh, um
c) Like

95
4.9

Speaking

Role Play Dialogue to go abroad or not?

Role play instructions for Student A - Anna

Your name is Anna and youve just finished high school. You are extremely disappointed about not
having been given a place on the university course of your dreams and you are sure that you are not
willing to study anything else. You are now thinking about how to spend your coming year. Ask your
familys opinion.

Role play instructions for Student B Annas Older Sister

Your younger sister, Anna, has not been given a place on the university course of her dreams and is
thinking about how to spend her coming year. You are advising her to take a gap year abroad to
enjoy life, gain experience, work, earn money and improve her English. This will be the time of her
life. Studying can wait.

Anna is hesitating about what to do and asking for your familys advice.

Role play instructions for Student C - Parent

Your younger daughter, Anna, has not been given a place on the university course of her dreams and
is thinking about how to spend her coming year. As a responsible parent you would like her to stay at
home and study for the next exam, which is due this time next year. You think it is a waste of time
and money to spend this precious time otherwise. This is the only way for her to go on with her
studies.

Anna is hesitating about what to do and asking for your familys advice.

Speaking Task:

Form groups of threes (Student A, Student B and Student C)


Try to convince Anna according to your role play card at the family table
Take turns in expressing your arguments till Anna can make a decision or you can reach a
compromise. Try not to hurt each others feelings.
96
Useful expressions for conducting a sophisticated argument:

Asserting your view:

I see your point, but.... I don't quite agree here. I cannot accept your view that...
I cannot share this view. I really feel that.......... What I mean is..............
My impression is that The point is that...... I (personally) believe that..
It strikes me that I think/I dont think. Yes, I agree up to a point, however...
Yes, perhaps, however Well, yes, but ..... Yes, in a way, however...
Hmm, possibly, but Well, you have a point there, but...
There's something there, I suppose, however... I guess you could be right, but...
Yes, I suppose so, however That's worth thinking about, but...

Interrupting:

I'm sorry I didn't catch what you said... Excuse me, can I just say/ask.?
Sorry to interrupt but. Yes, but. Er..

Stopping interruptions:

If I could just finish.. Ill just finish what I was saying.

http://www.teflsites.com/Expressions%20for%20Discussion%20and%20Debate%20new.pdf

97
4.10

Reading

Should You Study Abroad in Australia or New Zealand?

Published 05/03/2013 by Natalie Southwick

Dreaming of study abroad down under? Let's discuss if Australia or New Zealand is a better fit for
you!

Australia and New Zealand may be on the other side of the world, but they're some of the globe's
most popular study abroad destinations. Australia, in fact, is the sixth-most-popular study abroad
location for American students. Whether it's the shared language, the stunning scenery or the locals'
reputation as some of the world's nicest people, these two countries are both incredibly appealing
places to spend a semester or two.
But how to decide? Both places have tons of benefits and great study abroad options, so it may seem
impossible to choose just one. Still, there are some major factors to consider, including the climate,
culture, different types of programs, expenses, your feelings about rugby, and, most importantly,
those accents.
Read on to determine if you should study abroad in Australia or New Zealand!

Population, Climate and Location

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Nestled next to each other in the Oceania corner of the world, these two island nations are not
exactly conveniently located if you're coming from - well, pretty much anywhere else. Still, their
isolation from other continents is part of their appeal - both countries boast unique flora and fauna
that can't be found in any other part of the world. With so much natural beauty, adventure sports for
adrenaline junkies and friendly locals, you won't ever want to leave - which is good, because the
nearest countries are still hundreds or even thousands of miles away!
Australia, the world's sixth-largest country, is the big brother in terms of both population and land
mass. The nation has almost 23 million residents - a big increase from the island's initial Aboriginal
population and a few thousand British prisoners - and a whopping 89 percent of them live in the
coastal urban areas. In fact, more than half of Australia's population (14 million, to be exact) lives in
the country's five largest cities.

Adventure in the hot Aussie desert!


The famous Outback, which takes up most of the center of the island, is still largely wild,
unpopulated territory - pretty, for sure, but probably not where you'll be doing most of your studies.
Home to the Great Barrier Reef (one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the world), Ayers Rock,
pristine beaches and everyone's favorite marsupials, Australia has an abundance of natural riches.

http://emmakellydooz.wordpress.com/tag/ayers-rock/

99
With this kind of scenery, it's no wonder the locals are so cheerful. Covered by broad swaths of
desert and receiving the second-lowest rainfall of all seven continents (after Antarctica), Australia is
mostly hot and dry, with a tropical northern coast and a more temperate climate in the southeast
near Sydney. If you're heading to Australia, make sure to pack your sunscreen.

Comparatively tiny New Zealand - or Aotearoa, as it's known in the Maori language - is divided
between two main islands, creatively named the North and South Islands, and a group of much
smaller outlying islands. As one of the world's youngest and still-changing land masses, New
Zealand's volatile ground has created what might be the globe's most spectacular land of contrasts.
From the soaring peaks of the Southern Alps to the black sand beaches of Muriwai, the stunning
fjords of Te Anau National Park to the ski slopes of Queenstown, there's no reason to spend any
more time inside than absolutely necessary.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moeraki-szikl%C3%A1k

Just like the topography, the climate of New Zealand varies wildly from one location to another, from
the semi-arid Central Otago vineyard plains to the snowcapped peaks of the South Island's
mountains. The islands have mostly cool, temperate weather with plenty of rainfall, but the weather
can change unpredictably - the local wisdom is that the only dependable weather prediction is the
opposite of whatever the meteorologist on TV says.
With just 4.4 million residents in the whole country, New Zealand actually is, as the joke goes, home
to far more sheep than people (about a 7:1 sheep: human ratio, to be exact). Almost 75 percent of
those people live on the North Island, with about a third concentrated in the Auckland metropolitan
area, so there are plenty of places where you can actually see the stars.

100
Cost of Living in Australia vs. New Zealand

The conventional wisdom about Australia has always been that it's expensive, and unfortunately this
is one stereotype that's based in fact. Living on an island is, by definition, rarely cheap, since anything
you might want that doesn't grow there has to be imported. Fear not though, study abroad students!
There is budget fun to be had down under.
Mercer's cost of living rankings from 2012 had Sydney at #11, just barely missing the cut to join the
illustrious club of the world's top 10 most expensive cities. Melbourne was close behind at 15, Perth
was 19th, and capital Canberra, Brisbane and Adelaide followed right behind at 23, 24 and 27,
respectively. A more recent study put both Sydney and Melbourne in the world's top five, with
Sydney ranked third.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:Brisbane_CBDandSB.jpg

At the current exchange rate, the Australian dollar is about equal to the US dollar, but prices are far
from equivalent. Some goods retail for similar prices to those found overseas, but food in particular
can be extremely expensive. A six-pack of beer sells for around $15, while a pint out at a bar will run
you about $10 - prices that could even give pause to a New Yorker. The University of Technology
Sydney recommends that international students prepare for life in the city by arriving with
somewhere between A$14,786 and A$25,680 for a full year there. In fact, as of July 2012,
international students headed to Australia must demonstrate that they have at least $18,610 if they
intend to spend a year studying in the country. If your heart is set on Australia, you should start
saving your pennies (and hundred dollar bills) now.
In comparison, studying abroad in New Zealand is certainly an affordable option, with the highest-
ranked city, Auckland, clocking in at #56. The only other city to land in the top 200 was the capital of
Wellington, at a respectable 74. They're still not cheap cities, compared to other regions of the
world, but next to their neighbor, they're positively a bargain.

101
http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:WellingtonPanorama.jpg

Right now, USD $1 will get you NZD$1.2 - not a huge difference, but that .2 adds up eventually. A pint
of beer at a bar should cost about $3.75 and an average movie ticket will be about $8.50. You can get
a basic meal at a restaurant for between $6.75- $12.50, while two miles in a taxi will cost about
$7.50. These prices still aren't dirt-cheap, but they're probably more equivalent to what you're used
to paying in cities at home.
"Between Australia and New Zealand, I would say NZ all the way. New Zealand has somewhat of a
"frontier" feeling to it; people look out for each other and there is a sense that we're all in this
together. If you're looking to go to a place where you can have an adventure, meet some great
people, and not spend as much as you would in Europe, New Zealand is the place for you." - Sarah
Timmings, former NZ student

Universities and Programs in Australia versus New Zealand

If you choose to study abroad in Australia, you're almost certainly going to be in one of the major
cities. Sydney has the widest range of different programs and universities, including Macquarie
University and the University of Sydney, generally considered one of the top schools in the country.
Programs offer studies in fields from botany to linguistics, and many include cultural activities and
excursions to places like the Great Barrier Reef, the Outback, or even other countries like New
Zealand or Thailand. Programs in other cities like Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth all have their own
benefits like access to world-class arts programs and research, proximity to natural attractions like
the Gold Coast and koala sanctuaries, and one-of-a-kind study opportunities like marine biology or
conservation work.
With only a handful of cities, study abroad programs in New Zealand are concentrated almost
entirely in Auckland and Wellington, with a few scattered in smaller cities like Dunedin and
Christchurch. Most Auckland programs are affiliated with the highly regarded University of Auckland
(the country's top school), and they offer students the chance to study everything from political

102
science to Hebrew. In Dunedin, you can study at the University of Otago, New Zealand's first
university, or head to Victoria University in the cultural hub of Wellington. Some programs also
provide opportunities for internships with local businesses or organizations- considering the
country's relatively small workforce, these are a great way to get more involved with the culture and
issues you care about!

Culture and Life Down Under


As one of the world's most urbanized countries, Australia's cities are the place to be. Cosmopolitan
Sydney boasts world-famous architecture, top restaurants, excellent museums and theater and one
of the globe's best aquariums. We've heard there's a famous building there, too. Smaller cities like
culturally rich Melbourne and the more industrial western coastal city of Perth don't have the same
international draw, but still have plenty to keep you busy for a semester (constant beach access,
anyone?).
Australia is an interesting mix of Western Anglo and Aborigine influences, with the country trying to
find a balance between the two very different backgrounds of its population. Known for wine
production, tall movie stars and attractive Olympic swimmers, Australia is a relaxed nation of
friendly, fun-loving people who are just as happy to toss a Frisbee around with you as to give you
directions or share a beer (or three).
Like any siblings, New Zealand and Australia have a long-running, mostly-friendly rivalry, based
primarily on making jokes about the other nationality's romantic preferences for sheep and peculiar
accent patterns. The competition only really heats up around important rugby matches, so just be
aware which country you're in before you say anything flattering about the other nation.
Even more so than Australia, New Zealand is all about the outdoors and thrill-seeking: every region
has its own distinct features, activities and awe-inspiring scenery. It seems like everyone in the
country has a part-time job at an outdoor adventure company, at least two pair of hiking boots and a
tent ready to go at a moment's notice. With one of the lowest median incomes in the developed
world, New Zealand residents (or Kiwis, as they're better known) are used to making the best of what
they have - and for most of them, this means spending as much time as possible enjoying the natural
beauty of their surroundings. Cities like Auckland, Wellington and still-recovering Christchurch have
plenty to offer in the way of restaurants, art and nightlife, but the main draw of the country will
always be its non-manmade features.

103
Be sure to catch a New Zealand rugby game!
One of the most distinguishing characteristics of New Zealand is its renewed emphasis on recognizing
and celebrating the culture of the Maori people - the islands' original residents. Currently, almost 15
percent of the population identifies as Maori, with an even higher percentage among younger
groups. Over the last few decades, there has been a large-scale effort to preserve the Maori culture
and incorporate it into all aspects of Kiwi life.
Many signs across the country are printed in both English and Maori, and people will often refer to
locations by their Maori names. The language is taught in schools across the country - if you have
time to study it, it's a fascinating and important piece of New Zealand's heritage.
The culture is relaxed and casual - it's not uncommon to see people walking around the streets of
urban Auckland with no shoes. There are even offices that allow their employees to go shoeless -
however shirts, as far as we know, are still required. Rugby is king here, so brush up on your
knowledge of tries and scrums before you venture out in an All Blacks (the beloved national team)
jersey. Kiwis are very conscious about their international image - as a foreigner, everyone in the
country will interrogate you about your experience there, and even one tiny criticism is enough to
cause concern. Luckily, there's very little to criticize about this gorgeous, friendly nation.

The Breakdown

Wanna read the fine print? Here are some conclusions: you should choose to study abroad in
Australia if you want to live in a vibrant, active city, can "keep up" with the partying locals, and prefer
hot, dry weather and beaches. It also helps if you've always wanted to see a kangaroo in person and
don't mind breaking the piggy bank to do it! You can see what other students have to say about their
time studying abroad in Australia here.
On the flip side, you should head to New Zealand if you want to be in the middle of nature, are okay
with eating lamb three times a week and don't mind changing weather (and lots of rain!). If you've
often wondered if you are a hobbit or not (shoes are overrated) and think jumping off of a bridge
sounds GREAT, New Zealand will be the perfect fit! Students in New Zealand often rave about the
fantastic time they had studying abroad there.
Both New Zealand and Australia have tons to offer study abroad students. There are differences in
price, weather, location and free-time activities, but both countries are high-demand destinations for
a reason. Most people who study abroad in either of these countries return home already planning

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their next visit back. By all means, go, but be prepared to fall in love with whichever country you
ultimately choose.
http://www.gooverseas.com/blog/study-abroad-australia-or-new-zealand

True and False Exercise

1. New Zealand is the 6th most popular country for American students to go to study.
T ___ F___

2. Both New Zealand and Australia are pretty well located, close to many other nations.
T ___ F ___

3. Australia is by far the larger of the two countries, but it has a smaller population.
T ___ F ___

4. Australia is quite unique, it is an island and is host to the Great Barrier Reef.
T ___ F ___

5. The native people of New Zealand speak the Maori language.


T ___ F ___

6. International Students going to Australia must have at least 20,000 US Dollars first year.
T ___ F ___

7. If you study in New Zealand you may have a chance at internships with local businesses
T ___ F ___

8. Australia is one of the world's most urbanized countries.


T ___ F ___

9. You should head to New Zealand if you want to be in the middle of nature, dont mind
changing weather and want to see kangaroos.
T ___ F ___

10. You should choose to study abroad in Australia if you want to live in a vibrant, active city, and
can "keep up" with the partying locals
T ___ F ___

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Unit 5 Tourism
Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with some important facts and figures, tendencies
and development in the field of tourism. You will also find some important information about
cultural differences; cultural diversity and you will get some business travel tips.

5.1

READING

Understanding Cultural Differences

http://www.dr-fdtc.com/cultural-differences/frames.html

By: Chris Storey


Friday, June 10, 2011

In todays world of globalization, where advances in transport and communication have created what
many refer to as a global village, understanding and appreciating cultural differences in business has
become of vital importance to all organizations.

Companies are increasingly operating cross-border teams, and international trade is vital in today's
business world. Rapid growth of emerging markets in Asia and South America means an increase for
many in contact with business partners in areas that are possibly alien to them. Sensitivity and
maintaining a good relationship is vital when managing a business deal understanding differences
between your own culture and an unfamiliar partners can make or break a business deal.
Insensitivity or misunderstanding can have a huge impact on your reputation.

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Understanding and appreciating cultural differences is not just ensuring you avoid causing offence
however. Attitudes towards business, the way they are run and views on management styles can
vary greatly in different cultures. Geert Hofstede, a Dutch anthropologist specializing in assessing
cultures, conducted a study of IBM employees in more than 70 countries in which he was able to
identify several key sources of cultural difference. One of the most important was "power distance",
or the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Hofstede also identified other factors that
help analyze cultural-based behaviour, including whether a society is generally more comfortable
with uncertainty, ambiguity and nuance; or if a society stresses group harmony and "saving face".

Another example provided by Geert Hofstede is in the differing cultures of the United States and the
Middle East and the problems that can arise in business without a proper knowledge of a prospective
business partners culture. When negotiating in Western countries such as the United States, once
there is a mutual understanding between the two parties and a satisfactory conclusion has been
reached the cultural sign of the end of negotiations would be to shake hands. In Middle Eastern
countries however, a hand shake is a cultural sign that serious negotiations are just beginning.

Internally, effective communication is key to any organizations success, and so an appreciation of


different cultures is also of great importance in maintaining a professional and harmonious
environment in the workplace. Organizations in the 21st century are a mix of people from different
cultural backgrounds who have to understand each other, interact on a daily base and often work in
more than one country. Seemingly innocuous things such as eye contact, hand gestures or work
attire can cause possible offence or misunderstanding.

Above all, it is important to ensure that the increasing diversity of workplaces and the global nature
of modern business is not seen as a hindrance, and is turned into the positive that it can and should
be. Diversity brings a wider variety of viewpoints and can bring about solutions to problems that may
not previously have been seen, as well as bringing individual talents and experiences to provide an
increased adaptability.

This article was written by Chris Storey of the Association of Executive Search Consultants (AESC).

https://www.bluesteps.com/blog/the-importance-of-cultural-understanding-in-the-global-village.aspx

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Comprehension Exercise
Complete these sentences with the words below:

1. In order to avoid causing an offense to someone in another business, it is important to be


aware of _________________________ between your societies.

2. The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally is called
__________________________.

3. Business markets in Asia and South America are identified as


__________________________.

4. Our world today seems smaller and is called a ___________________ because of improved
communications and transport.

5. Some examples of non-verbal communications which may be different in other cultures are
______________________________________.

6. A _______________ in the Middle East is a sign that negotiations are just beginning.

7. Businesses today often operate in many countries by using ___________________.

8. ____________________ can cause serious problems in business because of a violation of


cultural norms in that other culture.

9. Other factors can help us analyze cultural-based behavior, including whether a society is
generally more comfortable with ___________________________.

10. _________________ can vary in other cultures based on how that culture perceives that
businesses should be run.

Answers to choose from:

1. global village
2. cross-border teams
3. cultural differences
4. Insensitivity
5. emerging markets
6. management styles
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7. power distance
8. uncertainty, ambiguity and nuance
9. hand shake
10. eye contact, hand gestures or work attire

5.2

SPEAKING

Cultural Diversity Interview

First Student: You are thinking about taking a short term job in another country for a year. You want
to find out about the culture of that country so you go to see the Cultural Attach at that Embassy.
Of course you want to be prepared so you list out some questions in advance. You will want to
consider things like: 1) work life; 2) social customs 3) social attitudes; 4) dating; 5) food; 6) and things
not to do.

Questions to ask the Cultural Attach:

Second Student: Pick a country you are familiar with and jot down some things about the culture of
that county like: 1) work life; 2) social customs 3) social attitudes; 4) dating; 5) food; 6) and things not
to do.

Important aspects of your countrys culture to share with Inquirer:

Exercise:

1. Break up into pairs with each student picking one role above
2. Each student makes notes about either the questions to ask or the answers they might give.
3. Do a practice role play in pairs
4. Teacher will then call on several pairs to role play for the class

109
5.3

READING

Executive Planet Website Etiquette by Country

Guidelines for business etiquette

Executive Planet provides valuable tips on business etiquette, customs and protocol for doing
business worldwide.

Essential business culture guides for the international traveller

Australia Austria Belgium


Argentina

Canada Chile China


Brazil

Czech Republic Finland France


Colombia

Greece Hong Kong India


Germany

Iran Ireland Israel


Indonesia

Japan Jamaica Jordan


Italy

Mexico Netherlands Norway


Malaysia

Peru Philippines Poland


Paraguay

Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore


Portugal

South Korea Spain Sweden


South Africa

Taiwan Thailand Turkey


Switzerland

United Kingdom United States Yemen


United Arab Emirates

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Cultural Quick Tip

Ask Open Ended Questions

When we function in a foreign language, we have a tendency to say yes when we are asked a question,
even if we don't understand what was asked. This is even true when we are asked "Do you
understand?" The next time you are interacting cross culturally, ask an open-ended question such as
"Can you tell me what you need to do next?" instead of "Do you understand?" If the person is unable
to answer what they need to do, then you know that you need to explain further.

http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Main_Page

5.4

READING

A Guide to Business Travel

http://under30ceo.com/12-top-apps-for-business-travel/

Tips that will make your business trip a success

By Aisha Newton

Monster Contributing Writer

Business travel can be fun! You get the chance to leave your cubicle and step into the real world.
Sometimes you get to visit new cities, or different parts of the world. Other times the location may
be familiar, but not necessarily a place you visit often. Meeting face to face with clients and
colleagues, provides you with the perfect opportunity to broaden your professional network and
forge relationships that go deeper than phone calls and email.
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But lets be honest, whether travelling for business or pleasure. There are often unavoidable travel
hiccups than can make your trip less enjoyable. Long line ups, flight delays, terrible food, obnoxious
passengers and underwhelming hotel accommodations just to name a few. Whether travelling solo
or as part of team the following tips will help make your business trip a success!

First things first, confirm the travel dates and make your reservations as soon as possible. Double
check if the company uses a specific website or travel agents. Often times booking earlier can save
you money and will get you better flight times, hotel rooms and car rentals.

Another useful piece of information to have is in regards to food and drink. Find out if your company
provides you with a per diem to avoid nasty surprises when you get back. Also see if your company
has any specific rules regarding alcohol consumption. Just because you enjoy a glass of wine with
dinner doesnt mean that your company will pay for it.

Based on where you have to travel, make sure that your passport and travel insurance is up to date.
Whenever possible keep copies of electronic boarding passes and hotel reservations on your
Smartphone. I would also suggest keeping paper copies of your travel documents in your purse or
carryon luggage. You never know when you might find yourself in the nightmare triangle; Low
battery, no Wi-Fi and no reception.

Now that youve taken care of your bookings, what are you going to wear?

Deciding what to pack can be tricky, climate, duration of stay and planned activities play a part in
your wardrobe selection. How many meeting are you scheduled to attend? Are there client dinners,
team building exercises or perhaps a round of golf?

Stick to dark coloured clothing that doesnt wrinkle easily. An added benefit is that it camouflages
dirt and stains. Try to avoid wearing loud patterns or busy prints, you want pieces that you can easily
mix and match. Same goes to the guys.

Ladies, carry a large scarf, shawl or Pashmina, it can complement your outfit and double as a blanket
on a flight or a sweater on chilly day.

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Another thing to consider is what to put on your feet. Choose your footwear wisely. A six inch heel
might look fierce with your suit; but do you really want to wear them all day long? Or walking
through a large airport or train station? Try to choose stylish but comfortable shoes. Opt for wedges,
flats or shoes with a lower heel. If you plan on going to the hotel gym dont forget your sneakers.
Another tip is to keep a shoehorn in your carry-on luggage, that way if your feel swell after a long
flight. You won't have to walk off the plane barefoot.

What should you put in your carry-on luggage?

Pack a small cosmetic bag to keep track of your toiletries. If there are specific medications that
you need be sure to keep them in your purse on your person.

Allergy medication, in case the room is dusty and musty. In my experience hotel carpeting can
trigger allergic reactions.

Snacks, because who wants to pay $6 for M&Ms?

Disinfecting wipes to clean off the common surfaces in the room.

Feminine hygiene products, just in case (This also relates to the dark colored clothing)

Eye drops to help freshen your eyes. Bloodshot eyes in a meeting arent cute; its hard to take
someone seriously when it looks like youve been up partying with Mary Jane.

Ear plugs and eye masks arent always provided on flights so bring your own to catch a few winks
on the plane.

Electronics, gadgets and personal entertainment:

Make sure to pack all of your electronics, chargers and adapters and keep them in your carry-on.
Charge your devices before leaving so that you have a full battery. That way you can get some work
done even if you dont have access to a plug. Dont forget your headphones, the last thing you need
is to be stuck sitting next to someone who wants to be your new best friend.

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Ladies this tip is crucial, be sure to remove the batteries from some of the items you pack. Security
will open your bag if there are items buzzing and vibrating in there. And careful with your jewelry, try
not to wear too many metallic pieces. You'll set off the metal detectors and all that noise can be
distracting to your fellow passengers.

On a different note, dont forget your business cards. This simple networking tool helps people
remember you. Just make sure they are up to date, there is no sense in handing out old cards with
the wrong job title and email address. There are also apps you can download that will allow you to
take a picture of someone's business card and download their contact information into your phone.

Make sure you bring a purse that can go from daytime to nighttime or at the very least bring a small
clutch. Pare down your wallet so that you only carry the cards you need. Leave your George Costanza
wallet at home. Remember the Acronym M.I.L.K Money, Id, lipstick and keys.

Once you arrive at your hotel there are a few things you can do to keep yourself safe.

Avoid using your full name when signing in. Use your initials or sign in as if two people are in the
room. This deters potentially assailants looking to prey on single women.

Advise the front desk not to mention your room number out loud, when other guests are nearby.
In the event that you think someone may have heard it dont be afraid to request a new room.

Always leave the Do Not Disturb sign on the door. This gives the impression that your room is
always occupied.

Upon arriving at your hotel room, double check the locks on the windows and doors.

If you are unsure of your room locations, ask security to escort you to your room and avoid
wandering the halls aimlessly.
My last tip is to take a deep breath and relax. Try and see if you can take a few extra days and
explore your location. Oftentimes hotels in business districts have much lower rates heading into the
weekend. By following these simple tips your next business trip is sure to go smoothly.
So pack your bags and have fun!
http://career-advice.monster.ca/in-the-workplace/work-life-balance/business-traveling-tips-ca/article.aspx

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Answer the questions with short answers:

1. Should we travel just to meet other business people when phones are so good today?

2. What is the first thing to do when planning to travel?

3. What documents do I need to travel?

4. What kinds of clothes are best to pack for travel?

5. What security measures can I take at a hotel? Can I think of others?

5.5

READING

SEVEN TIPS FOR FOREIGN BUSINESS TRAVEL (R)

http://infographiclist.com/2012/03/25/business-travel-market-trends-2012-infographic/

115
BY CAROLYN M. BROWN

Maximize your time spent overseas. Proper preparation before your departure will not only make
your business trip a safe one but more productive.

Preparing for international travel is unlike planning a business trip within one's own country. While
you're usually fussing over details such as your flight itinerary, what to pack and scheduling meetings
for a typical business trip, international travel may also require research for immersion into a culture
with proper etiquette and protocols associated with the host country. With the recent political
disorder in countries like Libya and natural disasters in Japan, travel overseas also requires certain
safeguards to protect yourself during a time of crisis, says Jason Kaufman, senior manager, service
innovation, MacNair Travel Management/American Express, in Alexandria, Virginia.

There are some basic guidelines such as preparing proper documents two or three months before
your departure, especially if visas and updated passports are needed (for instance an old photo may
not cut it). Some countries may not require visas for tourists but may require them for business
travellers. Of course, depending on the country you are visiting, you will want to consult a physician
about necessary vaccinations.

For US Travellers, a great resource is the US Department of State, says Kaufman, especially if
something goes wrong in a foreign country and you need a quick evacuation. The State Department
provides country specific information and issues travel warnings for long-term conditions that make
a country dangerous or unstable as well as travel alerts that apply to temporary problems.

"In general, you want to make sure that you have the ability to get in touch with someone who can
assist you 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year," says Kaufman. This may be your
travel management company. "In a crisis situation you want to have as much information as possible
to make an informed decision."

When the earthquake occurred in Japan, travellers couldn't get back into their rooms to access
pertinent documents, says Donna Thomas, owner of New Zealand Travel, in Langhorne,
Pennsylvania. "The big lesson learned: When you go to dinner or a meeting, take your passport, don't
leave it back in your hotel room. Carry contact information for your embassy with you at all times.
Keep a fully charged cell phone on you," she explains.

116
Besides personal safety, you also will want to prepare for your foreign business encounters. After all,
you want to get maximum value for the time that is spent abroad. This means you have to be open to
different values, behaviours and ways of doing business. Lack of familiarity with the business
practices and social customs of another country can weaken your position or prevent you from
accomplishing your goals.

Without a doubt there is nothing like a face-to-face meeting with a client or customer. But even the
most minor mistakes can cost you time, money and opportunity. Here are seven tips to help you
make the necessary adjustments for a business trip abroad.

1. Prepare a well-planned itinerary.

A well thought out itinerary should reflect what your company hopes to accomplish. Think about
your goals and relative priorities. For instance, you will want to have two or three appointments
confirmed well in advance and spaced comfortably throughout the day. This will be more productive
and enjoyable than a crowded agenda that forces you to rush from one meeting to the next. Your
schedule should be flexible enough to allow for unexpected problems such as transportation delays
and/or opportunities such as an unplanned luncheon invitation.

Kaufman suggests leaving a copy of your itinerary with trusted colleagues, family members or close
friends so that they know where you are supposed to be at all times. Also provide a family member
or spouse with copies of your passport, medical insurance card, and other pertinent information. In
addition, leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner.

2. Seek information on the culture.

Invest some time in learning about the history, culture and customs of the countries to be visited,
says Thomas. Attend cross-cultural seminars or training. Read books about that country. Brush up on
the differences in negotiating styles, attitudes towards punctuality, gift-giving customs, and the
proper use of names and titles (understand the importance of rank and know who the decision
makers are when conducting business).

117
Take the Japanese, for instance, who consider it rude to be late for a business meeting but
acceptable for a social occasion. In Latin countries, being late for a business meeting is more
tolerable. In the Middle East it is commonplace to engage in small talk before conducting business.
The French and the British have different views about discussing business during meals, Thomas says.
"Do you talk about business during dinner or do you wait until after you have eaten your meal? The
slightest things can really offend people," she says.

3. Learn protocol and etiquette practices.

Study the general protocol and etiquette of the country or countries you're visiting. Understanding in
advance how to greet your counterparts and manage appointments will be most helpful. Check
normal work days and business hours. In the Middle East, for example, the workweek is Saturday to
Thursday. It is not uncommon in many countries for lunch to last two to four hours. Also take into
account foreign holidays. Business manners, religious customs, dietary practices, humour and
acceptable dress vary widely from country to country.

Misunderstandings over gestures and body language can cause you more than embarrassment but
can lead to business complications, says Thomas. For instance, the okay sign (thumb and index
fingers forming a circle with the other fingers pointing upward) is commonly used in the US. But it
means zero in France and Thomas says it is a vulgar gesture in Brazil and the Philippines (like giving
the middle finger is here in the States). She recommends finding a local person from the host country
whom you can openly talk to and learn about customs. Or a good travel planner will know the ins and
outs of the country.

4. Learn the native tongue.

Business associates will appreciate any sincere attempt. Study the language or hire a translator,
especially if the persons you are meeting with do not speak English or are uncomfortable speaking it.
You can learn a foreign language on the go using Praxis Mobile Language Learning Networks, which
provides podcasts for Chinese, Spanish, French and Italian. You can listen to and interact with
language lessons with an MP3 player, iPod, mobile phone, computer for internet access, television,
and CD. Colleges or universities in your area may offer traditional classroom instruction or immersion

118
programs. Other options are audio language lessons and software programs such as those available
from Rosetta Stone. Seek out someone who knows the language that can help you learn it by holding
conversations.

There may even be subtle differences in the same language, cautions Thomas. "Certain words in
English that we use freely could have different meanings outside the US." She cites a situation
between American and British businessmen. "During the meeting the Americans said, 'lets table'
this, hoping to end the discussion, but the Brits kept on talking. The Americans took this as utter
disregard and stormed out, not knowing that in England the expression 'let's table it' means to put it
on the table for discussion."

5. Check travel advisories.

Governments issue advisories about safety concerns that may affect travel to a particular country or
region. Travel advisories are released for various reasons, including terrorism, natural disasters,
political unrest, wars, health emergencies, and outbreaks of violent crimes against tourists. Check to
see if the advisory applies to the entire country or certain areas. "Know your geography," says
Thomas. An incident in Okinawa may not impact someone travelling to Hiroshima. "Make your
decision to travel with informed knowledge," she adds.

Have a backup plan in case something does go wrong. Find out whether your home country has an
embassy or consulate in the place you are visiting. Make sure it is fully staffed and functioning. If the
worst happens, you don't want to be stranded in a foreign country without an embassy to help with
emergency evacuation or get in contact with your family and friends back home. Be aware of what
the embassy can or cannot do. For example, if you are injured the State Department can help you get
back home but the cost of medical care comes out of your pocket.

6. Protect yourself.

Kaufman recommends getting travel insurance. "With Road Warrior you can get a yearlong policy as
opposed to a trip-by-trip basis. Insurance companies are there to help you out in a crisis such as
medical evacuations," he says. Following the earthquake and Tsunami, one-way airfare out of Japan
cost $5,000. So, "travel insurance will help mitigate any financial loss you might incur."

119
Keep in mind that different destinations pose different risks; incorporate that into your strategy for
choosing business travel insurance. Do your research. Travel insurance may not cover you in all
countries and in all circumstances. Most policies do not cover acts of war, riots or civil disorder. Find
out what exclusions apply.

Check with your health plan carrier to see if you need to get another policy to cover medical costs for
an injury or sudden illness abroad, says Thomas. What if you need to be airlifted by helicopter and
taken to the hospital, are you still covered? Look into the large travel insurance companies such as
Travel Guard.

7. Plan to stay connected.

A plug or adapter may be needed to charge notebooks, cell phones, and PDAs while overseas. Also,
contact your cell phone provider before you leave to find out about international options for
business trips, says Kaufman. You may be able to get a temporary plan while you are visiting another
country. To make an international call from your cell phone, your carrier network must be
compatible with that country. Your phone also must be technically capable of making international
calls.

Other options are to use Skype on your laptop or a Skype iPhone app to make international calls. You
also can rent a cell phone in airport malls around the world from companies such as TripTel or online
from sites such as Cellularabroad.com.

If you are travelling to a foreign destination for more than a week or two, consider buying a local
phone, suggests Kaufman. You can use that phone for making calls within the host country and it
may prove to be less expensive. "Some business travellers also use local SIM cards because it makes
communications by mobile phones a lot easier."

Just make sure that you have texting capability. Kaufman says text communication is a lot more
reliable than voice communication because it requires less bandwidth. So, during the earthquake in
Japan, phone calls weren't going through but people were able to send text messages to their loved
ones.

http://www.inc.com/guides/201103/7-tips-for-foreign-business-travel.html
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Comprehension Exercise

Multiple Choice Check all that apply:

1. Business travel involves more than just making travel plans. You also should consider
a. ___ finding the closest gyms to work out in
b. ___ learning about business practices and social customs of destination
c. ___ loading up all your favourite video games

2. When planning your travel itinerary, be sure to


a. ___ leave a copy with your family and colleagues
b. ___ make copies of all your important documents like passport for your family
c. ___ leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner
3. Some good preparation practices for a trip abroad might be to
a. ___ read books or articles about the country you are visiting
b. ___ plan your menu in advance so you can have your favourite foods
c. ___ research if it is acceptable to discuss business over meals
4. Examples of body language and gestures to be careful of include
a. ___ making the OK sign with your thumb and index finger
b. ___ pointing with your finger
c. ___ speaking slowly
5. Learning another language is not easy when in another country. You could
a. ___ make a sincere attempt to learn what you can
b. ___ hire a translator
c. ___ dont travel until you have mastered a language
6. You should check for any travel advisories in the country you are travelling to. Check for
a. ___ government issued travel advisories
b. ___ whether the advisory affects your area of travel
c. ___ what weapons you can take to defend yourself
7. Check for the kind of insurance you need to protect yourself -
a. ___ travel Insurance
b. ___ life Insurance
c. ___ medical Insurance

121
8. Select the best ways to stay connected while travelling -
a. ___ using Skype from your computer or cell phone
b. ___ plan on borrowing a phone to make calls
c. ___ texting is always a good option especially in emergencies

5.6

WRITING

Business Travel in Numbers

A recent study brings to light the usage of business travel policies by corporations. A total of 2100
travel managers were surveyed in 24 countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, India,
Russia, UK and the US.

You can see a bar chart of future business travel volumes on the next page.

Study the chart carefully and write at least 150 words reporting the main features that you find in
these charts and make comparisons where relevant.

The following words might help you:

Upward change : to rise; to increase; to grow; to boom; to show / see an upward trend; to surge;
to soar; to expand;

Downward change : to fall; to decrease; to decline; to dip; to drop; to slump; to deteriorate; to


go down; to show / see a downward trend; to weaken; to hit a low; to plunge; to plummet; to slump;

Stability: to level out / off (at); do not change; to remain stable (at); to remain steady (at); to
stabilize.

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Business Travel Volumes

5.7
SPEAKING
Discussing a group booking for a hotel

http://www.travelzoo.com/hotels/chicago/-99-Detroit-4-Star-Hotel-w-Free-Breakfast-and-Wi-Fi-1521452/

123
Student A: You work for a company which wants to send 10 of your employees on a business trip to a
foreign city.

Student B: You run a hotel in a foreign city and you receive a call from a potential customer.

You should negotiate a deal which satisfies both of you, if possible dont forget to be polite and
compromise!

A. Leader of travel group B. Manager of hotel

A 10 single Number of rooms 6 single and 2 double


required / available

B Full board (breakfast, lunch Meals included Half board (breakfast evening
and evening meal) meal)

C Internet in every room, safe Facilities Internet available in hotel


parking, interpreter services lounge, street parking

D 100 Euros ppp (per person Price 150 Euros ppp (per person per
per night) with a 15 % night) with a 5% discount for a
discount for a group booking group booking

124
5.8

WRITING

Letter of Complaint

Write a letter of complaint about the services of the hotel your boss stayed at on his business trip last
week.

He was not satisfied with the facilities of the conference room, the quality of the food and the Wi-Fi
connection in the business lounge, so he would like to have a partial refund.

For useful expressions, format, and sample letter you can consult the following site:

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0002121.html

How to Write a Complaint Letter

Include your name, address, and home and work phone numbers.
Type your letter if possible. If it is handwritten, make sure it is neat and easy to read.
Make your letter brief and to the point. Include all important facts about your purchase,
including the date and place where you made the purchase and any information you can give
about the product or service such as serial or model numbers or specific type of service.
State exactly what you want done about the problem and how long you are willing to wait to
get it resolved. Be reasonable.
Include all documents regarding your problem. Be sure to send COPIES, not originals.
Avoid writing an angry, sarcastic, or threatening letter. The person reading your letter
probably was not responsible for your problem but may be very helpful in resolving it.
Keep a copy of the letter for your records.

Sample Complaint Letter


Name of Contact Person, if available
Title, if available
Company Name
Consumer Complaint Division, if you have no contact person
Street Address
City, State, Zip Code
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Dear (Contact Person):
Re: (account number, if applicable)
On (date), I (bought, leased, rented, or had repaired) a (name of the product, with serial or
model number or service performed) at (location and other important details of the
transaction).
Unfortunately, your product (or service) has not performed well (or the service was
inadequate) because (state the problem). I am disappointed because (explain the problem:
for example, the product does not work properly, the service was not performed correctly, I
was billed the wrong amount, something was not disclosed clearly or was misrepresented,
etc.).
To resolve the problem, I would appreciate it if you could (state the specific action you
wantmoney back, charge card credit, repair, exchange, etc.). Enclosed are copies of my
records (include copies of receipts, guarantees, warranties, cancelled checks, contracts,
model and serial numbers, and any other documents).
I look forward to your reply and a resolution to my problem, and will wait until (set a time
limit) before seeking help from a consumer protection agency or the Better Business Bureau.
Please contact me at the above address or by phone at (home and/or office numbers with
area code).
Sincerely,
Your name

Enclosure(s) cc: (reference to whom you are sending a copy of this letter, if anyone

5.9

LISTENING

Business Travel Etiquette

Listen to the following presentation and decide if the following statements are TRUE, FALSE or NOT
STATED.

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBGEknzJu_Q (MichaelCzinkota.com)

126
1. Anyone who travels on business has to be aware of cultural imperatives.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

2. During international meetings everybody is very upset if the meeting starts later than it
should.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

3. In some countries people are addressed in a different way depending on their social status.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

4. If you address somebody in a wrong way it may lead to trouble and you might lose a deal.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

5. The American executives biggest problem was how to address the presidents of his
subsidiaries.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

6. The Americans in the German restaurant were very cold and they put on their jackets.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

7. The German host gave a very polite reception for the Americans.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

127
8. National leaders do not like to be touched by anyone.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

9. When President Bush shook hands with the Arab leaders they found it appalling.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

10. Empathy is only about rules.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

11. As for the resources, it is a good idea to read guidebooks and visit the US Department of
State websites which tells you what to do and what to avoid.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

12. The Central Intelligence Agency website tells you where not to go or who not to talk to if you
travel abroad.

TRUE FALSE NOT STATED

5.10

LISTENING

Corporate Travel Management from FCM

Listen to the text and choose the correct answer.

YouTube link: Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqnF-4V4j24

128
1. Getting better travel ideas is all about..

A working with helpful people


B working with people who are experienced
C working with people you can ask the right questions
D working with people you can turn to any time

2. People at FCM think..

A expensively about the products and services they offer


B expansively about the products and services they offer
C intensively about the products and services they offer
D interestingly about the products and services they offer

3. FCM is..

A a young financial management company


B a young travel management company
C a young environmental agency
D a young investment company

4. They are represented in

A 7 countries
B 17 countries
C 75 countries
D 79 countries

5. Whether you are a small company or a large multinational, they give you the same..

A quotation
B software
C attention
D advice

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6. They are a..... business.

A transaction base
B trust base
C relationship base
D performance base

7. They do not do one size fits all, they do a service you require ..

A on a local and national level.


B on a local level.
C on a multinational level.
D on a local, multinational or global level.

8. They believe in ..

A a face to face to contact with their customers


B an everyday contact with their customers
C a regular contact with the customers
D a mutual contact.

9. Their consultants are in the world.

A the most famous


B the most reliable
C the best paid
D the best trained

10. The company is not just a . for corporate travel.

A travel service
B customer service
C booking service
D career service

130
11. They give their customers .

A the greatest prices


B the best discounts
C the greatest savings
D the greatest safety

5.11

SPEAKING

Missed Flight Airport Ticket Counter Encounter

This exercise will feature students practicing English in an encounter with an airport ticket agent
because of a missed flight and a need to rebook. After some preparation time, two students will
conduct the encounter in front of the class.

Preparation:

Break the class into two groups, one will be the ticket agents and one will be the passenger. The
groups will devise questions and strategies for negotiating a new ticket for the missed flight.

The airport ticket agents will represent ANYTIME Airways. They will figure out what kind of
difficulties or problems there will be with rebooking a flight.

The passengers will discuss the questions they need to ask to get a new flight, a new ticket, and how
to pay. They are in Paris and need to rebook a flight to Budapest.

The Encounters:
One agent and one passenger will in turns come to the front of the class and conduct the session.
The passenger starts with his/her problem in needing to rebook a flight back home to Budapest.

131
Unit 6 Population

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with some important facts and figures, trends and
development in connection with the current issues and tendencies of the worlds population.

This unit will also introduce you to the kind of English you will need to become familiar while training
at work, improving your managerial skills, understanding the culture of your workplace, and
developing your career

http://www.livescience.com/41316-11-billion-people-earth.html

132
6.1

Speaking

Look at the table below and discuss in pairs the factors that contributed to the high population of the
top 20 countries. Consider the following factors and you may add your own ideas as well.

developed/developing countries
economy
culture
religion
education
birth control
governments role
geographical factors

Top 20 Largest Countries by Population (live)

1 China 1,394,074,163 11 Mexico 123,851,202


2 India 1,267,942,827 12 Philippines 100,157,014
3 U.S.A. 322,672,567 13 Ethiopia 96,591,866
4 Indonesia 252,916,667 14 Vietnam 92,578,691
5 Brazil 202,092,809 15 Egypt 83,433,991
6 Pakistan 185,239,147 16 Germany 82,649,638
7 Nigeria 178,692,056 17 Iran 78,506,503
8 Bangladesh 158,580,542 18 Turkey 75,869,074
9 Russia 142,454,775 19 Congo 69,426,069
10 Japan 126,994,747 20 Thailand 67,230,468

http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/

133
6.2

Reading

The headings (1-7) have been removed from the text, from the list below (A-H) choose the best to
describe the paragraphs.

A - Disease outbreaks B - Climate Change C- Space travel

D- A population explosion E- Earth's animals F- Sanitation

G- Food security H- Water security

1. ..

The human population is exploding. Earlier this year, the United Nations released a new report that
said the global population was on pace to reach 11 billion people by the end of the century a full
800 million more people than were expected by 2100 (with a range between 9 million and 13
million), and a whopping 4 billion more than call Earth home today. The bump in the predicted
number was made in part because birthrates in sub-Saharan Africa are not dropping as fast as
predicted.()

2. .

Experts agree the planet can produce enough food for 11 billion people, but whether humans can do
it sustainably, and whether consumers will ultimately be able to afford that food, are not guarantees.

The world's food security future is not a simple matter of producing more food. Rather, food security
is affected by a number of intertwining factors, including population size, climate change, food
production, food use (for things like animal feed and biofuels) and prices, experts say. The world's
population will also have to pay close attention to its use of Earth's resources, or risk making the
situation worse.

134
3.

Today, 2.7 billion people around the world face some water shortage in their daily lives. Clean, fresh
water is a source of conflict in the U.S. Southwest, the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa. Most
people expect these conflicts to grow in the coming years. But these water woes are just a
foreshadowing of the problems to come if the world's population hits 11 billion people by the end of
the century, which will make providing clean water for everyone an increasing challenge.

In order to meet this challenge, scientists will need a better estimate of how much water is available,
and people will need to invest in efficient water infrastructure and employ water-sparing farming
techniques around the world, experts say. But even that may not be enough to provide for a thirsty
planet. Some regions of the world may have to stop producing water-hungry crops and products
altogether, leaving that to countries with more ample water supplies.

4. ..

If greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and the global population swells to 11 billion people,
could this growth worsen the effects of climate change, and overwhelm humanity's ability to fight
global warming? Within the scientific community, this debate is brewing, but there is little consensus
about how or even if population growth and climate change are directly linked.

Population growth is expected to surge in developing nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.


These regions have much smaller carbon footprints than developed countries. But, some
climatologists say rapid industrialization of developing nations and changes in their consumption
levels could add stress to Earth's fragile ecosystems

5. .

Growing human populations spell trouble for animals, and people are in the midst of driving the
sixth-largest mass-extinction in the history of Earth, most biologists say. In general, conservationists
and scientists are extremely worried about what the world's animal populations may look like if the
human population grows to 11 billion.

Population growth is leading to destruction of wildlife habitat, and increasing demand for wildlife
products. Some good news is that the richest animal diversity is found in a few spots, which could
135
make conservation of these vital places easier. But it has to be made a priority, which is often not the
case, scientists say.

6. ..

Scientists have documented an increasing rate of infectious diseases caused by new viruses and
bacteria over the past few decades, which has happened alongside population rise. They say the rate
of infections is likely to keep rising in the future.

Higher numbers of people, clustered in dense areas and traveling all over the globe could make it
easier for a virus to be transmitted to more people, spreading any outbreak wider and faster than
previously possible. And the fate of outbreaks is also being altered through the interactions of
humans with the environment, as people move into areas inhabited by wildlife in search of places to
live and grow food. Many agents of infectious diseases originate in animals, and human contact with
wildlife species facilitates the transmission of novel viruses.

Some researchers are out in tropical regions hunting for emerging viruses while others emphasize
bolstering public health research so we're better able to face the next pandemi c.

7. .

Nobody likes to mention it, but the world faces a major poop problem with the sharp rise in the
human population. Not to mention all the trash humans generate.

Hong Kong and other small countries are already grappling with overflowing landfills. The amount of
waste generated per capita is rising as urbanization causes greater consumerism. And worldwide, 2.6
billion people live without access to basic sanitation. The improper disposal of human waste leads to
serious health problems. In some regions, the lack of sanitary facilities limits children's access to
education.

The population outlook is grim, unless humans find ways to recycle waste in sanitary and energy-
efficient ways, experts say.

136
8.

The ongoing population boom could accelerate the pace of climate change, strain the availability of
key resources such as fresh water and threaten biodiversity around the globe. But it may have an
impact beyond Earth as well, making humanity more able, and perhaps more willing, to leave our
home planet and begin settling the solar system. More people overall means more millionaires and
billionaires to pay for private spaceflight, which could help the industry develop, some experts said,
though they warn that it won't be a Band-Aid for fixing overpopulation of our home planet.

http://www.livescience.com/41316-11-billion-people-earth.html

6.3

Vocabulary building Explaining diagrams

Match the following names with their description and pictogram.

A-HISTOGRAM B-CROSS SECTION C-PIE CHART D-FLOWCHART E-BAR CHART

1. .

http://ian.umces.edu/blog/2013/03/22/top-ten-conceptual-diagrams-seagrasses-streams-eco-
rhythms/
137
2. ..

http://www.scotthyoung.com/blog/2006/12/10/using-diagrams/

3. .

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch9/pie-secteurs/5214826-eng.htm

138
4.

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch9/bargraph-diagrammeabarres/5214818-
eng.htm

5.

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/edu/power-pouvoir/ch9/histo/5214822-eng.htm

139
1. A circle is divided into segments from the middle (like slices of a cake) to show how a
total is divided up.

2. A diagram where different amounts are represented by vertical or horizontal bars with
the same width but different height or length.

3. A model which is cut across to show the inner structure of something.

4. It is a kind of bar chart but the width of the bars indicates different values.

5. This diagram indicates the steps and stages of different processes.

6.4

Speaking

Explain the tendencies in the population growth using the following chart. Use the words below to
express the changes.

VERBS

show present indicate demonstrate see

decline fall drop decrease plummet

grow rise increase soar peak

ADVERBS

gradually slightly sharply steadily dramatically

NOUNS

fall increase decrease rise

ADJECTIVES

gradual slight sharp steady dramatic


140
http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/02/08/census-canada-2011-infographic-how-the-new-
population-stats-break-down-by-province-and-city/

6.5

Reading

You are going to read a text about the demographic transition model. Match the statements with the
appropriate stage.

1. Stage 1
2. Stage 2
3. Stage 3
4. Stage 4
5. Stage 5

Demographic transition model

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_transition

141
A plot of the demographic transition model, including stage 5

Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and
death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. This is
typically demonstrated through a demographic transition model (DTM). The theory is based on an
interpretation of demographic history developed in 1929 by the American demographer Warren
Thompson (18871973). Thompson observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in
industrialized societies over the previous 200 years. Most developed countries are in stage 3 or 4 of
the model; the majority of developing countries have reached stage 2 or stage 3. The major (relative)
exceptions are some poor countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and some Middle Eastern
countries, which are poor or affected by government policy or civil strife, notably Pakistan,
Palestinian Territories, Yemen and Afghanistan.

A correlation matching the demographic transition has been established; however, it is not certain
whether industrialization and higher incomes lead to lower population or if lower populations lead to
industrialization and higher incomes. In countries that are now developed this demographic
transition began in the 18th century and continues today. In less developed countries, this
demographic transition started later and is still at an earlier stage.

The transition involves four stages, or possibly five.

In stage one, pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in
balance. All human populations are believed to have had this balance until the late 18th
century, when this balance ended in Western Europe. In fact, growth rates were less than
0.05% at least since the Agricultural Revolution over 10,000 years ago. Birth and death rates
142
both tend to be very high in this stage. Because both rates are approximately in balance,
population growth is typically very slow in stage one.
In stage two, that of a developing country, the death rates drop rapidly due to improvements
in food supply and sanitation, which increase life spans and reduce disease. The
improvements specific to food supply typically include selective breeding and crop rotation
and farming techniques. Other improvements generally include access to technology, basic
healthcare, and education. For example, numerous improvements in public health reduce
mortality, especially childhood mortality. Prior to the mid-20th century, these improvements
in public health were primarily in the areas of food handling, water supply, sewage, and
personal hygiene. One of the variables often cited is the increase in female literacy combined
with public health education programs which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. In Europe, the death rate decline started in the late 18th century in northwestern
Europe and spread to the south and east over approximately the next 100 years. Without a
corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, and the countries in this stage
experience a large increase in population.
In stage three, birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increases in wages,
urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education
of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in
the education of children and other social changes. Population growth begins to level off.
The birth rate decline in developed countries started in the late 19th century in northern
Europe. While improvements in contraception do play a role in birth rate decline, it should
be noted that contraceptives were not generally available or widely used in the 19th century
and as a result likely did not play a significant role in the decline then. It is important to note
that birth rate decline is caused also by a transition in values; not just because of the
availability of contraceptives.
During stage four there are both low birth rates and low death rates. Birth rates may drop to
well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan,
leading to a shrinking population, a threat to many industries that rely on population growth.
As the large group born during stage two ages, it creates an economic burden on the
shrinking working population. Death rates may remain consistently low or increase slightly
due to increases in lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and high obesity and an aging
population in developed countries. By the late 20th century, birth rates and death rates in
developed countries leveled off at lower rates.

143
As with all models, this is an idealized picture of population change in these countries. The model is a
generalization that applies to these countries as a group and may not accurately describe all
individual cases. The extent to which it applies to less-developed societies today remains to be seen.
Many countries such as China, Brazil and Thailand have passed through the Demographic Transition
Model (DTM) very quickly due to fast social and economic change. Some countries, particularly
African countries, appear to be stalled in the second stage due to stagnant development and the
effect of AIDS.

The original Demographic Transition model has just four stages, but additional stages have been
proposed. Both more-fertile and less-fertile futures have been claimed as a Stage Five.

Some countries have sub-replacement fertility (that is, below 2.1 children per woman). This should
be 2.1 because it replaces the two parents, and adds population for deaths with the added .1 child.
European and many East Asian countries now have higher death rates than birth rates. Population
aging and population decline may eventually occur, presuming that sustained mass immigration does
not occur.

A. Improved sanitation and water supply

B. Increased desire for material possessions and less desire for large families

C. Lower infant mortality rate, less pressure to have more children

D. No birth control or family planning

E. Both birth rates and death rates remain low


F. Improvement in food quality and quantity

G. Family planning: contraceptives, abortion, government incentives

H. Birth rates fall below death rates, declining population

I. Famine, diseases, poor hygiene, no sewage disposal


J. Emancipation of women : possibility of a career, not only child bearers

6.6

Speaking

Look at the two Population pyramids, read the explanations and discuss in small groups the possible
social and economic consequences. What is the situation in Hungary?

144
Population structure and population pyramids

Population structure means the 'make up' or composition of a population. Looking at the population
structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between males and females of different
age groups.

Population structure is usually shown using a population pyramid. A population pyramid can be
drawn up for any area, from a whole continent or country to an individual town, city or village.

The following graphs show the population pyramids of the UK and a Mozambique, for 2000 and in
2025 using projected figures. The left side of each pyramid shows the number of men in each age
group, the right side shows the number of women in each age group.

Population pyramid for the UK 2000

145
Notice how in the UK 2000 pyramid there is a bulge in the area of the 30-34 and 35-39 age groups,
with the numbers thereafter reducing fairly steadily as the ages increase. This matches stage 4 of the
demographic transition model.

Now compare the UK population pyramids with those for Mozambique:

Population pyramid for Mozambique 2000

In this graph, notice that in 2000 the 0-4 age group contained the largest number of people, with the
numbers thereafter declining steadily as the ages increase.

The graph matches stage 1 in the model.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/population/population_change_structure_re
v5.shtml

146
6.7

Speaking

http://hir.ma/eletmod/a-nepesseg-soha-nem-latott-modon-eloregedett/104077

What do you know about the international labour market? Discuss these questions with your partner

5. How many people are working now in Hungary?

6. And in Europe?

7. Is Hungarys population ageing?

8. Will Europes population get younger or older in the future?

9. And what about the rest of the world?

10. Why do you think these demographic trends are happening?

6.8

Listening

The labour market of the future

A British businessman, Sir Martin Sorrell, is talking about what he feels is the biggest challenge for the
future in the international labour market. Listen to what he says and choose the best option for each
question.

147
1. What have they done in China?

a) Started a new advertising school in Shanghai

b) Started advertising in schools in Shanghai

c) Found students to work in advertising

d) Found the cleverest young people in Shanghai

2. In order to attract the best young people it is important to offer

a wide variety of subjects in different schools

the chance to work for incentives

both money and training courses

a guaranteed career

3. Martin Sorrell believes

a) we cant produce everything we need

b) we soon wont be able to produce everything we need

c) we will have to produce more and more in the future

d) we have no problem making things

4. In the future job market it will be

a) more difficult to find young people

b) easier to find young people

c) more difficult to find clever people

d) easier to employ older people

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17477469

148
6.9

Reading

Its never too late to learn What do you think?

Do you know any elderly people who still study or are planning to do so? Tell the class about them.
Now read the text below and fill it with the missing clauses.

Lifelong learning is the secret to happiness in old age

Not only can learning during the later stages of life bring happiness, wellbeing and a
connection to the wider community for those studying, it can also reduce dependency on
welfare.

John Salinas says weekly ICT classes have given him a new lease of life, allowing him to benefit from
community opportunities.

Professor Stephen McNair has spent half a lifetime's research proving it's better to be happy than rich
a state some say is best achieved through lifelong learning. Now, at last, the government has
latched on to the idea and David Cameron is planning a happiness index _______ (1).

McNair, a semi-retired National Institute of Adult Continuing Education research fellow, says that in all
the guidance about wellbeing, education is central. "[It is] particularly important for those in the
latter stages of life when one is less mobile and having to cope with the death of partners and friends:
getting out of bed__________ (2)."
149
This is clearly not an issue for 84-year-old Jim Kelly, winner of an Adult Learners' Week award in
2010,_________________ (3) everything from gardening to the 1688 "glorious revolution". After
school days blighted by poverty and bullying teachers, the impetus to study came from his
granddaughter Becky who, as a two-year-old, grew frustrated with his inability to answer her
questions. "Don't you know anything, Granddad?" she would ask. Now, 14 years later, he tells the
teenager he's pleased she asked that question.

Evidence of the benefits of learning ________________ (4) is overwhelming, from research by the
Alzheimer's Society showing delayed onset of the disease, to reduced dependency on welfare
support.

Melissa March is executive director of Learning for the Fourth Age, a charity dedicated to bringing
trained volunteers into care settings where they work with residents. "Our volunteers help people
with everything ________________ (5) to wanting to tackle Welsh for the first time," she explains.
"There is lots of interest too in IT and the connections______________ (6). Our work helps break
down older people's fears about young people and opens our volunteers' eyes to the lives of older
people with very different experiences from their own."

Such improvements_______________ (7) , as 78-year-old Londoner Maria Tolly found. In 1989,


health problems spelled an end to her career as a professional guitarist, until specialist music
technology courses at Morley College and the City Lit restored her commitment to making music. "I
was concerned that I might be sidelined," she recalls, "but actually studying at both institutions has
proved that age is immaterial ___________________ (8) thanks to a combination of forgetting
myself and realizing how much I still have to learn." Soon she had music commissions ranging from
after-school dance groups to composing a song for the 100th anniversary of her local park. "I am now
becoming interested in music videos and I am looking for collaborators."

The value of learning is no exaggeration, says Fiona Aldridge, Niace program director and author of a
recent report into lifelong learning in care settings. "The benefits of ensuring that ongoing learning is
a part of a care package is hard to deny when one learns of some of the best practice in this area. It
has significant benefits in terms of improving people's mental health and reducing their reliance on
medication."

http://www.theguardian.com/adult-learning/lifelong-learning-key-to-happiness

a. and feeling one has a purpose can be particularly challenging

b. from recovering piano-playing after strokes


150
c. that email can bring

d. I feel so connected to life

e. as a measure of success

f. bring genuine happiness

g. who has in recent years dedicated himself to a wide range of study

h. during the latter stages of life

After reading the text: has your opinion changed? Why? Why not?

Discuss with your partner.

6.10

Listening

It is becoming more and more important to continue your studies at the workplace. To understand
why listen to the presenter of a radio program talking to Karie Willyerd of Sun Microsystems about
why we need to keep up to date with the changing world.

Change at Sun Microsystems

1 What kinds of companies adopt internet-based teaching and learning very early?
2 Where are Sun Microsystems and Oracle companies located?
3 What did the University of California's study show?
4 What takes 10 years?
5 What do we have to create?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

151
6.11

Reading

Addressing Weaknesses

Read the article below and then, on the basis of what you have read, finish the sentences in the most
appropriate way

Most employees have some weaknesses in their workplace skills. A training program allows you to
strengthen those skills that each employee needs to improve. A development program brings all
employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This helps reduce any weak
links within the company who rely heavily on others to complete basic work tasks. Providing the
necessary training creates an overall knowledgeable staff with employees who can take over for one
another as needed, work on teams or work independently without constant help and supervision
from others.

Improved Employee Performance

An employee who receives the necessary training is better able to perform her job. She becomes
more aware of safety practices and proper procedures for basic tasks. The training may also build the
employee's confidence because she has a stronger understanding of the industry and the
responsibilities of her job. This confidence may push her to perform even better and think of new
ideas that help her excel. Continuous training also keeps your employees on the cutting edge of
industry developments. Employees who are competent and on top of changing industry standards
help your company hold a position as a leader and strong competitor within the industry.

Consistency

A structured training and development program ensures that employees have a consistent
experience and background knowledge. The consistency is particularly relevant for the company's
basic policies and procedures. All employees need to be aware of the expectations and procedures
within the company. This includes safety, discrimination and administrative tasks. Putting all
employees through regular training in these areas ensures that all staff members at least have
exposure to the information.

152
Employee Satisfaction

Employees with access to training and development programs have the advantage over employees in
other companies who are left to seek out training opportunities on their own. The investment in
training that a company makes shows the employees they are valued. The training creates a
supportive workplace. Employees may gain access to training they wouldn't have otherwise known
about or sought out themselves. Employees who feel appreciated and challenged through training
opportunities may feel more satisfaction toward their jobs.

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-training-development-workplace-10321.html

1. Addressing weaknesses

a. is useful for the staff members who are behind the others.

b. helps employees working on their own.

c. is necessary in businesses where the level of the employees is very different.

2. If you train your employees regularly..

a. they will probably develop.

b. they will change the industry standards.

c. their performance at work may drop.

3. Consistent training influences employees in the following way:

a. They will know too much about the company.

b. They might be confused.

c. They will know what is happening at the company.

4. Employees who are trained..

a. can look for training for themselves elsewhere.

b. are content and feel appreciated.

c. envy the other colleagues who are not.

153
6.12

Listening

What is e-learning? As young people become more and more computer literate, people are
investigating the idea of learning through computers, as well as or sometimes instead of
traditional methods of study. Listen to Josh Bersin talking about e-learning and fill in the chart and
answer the questions.

E-learning is a word that started around ........... (1), and it was originally the concept of
.................. (2) the internet to physical training, so the . (3) concept was We're gonna do
away with the classroom, we're gonna do away with bricks and mortar universities and we're gonna
put it all on the web, and in fact Cisco and other .................. (4) of the internet really tried to make
a lot of ............. (5) about this to try to ................ (6) demand for the internet, and companies
tried to do that and they tried to shut down their classroom training universities tried to put all
their professors on line and what they found was that it didn't work.

The Internet is good for The Internet is not good for

7. .................. training 10. soft skills like .....................

8. ................. on a process 11+12 how to ..........., or how to .................

9. .............. training 13. some of the more people-..................... skills

14. What does the average employee do 70 times in a single day? Shift between their . and
their .

15. How many PC's are there in the world? ..

16. Who or what do we learn from?

What have become very important parts of corporate training?

17. tools of ....................... 18. the concepts of .........................

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

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6.13

Speaking

E-learning

http://www.palco-me.com/main/E-Learning.jpg

Questions for discussion

1. Do you prefer to study using traditional methods (books and note-taking) or do you enjoy
using computers?

2. Do you think your school or university is well-equipped with the latest technology for
students?

3. Do you think you will be able to work effectively without being computer literate?

4. What are computers not able to teach you?

5. Are you happy about the thought of having to relearn things later in your working life?

http://www.daywatcher.com/the-ageing-society-and-new-technology/
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6.14

Writing

How to write for and against type essays

1. State the issue, explaining its relevance / topicality, and if necessary explaining why it
causes disagreement/controversy.
One of the most widely-debated issues facing us today is .
In recent years the issue of has been widely discussed

2. Present different opinions


Many (people) have argued / argue that
There is a widespread belief that...
There is general agreement that .
Most people believe that ,
According to some experts

3. Present your own opinion


In my opinion
I tend to think that
From my perspective, the situation is
I have always believed that
I have come to the conclusion that .
I am skeptical about this. / I doubt that this is true.

4. Conclude
All things considered,
Considering all the arguments, on balance I would say
In conclusion, I would argue that
All in all I tend to agree with people who

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Whats your opinion about e-learning?

Using the help given in above write an essay of about 200 words on the pros and cons of E-
learning. Include the following points:

Reasons for its development and spread

Types of courses ideal for e-learning

Advantages
- popularity of high-tech forms of learning
- flexibility
- your own pace and schedule
- objective evaluation
- cost-effective
Disadvantages
- no immediate feedback
- lack of oral communication
- needs self-discipline

Finish with a conclusion

http://blogfeed.hu/blog-bejegyzes/educat.blog.hu-3078/elearning_trendek_2014-244328.blog

157
Researcher Self disciplined Explores new ideas Has narrow interests

Evaluator Serious, controlled Has good judgement Cant inspire other people

Finds the best in different


Team Builder Sociable Finds it difficult to work alone
people

Finisher Hard-working Attends to detail and quality Often lacks social skills

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Unit 7 Weather and Climate

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with some important facts and figures, processes
that affect our climate and weather...

This unit will also introduce you to the kind of English you will need to become familiar with certain
tasks at work, you can further improve your management skills, understand the culture of your
workplace, and develop your career.

http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/climate-weather.html

7.1

Speaking

In pairs answer the following questions. Make notes of the ideas that you mention.

What does weather mean?

What does climate mean?

What is the difference between weather and climate?

Why should we study the climate and its changes?

159
7.2

Reading

After reading the following text compare your answers with the information you can find in the text.

What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate?

The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the
atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over
relatively long periods of time.

When we talk about climate change, we talk about changes in long-term averages of daily weather.
Today, children always hear stories from their parents and grandparents about how snow was always
piled up to their waists as they trudged off to school. Children today in most areas of the country
haven't experienced those kinds of dreadful snow-packed winters, except for the Northeastern U.S.
in January 2005. The changes in recent winter snows indicate that the climate has changed since
their parents were young.

If summers seem hotter lately, then the recent climate may have changed. In various parts of the
world, some people have even noticed that springtime comes earlier now than it did 30 years ago. An
earlier springtime is indicative of a possible change in the climate.

Image to Left: Latest three month


average temperature and precipitation
anomalies for the United States. Image
Credit: NOAA

In addition to long-term climate change,

160
there are shorter term climate variations. This so-called climate variability can be represented by
periodic or intermittent changes related to El Nio, La Nia, volcanic eruptions, or other changes in
the Earth system.

What Weather Means


Weather is basically the way the atmosphere is behaving, mainly with respect to its effects upon life
and human activities. The difference between weather and climate is that weather consists of the
short-term (minutes to months) changes in the atmosphere. Most people think of weather in terms
of temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, brightness, visibility, wind, and atmospheric
pressure, as in high and low pressure.

In most places, weather can change from minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day-to-day, and season-
to-season. Climate, however, is the average of weather over time and space. An easy way to
remember the difference is that climate is what you expect, like a very hot summer, and weather is
what you get, like a hot day with pop-up thunderstorms.

Things That Make Up Our Weather


There are really a lot of components to weather. Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover,
winds, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains
from a cold front or warm front, excessive heat, heat waves and more.

What Climate Means


In short, climate is the description of the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.

Some scientists define climate as the average weather for a particular region and time period, usually
taken over 30-years. It's really an average pattern of weather for a particular region.

When scientists talk about climate, they're looking at averages of precipitation, temperature,
humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms, and other
measures of the weather that occur over a long period in a particular place.

161
For example, after looking at rain gauge data, lake and reservoir levels, and satellite data, scientists
can tell if during a summer, an area was drier than average. If it continues to be drier than normal
over the course of many summers, than it would likely indicate a change in the climate.

Why Study Climate?


The reason studying climate and a changing climate is important, is that will affect people around the
world. Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels, and change precipitation and
other local climate conditions. Changing regional climate could alter forests, crop yields, and water
supplies. It could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems. Deserts may
expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our National Parks and National Forests
may be permanently altered.

Image to Right: An example of a


Monthly Mean Outgoing Long
wave Radiation (OLR) product
produced from NOAA polar-
orbiter satellite data, which is
frequently used to study global
climate change. Image Credit:
NOAA

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa-n/climate/climate_weather.html

7.3

Reading

With the help of this figure identify the given layers described in the short definitions.

162
http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/1400/atmos_struct.html

(1)..: 0-12 Km (~7 miles) on average. The top ranges in height from 8 km at
the poles to 18 km at the equator. It contains most of the moisture in the atmosphere, so it is the
layer of weather or climate to us. Because of the cooler temperature as it goes higher, it is in
constant motion. The main heating source is the Earth's surface.

(2) : Between 12 and 50 km, however, the temperature rises. This places
warm air above cooler air, which is a stable arrangement. The result is a layer in which little vertical
mixing occurs. That is, the layer is stratified, hence its name, the (2).................... Normally, neither
clouds nor storms reach into this region. The boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere is
called the (3).. Its height ranges from 8 km (26,000 ft) at the poles to 18 km
(59,000 ft) at the equator. Ozone generating reactions in the stratosphere is the main heat source.

(4).: Above the stratosphere, temperature once again falls with increasing
elevation, marking the (4)..

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(5)..: The final rise in temperature occurs within the .
above 80 km (50 mi). This heating is caused by the action of high-energy radiation from the Sun on
the extremely thin air. The effect is that a negatively charged electron is knocked out of free oxygen
(O), molecular oxygen (O2), or nitrogen oxide (NO), leaving them as positively charged ions. Their
temperature is raised in the process, and because there are so few molecules per cubic centimeter at
this height, it takes very little energy to produce large increases in temperature. Because the lower
portion of the thermosphere is characterized by the presence of ions, it is also referred to as the
(6).

7.4

Reading

Match the statements/questions (1-10) with the relevant explanations/answers (A-J) .

1. From the earth's surface to 11-12 km above, temperature decreases with height.
2. The temperature can increase with height in the lower troposphere.
3. Because warm air tends to rise and cool air tends to sink, the troposphere is a location of
much movement of air, or "turbulence".
4. It is relatively easy to see where the stratosphere begins when there are large convective
storms around.
5. Why does the temperature increase with height in the stratosphere?
6. The importance of the ozone layer lies in the facts that (1) ozone helps the earth to maintain
its heat balance, and (2) ozone reduces the amount of harmful UV radiation that reaches the
earth's surface.
7. Pressure always decreases with height and does so most rapidly near the ground. Why do
sealed balloons increase in volume when they rise in the atmosphere? Why do your ears
"pop" when you ride on an elevator in a tall building or when you take off in an airplane?
8. The rate at which air pressure changes with height is determined primarily by the average
temperature in the column under consideration.
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9. Temperature has a more complicated structure, mostly because the temperature of the air
relies on the energy its molecules receive from radiation.
10. Temperature increases with height from about 10 km to 50 km above the earth's surface.
A. Ozone is both produced and destroyed in the stratosphere. Ozone destruction can be both
natural (UV radiation or molecular collisions) or man-made (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons).

B. The tops of these storms reach only into the lowest level of the stratosphere. Because of the
temperature inversion, air rising in the thunderstorm eventually becomes cooler than its
environment in the stratosphere and stops rising.

C. This fact results from the sun's radiation striking the earth and the earth then warming the
air above it. So the closer the air is to the ground, the warmer it becomes. The rate of change
of air temperature with height is called the "lapse rate". In the troposphere, the lapse rate is
generally about 6.5 deg C per kilometer increase in altitude.

D. Because the ozone (O3) layer mostly resides at this level in the atmosphere. Ozone absorbs
UV radiation from the sun which, in turn, increases the motion of the ozone molecules. The
ozone molecules then collide with other molecules in the air, increasing its temperature .

E. This layer is called the stratosphere and results from absorption of solar radiation by ozone.
How can we "see" the change from the troposphere to the stratosphere? The tops of large
thunderstorm clouds can show us.

F. When this happens, it is called an "inversion". If the temperature remains the same with
height, it is called "isothermal".

165
G. As we move upward in the atmosphere, the weight of the air upon us should decrease
because there is less air above us. Thus, air pressure decreases with increasing height

H. Hence, the troposphere is described by meteorologists as being "well-mixed". If pollutants


are injected into the troposphere, they are mixed throughout its depth in a few days and,
usually within a week or so, will fall back to the ground with the rain (e.g., acid rain). Thus,
the troposphere has a self-cleaning mechanism.

I. The two main sources of radiation in the atmosphere are the sun and the earth. The sun's
radiation is mostly near infrared (37%), visible (44%), and ultraviolet (7%) while the earth's
radiation is mostly far infrared. Infrared is generally what we feel as "heat", visible is what we
see, and ultraviolet is what our skin absorbs to make us tan or burn. The temperature
structure of the atmosphere is controlled significantly by whichever of these three types of
radiation are affecting the region

J. In colder regions, atmospheric pressure decreases more rapidly with height than normal or
than is observed in warmer areas.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmosphere_of_Earth

166
7.5

Reading

Some words have been removed from the text. Put them in the right places.

http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/hydro.htm

groundwater condenses transpiration runoff

evaporation precipitation

The hydrologic cycle begins with the (1) of water from the surface of the ocean.
As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor (2) to form clouds. Moisture is transported
around the globe until it returns to the surface as (3) .. Once the water reaches the
ground, one of two processes may occur. I.) some of the water may evaporate back into the
atmosphere or II.) the water may penetrate the surface and become (4) ...
Groundwater either seeps its way to into the oceans, rivers, and streams, or is released back into the
atmosphere through (5) . The balance of water that remains on the earth's surface
is (6) , which empties into lakes, rivers and streams and is carried back to the oceans,
where the cycle begins again.

http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/%28Gh%29/guides/mtr/hyd/smry.rxml

167
7.6

Writing

Write the names of the clouds in the boxes under the pictures.

STANDARD CLOUD TYPE CHART

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16.

altrostratus, cirrus, cumulonimbus, stratocumulus, wall-cloud, fog,


cirrocumulus, cumulus, mammatus, altocumulus, shelf-cloud,
contrails, fractus, cirrostratus, stratus, nimbostratus, cumulus-
congestus
17.
168
7.7

Writing

Write the definitions of the following types of precipitation. You may consult a dictionary.

Rain:

Hail:

Freeznig rain:

Sleet:..

Snow:.

Read the following descriptions and check your answers.

169
Rain and Hail
liquid and ice precipitation

Rain develops when growing cloud droplets become too heavy to remain in the cloud and as a result,
fall toward the surface as rain. Rain can also begin as ice crystals that collect each other to form large
snowflakes. As the falling snow passes through the freezing level into warmer air, the flakes melt and
collapse into rain drops.

Hail is a large frozen raindrop produced by intense thunderstorms, where snow and rain can coexist
in the central updraft. As the snowflakes fall, liquid water freezes onto them forming ice pellets that
will continue to grow as more and more droplets are accumulated. Upon reaching the bottom of the
cloud, some of the ice pellets are carried by the updraft back up to the top of the storm.

As the ice pellets once again fall through the cloud, another layer of ice is added and the hail stone
grows even larger. Typically the stronger the updraft, the more times a hail stone repeats this cycle
and consequently, the larger it grows. Once the hail stone becomes too heavy to be supported by the
updraft, it falls out of the cloud toward the surface. The hail stone reaches the ground as ice since it
is not in the warm air below the thunderstorm long enough to melt before reaching the ground.

Freezing Rain
super cooled droplets freezing on impact

Ice storms can be the most devastating of winter weather phenomena and are often the cause of
automobile accidents, power outages and personal injury. Ice storms result from the accumulation of
freezing rain, which is rain that becomes super cooled and freezes upon impact with cold surfaces.
Freezing rain is most commonly found in a narrow band on the cold side of a warm front, where
surface temperatures are at or just below freezing.

Sleet
frozen raindrops that bounce on impact with the ground

Progressing further ahead of the warm front, surface temperatures continue to decrease and the
freezing rain eventually changes over to sleet. Areas of sleet are located on the colder side (typically
north) of the freezing rain band.

170
Snow
an aggregate of ice crystals

Progressing even further away from the warm front, surface temperatures continue to decrease and
the sleet changes over to snow. Snowflakes are simply aggregates of ice crystals that collect to each
other as they fall toward the surface...

7.8

Speaking

Visit one of the following websites and tell your partner the weather forecast for the next week in
Budapest and in London.

http://www.weatheronline.co.uk

http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/

http://www.accuweather.com/en/hu/budapest

http://weather.edition.cnn.com/weather/intl/forecast.jsp

https://www.osfashland.org/plan-your-visit/what-to-expect/weather.aspx

171
7.9

Writing

Writing a letter inviting a tender

You work at the Conferi Kft. which organises training events in Hungary. You are going to organise a
training event for the medical sector and you need to translators and interpreters. Write a letter to a
translation agency asking them to bid for the work. Use the prompts given below.

Conferi Kft.
56 Rakoczi t.
Budapest

Smith Spa.
456 Sony St.
Belgium 45

21st February 2005

Dear Ms Smith

I / Gbor Pcsi, managing director / Conferi Kft., / company specialize / organise / training
events / Hungary.
I / write / announce / new training course / we organise / March 2015 / Budapest.
2000 trainees / attend / the event / all over / world.
The sessions / take place / Hotel Confi / last 3 days.
The participants / need translation services / Hungarian / English / vice versa.
We invite your company / bid / contract.
In your bid you / provide detailed information / services / costs.
All tenders must / receive / July 21st 2014 / the result / announce / August 30th.
Please / not hesitate / contact me personally if / need / details.
I enclose / brochure / details / conference.
Yours /

Gbor Pcsi
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7.10

Writing

Writing a letter inviting a tender

You work at the Centre for International Studies employing 20 officials at the University of Budapest
which receives more than 1,000 foreign students each year. You are responsible for staff training and
improvement and it is your job to organise a training course to help staff at the Centre deal with
students from different cultures and countries. Write letters to training organisations asking for
offers. In the letter you should describe what kind of training course you need and also what you can
pay for the course. Write a letter of 150-180 words, excluding names, addresses, dates.

Requirements:

1. training for 20 persons


2. language of training: English
3. one week, 7 hours per day
4. varied teaching material
5. involving theory and practice (case studies preferred)
6. subjects: procedures concerning studying abroad
- higher education systems in the EU

- welcoming visitors

- contacting people from other cultures (greetings, non-verbal communication)

- cultural differences (dress code, gifts, inviting people)

Venue: comfortable, spacious room, located in the centre of Budapest but in a quiet area

Budget: 2,000,000 HUF, including 5 lunches

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7.11

Vocabulary

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT What do managers do?

http://www.lematin.ma/supplement/emploi/2012/Management_Quel-DRH--pour-demain-/Management_Quel-DRH-pour-
demain--/174876.html

Match the pairs below:

1. set a. tasks to different employees

2. communicate b. new working practices to the organisation

3. improve c. the best person for each task

4. select d. problems when they occur

5. train e. the efficiency of the organisation

6. introduce f. with all members of staff

7. allocate g. newly recruited employees

8. deal with h. goals and targets for the staff

Discuss these questions with a partner:

1. Have you got the right skills to manage people?


2. Could you organise people to work effectively?

174
7.12

Speaking

Useful People to have in Teams

Study the table below. Do you agree that people can be divided into different types of workers on the
basis of their personality and style of work? Which type would you be?

Type Typical features Strengths Weaknesses

Worker Reliable Works hard Is not very creative

Manager Confident Focuses on objectives Is not very intellectual

Creator Creative Is ambitious, innovative Can be impatient

7.13

Speaking

Selecting a team

You work for the HR Department. Choose one of the projects below and, using the information on the
previous page, decide which three types of worker would make the best team. Remember to choose
people with the right skills and working styles and also people who could work with each other easily
in a small team of three people.

175
Task Type of team needed Important aspects of task People chosen

Setting up an Internet Financial services - tight deadline, reliable 1.


banking service development team system, high financial risk 2.

3.

Applying for an EU grant Planning and negotiating - must be well-prepared, 1.


team presentation important 2.

3.

Investigating fraud in a Investigative team - long-term job, attention 1.


multinational company to detail 2.

3.

Developing a new sales Sales team - lots of travelling, 1.


territory for a food product individual initiative 2.
important, social contacts 3.
important

7.14

Writing

Writing an email

Now write an e-mail to your manager in which you describe the three people who you think are most
suitable for the task. Use some of the expressions below in your email.

We need a person who is .

It is important / crucial / vital / necessary to have ..

It would be advisable / preferable to have

X's would be helpful / useful / indispensable .

This task requires .

In order to .. we need someone who can .

176
7.15

Vocabulary development

Motivating staff financially

A manager needs to motivate staff. One typical way of motivating staff is to pay them well. See if you
can complete these sentences with the words at the bottom of the page:

There was very little to work because the pay was very low and the work was
quite boring.

Salespeople can increase their earnings significantly because they earn a . every time
they make a sale.

Most people nowadays are paid a monthly . which is paid into their bank account
automatically.

A talented young footballer often has a very high .. even though his career may
be quite short.

Many companies prefer to give their employees .... like a free mobile phone, or
meal vouchers, because this is less expensive than paying them more.

In London public sector workers get a ., which is usually 8.5% of their regular
pay, to compensate them for the high costs of the capital.

Everyone has tax, national insurance and pension contribution . from their pay.

Women dont always receive the same of pay as men for the same job.

At the end of the year many workers can get a .. if their company has been
successful

When company directors retire they are often given a which is usually a lot of
money.

deducted incentive commission golden handshake

rate salary earning potential

bonus cost-of-living allowance fringe benefit

177
7.16

Listening

How to manage your staff

Many organizations try to make work enjoyable for their staff, but not all succeed. Listen to this
extract from a radio program about how managers treat their staff and answer the questions.

1. How many people work for the Beaverbrooks chain of shops?

2. What percentage of them is satisfied with their manager and his/her approach to management?

3. The women at Beaverbrooks explain why they are happy to work there. Which of these ideas do
they mention?

a. You can talk to the managers, unlike at other stores

b. You can choose which department to work in

c. The company pays you very well

d. You dont need to worry about the future

e. The managers visit the staff frequently

f. The atmosphere makes you want to work there

g. You are free to contact the management

4. What is Karen happy about? (fill in the spaces)

a. She has been able to earn _________________ in bonuses

b. She has been able to take her family to __________________

c. She works with colleagues who have the utmost ______________________

d. Her _____________________ are recognised

178
Fill in the spaces

Beaverbrooks started to take notice of the opinions of its staff in ______________________ (5).
Mark Addlestone found that the staff was not receiving any ______________________________ (6)
and they were not __________________ (7), but above all they didnt feel
__________________________________ (8). So he introduced a new package of
_______________________ (9) benefits, and he visits each store personally at least
_______________________________ (10). Mark Addlestone believes that sometimes people say
they are fine, even when something _______________ (11), but he believes that people
________________ (12) the company and him personally.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/nicework/nicework_20041130.shtml

7.17

Reading

Motivating staff

http://activerain.com/image_store/uploads/8/4/0/3/7/ar131162792273048.jpg

Something that will make me stay, love and enjoy my work.


(Guest cheyser)
http://humanresources.about.com/u/ua/motivationrewardretention/work_motivation.htm

This quote comes from an internet chat site. Do you think it describes what motivation at work is?

179
PRE-READING TASK:

Work in pairs and answer the following questions:

What motivates a 5-year-old child?


What motivates you?
What do you think people motivates at work?

Now you are going to read a text about motivation at work. After reading it decide on which points
you agree with the writer.

What People Want From Work: Motivation

Motivation Is Different For Each of Your Employees

By Susan M. Heathfield, About.com Guide

Every person has different motivations for working. The reasons for working are as individual as the
person. But, we all work because we obtain something that we need from work. The something we
obtain from work impacts our morale and motivation and the quality of our lives. Here is the most
recent thinking about motivation, what people want from work.

Work IS About the Money

Some people work for love; others work for personal fulfillment. Others like to accomplish goals and
feel as if they are contributing to something larger than themselves, something important. Some
people have personal missions they accomplish through meaningful work. Others truly love what
they do or the clients they serve. Some like the camaraderie and interaction with customers and
coworkers. Other people like to fill their time with activity. Some workers like change, challenge, and
diverse problems to solve. Motivation is individual and diverse.

Whatever your personal reasons for working, the bottom line, however, is that almost everyone
works for money. Whatever you call it: compensation, salary, bonuses, benefits or remuneration,
money pays the bills. Money provides housing, gives children clothing and food, sends teens to
college, and allows leisure activities, and eventually, retirement. To underplay the importance of
money and benefits as motivation for people who work is a mistake.

Fair benefits and pay are the cornerstone of a successful company that recruits and retains
committed workers. If you provide a living wage for your employees, you can then work on

180
additional motivation issues. Without the fair, living wage, however, you risk losing your best people
to a better-paying employer.

In fact, recent research from Watson Wyatt Worldwide in The Human Capital Edge: 21 People
Management Practices Your Company Must Implement (or Avoid) to Maximize Shareholder Value,
(Compare Prices) recommends, that to attract the best employees, you need to pay more than your
average-paying counterparts in the marketplace. Money provides basic motivation.

Got Money? What's Next for Motivation?

I've read the surveys and studies dating back to the early 1980s that demonstrate people want more
from work than money. An early study of thousands of workers and managers by the American
Psychological Association clearly demonstrated this. While managers predicted the most important
motivational aspect of work for people would be money, personal time and attention from the
supervisor was cited by workers as most rewarding and motivational for them at work.

In a recent Workforce article, "The Ten Ironies of Motivation", reward and recognition guru, Bob
Nelson, says, "More than anything else, employees want to be valued for a job well done by those
they hold in high esteem." He adds that people want to be treated as if they are adult human beings.

While what people want from work is situational, depending on the person, his needs and the
rewards that are meaningful to him, giving people what they want from work is really quite
straightforward. People want:

Control of their work inspires motivation: including such components as the ability to impact
decisions; setting clear and measurable goals; clear responsibility for a complete, or at least
defined, task; job enrichment; tasks performed in the work itself; and recognition for
achievement.

To belong to the in-crowd creates motivation: including items such as receiving timely
information and communication; understanding management's formulas for decision making;
team and meeting participation opportunities; and visual documentation and posting of work
progress and accomplishments.

The opportunity for growth and development is motivational: and includes education and
training; career paths; team participation; succession planning; cross-training; and field trips to
successful workplaces.

Leadership is key in motivation. People want clear expectations that provide a picture of the
outcomes desired with goal setting and feedback and an appropriate structure or framework.

181
What You Can Do for Motivation and Positive Morale

You have much information about what people want from work. Key to creating a work environment
that fosters motivation is the wants and needs of the individual. I recommend that you ask your
employees what they want from work and whether they are getting it. With this information in hand,
I predict you'll be surprised at how many simple and inexpensive opportunities you have to create a
motivational, desirable work environment. Pay attention to what is important to the people you
employ for high motivation and positive morale. You'll achieve awesome business success.

http://humanresources.about.com/od/rewardrecognition/a/needs_work.htm

Now answer the questions below:

1. What is essential if you want to avoid losing your best people?

_____________________________________________

2. What do workers want from their employees?

_____________________________________________

3. Why is setting clear and measurable goals important?

_____________________________________________

4. What does belong to the in-crowd mean?

_____________________________________________

5. List three types of opportunities for development.

_____________________________________________

6. What does the author of this article recommend employers do?

____________________________________________

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7.18

Speaking

Staff motivation dialogue

http://www.amcostarica.com/yelling092809.jpg

Now see how well you can motivate your partner!

Student A

You work for x company/organisation. You have been unhappy at work and your manager is not
happy with your performance. You have been asked to go to an annual appraisal interview.

Points to discuss

1. Reasons for your unhappiness at work

2. Suggestions for improving performance

a. Increased salary (+10%?)

b. More flexible hours (afternoons off?)

c. More interesting tasks (job rotation?)

d. Chance for promotion?

183
Student B

You work for x company/organisation as a manager. You have some staff who have been unhappy at
work and you are also dissatisfied with their performance. You have asked one of your staff to go to
an annual appraisal interview.

Points to discuss

1. Reasons for his /her unhappiness at work

2. Suggestions for improving performance

a. Increased salary (+2%?)

b. More flexible hours (weekend work?)

c. More training courses (languages? software?)

d. Move to another department

7.19

Vocabulary

Working Conditions

If the working conditions are good this usually leads to better work and happier staff. But its often
very difficult to get the right combination of conditions. See if you can complete these sentences with
the words at the bottom of the page:

Hungary still has quite generous . leave to help women look after their children.

Most workers are entitled to about 28 days .. per year.

Many workers are not fully aware of their rights at work because they havent read their
of employment.

If you feel ill and have a doctors note you can get .., although it is usually only paid
for a few months.

In the old days working hours were usually fixed, but nowadays many people take advantage
of their companys system so they can decide when they want to start work.
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When an organisation is badly managed . can be very low and it can be difficult to
motivate staff.

When workers are not happy and pay is low .. can be very high and so an
organisation always has to look for new staff.

A good relationship with your .. is often vital if you want to be happy at work.

Since the beginning of the financial crisis many workers no longer feel they have job
because they know organisations are trying to reduce costs and cut staff.

When you join an organisation you will probably meet someone from the (or HR)
department who will deal with your conditions of employment.

holiday flexi time colleagues security turnover

contract morale sick pay personnel maternity

7.20

Reading

Key Functions of an HR Department (R

Read this article about the various tasks carried out by the Human Resources (HR, or Personnel)
Department at a company. When you have finished reading, for gaps 1-6 choose the most
appropriate answer, then for gaps 7-15 select the word which would not complete the sentence in a
correct way.

Key Functions of an HR Department

by Lisa Mooney, Demand Media

185
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/DM-
Resize/photos.demandstudios.com/getty/article/178/210/92861568_XS.jpg?w=410&h=410&keep_ratio=1

One of the key functions of the human resources department is 1. . recruitment.

The human resources department handles many necessary functions of your business. It is
instrumental in providing labor law 2. ., record keeping, hiring and training, compensation,
relational assistance and help with handling specific performance issues. These functions are critical
because without those functions being completed, your company would not be able to meet the
essential needs of management and staff.

Ensure 3. .................................. with Labor Laws

One of the chief duties of the human resources office of your company is to ensure the business
operates in 4. .. with all labor laws. The department has to know and comply with that
states particular set of rules employment regulations. This includes such 5. as the number
of breaks given per number of hours worked and the number of hours and the age in which an
individual can become employed.

Recruitment and Training

Recruiting and training new employees are primary 6. . of the human resources team.
This part of the job often entails advertising open positions, interviewing and hiring candidates and
setting aside hours devoted to training the new recruits. The human resources department often
publishes training materials including handbooks 7. all aspects of the job.

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Record Keeping

The HR office is in charge of record keeping for the business. According to the IRS, your company
should keep records 8. .. income, expenses, purchases and a summary of business
transactions. The human resources department should also, of course, maintain employees records
9. their individual tax forms. The companys business license, inventory statistics,
insurance records and all other pertinent business information should also be on file.

Payroll and Benefits

The dispensation of payroll comes under the responsibilities of the human resource office. While
payroll often exists as a separate division in large companies, in small businesses, it is generally
handled by a small human resources staff. Health care benefits are also 10. . by the human
resource department.

Employee Relations

Another key function of the HR department is the managing of employee relations. When there is an
11. .. or misunderstanding between employees or between employees and a manager, it is the
human resource officers who mediate the situation. Employees are 12. ..to bring relational
problems to the attention of the human resources staff for resolution.

Employee Performance Improvement Plans

The human resources department is often instrumental in 13 ... performance improvement


plans commonly called PIPs. In general, these are written 14. .. designed to help struggling
employees improve their work to raise it to a certain expectation level of the company. According to
a University of Texas at Dallas publication, the PIP includes a description of the behavior or
performance that needs attention, 15. .. to be met within a certain time period, a plan for
accomplishing the improvement along with support resources and detailed consequences if the
improvement does not occur.

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/key-functions-hr-department-
31206.htmlhttp://smallbusiness.chron.com/key-functions-hr-department-31206.html

187
Select the correct answer

a. employer b. employee c. employee


a. provision b. compliance c. creation
a. provision b. compliance c. creation
a. provision b. accordance c. creation
a. issues b. problems c. morals
a. responsibilities b. regulations c. rules

Now select the incorrect answer.

a. deleting b. describing c. detailing

a. concerning b. regarding c. excluding

9. a. including b. involving c. insuring

10. a. managed b. handled c. made

11. a. dispute b. disagreement c. defraud

12. a. engaged b. expected c. encouraged

13. a. diluting b. setting up c. creating

14. a. proposals b. recommendations c. procedures

15. a. objectives b. goals c. objections

188
Unit 8 Energy Resources

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with some important facts and figures, main
trends of energy supply, consumption and reserves, the main sources of energy and the future
possibilities.

In this unit you will increase your proficiency in English with a focus on presentation skills.

http://yokotechspace.blogspot.hu/2010/11/alternative-energy-source-pros-and-cons.html

189
8.1

Speaking

After reading this short introduction consider the questions in bold. Why are they relevant? Why do
we have to consider these aspects when it comes to opting for a certain energy source? Discuss these
questions in pairs.

Energy Sources

Energy is essential. It is embodied in everything we use. To compare sources of energy effectively,


we need to understand what it is and how it works.

What is Energy?

It comes from many sources and in many forms. The forms of energy are classified in two general
categories: potential and kinetic.

Potential energy is energy stored in an object. Chemical, mechanical, nuclear, gravitational, and
electrical are all stored energy. Kinetic energy does the work. Light, heat, motion, and sound are
examples of kinetic energy.

190
Heres a simple example. Stretching a rubber band gives it the potential to fly. The tension created
from the stretching is potential mechanical energy. When the rubber band is released, it flies through
the air using motion (kinetic energy). The process of changing energy from one form into another is
called energy transformation. The rubber band is transformed from potential energy into kinetic
energy.

Systems convert energy at various rates of efficiency. Water turbines, for example, are very efficient,
while combustion engines are not. Engineers and physicists constantly work to develop systems with
high energy-conversion efficiency.

Which Energy Source is best?

It depends. Many alternative sources of energy are still being researched and tested. Technologies
are continually being developed and enhanced to improve energy sources. Not all energies are ready
for mass consumption, so you have to ask the right questions to find out which energy source does
the job.

Is it a renewable or nonrenewable source?


What are the capital and setup costs?
What are the ongoing operating costs?
What size of energy storage is required?
How efficient is it to produce one unit of energy?
Can it be produced on a large scale?
What is the cost to the consumer?
What impact will it have on the environment?

http://www.energy4me.org/energy-facts/energy-sources/

8.2

Reading

Match the names of the energy resources with their definition.

191
Secondary Energy Sources Renewable Energy Sources Non-renewable Energy Sources

What are the Sources of Energy?

Primary energy sources (meaning energy is created directly from the actual resource) can be
classified in two groups: nonrenewable or renewable. Secondary sources are derived from primary
sources.

1 Energy from the ground that has limited supplies, either in the
form of gas, liquid or solid, are called nonrenewable resources. They cannot be replenished, or made
again, in a short period of time. Examples include: oil (petroleum), natural gas, coal and uranium
(nuclear). Oil, natural gas and coal are called fossil fuels because they have been formed from the
organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals.

2. Energy that comes from a source thats constantly renewed,


such as the sun and wind, can be replenished naturally in a short period of time. Because of this we
do not have to worry about them running out. Examples include: solar, wind, biomass and
hydropower. Currently, less than 2% of the worlds electricity comes from renewable resources.
There is a global debate as to whether geothermal energy is renewable or nonrenewable.

3 Energy that is converted from primary sources are


secondary sources of energy. Secondary sources of energy are used to store, move, and deliver
energy in an easily usable form. Examples include electricity and hydrogen.

http://sites.psu.edu/jensci/2014/02/26/environmental-impacts/

192
8.3

Reading

Some key words (A-J) have been removed from the text, put them back in their appropriate places (1-
10).

A-reservoirs B-greenhouse effect C-fossil fuels D-photosynthesis


E-carbon F-combusted G-pressure H-environment I-sediment J-absorbed

Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our
lifetimesor even in many, many lifetimes.

Most non-renewable energy sources are (1) .: coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
(2) .. is the main element in fossil fuels. For this reason, the time period that fossil
fuels formed (about 360-300 million years ago) is called the Carboniferous Period.

All fossil fuels formed in a similar way. Hundreds of millions of years ago, even before the dinosaurs,
Earth had a different landscape. It was covered with wide, shallow seas and swampy forests.

Plants, algae, and plankton grew in these ancient wetlands. They (3) sunlight and
created energy through (4). When they died, the organisms drifted to the
bottom of the sea or lake. There was energy stored in the plants and animals when they died.

Over time, the dead plants were crushed under the seabed. Rocks and other (5)
piled on top of them, creating high heat and (6).underground. In this environment,
the plant and animal remains eventually turned into fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and petroleum).
Today, there are huge underground pockets (called (7) ..) of these non-
renewable sources of energy all over the world.

Advantages and Disadvantages


Fossil fuels are a valuable source of energy. They are relatively inexpensive to extract. They can also
be stored, piped, or shipped anywhere in the world.

193
However, burning fossil fuels is harmful for the (8) ... When coal and oil are
burned, they release particles that can pollute the air, water, and land. Some of these particles are
caught and set aside, but many of them are released into the air.

Burning fossil fuels also upsets Earths carbon budget, which balances the carbon in the ocean,
earth, and air. When fossil fuels are (9) .. (heated), they release carbon dioxide into
the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a gas that keeps heat in Earths atmosphere, a process called the
(10) .. . It is necessary to life on Earth, but relies on a balanced carbon
budget.

The carbon in fossil fuels has been sequestered, or stored, underground for millions of years. By
removing this sequestered carbon from the earth and releasing it into the atmosphere, Earths
carbon budget is out of balance. This contributes to temperatures rising faster than organisms can
adapt.

http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/non-renewable-
energy/?ar_a=1#page=1

194
8.4

Speaking

In pairs collect as many types of renewable energy forms as you can. Compare your findings with
the group. Who could name the most renewable forms?

http://www.getgreenliving.com/this-is-why-we-need-alternative-energy-sources/

8.5

Reading

The topic sentences (the opening sentences) of the paragraphs have been removed from the text. Put
them back in a logical order.

A Another problem lies in the development of small economies.

B The need for alternative energy sources is getting urgent, hence the development of
renewable energy is moving fast.

195
C The second problem is that the fossil fuels that are widely used today are harmful for the
environment.

D The solution for the above problems can be resolved by renewable energy.

E The first problem is that the fossil fuels are depleting in a rapid rate and are harder to
retrieve.

This Is Why We Need Alternative Energy Sources

By GetGreenLiving on November 8th, 2010

(1)
Nationally and internationally various individuals and research companies are creating new and
exciting energy systems. Some of these apparatus are great works and need improving for massive
use. Politicians world-wide are drafting policies and are making agreements to make greater use of
these energy sources.

(2) ..
The consequence is that we can be facing an energy crisis in the future is we are not careful today.
The energy prices will sky rocket and not be available for many individuals or countries. To avoid this
doom scenario we need to find alternatives and used them to their full potential. Luckily this is
already happening.

(3)
In the early seventies and eighties there were people and even scientist who preach otherwise, but
today the negative effects are showing. The earth is warming up and climates are changing. There
are parts in the world were there be more rain and sunshine and others parts will become dryer then
they already are. Another negative effect is that the ozone layer is getting thinner which also leads to
a warming up of the earth. These two effects complement each other and make it even more crucial
to make another step in a different direction. This step will lead us to the use of renewable energy.

196
(4)..
Because the energy prices for crude oil are going through the roof, these countries suffer even more.
Many of these countries need crude oil for their electricity and means of transportation. These high
oil prices have their effect on almost everything. The monthly electricity costs for households
increase among others like transport cost and prices for basic products. Hence, these high oil prices
make it harder for these small countries to grow their economies.

(5).
Our beautiful planet gives us the opportunity to make proper us of sunlight, flowing water, strong
winds, and hot springs and convert these into energy. These energy sources are abundant and free to
use. We must be sure that we convert the energy the right way, without causing other problems that
can again hurt our environment. Luckily the many efforts by individuals and companies show that
this can be done.

http://www.getgreenliving.com/this-is-why-we-need-alternative-energy-sources/

8.6

Writing

Write a short essay of 120-150 about the advantages of the renewable energy sources. Use some of
the linking words below to structure your ideas.

moreover however all in all first of all what is more last, but not least

although on one hand on the other hand naturally fortunately obviously

in addition as well as despite to sum it up as far as sg is concerned as for

197
8.7

Speaking and reading

After reading this short summary about renewable energy, in small groups briefly discuss the
potentials of utilizing them in Hungary. Then summarize your opinion and compare it to the other
groups views. Focus on the highlighted expressions and terms.

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally
replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.
Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot
water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.

About 16% of global final energy consumption presently comes from renewable resources, with 10%
of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New
renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) account for
another 3% and are growing rapidly. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world
already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. National renewable
energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond. Wind
power, for example, is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of
282,482 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2012.

Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources,
which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and
energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic
benefits. In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable
sources such as solar power and wind power.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to
rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human
development.

198
8.8

Speaking

Discuss the tips given below and see what ideas you may implement in your home. What other tips
can you add to the list?

http://www.womensinc.net/node/1323

199
8.9

Speaking 10 Pros and Cons of Nuclear Power

Here you can read a list of factors that are worth considering during a debate over nuclear power
plants. Which argument would you consider for or against the further development of the nuclear
power plant in Hungary?

1. The Fight Against Global warming

2. Health

3. Impact on Wildlife

4. Safety

5. Reprocessing

6. Proliferation

7. Economics in Developing Nations

8. Cost-effectiveness

9. Support

10. Environmental Impact

http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/10-pros-cons-nuclear-power.htm

http://www.peoplesdailyng.com/nuclear-energy-initiative-fg-partners-international-atomic-energy-
council/

200
8.10

READING

http://francis-moran.com/random-thoughts/five-keys-to-your-presentation-success-in-2014/

10 Tips for a Good Presentation

The ability to communicate well is an important skill for any student attending university. In addition,
possessing excellent communication skills are highly valued in the workplace. This means, that you
should be able to present your topic and research results fluently; for example, during seminars with
peers or with managers and clients in the workplace. For this purpose, the following 10 tips may offer
some guidance to help you on the way to delivering a memorable presentation.

Preparation, preparation, preparation

There is no easy way out. Giving an excellent presentation is all about the preparation that goes into
it, and this theme applies to every single aspect you include in your presentation.

Think audience

There is one thing you should always keep in the back of your mind: the audience. The sole purpose
of a presentation is to communicate whatever you have to say to an audience. Position yourself
being in their shoes and answer the following questions: who, what, why, how?

Its essential to know who your audience will be. Different audiences have different needs, and may
need different communicative approaches. What do they know? What can I tell them? Knowing this
information will help you decide what content to include in your presentation.
201
Where can I take them? Your presentation is very much like a journey. Guide your audience through
the content. Use signposts to indicate what you are presenting and where you are going. Examples of
signposts are, Next, I will discuss.., Now Id like to move on to., and To conclude... Signposts
are also great tools to keep you audience awake, focused and engaged.

Communicate

A presentation is never one way communication despite the fact that you are the only one speaking.
Communication is always two ways. Although you do not want your audience to interrupt your
speech, make it engaging. Your audience wants to be spoken to. Ask rhetorical questions, use short
pauses when you are, for example, changing the subject or moving on to another topic. Rhetorical
questions will often raise the audience awareness as do pauses. Dont hide behind a computer, a
paper, or a desk.

Prepare the little things

There is truth in the old saying Its the little things that count. Often when we are preparing a
presentation we prepare the content, the slides, but it is often the little things that catch us off
guard. For example, how do you start your presentation? Do you say hello, hi, good
morning/afternoon everybody, dear audience? How do you end? Thank you for your attention.
Prepare your signposts, next, finally, etc. Also, think of the specific terms you use to describe
what is on your slide. Are you showing a picture, or more specifically a graph, table, chart, etc.?

Structure your presentation

The purpose and content needs to be carefully considered. How much detail can you cover in the
allotted time? What does your audience need to know, and more important, what is your take-home
message? What do you want your audience to remember?

Most presentation will have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. You introduce your topic, and
what you will cover during your presentation. Remember, this part can be as short as 30 seconds.
The body will include key points, new knowledge, trends in your data, or progress to date. The level
of detail may depend on the task and time available. Remember to signpost! Highlight the
implications of your discussion or possible applications of your findings in your conclusion and finish
with your take-home messages.

202
Finding your voice

Although there are general rules and structures, it is important to find your own voice. Know your
strengths and weaknesses. For most of us, giving a presentation is a learning process and definitely
not something we do on a daily basis. Therefore, stay in your comfort zone to give you confidence
but push the boundaries: explore new techniques, watch what others do and learn from them. Take
your time, prepare, prepare, prepare.

Do not read or read like you mean it.

From a communication perspective, speaking is always better than reading. However, when you find
yourself in the situation where you are going to read, there are a few techniques you can use to
make it more enjoyable for the audience. Always address the audience, even when reading. Make
sure you take your eyes off the paper and look at the audience. Highlight parts in the text that you
wish to stress, e.g. keywords, signposts, words that evoke, etc. Cut your A4 paper into four parts, the
size of cue cards. They are less distracting to hold and often help you to remember your
presentation.

Non-verbal communication

What to do with your hands is the focus of this point. There are of course cultural differences as well
as individual differences, but in general we use the motions of our hands to support the content of
our speech. Where do we place them? An example of good hand movement is the weather news on
TV. Youll see weather presenters usually holding a remote in front of their body, clasped in their
hands, just above the waist. The best place to keep your hands. If you dont have a remote, keep a
pen, in your hands (be careful, though, not to break them).

Slide design

Dont put anything on a slide (text, images, pictures, tables, and graphs) if you are not going to talk
about them, or mention them. It will only confuse your audience. In addition, do not overload your
slides with text and read this text to them. Less is more, and remember that you do not need to write
in complete sentences on your slides.

Practice, practice, practice

Practice delivering your presentation aloud to a peer or in front of the mirror.

203
Posted on May 29, 2012 by Djuddah A.J. Leijen; abridged from http://blog.ut.ee/10-tips-for-a-good-
presentation/

Vocabulary

Fill in the gaps with a word or expression from the text. The word in the brackets will help you.

1. There is one thing you should always..........(remember).

2. Use .......... (transition words) to indicate what you are presenting.

3. Rhetorical questions will often..........the audience..........(draw attention).

4. Know your..........and..........(things you do well and badly).

5. Always ..........(speak to) the audience, even when reading.

6. Cut your A4 paper into the size of..........(cards with keywords on).

7. Weather presenters usually hold a..........(device to control the slides).

8. Do not..........(put too many words ) your slides with text.

9. Position yourself..........(think you were them).

10. It is often the little things that ..........(surprise us).

http://www.bodhisutra.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/How-to-make-totally-awesome-
powerpoint-presentations.jpg

204
Give advice to a student who has the following questions and problems before giving a presentation:

How deep should I go into the topic? How many sections should there be?

What if my audience loses interest and starts looking at their watches?

Im always very nervous when speaking in public. I wish I could back out!

Im embarrassed how to start speaking. What shall I say first?

Sometimes I get too enthusiastic and forget about the time. Is it a problem?

If I get stuck in speaking, is it ok if I read?

I think I will put all the information on slides, so it will be easier for me to speak

8.11

Reading

This guide discusses practical strategies for structuring a presentation, focusing on the need to
develop an argument or report through the clear, logical progression of ideas.

Presentation structure

Presentations need to be very straightforward and logical. It is important that you avoid complex
structures and focus on the need to explain and discuss your work clearly. An ideal structure for a
presentation includes:

a welcoming and informative introduction;

a coherent series of main points presented in a logical sequence;

a lucid and purposeful conclusion.

These elements are discussed below.

205
The introduction

The introduction is the point at which the presenter explains the content and purpose of the
presentation. This is a vitally important part of your talk as you will need to gain the audiences
interest and confidence. Key elements of an effective introduction include:

a positive start: Good afternoon, my name is Adam and ;

a statement of what will be discussed: I am going to explore ;

a statement of the treatment to be applied to the topic (e.g. to compare, contrast, evaluate,
describe): I will be comparing the four main principles of ;

a statement of the outcomes of the presentation: I hope this will provide us with ;

a statement of what the audience will need to do (e.g. when they can ask questions or
whether or not they will need to take notes): I will pass round a handout that summarizes
my presentation before taking questions at the end.

You should aim to deliver your introduction confidently (wait until the audience is quiet before you
start speaking) and communicate energy and enthusiasm for your topic.

Main points

The main points are the backbone of your talk. They play an important role in helping you prioritise,
focus and sequence your information. When planning your presentation you should put aside your
research notes and produce a list or summary of the main points that you would like to make,
expressing each in a few words or a short sentence. Ask yourself: What am I really telling them?
What should they be learning here? Your answers to these questions will help you communicate
clear and effective messages to your audience.

After you have identified your main points, you should embellish them with supporting information.
For example, add clarity to your argument through the use of diagrams, illustrate a link between
theory and practice, or substantiate your claims with appropriate data. Use the supporting
information to add colour and interest to your talk, but avoid detracting from the clarity of your main
points by overburdening them with too much detail.

206
Transitions

Transitions are the signposts that help the audience navigate their way through your presentation.
They can help divide information up into sub-sections, link different aspects of your talk and show
progression through your topic. Importantly, transitions draw the audiences attention to the process
of the presentation as well as its content. Examples include:

I will begin by discussing ;

Now that we have explored the ... I would like to move on to ;

In contrast to my earlier statements concerning ;

Moving away from a focus on .;

Transitions can also be made without speaking. Non-verbal transitions include pausing, changing a
slide or other visual aid, moving to a different area of the room before resuming speaking, or making
eye contact with a different group in the audience.

The Conclusion

The conclusion is an essential though frequently underdeveloped section of a presentation. This is


the stage at which you can summarize the content and purpose of your talk, offer an overview of
what has been achieved and make a lasting impact. Important elements of a conclusion are:

a review of the topic and purpose of your presentation: In this presentation I wanted to
explore ;

a statement of the conclusions or recommendations to be drawn from your work: I hope to


have been able to show that the effect of ....;

an indication of the next stages (what might be done to take this work further?): This does
of course highlight the need for further research in the area of ;

an instruction as to what happens next (questions, discussion or group work?): I would now
like to give you the opportunity to ask questions ;

a thank you to the audience for their attention and participation: Thats all I have time for.
Thank you very much for listening.

207
As with your introduction, you should try to address the audience directly during your conclusion,
consolidating the impression of a confident and useful presentation.

Summary

A presentation needs a carefully defined structure to make the most impact. This should centre on a
series of identifiable main points that are supported by appropriate detail. Use transitions to link and
move between points, helping your audience to understand the development or your argument. An
introduction and conclusion are essential elements of your presentation. They enable you to
establish a clear purpose for your talk at the start and summarise your main points before you finish
speaking.

http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/presentation/structuring-presentation

Here are some tools to deliver your speech effectively

Emphasising important points and ideas:

- using a verb

Id like to stress the importance of this experiment.

Let me draw your attention to the recent events.

Id like to emphasise that the data were rather limited.

The study highlighted the need for a change.

- using an adjective and a noun

The results of the study have a wider significance for the entire sector.

Higher mortgage rates had a major/ profound impact on spending.

His talk will examine the wider implications of the Internet revolution.

- using adverbs

Analysing the data was particularly difficult.

The sample was comparatively small.

208
It is extremely important to record everything.

The illness is directly linked to poor hygiene.

What

What we should consider is the rise in prices.

What we should do is examine this pattern.

Inversion

On no account can we draw a conclusion on what we have heard here.

Seldom/ never/rarely have we experienced such a phenomenon.

http://theleadershipsource.com/professional-development/presentation-skills/

Exercise

Match the two parts of the sentences!

1. What is important now is a. such a crisis in fossil fuels.

2. Id like to highlight b. great significance at that time.

3. The authors wanted to point out c. that you can see the difference.

4. In this talk I wanted to present d. the main factors influencing public opinion.

5. It would be particularly useful e. was directly linked to the migration of


birds.

6. Seldom has there been f. the decline in public services.

7. The emergence of the infection g. environmental implications.


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8. We compared two offers h. to turn to renewable energy sources.

9. The project was abandoned because of I. and found the one totally unacceptable.

10. The city was a place of j. a theory which is likely to be controversial.

8.12

Vocabulary

More Signposts: These expressions come useful when delivering your presentation

Section of presentation Signpost language

The subject/topic of my talk is ...


I'm going to talk about ...
Introducing the topic
My topic today is
My talk is concerned with ...

Im going to divide this talk into four parts.


There are a number of points I'd like to make.
Basically/Briefly, I have three things to say.
I'd like to begin/start by ...
Overview (outline of presentation) Let's begin/start by ...
First of all, I'll...
and then Ill go on to
Then/Next ...
Finally/Lastly ...

That's all I have to say about...


Finishing a section We've looked at...
So much for...

Moving on now to
Turning to...
Lets turn now to
Starting a new section The next issue/topic/area Id like to focus on
Id like to expand/elaborate on
Now we'll move on to...
I'd like now to discuss...

210
Let's look now at...

Where does that lead us?


Let's consider this in more detail...
Analysing a point and giving What does this mean for...?
recommendations Translated into real terms...
Why is this important?
The significance of this is...

For example,...
A good example of this is...
Giving examples As an illustration,...
To give you an example,...
To illustrate this point...

To sum up ...
To summarise...
Right, let's sum up, shall we?
Let's summarise briefly what we've looked at...
If I can just sum up the main points...
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered...
Summarising and concluding To conclude...
In conclusion ...
In short ...
So, to remind you of what Ive covered in this talk,
Unfortunately, I seem to have run out of time, so Ill conclude
very briefly by saying that ..
I'd like now to recap...

Simply put...
In other words.......
Paraphrasing and clarifying So what Im saying is....
To put it more simply....
To put it another way....

Im happy to answer any queries/questions.


Does anyone have any questions or comments?
Please feel free to ask questions.
Invitation to discuss/ask questions
If you would like me to elaborate on any point, please ask.
Would you like to ask any questions?
Any questions?

211
8.13

Speaking

A Five Minute Presentation

Prepare and give a 5 minute presentation in class based on the following article. Use your own ideas
and signpost expressions.

Key Links between Consumption, Climate Change

Nov. 14, 2013 Models of future climate scenarios have taken insufficient account of population
patterns and trends, according to a UCL review to be published in the print edition of The Lancet in
November 2013. The review, "Population, development, and climate change, links and effects on
human health", examines the interconnections between population growth and climate change,
from the perspective of global health.

The authors found that while population growth is an important factor, it is consumers, rather than
people per se, who drive climate change. Reducing consumption thus represents the most effective
way to reduce carbon emissions. This can have substantial health co-benefits, and consideration of
human health should therefore be integral to future plans for tackling climate change.

Professor Judith Stephenson, UCL's Institute for Women's Health, says: "Disruption of the
environment and climate system caused by unprecedented human activity since the industrial
revolution confronts us with an urgent and complex problem that requires reduction in growth of
both consumption and population for a sustainable world."

Population growth and health

The world's population is expected to be ten times larger by 2050 (roughly 10 billion) than it was for
most of the 19th century (around 1 billion). Future population size in poor countries will have
significant consequences for health and the environment, say the authors. Improved sanitation,
nutrition and healthcare are allowing more children to survive into adulthood, whilst a reduction in
fertility rates is leading to an aging population.

When implemented with other social and economic improvements, family planning is one of the
most effective ways of managing increases in population growth and for delivering extensive health
212
benefits, in both developed and poor countries. Access to family planning has significantly reduced
maternal and infant deaths, although there remains a considerable unmet need for family planning,
say the authors.

Population, health and climate change

Although population is an important factor, demographic trends are more significant for climate
change than total population, says the review. Consumption patterns, together with aging and
urbanization in some countries, have bigger implications for health and the reduction of carbon
emissions than the total number of people in the world.

The world's poor have contributed little to climate change and yet will experience the biggest effects.
Although poor countries have some of the world's highest fertility rates, growth in consumption
exceeds growth in population in developing and developed countries. According to the authors
reducing consumption and achieving more sustainable lifestyles in rich countries thus represents the
most effective way to reduce carbon emissions and ultimately deliver health benefits.

The authors say insufficient attention has been paid to the interconnections between population,
development, climate change and human health. According to Professor Judith Stephenson:
"Bringing together natural and social scientists with people from different organizations and
communities in the global South and global North is essential to improve understanding of the
interactions between consumption, demographic change and the climate, and to devise more
scientifically and politically integrated solutions for global health."

University College London - UCL (2013, November 14). Key links between consumption, climate
change. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 16, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com
/releases/2013/11/131114193245.htm

213
8.14

Writing

Observers evaluation sheet

Use the observers opinion sheet to evaluate the presentations you have heard.

NON-VERBAL SIGNALS

Use of hands - too much/too little?


Smiling?
Eye contact with audience none/some of audience/everyone?
Standing still/ moving around/ standing up straight or slouching?
Position in relation to audience?
Mannerisms - shrugs etc?
Did they appear confident? Make a positive impact?

VOICE

Quiet/Loud/Clear/Muffled?
Slow or fast speech?
Monotonous or varying voice?
Use of humour?

CONTENT

Well-structured and following a logical sequence?


Did it have an introduction and conclusion?
Was it well prepared?
Did they finish within time limit?
Was the talk too simple or too complex and jargon-filled?
Was it interesting?
Was the speaker enthusiastic, serious, and confident?
Were notes used? Were they read out, or just used for key points?
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Were questions asked or invited? If so were they handled well?
Did they interact with and involve the audience?

VISUAL AIDS

Was a flip chart, PowerPoint or other props used?


Were they used well? Did they add to the talk?

http://beairdsolutions.com/virtual-solutions/presentation-solutions/

215
Unit 9. Environmental Issues

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with the most current environmental problems
and the possible solutions.

You will also be aware of


environmental issues at work,
how to personalize your work environment to your needs,
the role of corporate social responsibility and how it helps both companies and society
how to become an inclusive leader and ethical issues at work.

http://www.coresulphur.com/environment/

216
9.1

Speaking

After watching this short video made by the European Commission make a list of the most important
environmental issues that you are aware of.

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/basics/home_en.htm

9.2

Reading and speaking

Study the list of the top 30 environmental concerns and make your list of the top 10. Explain briefly
why these issues worry you the most.

List of 30 Top Environmental Concerns

By Sandra Ketcham

217
The media, public, and scientific communities are focusing more and more on the top 30
environmental concerns the Earth is currently facing.

Top 30 Environmental Concerns

From water pollution to global warming, environmental issues affect every person, animal,
community, and nation on the planet. As increasing evidence supports the devastating effect humans
have on the environment, more people are taking steps to protect the environment and educate
others about environmental problems by looking at the top 30 environmental concerns.

Top 5 Public Concerns

According to a series of Gallup polls conducted between 1997 and 2008, Americans are most
concerned about the following five environmental issues:

1. Contamination of Drinking Water: Contamination of fresh water used for household needs,
including pollution of oceans, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, ranks top on the list of environmental
concerns for many Americans. More than half of respondents stated they worry about the safety of
their drinking water a great deal.

2. Water Pollution: General worry over water pollution and associated environmental issues greatly
concerns half of all Americans who participated in the 2008 poll. Related issues include acid rain,
ocean dumping, urban runoff, oil spills, ocean acidification, and wastewater.

3. Soil Contamination: Soil erosion, soil conservation, soil salination and soil contamination by waste,
pesticides, and lead worries 50 percent of Americans.

4. Wildlife Conservation: More than 40 percent of Americans expressed concern about wildlife
conservation and associated environmental issues, such as endangered species, animal and plant
extinction, coral bleaching, introduction of invasive species, poaching, and loss of natural animal
habitats resulting in relocation and a break in the food chain.

5. Air pollution: Concerns over air pollution have remained steady over the last decade, with more
than 40 percent of Americans worried about indoor and outdoor air quality, carbon emissions,
tropospheric ozone, particulate matter, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds, radon,
refrigerants, and methane emissions.

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Other Top Concerns (in Alphabetical Order)

6. Biological pollutants, including bacteria, viruses, molds, mildew, dander, dust, mites, pollen,
ventilation and infection.

7. Carbon footprint and the responsibility of individuals to reduce their effect on the environment,
including the use of renewable energy sources (solar power, geothermal heat pumps), recycling, and
sustainable living.

8. Climate change and issues related to global warming, such as the greenhouse effect, global
dimming, and the gradual rise in sea level.

9. Consumerism and over-consumption and their effect on the planet.

10. Dams and the impact of dams on the environment.

11. Ecosystem destruction and associated environmental concerns, such as aquaculture, estuaries,
shellfish protection, landscaping, wetlands, and ecological restoration.

12. Energy conservation issues, including renewable energy for home and business, energy
efficiency, and fossil fuel depletion.

13. Fishing and its effect on marine ecosystems, blast fishing, cyanide fishing, bottom trawling,
whaling, and over-fishing.

14. Food safety concerns and the effects of hormones, antibiotics, preservatives, toxic
contamination, and lack of quality control on health.

15. Genetic engineering, including concerns about genetically modified foods and genetic pollution.

16. Intensive farming, irrigation, overgrazing, monoculture, methane emissions, and the damaging
environmental effects of deforestation for farming and cattle.

17. Land degradation and related problems, such as desertification and soil and land pollution.

18. Land use, urban sprawl, lack of free space, and habitat destruction and fragmentation.

219
19. Logging, deforestation, clear-cutting, destruction of wildlife habitats, and greenhouse gas
emissions that contribute to global warming.

20. Mining and its role in global warming, acid mine drainage, and soil and air pollution resulting
from toxic emissions and heavy metals.

21. Nanotechnology and the future effects of nanopollution and nanotoxicology.

22. Natural disasters and their impact on all aspects of the environment.

23. Nuclear issues, including the effects of nuclear fallout, nuclear meltdown, radioactive waste, and
the population's reliance on nuclear power.

24. Other pollution issues, such as light pollution and noise pollution, and their effects on human
health and behaviour.

25. Overpopulation concerns, such as continued building and burial.

26. Ozone depletion and damage to the Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC.

27. Resource depletion, the need for newer, cleaner energy sources, and exploitation of natural
resources.

28. Sustainable communities and issues such as reducing reliance on fossil fuels, supporting local
farmers and merchants, encouraging green practices and building, consideration of native wildlife,
and adoption of mass transportation and cleaner methods of commuting.

29. Toxins, including chlorofluorocarbons, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides, toxic waste, PCB,
DDT, bioaccumulation, endocrine disruptors, asbestos, and poorly implemented hazardous waste
management.

30. Waste and associated environmental issues, such as litter, landfills, recycling, incineration,
marine debris, E-waste, and contamination of water and soil caused by improper disposal and
leaching toxins.

http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Top_30_Environmental_Concerns

220
9.3

Reading

The following article deals with the natural and the man-made causes of global warming. Some of the
headings have been removed from the text, put them back in front of the paragraphs.

Mining Sunspots Fertilizer Use Arctic Tundra Deforestation

Fluorocarbons Population Increase Permafrost Water Vapour

Burning of Fossil Fuels

What are the Main Causes of Global Warming?

Causes of Global Warming By Sandra Ketcham

221
There are numerous causes of global warming, and scientists typically divide those causes into two
primary groups: natural causes and man-made causes. While humans can do little to eradicate
natural causes, it is possible to reduce or eliminate man-made causes.

Natural Causes of Global Warming

Natural causes have been contributing to global warming since before recorded history. Most
experts do not believe that natural causes alone are substantial enough to result in the climate
changes currently taking place on the planet.

1. ..

Increased solar activity changes the Earth's solar radiation levels, thereby causing short-term
warming cycles. Sunspots are dark patches on the sun's surface that block hot solar plasma. Although
this blocking action might appear to reduce solar radiation, the opposite is true. Surrounding
sunspots are bright patches known as faculae. These patches give off greater than normal radiation,
and they are more powerful than the darker, cooler patches. This means that the total average
energy over a 30-day solar rotation increases.

2. ..

An estimated 50 billion tons of carbon are frozen in the tundra. Warmer global temperatures are
causing the arctic tundra to begin emitting carbon dioxide. As the average temperature on Earth
continues to rise due to global warming, increased carbon emissions will reach the atmosphere,
resulting in a cycle that will significantly affect the planet.

3. .

Permafrost, which is solid, frozen soil, constitutes about 25 percent of the land area in the Northern
Hemisphere. Until recently, permafrost has locked carbon and methane beneath the surface of the
planet. In some areas, permafrost is now emitting carbon, which could potentially accelerate the
greenhouse effect and global warming.

4..

Water vapour is increasing in the atmosphere due to carbon dioxide-induced warming.


Approximately two-thirds of the heat trapped by greenhouses gases is contained in water vapour,
222
and as the average temperature on the planet continues to rise, the amount of water vapour rises in
turn.

Man-made (Anthropogenic) Causes

Most man-made causes of global warming result from an increase in greenhouse gases, which are
gases that trap or absorb infrared radiation emitted from the planet.

5.

Carbon dioxide is the most significant cause of global warming, and most carbon dioxide emissions
result from the burning of fossil fuels. Each time a fossil fuel burns, carbon dioxide levels in the
atmosphere increase. Carbon dioxide absorbs infrared energy emitted from the earth, preventing it
from returning to space.

Electricity Production: Electricity generation through the burning of fossil fuels accounts for
40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States. Coal is the largest producer of
carbon dioxide emissions, giving off nearly twice as much carbon per energy unit as natural
gas.
Automobiles: Carbon emissions from the burning of gasoline to power cars, trucks, and
other methods of transportation is one of the leading global warming causes in the United
States. Pollution created by cars and light trucks accounts for nearly one-third of American
carbon emission, and emissions of carbon dioxide from airplanes is responsible for an
additional 3.5 percent of global warming.

6. ..

All living plants are capable of storing carbon, but as the number of plants on the planet declines, the
amount of carbon dioxide free to build up in the atmosphere increases. Moreover, decaying plants
give off stored carbon, thereby releasing a large abundance of carbon into the air during the clearing
of forests or grasslands for building purposes.

7. ..

Hydro-chlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons are used in refrigeration. While these gases


occur in lower atmospheric concentrations than carbon dioxide, they are substantially more potent.

223
8. .

Each time humans add fertilizer to soil, nitrogen oxide escapes into the atmosphere. Nitrogen oxides
trap 300 times more heat per volume than carbon dioxide, making fertilizer use in farming one of the
leading causes of global warming.

9. .

Mining oil and coal allows methane, a greenhouse gas, to escape from the earth. Any time the soil is
disturbed, stored gases make their way into the environment.

10. ..

As the population on Earth increases, food and housing demands also increase. Manure from cattle,
a primary food source worldwide, contributes to methane gas levels. The cutting down of forests to
make room for housing and other buildings accounts for as much as 12 percent of carbon emissions.

Understanding Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in average temperature of the oceans and atmosphere, both
observed and predicted. The surface temperature of Earth depends on a balance of incoming and
outgoing heat. When outgoing heat, or energy, exceeds incoming energy, an ice age occurs. Global
warming results when incoming energy levels are greater than outgoing energy levels.

224
Effects of Global Warming

Global warming can potentially affect every aspect of life on Earth. Higher average temperatures will
cause changes in plant and crop life, which can decrease worldwide food supplies. Warmer polar
winters will result in melting sea ice, which will cause a rise in sea level. Warmer temperatures will
also increase evaporation from large water bodies, which in turn will increase cloud formation and
rainfall amounts. Other potential effects of global warming include more frequent hurricanes and
higher rates of some diseases, such as malaria.

Preventing Global Warming

Scientists have spent several decades studying global warming in an attempt to predict what changes
will occur in the future and determine how man can slow or stop these changes from taking place.

Unfortunately, no one can directly stop the natural contributors to global warming. By taking steps to
reduce your carbon footprint, you can help prevent global warming by decreasing the
environmentally devastating effects of man-made causes.

http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/What_are_the_Main_Causes_of_Global_Warming

9.4

Listening and speaking

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect

Listen to the video about the greenhouse effect. Take notes then sum up in your own words what you
have learnt. Use the whiteboard to explain the process.

http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/basics/today/greenhouse-effect.html
225
Check your notes with the help of this short description.

The Greenhouse Effect

If it were not for greenhouse gases trapping heat in the atmosphere, the Earth would be a very cold
place. Greenhouse gases keep the Earth warm through a process called the greenhouse effect.

The Earth gets energy from the sun in the form of sunlight. The Earth's surface absorbs some of this
energy and heats up. That's why the surface of a road can feel hot even after the sun has gone
downbecause it has absorbed a lot of energy from the sun. The Earth cools down by giving off a
different form of energy, called infrared radiation. But before all this radiation can escape to outer
space, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb some of it, which makes the atmosphere warmer.
As the atmosphere gets warmer, it makes the Earth's surface warmer, too .

http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/basics/today/greenhouse-effect.html

9.5

Reading and Speaking

I. Read the text about recycling. How is it organised in your home-town? How could it be
improved?

http://www.villaggioditalia.com.br/en/sustentabilidade.php

226
What is selective collection, recycling and residue minimization?

Selective collection
It is the separation of materials intended for recycling. It means that recyclable materials should not
be discarded together with other garbage. It can be an initiative of a single citizen or organized in
communities: apartment buildings, companies, schools, clubs, cities, etc.

Recycling
It is the activity of turning used materials into new products that can be marketed. Example: used
paper is returned to industries to be turned into brand new paper sheets.

Residue minimization
We call it the 3 Rs: first Reducing waste; then Reusing as much as possible before discarding; and
only then sending to Recycling.

Reasons to recycle:
CONTRIBUTION TO NATURE:
50 kg of used paper = a saved tree
1,000 kg of recycled paper = 20 saved trees
1,000 kg of recycled glass = 1,300 kg of saved sand
1,000 kg of recycled plastic = thousands of saved petroleum litres
1,000 kg of recycled aluminium = 5,000 kg of saved ore

Note that sand, petroleum and ore are non-renewable natural resources.

SOME BENEFITS OF SELECTIVE COLLECTION:


Lower deforestation.
Lower extraction of natural resources.
Lower soil, water and air pollution.
Energy and water saving.
Recycling of materials that otherwise would become garbage.
Soil conservation. Reduced waste deposits and landfills.
Longer life for sanitary landfills.
Reduction of production costs with the reuse of recyclables by the industry.
Waste reduction.

227
Improved urban cleanliness and hygiene.
Prevention of floods.
Reduced cost with garbage collection.
Opportunity for stronger cooperatives.
Job and income generation with the collection and sale of recyclables.

http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-selective-waste-collection-to-protect-environment-
image30060110

II. Read the list about recycling.

1. Tick the ones you already practice.


2. Underline the ones you think you can start practicing.
3. Put an X next to the ideas that are not for you to practice.

Tips to practice the 3 Rs : reducing, reusing and recycling

1. No need to wrap! Refuse the excess wrapping and packaging in retail.


Paper bags are made of trees, and plastic bags are made of petroleum.
Both cause pollution in their making.
2. Take your own bags to the market to carry most of your items in them.
3. If taking home supermarket plastic bags, reuse them as garbage bags.

228
4. Prefer products with less packaging or with reusable packages such as jars and glasses.
Avoid non-recyclable packages. Refuse polystyrene.
5. Avoid the frequent use of detachable items such as dishes and eating utensils (very common
in fast-food stores).
6. Buy only what you are really going to use.
7. Prefer durable products. Purchase only certified toys.
8. Do not buy fake products such as clothing, tennis shoes, CDs, DVDs, IT products, sunglasses,
batteries, etc. Fewer taxes collected mean less social investments.
9. Avoid buying superfluous items. Do not fill your home with junk.
10. Return unused stationery to your companys storeroom.
11. Make a shopping list before leaving home. Avoid impulse shopping.
12. At the office, use only 1 plastic cup all day long or have your own mug.
13. At home, prefer cloth napkins, towels and filters instead of paper tissue.
14. Refuse leaflets.
15. Use both sides of paper when writing, printing or sketching. Check texts with the monitor
before printing. Save trees.
16. Reuse gift wrappings.
17. Give useful gifts. Try to find out what your relatives need or are considering buying in the
occasion.
18. Many people are already propagating such idea by email: Before printing, think of your
responsibility and commitment to the environment.
19. If you use internet banking, deactivate their sending of printed monthly statements by mail
(reactivate whenever needed).
20. Whenever possible, try to use food entirely making use of stalks, leaves, seeds and skins. Find
nice recipes at the website www.mesabrasil.sesc.com.br .
21. Donate clothes, toys, books and other objects that you do not use anymore. They can be
useful to other people. Pass them ahead. Some institutions, such as the Salvation Army,
collect used furniture and objects to sell in charity bazaars.
22. Look for second hand furniture and objects.
23. Organize your closet at least at every season change. You will find forgotten items that can
be useful to somebody else. If clothes are too worn out, they will serve as cleaning cloths.
24. Prefer to repair rather than to replace objects.
25. Do not discard your Christmas tree. Take care of it and plant it in the garden after Christmas.
Or use an artificial tree instead.
229
26. Use your imagination to reuse objects that otherwise will become trash.
27. Take unused or expired medicines to a nearby health centre.
28. Prefer recycled products.
29. Encourage your community to demand selective collection and the end of open air garbage
deposits. Require initiatives from your mayor.
30. Do not dispose of cell phone batteries, light bulbs, paint remains or chemical products with
your home garbage. In case of doubts on how to dispose of them, refer to the
manufacturers customer service.
31. Do not keep old tires at home, and do not dispose of them in any place. They attract
mosquitoes that cause diseases such as dengue. Leave them where you bought new ones.
32. Regarding the disposal of computers, TV sets, cell phones, microwave ovens, cameras and
other equipment, demand from your government regulations on the recycling and treatment
of electronic garbage, as many components have toxic substances.
33. With creativity, decorate your home with a beautiful fruit bowl, handcrafted items made of
recyclables, seashells collected on the beach (very well washed), and vases of foliage,
seasoning plants or flowers with roots, in order to create an atmosphere of harmony with
nature. If you have a backyard, plant a flower garden, a small vegetable bed or a tree to
shelter and attract birds.

http://www.natureba.com.br/nature/reducing-reusing-recycling.htm

9.5

Speaking

Socially Responsible Companies 1

What are the benefits for companies of having strong social and environmental policies?

Why do some companies believe they have a responsibility to give back to society?

How can they give back?

230
9.6

Reading

Socially responsible companies 2

Read the text that follows and match the paragraph heading to the correct paragraph. There are 2
headings that are not needed.

1. LENDING A HAND TO MAN'S BEST FRIEND 5. THE SWEET DELIGHT OF GIVING BACK

2. BEAUTY COMES FROM WITHIN 6. A SHOE FOR ME IS A SHOE FOR YOU

3. GO NATURAL, THROUGH AND THROUGH 7. THE NEW MEANING OF CLEAN

4. SOCIAL AWARENESS CAN LOOK SO GOOD 8. BREWED RESPONSIBLY

COMPANIES WITH SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AT THE CORE

Many companies believe they have a responsibility to "give back" to society. This focus includes
contributions of time and money, a duty to provide environmentally friendly products and services,
and a desire to improve the lives of individuals here and around the globe. Such socially responsible
companies see to it that this "consciousness" permeates everything they do.

The following 10 companies stand out as prime examples of how social responsibility can be
productively coupled with sound strategies to advance goodwill, while building sustainable and
impressive businesses. They provide the leadership to demonstrate how marketers can pursue both
objectives simultaneously. As such, socially conscious companies have stepped up their efforts with
increasing effectiveness and productivity. It is an impressive movement and one that invites society
at large to do even more. Let's use these as examples for "how to get it done" so that we can
effectively expand our efforts to give back.

A)

The focus for Burt's Bees has always been on well-being and "the greater good." As part of the
Natural Products Association, the company helped develop The Natural Standard for Personal Care
Products, which created guidelines for what can be deemed natural. Burt's Bees follows the highest
possible standards for packaging sustainability, furthering its dedication to the cause as a member of

231
the Sustainable Packaging Coalition. Since the brand's start at a crafts fair selling $200 worth of
honey, the company has since expanded to candles, lip balm and now more than 150 products. In
2009, revenue topped $250 million.

B)

As a cleaning product, Method hit the jackpot. While cleaning products historically contained
hazardous chemicals, Method was able to make safe and effective home and personal cleaning
products derived from natural ingredients such as soy, coconut and palm oils. The products also
come in environmentally responsible, biodegradable packaging. As one of the fastest-growing
companies in the world, and with $100 million in annual revenue, Method proves that socially
responsible products can be wildly successful.

C)

The Body Shop is regarded as a pioneer of modern corporate social responsibility as one of the first
companies to publish a full report on its efforts and initiatives. Founder Anita Roddick led her
company to stand up for its beliefs and champion causes such as self-esteem, environmental
protection, animal rights, community trade and human rights. From sponsoring posters in 1985 for
Greenpeace to presenting a petition against animal testing to the European Union with 4,000,000
signatures, The Body Shop has contributed significantly to the causes it supports, and exemplifies
how other companies can do the same.

D)

Since Starbucks Coffee started in 1971, the company has focused on acting responsibly and ethically.
One of Starbucks' main focuses is the sustainable production of green coffee. With this in mind, it
created C.A.F.E. Practices, a set of guidelines to achieve product quality, economic accountability,
social responsibility and environmental leadership. The company supports products such as Ethos
Water, which brings clean water to the more than 1 billion people who do not have access. To date,
Ethos Water has committed to grants totalling more than $6.2 million.

E)

Ben & Jerry 's founders Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield have infused the company with the notions
of giving back in every way possible, as well as "linked prosperity" between the company, its
employees and the community. They started the Ben & Jerry's Foundation, were founding members
of the Business for Social Responsibility organization and set an extraordinary rate of giving to
232
charitable organizations in the corporate world, donating a full 7.5% of pre-tax profits. In their own
words, they "strive to show a deep respect for human beings inside and outside our company and for
the communities in which they live." Unilever bought Ben & Jerry 's in 2000 and continues to support
the foundation; it donated $2 million in 2009.

F)

Pedigree dog food built its brand by focusing on the need for people to adopt homeless dogs.
Funding the support and care of these animals and sponsoring a national adoption drive, Pedigree's
2009 goal was to distribute $1.5 million in grants to 1,000 shelters and breed rescues. Pedigree
donates one bowl of food to animal shelters every time it gets a Facebook fan, and it did the same
when the company's 2009 Super Bowl commercial was viewed online. Pedigree's goal is to donate 4
million bowls of dog food, enough to feed every shelter dog in America for one day.

http://adage.com/article/cmo-strategy/10-companies-social-responsibility-core/143323/

Decide whether the following statements are true or false for each paragraph.

A) Burts Bees started by selling personal care products

B) Method makes environmentally friendly cleaning products in ecological packaging

C) The Body Shop and Greenpeace petitioned the EU with 4 million signatures

D) Starbucks main focus is on the production of Ethos Water and Green Tea

E) In 2000 Ben and Jerrys was acquired by Unilever

F) Pedigrees brand building focused on the dogs being adopted by homeless people

233
9.7

Listening

GOJO

The following is from an interview with Nicole Koharik of GOJO Industries to discuss the company's
increased CSR efforts, and CSR's impact on social media.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0tsmCTSuA0&list=PLK9V3lQzn0ONJHtU3FH-Qoop734Xu2Jzm

Listen and decide:

1. What are GOJOs products?

2. Are they a company with social responsibility at the core?

Listen again and choose the best answer.

1. PR News spoke with several ... about the growing influence of CSR

A) senior-level PR executives
B) company CEOs
C) PR and marketing directors
D) multi-national companies

2. CSR and what other 2 things are essential elements of GOJOs business strategy?

A) funding and market knowledge


B) communicating and social sustainability
C) environmental programs and marketing
D) emerging needs and time

3. Which reason is not one of the factors why CSR has become more important at GOJO?

A) saving lives and making them better


B) an increase in market demand and customer requests about sustainability
C) better social conditions in healthcare
D) creating new global opportunities and products

234
4. How many people die every year from healthcare acquired infections?

A) almost 19,000
B) almost 8,000
C) almost 980,000
D) almost 98,000

5. GOJOs CSR social media strategy

A) is all done using Facebook


B) is currently in the early stages
C) is the most important part of their overall strategy
D) has won awards

9.8

Vocabulary

Corporate Social Irresponsibility Match the word on the left with a word on the right to make the
most suitable CSR related collocation.

1. public A. labour

2. local B. waste

3. child C. regulations

4. environmental D. negligence

5. oil E. relations

6. government F. operation

7. toxic G. measures

8. criminal H. community

9. security I. spill

10. clean-up J. disaster

235
9.9

Reading

Child labour

Match the missing word from the following text with the correct definition and then put it in the right
place in the text.

Missing words from the text Definitions

1. procurement A. To cut into

2. pods B. Checking

3. rampant C. The shells of coffee beans

4. multinational D. Large heavy knives

5. slice E. The fundamental part of something

F. The act of obtaining equipment, materials, or


6. monitoring
supplies

7. trace G. Widespread

H. To follow the development or history of


8. machetes
something

9. root I. To gather the crop from

J. a large corporation with operations in several

10. harvest countries.

NESTL: ACCUSED OF PERSISTENT CHILD LABOUR ON ITS COCOA FARMS


236
A report of the Washington-based civil society organisation Fair Labor Association (FLA) has shown
that child labour is still widespread on Ivory Coast cocoa farms supplying Nestl. It was the first time
that a (A) chocolate producer had allowed an organization to completely
(B) and assess its (C) system.

The study had found numerous violations of internal work rules and childrens rights. The most
common tasks carried out by children on cocoa farms are filling plastic bags for nurseries, breaking
up (D) pods and transporting plants, according to the FLA. Under local law, carrying
heavy loads is one of the worst forms of child labour, and the use of (E) and knives to
break pods is a hazardous task. The report also found (F) injuries, mainly with machetes
that (G) into the childrens legs as they (H) the cocoa pods, as well as both
adults and children working long hours without pay. Nestl has announced to improve its
(I) mechanisms in its cooperatives. The (J) causes of child labour in the
cocoa industry include poverty and a lack of schools in the country which is still recovering from civil
war.

The FLA said its suggestions for Nestl are applicable to other companies in the industry. The worlds
biggest chocolate companies include Kraft Foods Inc. (KFT), Mars Inc. and Hershey Co. (HSY).

Nestl buys about a 10th of the global cocoa production and more than a third of that comes from
the Ivory Coast, the worlds biggest producer. About 20 percent of the cocoa the chocolate maker
gets from that country can be traced because it comes from Nestls sustainable-farming program,
while the rest comes from the standard supply chain, which isnt transparent, according to the
report.

Source: http://www.facing-finance.org/en/2012/06/nestle-accused-of-persistent-child-labour-on-its-
cocoa-farmsnestle-anhaltende-verstoesse-gegen-kinderrechte-auf-kakaoplantagen/

237
http://www.cidindia.org/?page_id=25

9.10

Reading

Toxic sludge

What do you know about this incident that took the lives of 10 people and left more than 120 injured?

Read this article and compare your information.

WHY TOXIC SLUDGE INUNDATED THREE VILLAGES IN HUNGARY

On October 4, 2010, toxic red sludge started leaking from a chemical plant in Ajka, in western
Hungary. This deadly sludge was a hazardous waste product from an industrial process for the
refining of bauxite.
238
With the rapid spread of millions of gallons of sludge, released from the huge reservoir where it was
stored, several people lost their lives and many more were injured or suffered chemical burns.
Homes and villages in the county of Veszprem were totally destroyed. Farmland and the natural
environment were also seriously harmed.

When the toxic red sludge inundated three entire villages, Prime Minister Viktor Orban declared a
state of emergency. In the days following the incident the Hungarian Prime Minister announced that
this was an industrial accident, not a natural disaster, so all damages would have to be paid for by
those responsible for allowing the flood of toxic waste to be released into the environment.

The Hungarian National Bureau of Investigation attempted to determine what exactly caused the
flood of toxic red sludge, and hoped to identify anyone who could be charged with criminal
negligence.

Zoltan Bakonyi, head of the Alumina Production and Trade Company (MAL), was detained for 72
hours by the police. He claimed to have seen nothing wrong at the site prior to the leakage.
Bakonyi insisted that his men did patrol the chemical reservoir daily. Nothing was reported about the
reservoir that would have indicated it was about to rupture and leak.

The owners of MAL were Lajos Tolnay, Bela Petrusz and the father of Zoltan Bakonyi, Arpad Bakonyi.
All three men featured on a list of the richest people in Hungary. According to this list, compiled by
Figyelo, the combined personal wealth of the owners of MAL was estimated to be around $285
million.

MALs owners apologised for the spillage and promised there would be some compensation, but
only after the extent of the damage had been established, and if there was sufficient evidence to
show it to have been their responsibility. If an apology is an admission of guilt, then the flood of toxic
red sludge in Hungary was caused by the owners of MAL, but they kept hedging their bets and
delaying payment of compensation until the cause has been established.

The prime minister insisted that alumina production at the MAL plant should continue for the sake of
all those employed there, who depended on their wages from the company. Mr Orban said his
government would ensure that strict safety measures were set up to make the refining process
completely safe. These measures include the building of a new dam to contain the remaining sludge
in the reservoir, and a system of dikes to reduce damage in the event of any future leakage.

239
The clean-up operation would take more than a year, and a dangerous amount of toxic chemicals
from this spillage continued to spread beyond the immediate region. The toxicity that remains in the
environment could continue to be a danger to wildlife, and harmful to humans, who come into
contact with toxic particles.

The owners of MAL promised to pay compensation in proportion to its responsibility which meant
that settlement of claims could only take place after a lengthy legal process. Many
people could continue to suffer from the effects of this horrific incident, long after the investigation
into the cause of the toxic red sludge in Hungary.

Source: http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/why-toxic-sludge-inundated-three-villages-in-hungary-
9693/

9.11

Writing

Toxic sludge

a) You are a member of the Ajka residents association. Write a formal letter to the local council
expressing your views of the toxic sludge incident.

b) You are the local mayor. Reply to the letter from the member of the residents association.

Use some of the highlighted vocabulary and expressions in your letters.

http://redskynews.com/?p=5498

240
Unit 10. The European Union

Aims of the Unit:

After completing this unit you will become familiar with some important facts and figures,
institutions and bodies of the EU.

10.1.

SPEAKING

You are going to read a brief introduction about the European Union.

The European Union is made up of 28 European countries that share the same democratic values and
are committed to working together for the common good. They have transferred specific powers to
shared European institutions so that democratic decisions on questions of Europe-wide importance
can be made at European level. At the same time, the EU is committed to safeguarding the diversity
of European cultures and ways of life.

(http://europa.eu/about-eu/index_en.htm)

Free to move

Schengen:

4 No police or customs checks at borders between most


EU countries

4 Controls strengthened at EU external borders

4 More cooperation between police from different EU


countries

4You can buy and bring back any goods for personal use
when you travel between EU countries
Co rb i s

241
Please discuss with your partner the benefits that you can enjoy as a citizen of a European Union
member state? How does it affect your everyday life? Include the following topics in you discussion:

- education
- travelling
- employment
- shopping
- economy
-

10.2

WRITING

The European Union:


500 million people 28 countries

Member states of the European Union

Candidate and potential candidate


countries

http://europa.eu/abc/euslides/index_en.htm

242
You can see the list of the member states. Write the names of the people next to them. One example
is given:

1 Austria (1995) Austrian


2 Belgium (1952)
3 Bulgaria (2007)
4 Croatia (2013)
5 Cyprus (2004)
6 Czech Republic (2004)
7 Denmark (1973)
8 Estonia (2004)
9 Finland (1995)
10 France (1952)
11 Germany (1952)
12 Greece (1981)
13 Hungary (2004)
14 Ireland (1973)
15 Italy (1952)
16 Latvia (2004)
17 Lithuania (2004)
18 Luxembourg (1952)
19 Malta (2004)
20 Netherlands (1952)
21 Poland (2004)
22 Portugal (1986)
23 Romania (2007)
24 Slovakia (2004)
25 Slovenia (2004)
26 Spain (1986)
27 Sweden (1995)
28 United Kingdom (1973)

http://europa.eu/abc/euslides/index_en.htm

243
10.3

READING

You are going to read a text about the process of joining the EU. Some words are missing from the
text. Write the missing words from the list in each gap.

pre-accession legislation supported applicant

negotiations regulations conditions membership

submits candidate

Joining the EU

Becoming a member of the EU is a complex procedure which does not happen overnight. Once an
1 country meets the conditions for 2..., it must implement EU rules and
3. in all areas.

Any country that satisfies the 4. for membership can apply. These conditions are
known as the Copenhagen criteria and include a free-market economy, a stable democracy and the
rule of law, and the acceptance of all EU 5.., including of the euro.

A country wishing to join the EU 6 a membership application to the Council, which asks
the Commission to assess the applicants ability to meet the Copenhagen criteria. If the Commissions
opinion is positive, the Council must then agree upon a negotiating mandate. 7. are
then formally opened on a subject-by-subject basis.

Due to the huge volume of EU rules and regulations each 8 country must adopt as
national law, the negotiations take time to complete. The candidates are 9. financially,
administratively and technically during this 10.. period.

( http://europa.eu/about-eu/countries/joining-eu/index_en.htm)

244
10.4

READING
The EU symbols
EU Symbols

The European anthem


The European flag

Europe Day, 9 May


The motto: United in diversity

http://europa.eu/abc/euslides/index_en.htm

The EU is recognisable by several symbols, the most well-known being the circle of yellow stars on a
blue background, the European anthem and motto. Match the symbols with the appropriate
descriptions:

Europe Day The EU motto

The European anthem The European flag

1 .

The 12 stars in a circle symbolise the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of
Europe.

2 ..

The melody used to symbolise the EU comes from the Ninth Symphony composed in 1823 by Ludwig
Van Beethoven.

245
3

The ideas behind the European Union were first put forward on 9 May 1950 by French foreign
minister Robert Schuman. This is why 9 May is celebrated as a key date for the EU.

"United in diversity" is the motto of the European Union.

It signifies how Europeans have come together, in the form of the EU, to work for peace and
prosperity, while at the same time being enriched by the continent's many different cultures,
traditions and languages.

( http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/index_en.htm)

10.5

The euro a single currency for Europeans

Can be used everywhere in the euro area

4Coins: one side with national symbols,


one side common

4Notes: no national side

EU countries using the euro


EU countries not using the euro

http://europa.eu/abc/euslides/index_en.htm

246
READING

You are going to read a text about money and the EU. The headings are missing from the paragraphs,
please find the appropriate heading for each paragraph.

A The Economic and Financial Crisis

B The euro

C How is the money spent?

D Where does the money come from?

Money and the EU

The EU budget is funded from sources including a percentage of each member country's gross
national income. It is spent on efforts as diverse as raising the standard of living in poorer regions
and ensuring food safety. The euro is the common currency of most EU countries.

1 .

The EU obtains revenue not only from contributions from member countries but also from import
duties on products from outside the EU and a percentage of the value-added tax levied by each
country.

2 ..

The EU budget pays for a vast array of activities from rural development and environmental
protection to protection of external borders and promotion of human rights. The Commission,
Council and Parliament all have a say in how big the budget is and how it is allocated. But the
Commission and EU countries are responsible for the actual spending.

247
3 ..

The euro used every day by some 332 million Europeans is the most tangible proof of
cooperation between EU countries. Its benefits are immediately obvious to anyone travelling abroad
or shopping online on websites based in another EU country.

4 .

The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments,
the European Central Bank and the Commission since it erupted worldwide in 2008. All have been
working closely together to support growth and employment, protect savings, maintain a flow of
affordable credit for businesses and households, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better
governance system for the future.

(http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/money/index_en.htm)

10.6.

The EU institutions

European Council
(summit)

Council of Ministers
European Parliament (The Council) European Commission

Court of Court of Economic and Social Committee of the


Justice Auditors Committee Regions

European Investment Agencies European Central Bank


Bank

http://europa.eu/abc/euslides/index_en.htm

248
READING

EU institutions and other bodies

You are going to read a short text about the main institutions of the EU. Match the appropriate
institutions (A,B,C,D) and their activities (1-8) :

In the EU's unique institutional set-up:

the EU's broad priorities are set by the European Council, which brings together national and
EU-level leaders
directly elected MEPs represent European citizens in the European Parliament
the interests of the EU as a whole are promoted by the European Commission, whose
members are appointed by national governments
governments defend their own country's national interests in the Council of the European
Union.

The European Council sets the EU's overall political direction but has no powers to pass laws. Led
by its President and comprising national heads of state or government and the President of the
Commission, it meets for a few days at a time at least every 6 months

There are 3 main institutions involved in EU legislation:

the European Parliament, which represents the EUs citizens and is directly elected by them;
the Council of the European Union, which represents the governments of the individual
member countries. The Presidency of the Council is shared by the member states on a
rotating basis.
the European Commission, which represents the interests of the Union as a whole.

Together, these three institutions produce through the "Ordinary Legislative Procedure" (ex "co-
decision") the policies and laws that apply throughout the EU. In principle, the Commission proposes
new laws, and the Parliament and Council adopt them. The Commission and the member countries
then implement them, and the Commission ensures that the laws are properly applied and
implemented.

249
Two other EU institutions play vital roles:

the Court of Justice of the EU upholds the rule of European law


the Court of Auditors checks the financing of the EU's activities.

The powers and responsibilities of all of these institutions are laid down in the Treaties, which are the
foundation of everything the EU does. They also lay down the rules and procedures that the EU
institutions must follow. The Treaties are agreed by the presidents and/or prime ministers of all the
EU countries, and ratified by their parliaments.

http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_en.htm

A European Council B European Parliament

C European Commission D Council of the European Union

1. represents the interests of the Union as a whole

2. brings together national and EU-level leaders

3. sets the EU's overall political direction

4. governments defend their own country's national interests

5. represents the EUs citizens and is directly elected by them

6. its presidency is shared by the member states on a rotating basis

7. members are appointed by national governments

8. proposes new laws

250
10.7

Reading

Going abroad to learn

Every year, more than 400 000 young people


study or pursue personal development in other
European countries with support from EU
programmes:

4 Comenius: school education


4 Erasmus: higher education
4 Leonardo da Vinci: vocational training
4 Grundtvig: adult education
4 Youth in Action: voluntary work and
non-formal education
Getty Images

http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_en.htm

EU Programs for lifelong learning

Fill in the chart using the following information:

Jean Monnet Leonardo da Vinci Comenius Erasmus Gruntwig

Adult education Vocational training Higher Education Adult education

School education European integration studies

251
Area Name of the EU Aims
Concerned Programme
5% of schoolchildren in the EU will participate in the joint
educational activities

3 million students will be able to study at universities abroad

80 000 people will be able to do traineeships in companies


and training centres in other EU countries

7000 people every year will be able to carry out educational


activities abroad

support for academic research and teaching in European


integration

Source: Pascal Fontaine: Europe in 12 lessons 2006 Luxemburg, European Commission, Directorate-
General for Communication

10.8
Speaking

The EU agreed to the following strategy to overcome the effects of the financial crisis. Do you agree
with these initiatives? How successful are they if you look at Hungarys economic situation?

What would you add? What would you change?

Discuss the topic with your partner.

252
Europe 2020 Europe's growth strategy

EU leaders agreed in 2010 the overall strategy to get out of the


economic crisis by means of:

4Smart growth
Better education, more research, greater use of communication technologies

4Sustainable growth
A resource - efficient, greener and more competitive economy

4Inclusive growth
More and better jobs, investment in skills and training, modernisation of
the labour market and welfare systems, spreading the benefits of growth to
all parts of the EU

4Good economic governance


Better coordination of economic policy

http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_en.htm

10.9

Listening

Listen to the first part of the video about the European Parliament A Day in Europe - and match
the times given (A-G) with the appropriate phrases (1-7).

A 8 oclock 1 scientific research

B 11 oclock 2 consumer protection

C 13 oclock 3 human rights

D 16 oclock 4 fair competition

E 18 oclock 5 single market

253
F 20 oclock 6 crime prevention

G 21 oclock 7 water pollution

10.10

Listening

Listen to the second part of the video about the European Parliament 3D Graphics - and match
the words given (1-7) with the appropriate phrases (A-G) to make complete sentences.

1- The European Parliament


2- Each member state
3- The political groups
4- The President of the European Parliament sends the chairs of the groups
5- The committee.
6- The EU laws.
7- The budget..

A prepare legislation or other texts for the discussions at the plenary sessions.

B are seated from right to left.

C is used to finance the policies of the EU and the functioning of its institutions.

D plays a central part in the accession process.

E are created and amended by the 3 main bodies of the EU.

F together decides for the agenda of the plenary sitting.

254
10.11

Further ideas

To get more information about the working of the European Union you may contact the following
sources:

A transparent Union at your service

The website of the European Union


europa.eu
One and a half million documents available to the public

Europe Direct contact centre


Answers your questions:
00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11

Europe Direct Information Centres


500 EU Info Points across the EU

European Union Documents


Access to internal documents
upon request

The European Ombudsman


Deals with complaints over EU administration

Emily OReilly, the EU ombudsman

http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_en.htm

10.12

WRITING

STUDYING IN EUROPE

Below you can see a sample enquiry letter. Study the format carefully than try to write a letter of
enquiry of your own, use the same format and change the content appropriately by mentioning the
following points:

255
You are James Brown a student of economics and you enquire about a scholarship programme
abroad in a letter of enquiry

- introduce yourself and say where you study;


- say why you wish to apply for a scholarship abroad;
- say why you feel yourself an ideal candidate for the scholarship;
- write about your expectations from the programme;
- enquire about housing , extra costs and the exact time period of the scholarship
- ask if they can provide facilities for disabled students;

David Smith
14 Churchill Road
Maidstone
Kent, ME16-70X
5th September, 2013

Mr. Bill Daughton


Director of Admissions
210 Newton Road
Kingston College,
Kingston, OK 99861

Dear Mr. Bill Daughton,

I am currently a junior at Kingston College. I am enquiring at colleges that may fit my needs
and profile, and Kingston College caught my attention. Since Kingston offers an excellent engineering
program, it is on the list of my possible target schools.

Please send me any relevant information regarding admissions, financial aid, housing and
anything else you would like me to know about Kingston College that will help me with my decision
making process.

Sincerely,

David Smith

256
10.13

WRITING

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A1jl:Erasmus_at_EUR.JPG

Youve just seen the following job advertisement on one of your friends Facebook Timeline and
decided to send an application.

Urgent Call for Hungarian Full-time students


Join our team! ESN Debrecen is looking for You!
(Erasmus Students Network)
We are an enthusiastic team of Hungarian students organizing programs for foreign students
studying at the University of Debrecen

Applicants must

Be under 26

Have good communications skills

Speak English fluently

Have good organizing and problem-solving skills

Be able to work in a team

Be creative and open-minded

Be interested in foreign cultures

257
What we offer:

Endless fun with international friends from all around Europe

Free admission to all of our programs

Extra points when applying for your Erasmus scholarship in the future

Task:

Send your application letter to the office of Student Union of your Faculty. Respond to the criteria
above.

Start like this:

Dear ESN Debrecen,

..................

258
10.14.

LISTENING

Listen to the presentation via the links below:

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy1cef5abCQ

Circle the five points mentioned concerning the Erasmus program in Rotterdam. There are only five
correct answers.

A it has a strong international appeal


B it works with friendly staff
C it has produced a lot of big names
D it teaches theoretical concepts which can be applied in daily life
E it teaches you think globally
F it teaches how to find solutions to the problems
G there are a lot of student associations
H it has contacts with headhunting companies

Listen to the text again and answer the following questions.

1. What do we know about the size of the university?


................................................................................

2. On what is there a strong focus?


.

3. What education in Erasmus is about?


..

4. What do they organize for students?


.

5. What IT facilities are mentioned?

6. What feeling does Erasmus give you?


..
259
10.15

LISTENING

You are going to hear an audio clip about How to study abroad YouTube FILE:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5dgTSbNB6Y (Howcast.com)

Listen to the broadcast and circle what you need to study abroad. You have to circle five letters
altogether.

A fluency in English

B flexibility

C desire to learn

D decent GCSE

E decent GPA

F school that accepts extra credits

G school that accepts study abroad credits

I a sense of a venture

J a sense of adventure

Listen to the text again and fill in the gaps.

Step 1. Conquer your fears and .. (1). Plenty of programs do not require a foreign language.
Worried about (2)? Some overseas courses cost less than your home . (3) Many
schools employ full-time study abroad .. (4) who will help you arrange your trip.

Step 2. Consider your reasons for studying abroad and be honest .Your reason should .. (5)
where you go and what you study.

Step 3. Examine your .. (6) plan. Take your . (7) goals, total .. (8) units into account.
260
Step 4. The .. (9) Study Abroad Office or International Program Office can provide information
about what is (10).

Step 5. Sort out financial .. (11).

Step 6. Get your . (12) and passports.

Step 7. Many programs have ..... (13) with non-profit companies and local organisations that will
help you arrange the details.

Step 8. Do further research on your ( 14 )

Step 9. Pack your bags, get your shots and do not try to (15) fruits across the borders.

261
KEYS
UNIT 1

1.1

A-4 B-6 C-8 D-2 E-5 F-3 G-1 H-7

1.2

Biomagnetism : The study of magnetic bacteria and their relationship to the earth's magnetic field.

Environmental Geology : The interdisciplinary study of the interaction of humans with the geologic
environment including the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and to some extent the
atmosphere.

Exploration Geophysics: Application of seismology, gravity and magnetic to the location of petroleum and
ore deposits.

Fluid Dynamics: Application of physics and mathematics to the flow of fluids and solids.

Geobiology: The study of processes at the interface between organic and inorganic materials, and the role
of microbes on the origin of life.

Geochemistry: The study of the distribution and amounts of chemical elements and their isotopes in
minerals, ores, rocks, soils, waters, and the atmosphere.

Geochronology: Study of time in relationship to the history of the earth.

Geofluids: Study of fluids in and on Earth and other planets.

Geologic Mapping and Resource Evaluation: Determining the distribution of different rocks at the earth's
surface and economic implications.

Geostatistics: Application of statistics to the analysis of geological and geophysical data.

Hydrogeology: The study of water flow and chemistry at and below the earth's surface.

262
Limnology: The study of lake sediments, most often used to determine past climate and ecological
environments.

Mineral Physics: The study of how minerals respond to forces.

Mineralogy: The study of minerals: formation, occurrence, properties, composition, crystal structure, and
classification.

Numerical Modeling: Supercomputer applications to a wide variety of problems involving flow of


geological materials.

Oceanography : The study of the ocean, including its boundaries and bottom topography, the physics and
chemistry of sea water, the types of currents, and the many phases of marine biology.

Paleoclimatology: The study of past climatic and ecological environments.

Paleomagnetism: The study of the magnetic record in rocks and implications for plate tectonics and the
origin of the earth's magnetic field.

Paleontology : The study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plant and animals, their relationships
to existing plants, animals and environments, and the chronology of Earth's history.

Petrology: The study of the formation of rocks at depth in the earth.

Rock and Mineral Magnetism: The study of how rocks and minerals record magnetic information.

Sedimentology: The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and the processes by which they were formed:
the description, classification, and interpretation of sediments. Includes basin analysis, river studies,
surface processes, stratigraphy, and geochronology.

Seismology: Study of seismic waves to determine the internal structure of the earth and the origin and
location of earthquakes.

Structural Geology and Tectonics: The study of mountain building, movement of tectonic plates, and
deformation of the earth's crust.

Volcanology: The scientific study of the dynamics of volcanoes.

263
1.4

11. Understanding how our planet works is important for everyone and that's what earth science
is all about.
12. Geoscientists are investigating how it has changed over time and trying to understand where
it is now what may happen to in the future.
13. They investigate earth and how its systems work, they study earth in space and its
relationship with our solar system and the wider universe.
14. They measure the change over time from the beginning 4.6 billion years ago through all the
ages of geologic time.
15. You can learn about the forces that form mountains, how Earth's continents formed,
separated and continue to change, how seas have opened and closed.
16. You can learn how mountains rise up then are worn down by erosion and how sediment is
deposited and how the venturi becomes rock once more.
17. You can go where nobody has gone before to study what happens underground.
18. It's important for everyone to learn how to earth and its systems work, only then can citizens
make informed judgments that affect our planet.
19. We now know that there are some issues that humans will have to address such as climate
change, natural hazards and the availability of natural resources such as energy, clean water
and soil to grow food.
20. Earth science it's the key to making wise decisions about natural hazards, resources and
climate change.

1.7

2) a degree with a good result

4) motivation

6) knowledge about the firm

7) work experience

Transcript

Im Elise Hunt. I work for ICI as part of the graduate recruitment team. Were here at Imperial today
looking for all sorts of graduates, specifically chemistry and chemical engineering and mechanical
engineering. We look for a 2:1 degree and thats the sort of basics in terms of degree side of it. In
terms of the individuals were looking for, highly motivated people, people that actually show some
interest in our organisation, theyve looked on the website, or theyve read about us and they
264
actually want to know what its like working for us. We look for work experience. If its relevant work
experience, all the better. We offer summer internships ourselves as well and thats definitely a
benefit to anyone employing.

1.8

Starting your career


1. d 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. f 6. c 7. h 8. g

1.9

Steve Jobs

1-b; opinions or interests are different from each other - visions began to diverge
2-e; have a quarrel with someone - have a falling out
3-d; support a person or a group - side with somebody
4-f; not do something that someone expects you to do - let somebody down
5-g; fail to do something - drop the baton
6-c; make a bad mistake or do something stupid - screw up
7-a; you realize it for the first time - dawn on somebody

1.10
How to find a graduate job using social media

a-T b-T c-F d-T e-F

2. Answer these questions!

Key:

1. Keywords
2. Use the company pages to research, be the first to share breaking news of new products and
services and let your network know about your passion and interest for a particular industry. You
can also see new jobs and which companies people have joined. As a student you can use LinkedIn
to research companies before an interview, analyze patterns of people who have joined and move
on and begin to generate your own career ideas.
3. Your image or how you appear on social media. How you market yourself using various social
media sites.
4. Universities
5. Enable you to advance your career

265
3. Put the words below in the proper place in the text:

Key:

1- aware 2- posts 3- chances 4- employees 5- suitability

6- with 7- current 8- up 9- embarrassing 10- policy

1.11

1. to wise up e. to become aware of something you didnt know


2. to scour i. to search very carefully for something
3. a backlash l. a sharp, usually delayed, negative reaction to something
4. a snippet h. a small piece of something
5. slack b. loose, not very strict
6. a silver lining c. a positive aspect of something that is generally negative
7. spin m. very positive, often dishonest, publicity
8. to get shot down j. to be heavily criticized
9. asymmetry n. inequality
10. staff morale d. the (positive or negative) feeling among the workforce
11. to go live k. to make information public
12. a puff piece a. a text or report designed to promote something
13. a rant piece g. a text or report expressing anger or complaint
14. warts-and-all f. totally honest

266
UNIT 2

2.1

A-4 B-1 C-3 D-5 E-6 F-2

2.2

1-D 2-C 3-E 4-B 5-A 6-F

2.3

11. The earth is approximately 8,000 miles or 30 thousand kilometers in diameter from the
North Pole to the South Pole.
12. At the center we have what we call the inner core, which is like a solid metal ball.
13. It is under extreme pressure and is believed to be at least 5000 degrees Fahrenheit or 27 160
degrees Celsius surrounding the inner core.
14. The outer core form this area is about 1400 miles and is believed to be molten or liquid form.
15. Nickel and iron are probably the main elements in the outer core.
16. Geologists think that most of the mantle is solid rock.
17. However, towards the top of this layer an area of hot, thick, molten rock exists, that is called
the asthenosphere.
18. Above this area is the cool and rigid outer shell of the earth, which we call the crust.
19. A rock that is similar to the common rock granite makes up most of this section of the crust.
20. Under the ocean the crust there is a much thinner layer of rock, similar to basalt.

2.4

1. continental drift 2. seafloor spreading 3. tectonic plates

4. convergent, divergent, transform

5. earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain building, oceanic trench formation

6. subduction

267
2.5

1-D 2-C 3-G 4-B 5-F 6-E 7-A

2.6

1-D 2-B 3-C 4-A

2.7

1. Why did one of the panelists believe that you should always write your own CV?
a. so that the reader can see how you describe yourself
b. professionally-written CVs look generic and sterile and do not create a good impression with the
reader
2. According to the author, what three main difficulties do people often encounter when they try
to write a CV?
a. incorrect English,
b. not knowing how to structure a CV
c. not knowing how to best highlight their most relevant strengths.

3. What benefits can a professional CV writer bring?


a. identify the key achievements and skills necessary for a particular role or sector,
b. cut out unnecessary or irrelevant details,
c. pinpoint what makes the individual stand out.
d. provide objectivity

4. Why is preparation of the CV important?


Spending time on preparation produces a better result; the CV will be used to create questions at
your interview
5. Why is it more difficult to find a professional CV writer in the UK than in the USA?
Because in the UK CV writers are not regulated
6. What should you check before you employ a CV writer?
Sample of the CVs writers work

2.11

1. memorable 2. shy 3. to be on the radar 4. connectedness

5. engage in 6. lingo 7. diverse 8. unique 9. rich

1. a 2. c 3. c 4. a 5. b

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2.15

1a. drink coffee


1b. he drank too much coffee
1c. get a job offer
2a. research the company and the position carefully
2b. you need to practice
2c. prepare success stories that you can reference during the interview
2d. prepare questions to ask the interviewer
2e. tailor your entire interview to the company you are interviewing with
3a. who their competitors are
3b. toughest interview questions
3c. personal life
3d. knowledgeable and enthusiastic
3e. companys perfect candidate

Transcript - Jeff and Mike - The interview guys.

JEFF
Hi everyone, I'm Jeff and this is my friend Mike, and together we're known as the Interview Guys.
Today we're enjoying one of our favorite pastimes...enjoying a cup of coffee and talking about Job
Interviews!

MIKE
Jeff, are you sure you didn't have one cup of coffee too many? You seem a little...excited.

JEFF
I am excited Mike. But not because of the coffee! Because a lot of people have been asking us to
share our best
interview tips, so today we've put together a list of our Top 5 favorites! If you can master these 5
tips, you'll be well
on your way to getting a job offer from your next interview.

MIKE
And pay special attention to tip #5, because it's the one tip that's really going to set you apart from
you competition and get you on offer from your next interview. So what's the first tip on the list Jeff?

JEFF
Tip #1 is that you really need to research the company and the position carefully. It's important to

269
know exactly what they do, who their competitors are, and any current events related to the
company. Take some time to study their website, but make sure you also know the job description
inside out.

MIKE
Our second tip is that you need to practice! In other words, it's important that you prepare perfect
answers to some
of the most commonly asked and toughest interview questions. How do you do that? Well hang on
to the end of this video and we'll show you exactly how.

JEFF
Tip #3 is that you need to prepare a few success stories that you can reference during the interview.
What is a success story?
A success story is a story from your past, work or personal life that highlights an achievement and
reflects one of your strengths.

MIKE
Tip #4 is a very important one. You always need to prepare some questions to ask the interviewer.
Why? Because it shows that you are prepared, knowledgeable and enthusiastic about the job. Not to
mention the fact that it will allow you to learn as much as possible about the company and the
position you are interviewing for.

JEFF
As we said earlier, our final tip is the most important tip on the list. Tip #5 says that you need to tailor
your entire interview to the company you are interviewing with.

Most people walk into the interview room with nowhere near enough knowledge of exactly what the
company or organization is looking for. You need to find out before hand exactly what the position
calls for in an employee as well as exactly what makes up the company's 'perfect candidate". Once
you have this information you can position yourself as that "perfect candidate" by giving "tailored"
interview answers. As we always say: "it's not about you, it's about them"

MIKE
If that sounds like a lot to take in, don't worry! Because we've prepared a special report that explains
Tip #5 completely and outlines exactly how to prepare perfect answers to every interview question.

JEFF
That's right. We walk you through our proven step-by-step process for giving perfect interview
answers in our hugely popular free special report

270
2.16

He asked me He wanted to know

1. why I wanted the job.

2. what I was studying at university.

3. why I had chosen my degree subject / why I chose my degree subject.

4. what my usual role in a team was.

5. if/whether I had any questions.

6. if/whether I had led a team before.

7. what I expected to be doing in 5 years time.

8. what my strengths and weaknesses were.

9. what other jobs I had applied for.

10. how my worst enemy would describe me.

11 why I had chosen my university and what factors had influenced my choice / why I chose my
university and what factors influenced my choice.

12. what my greatest achievement had been/was.

13. who I thought were, or would be, their main competitors.

14. what I would be doing in 10 years time.

15. how long I would stay with the company.

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UNIT 3

3.2

1. meteor impacts and volcanic eruptions, man-made events like mine collapses and underground
nuclear tests ,movement of pieces of the Earth's surface, which are called tectonic plates.

2. quakes with a magnitude greater than 2.0, the threshold at which humans can feel the vibrations

3. tsunamis, avalanches and landslides

4. city walls, temples, government buildings and houses all crumbled, and more than 830,000 people
were killed

5. people indoors should not go out immediately, just crouch down and wait for chances

3.3

1-D 2-F 3-I 4-M 5-B 6-G 7-C 8-N 9-L 10-A 11-J 12-H

13-K 14-E

3.6

1. We dont have any warning

2. Hundreds of small, undetected quakes

3. Along the plate boundaries

4. Energy

5. There wouldnt be oceans, continents, atmosphere

6. It creates the topography of the Earth

3.9

Plan what you are going to wear (1)

Get there early (2)

272
Prepare how to introduce yourself (3)

Remember names (4)

Organize your workspace (5)

Take advantage of your new status to ask good questions (6)

Be a good listener (7)

Be positive (8)

Don't bolt at the end of the day (9)

Dont forget to take a snack with you (not needed)

Be the last to leave (not needed)

3.10

1-b) 2-a) 3-a) 4-b) 5-a) 6-a) 7-a) 8-b)

3.12

Many workplaces have dress codes, particularly workplaces in industries in which image is highly
valued and workplaces in which employees have regular face-to-face contact (1) with customers. In a
formal business environment (2) the standard of dressing for men and women is a suit, a jacket and
pants or a skirt, or a dress with appropriate accessories (3).

Clothing that reveals too much cleavage, your back, your chest, your feet, your stomach or your
underwear is not appropriate for a place of business. In our work environment (4), clothing should be
pressed and never wrinkled. Torn, dirty, or frayed clothing is unacceptable. Any clothing that has
words, terms, or pictures that may be offensive to other employees is unacceptable.

Certain days can be declared dress down days (5), generally Fridays. On these days, business casual
clothing (6) is allowed. Clothing that has the company logo (7) is encouraged. Sports team, university,
and fashion brand names (8) on clothing are generally acceptable. You might want to keep a jacket in
your office for the days when a client unexpectedly appears on a dress down day, especially if the
client is wearing a suit.

3.13

1. allowing 2. unfortunately 3. guide 4. particular

5. fabric 6. message 7. without 8. disciplinary

273
3.14

1-b) 2-a) 3-c) 4-a) 5-c) 6-a) 7-c) 8-b)

274
UNIT 4

4.2

1. Mid-Atlantic Ridge

2. Pacific Ring of Fire

3. East African Rift

4. No volcanic activity

4.3

1. Large magma chamber 2. Bedrock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill


6. Dike 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank
9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow
13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud

4.4

1. Fissure volcanoes 2. Cinder volcanoes

3. Shield volcanoes 4. Composite volcanoes

4.6

1.F 2.T 3.T 4.T 5.F 6.F 7.T 8.F 9.T 10.F

4.7

9. Studying abroad means you will learn the language .


very quickly
almost not at all
a little more quickly

10. Studying abroad can be


really easy
hard due to culture shock
an experience that requires little adjustment

11. Financing a study abroad experience


will be no problem

275
is easy because you can find scholarships
needs to be something you can afford

12. Living in a new country


will not be much different
can open your eyes to the world
helps us see that everyone does pretty much the same thing

13. When living in another country


a host family can take care of all your needs
you can pay someone to do your chores
you will have to learn to become self-sufficient

14. An experience of living abroad


will make you a changed person
is not much different than living at home
will make you less mature as you depend on others

15. A study experience abroad will give you


a lot of headaches and few memories
many low moments and depression
a lifetime of memories of a special time in your life

16. To know if studying abroad is right for you


watch television for inspiration
go to Google
talk to people who have done it before

4.8

1 Grenoble, France
2 That out of 30 students, there were 19 different nationalities
3 Open doors, employers impressed, shows maturity and responsibility
4 Research available universities
5 other students who have studied abroad
6 Doing a BA in Business Management
7 C
8 A
9 C
10 B

Transcript

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywaV5NRkFik

276
Hi my name is Georgia Sanders. Im doing a BA in Business Management with European Study and I
studied in Grenoble, France. My best experience has to be that in a class of 30 there was actually 19
different nationalities which brought so many different cultures, different perspectives. It was really
interesting and Ive never had that before. So that was definitely a highlight.

I think how my year abroad has prepared me for my future career because Ive become more of an
employable person in general. I think not every student can say that theyve been abroad and I think
that really opens doors. And when Ive been on interviews and I said that Ive been on a year abroad
generally the employers has been very impressed and intrigued to know how it went. Uh, I think
when [a] young person can actually live abroad it does show something about how mature they are
and responsible. So I think, yeah, its very beneficial for employability, definitely.

One of my main challenges has to be the difference in work ethic out there and the system of
education which is very different. Uh it worked on the basis of continuous assessment um which
meant a lot of commitment throughout the year. Um and not a lot of outside classroom work so you
have to be very attentive and fully participate during class which actually I found really benefitted me
and I actually worked better with it so it actually worked out to be positive.

The advice Id give people um going on a study abroad year would be um be aware to actually
research the different universities available to you. I did that before and found that hugely beneficial.
Ah also do use the students who have been on a year abroad as a resource because weve got loads
of kind of tricks of the trade and advice that we can give people. Um you know how to get cheap
travel and stuff so I think thats yeah definitely some advice.

4.10

1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. T

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UNIT 5

5.1

1 In order to avoid causing an offense to someone in another business, it is important to be aware


of cultural differences between your societies.
2 The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally is called power distance.
3 Business markets in Asia and South America are identified as emerging markets.
4 Our world today seems smaller and is called a global village because of improved communications
and transport.
5 Some examples of non-verbal communications which may be different in other cultures are eye
contact, hand gestures, or work attire.
6 A hand shake in the Middle East is a sign that negotiations are just beginning.
7 Businesses today often operate in many countries by using cross-border teams.
8 Insensitivity can cause serious problems in business because of a violation of cultural norms in
that other culture.
9 Other factors can help us analyze cultural-based behavior, including whether a society is generally
more comfortable with uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.
10 Management styles can vary in other cultures based on how that culture perceives that
businesses should be run.

5.4

1. Should we travel just to meet other business people when phones are so good today?
YES. Meeting face to face with clients and colleagues, provides you with the perfect
opportunity to broaden your professional network and forge relationships that go deeper
than phone calls and email

2. What is the first thing to do when planning to travel?


First, confirm the travel dates and make your reservations as soon as possible

3. What documents do I need to travel?


Passport and travel insurance, copies of electronic boarding passes and hotel reservations

4. What kinds of clothes are best to pack for travel?


Dark colored clothing that doesnt wrinkle easily, Ladies, carry a large scarf, shawl or
Pashmina, choose stylish but comfortable shoes. Opt for wedges, flats or shoes with a lower
heel.

278
5. What security measures can I take at a hotel? Can I think of others?
Avoid using your full name when signing in. Use your initials or sign in as if two people are in
the room. This deters potentially assailants looking to prey on single women. Advise the front
desk not to mention your room number out loud, when other guests are nearby. In the event
that you think someone may have heard it dont be afraid to request a new room. Always
leave the Do Not Disturb sign on the door. This gives the impression that your room is always
occupied. Upon arriving at your hotel room, double check the locks on the windows and
doors. If you are unsure of your room locations, ask security to escort you to your room and
avoid wandering the halls aimlessly.

5.5

Multiple Choice Check all that apply:

e) Business travel involves more than just making travel plans. You also should consider
a) ___ Finding the closest gyms to work out in
b) X Learning about business practices and social customs of destination
c) ___ Loading up all your favorite video games
f) When planning your travel itinerary, be sure to
a) X Leave a copy with your family and colleagues
b) X Make copies of all your important documents like passport for your family
c) X Leave an emergency contact list with your travel planner
g) Some good preparation practices for a trip abroad might be to
a) X Read books or articles about the country you are visiting
b) ___ Plan your menu in advance so you can have your favorite foods
c) X Research if it is acceptable to discuss business over meals
h) Examples of body language and gestures to be careful of include
a) X Making the OK sign with your thumb and index finger
b) X Pointing with your finger
c) ___ Speaking slowly
i) Learning another language is not easy when in another country. You could
a) X Make a sincere attempt to learn what you can
b) X Hire a translator
c) ___ Dont travel until you have mastered a language
j) You should check for any travel advisories in the country you are traveling to. Check for
a) X Government issued travel advisories
b) X Whether the advisory affects your area of travel

279
c) ___ What weapons you can take to defend yourself
k) Check for the kind of insurance you need to protect yourself
a) X Travel Insurance
b) X Life Insurance
c) X Medical Insurance
l) Select the best ways to stay connected while traveling
a) X Using Skype from your computer or cell phone
b) ___ Plan on borrowing a phone to make calls
c) X Texting is always a good option especially in emergencies

5.9

1. True 2. False 3. True 4. Not Stated 5. True 6. False


7. Not Stated 8. True 9. False; 10. False 11. True 12. Not Stated

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBGEknzJu_Q (MichaelCzinkota.com)

Etiquette overseas is dramatically important because it really plays to the issue of culture. And
culture is a very determining factor in any negotiations, in any planning, in any execution of business
activities. And therefore, anyone who travels internationally for business and even for pleasure
needs to be aware of cultural imperatives.

In the United States, time for us is terribly important. We preserve it, we save it, we are on time.
Those are very important concepts. But you look at the same thing internationally and people see
time more as an incidental. That if you say youll meet in the afternoon you may say youll meet
around four but that becomes four-ish and may become six-ish quite quickly and nobody is upset at
all because thats just how it is. But getting ready for that and living with that expectation that not
everything will flow as smoothly and as precisely as one may be used to, thats something difficult.
Normality often matters.

In some countries people are addressed in different ways depending on their social status. And there
can be lets say in Spanish speaking areas there can be the tu verses usted. In French speaking
areas the tu verses the vous. In German areas the du versus the ze. And its very sensitive to
decide what form of address to use because if you use the wrong one you may generate ill-will. And I
remember talking to an executive in Europe who told me that for him the biggest problem was and
he was an American executive, when he came to Europe he had to remember how he was going to
address the presidents of his subsidiaries. One was call Wang the other one was called Doctor Meyer

280
and the next one was called John Miller and he really had to stick with that. It couldnt be all first
names only because it just didnt work that way. But you also have other formality issues.

For example, I remember going with a group of Americans into a German restaurant and they didnt
have any air conditioning so we all took off our jackets. And our German hosts were obviously
appalled at that. And I tried to make for some easier feelings and I said to the German co-hosts,
Look at the gentlemen over there in the corner theyve all taken off their jackets. Whereupon he
turned to me and asked, What makes you think these are gentlemen? And that sort of clarity
adherence is not necessarily a question of sensitivity its a question of outcome, even with good
sensitivity.

Two examples come to mind. One was when president Bush was in Germany at a leader meeting and
chancellor Merkel of Germany obviously looked a little bit exhausted and he stepped up behind and
started giving her a back rub. And that somehow didnt go so well because German chancellors dont
often get back rubs in public. Or other situations where national leaders for example dont like to be
touched by anyone. And even if that touch is to convey empathy and closeness and friendship
theyre still not used to being touched and it shows in their faces.

But weve also had on the positive side again President Bush who in the White House Rose Garden
welcomed some Arab leaders and while they were walking in the Rose Garden they shook hands and
then they held hands for the next ten minutes of walking. Which is not necessarily is not the most
American of behaviors but it clearly demonstrated to the visitors that he had sort of read up on the
culture and tried to do things their way and that was very welcome and was appreciated
internationally.

No really its not just the rules because they can be learned but its really the empathy, the conveying
that I come in friendship that I am here to know you as a person and work with you. Im not just here
to do the transaction and be out of here again.

It does make sense to look at some of these guidebooks. It makes sense to go for example to go to
the US Department of State website which tells you roughly what to do or at least what to avoid.
Theres also, lo and behold, by the Central Intelligence Agency theres a World Fact Book which
summarizes each country economically, politically. And its available to the public, it can even also be
seen on the internet. And it teaches you, sort of, the most important things not to do and the most
important things to keep in mind so that you dont go and provide a gift that you think is very
wonderful and your guest may think is a terrible thing to do because knives or clocks or certain colors

281
are just not welcome in that society. And so you can avoid some of those mistakes. But of course,
theres also a lot of slack being given to Americans, sort of, Yeah they probably dont know so we
still get the benefit of the doubt.

5.10

1.C 2.B 3.B 4.C 5.C 6.C 7.D 8.A 9.D 10.C 11.C

Transcript YouTube link: Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqnF-4V4j24

Ultimately, getting better corporate travel ideas is all about working with people who can ask the
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FCM is a young and vibrant travel management company. Were represented in 75 countries around
the world. Being part of FCM means you to have [a] world of opportunities. Whether you are a small
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hard to deliver the savings that are so important to you. Were not a transactional based business;
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We do not do one-size-fits-all. We do the service that you require on a local, multinational, or even
global level. We believe in face-to-face contact with our customers and we dont hide behind emails,
we do pick up the phone. Youre never ever in a call center environment. Youre always talking to
somebody who knows and understands your business and understands your needs from a corporate
travel point of view.

Our consultants are the best trained in the world. We are focused, we deliver outstanding services
and thats proven by our level of retention of our existing customers. Were not just a booking
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282
UNIT 6

6.2

1-D 2-G 3-H 4-B 5-E 6-A 7-F 8-C

6.3

1-B 2-D 3-C 4-E 5-A

1-C 2-E 3-B 4-A 5-D

6.5

A-2 B-3 C-3 D-1 E-4 F-2 G-3 H-5 I-1 J-3

6.8

1. a 2. c 3. d 4. a

6. The labor market of the future - Transcript

The answer to finding the best talent is really its like in China, weve set up an advertising school in
Shanghai in order to find the best young talent in the country to come into our industry but its
about trawling the good schoolsdesign schools as well as business schools, film schools,
entertainment schools, schools of all types, finding the best people. Incentivizing them means, not
just financially incentivizing them, but qualitatively, with training programs, that sort of thing. What
most people prize most highly is the ability to develop their careers in the context of the jobs they
have, and providing an environment which challenges them geographically, or functionally, and gives
them an opportunity to develop their careers; so this is the biggest issue, because you actually look
at the supply of talent you know we can produce all the things in the world that we need to
produce in terms of manufacturing and distribution. What we cant do is produce more people,
because if you look at the demographics its against us. Theres a war for talent now in five, ten or
fifteen years time its gonna be even more significant because the supply of people, birthrates, are
basically declining in all countries of the world, so age there will be an ageing of the population in
even the most youthful countries that at the moment we think have the best demographics.

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6.9
1. e 2. a 3. g 4. h 5. b 6. c 7. f 8. d

6.10

1. telecommunications companies 2. Silicon Valley California 3. knowledge is doubling


every two years 4. to become an expert 5. a way to learn from one another

E-learning - Transcript

I. It's no coincidence that some of the early adopters of internet-based teaching and learning are
telecommunications companies such as British Telecomm. Another example comes from the
American computer giant Sun Microsystems, now undergoing big change at the same time as it's
merging with the database giant Oracle, a near neighbor in Silicon Valley, California. Sun is taking this
new system of learning very seriously, says Cary Williard, the company's chief learning office.

CW. There are some special challenges that are present now that haven't been present before. The
University of California, Berkley did a study and found that knowledge is doubling every two years.
There are numerous studies that have shown that it takes ten years to become an expert, but you
can't possibly keep on top of everything. So somehow we have to create a way to learn from one
another what's the most important. I can hardly make my way to my bed because of all of these
stacks of books I really do need to read and I just fall further and further behind. I think we all have
that experience, so the need to be able to learn from one another is so much more intense now
because of how much knowledge there is out there to sort through.

I. We have to create a way to learn from one another, says Cary Williard at Sun Microsystems.

6.11

1. b 2. a 3. c 4. b

6.12

What is e-learning?

1. 1998
2. applying
3. original
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4. promoters
5. noise
6. drive
7. compliance
8. certification
9. technology
10. leadership development
11. sell
12. communicate
13. oriented
14. email and their regular work
15. 2 billion
16. from other people
17. social networking
18. online communities

What is e-learning? - Transcript

I. And that's the disruptive part of this new electronic learning process of teaching and training.
Listen to the training and talent management consultant, Josh Bercin.

JB. E-learning is a word that started around 1998, and it was originally the concept of applying the
internet to physical training, so the original concept was We're gonna do away with the classroom,
we're gonna do away with bricks and mortar universities and we're gonna put it all on the web, and
in fact Cisco and other promoters of the internet really tried to make a lot of noise about this to try
to drive demand for the internet, and companies tried to do that and they tried to shut down their
classroom training universities tried to put all their professors on line and what they found was
that it didn't work. Some content worked really well on the internet and some didn't. The internet
turned out to be very good for compliance training, certification on a process, or perhaps a
technology training; it didn't turn out to be very good for soft skills like leadership development, how
to sell, how to communicate, some of the more people-oriented skills in companies.

I. Of course one of the main advantages of transferring training to the employee's computer, to be
used as and when he or she has the time and inclination to learn something, is that this reflects the
new attention span of the internet generation. Josh Bercin again.

JB: The average employee shifts back and forth between their email and their regular work 70 times
in a single day, so we're already committed to the computer! There's 2 billion cell phones in the
world, something like that, probably the equivalent number of PCs. Everybody has access to
information everywhere all the time, and we're trying to make sense of it all. And so in a corporate
setting what's really the next set of challenges is not putting more information online, but trying to
find some context for it all, and also recognizing the fact that people don't learn from content, they
learn from other people, so when you have a training problem or a transformation problem inside of
a business and you're trying to get people to move in a new direction, or take on a new role, you
can't always teach them how to do that, they have to learn it from the other people in that
organization. And so the tools like social networking and the concepts of online communities have
become very, very important parts of corporate training now, and that's really what's new.

I. Josh Bercin of Bercin Associates, based in Oakland, the other side of San Francisco Bay from San
Francisco.

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UNIT 7

7.3

1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Tropopause 4. Mesosphere

5. Thermosphere 6. Ionosphere

7.4

1. C 2. F 3. H 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. G 8. J 9. I 10. E

7.5

1. evaporation 2. condenses 3. precipitation 4. groundwater

5. transpiration 6. runoff

7.6

1. Cirrus 2. Cirrostratus 3. Cirrocumulus 4. Altostratus

5. Altocumulus 6. Stratus 7. Stratocumulus 8. Nimbostratus 9. Cumulus

10. Cumulus congestus 11. Cumulonimbus 12. Wall cloud 13. Shelf cloud

14. Fractus 15. Mammatus 16. Contrails 17. Fog

7.11

1. h, 2. f, 3. e, 4. c, 5. g, 6. b, 7. a, 8. d

7.15

1. incentive
2. commission
3. salary
4. earning potential
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5. fringe benefits
6. cost-of-living allowance
7. deducted
8. rate
9. bonus
10. golden handshake

7.16

1. 700

2. 85%

3. a. yes, b. no, c. no, d. no, e. yes, f. yes, g. yes

4. a. 900, b. Florida, c. respect, d. abilities

5. the mid 1990s

6. development

7. valued (properly)

8. involved (in the business)

9. maternity

10. twice a year

11. not right / wrong / missing

12. trust

How to manage your staff Transcript

LAMB: Many staff satisfaction surveys may make dismal reading for bosses but there are exceptions.
Workers at a jewelry store chain called Beaverbrooks have helped vote the company the best retailer
to work for in Britain in the annual Sunday Times Best Companies List. Beaverbrooks employs around
700 people in 55 shops and an impressive 85% of the staff said they believe their manager not only
cares how satisfied they are in the job, but also regularly expresses appreciation for the good work
they do. So what is Beaverbrooks doing right? Mike Johnson has been investigating and his report
starts with answers to that question from staff behind the counter at the companys Blackpool store.

287
LADY: Theres no hierarchy here at all. You can go to anybody and still feel valued and have your
point listened to.

LADY: I used to work for a supermarket and theres no way that I could have gone up to the store
manager of that place and given him like an idea about something or felt like I could have a
conversation with him or anything.

JOHNSON: Why was that, were they too intimidating?

LADY: Yea, they used to put the fear of God into you for some reason. Theyd walk past and youd
feel like you were being watched by some evil evil bloke. But Mark has been here a few times.

JOHNSON: Thats the managing director?

LADY: Yea. He puts you at ease.

JOHNSON: Do they pay shed-loads of money?

LADY: No not at all. Its the atmosphere thats definitely kept me here anyway.

LADY: I wouldnt have any problems with phoning up anybody that I needed to speak to regarding
any issues that I had or any suggestions that I had. I would feel happy that it wouldnt be just
something that was pushed aside.

JOHNSON: Would you really feel okay about sending an email say, or a letter to the managing
director of the company?

LADY: I wouldnt think twice about it.

JOHNSON: You wouldnt think twice about it?

LADY: No. No not at all, Id feel very comfortable.

ADDLESTONE: This letter just came to me today, funnily enough. This is from Karen and shes a sales
assistant in our store in Bluewater.

JOHNSON: Rare indeed is the company where the managing director starts his day by opening fan
mail from the staff. Welcome to the weird and wonderful world of Beaverbrooks boss, Mark
Addleston.

ADDLESTONE: Dear Mark. Just wanted to say a huge, huge thank you to you and the company for
giving me the most amazing feeling this morning. I shall explain, and she goes on to talk about how
over the year shes actually accumulated 900 in bonuses and shes going to take her children and
her husband to Florida for a holiday. But then she just finishes off by saying, how lucky am I? A job I
enjoy, colleagues throughout the company who have the utmost respect for each other and a
recognition of my abilities which gives me the chance to feel this good. Thank you. I mean, its just
lovely.

288
JOHNSON: In many an organization Karen from Bluewater might also be seen as lobbying for an
award of her own. Company Creep of the Year. Here though her letter does seem to be a genuine
expression of gratitude, not just for the bonuses shes earned, also for the spirit in which her
company is run. But it wasnt always like this. Though Beaverbrooks was established back in 1920 it
wasnt until the mid-1990s that it seriously began to seek the opinion of its staff.

ADDLESTONE: I started a series of focus groups when I went round the branches round the country
asking the question, whats good, whats not good? And some of the staff, I have to say when I got
back, made me very, very uncomfortable.

JOHNSON: Like what?

ADDLESTONE: Well like the lack of development that they were receiving, like the fact that they felt
not valued properly, all sorts of stuff. But all came back down to one thing, it came back down to the
fact that they didnt feel involved in the business and that was a real wake-up call and it did hurt at
the time.

JOHNSON: Stung into action, he launched a flurry of new initiatives. Everyone was encouraged to
contact him direct with views and ideas. One recent example from the shop floor was an improved
package of maternity benefits, important for a company where almost 85% of staff is women. These
days Mark Addleston visits every store personally at least twice a year, trying to foster an
atmosphere where people feel comfortable talking to him. One visit revealed a serious case of
bullying by the shop manager.

ADDLESTONE: Fortunately, I had a sufficiently good relationship with the team where one or two of
them felt comfortable enough with me to be able to tell me what was actually happening. You know
when you ask somebody a question and you say, how are things and they say, fine and you look
into their face and you know that theres something not right, theres something missing. Its at that
point that you have to delve more deeply. I believe our people trust us, I believe our people trust me.

7.17

1. a fair, living wage

2. more than money (money, personal time and attention)

3. it inspires motivation

4. you feel you are part of a chosen/popular group of people

5. education and training; career paths; team participation; succession planning; cross-training;
field trips to successful workplaces

6. ask your employees what they want from work

289
7.19

1. maternity
2. holiday
3. contract
4. sick pay
5. flexi time
6. morale
7. turnover
8. colleagues
9. security
10. personnel

7.20

1. b 2. b 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. a 7. a 8. c

9. c 10. c 11. c 12. a 13. a 14. c 15. c

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UNIT 8

8.2

1. non-renewable 2. renewable 3. secondary

8.3

1-C 2-E 3-J 4-D 5-I 6-G 7-A 8-H 9-F 10-B

8.5

1-B 2-E 3-C 4-A 5-D

8.10

1. keep in the back of your mind


2. signposts
3. raise awareness
4. strengths and weaknesses
5. address
6. cue cards
7. remote
8. overload
9. in their shoes
10. catch us off guard
8.11

1. What is important now is c. that you can see the difference


2. Id like to highlight f. the decline in public services
3. The authors wanted to point out d. the main factors influencing public opinion.
4. In this talk I wanted to present j. a theory which is likely to be controversial
5. It would be particularly useful h. to turn to renewable energy sources
6. Seldom has there been a. such a crisis in fossil fuels.
7. The emergence of the infection e. was directly linked to the migration of birds
8. We compared two offers l. and found the one totally unacceptable.
9. The project was abandoned because of g. environmental implications
10. The city was a place of b. great significance at that time.

291
UNIT 9

9.3

1. Sunspots 2. Arctic Tundra 3. Permafrost

4. Water Vapor 5. Burning of Fossil Fuels 6. Deforestation

7. Fluorocarbons 8. Fertilizer Use 9. Mining

10. Population Increase

9.6

1 - F, 2 - C, 3 - A, 5 - E, 7 - B, 8-D

Key to True or False questions:

A) F (honey),

B) T,

C) F (it doesnt state that Greenpeace petitioned the EU),

D) F (green coffee)

E) T

F) F (people adopting homeless dogs)

9.7

1) A 2) B 3) D 4) D 5) B

GOJO (L) - Transcript

PR news recently hosted its annual CSR luncheon at the National Press Building in Washington DC.
The awards program celebrated the best in corporate social responsibility programs and the
communications that power such programs. During the festivities PR News spoke with several senior-
level PR executives about the growing influence of CSR and how it helps companies to strengthen
their message, including Nicole Koharik, global sustainability marketing director of GOJO.

[What role does CSR play in GOJOs communications efforts?]

292
Well, the GOJO purpose is saving lives and making life better through well-being solutions, so CSR
and social sustainability especially is a very integral part of our business strategy, as well as the way
we communicate in the marketplace. So its very important, driven by our purpose as well as the
emerging need for sustainability information from our customers.

[Has the importance of CSR increased in the last few years at GOJO?]

The importance of CSR at GOJO has definitely increased in the last few years, and there are three
factors that really are our driver. One is our purpose of saving lives and making life better through
well-being solutions, so were driven as a company to integrate CSR into our strategies. Two is the
rising market demand and our customer requests around sustainability and really caring about how
we can develop products that support their efforts; and three is think about the global need for
improved social conditions, so think about hand hygiene, and ... Its simple, but its hugely important,
in healthcare for example almost 98,000 people die every year from healthcare acquired infections
and we know hand hygiene can make a difference and really save lives.

[How does GOJO meld its CSR efforts to social media?]

Well, at GOJO we see CSR as an important part of our communication strategy, including our social
channels and were really kind of on a journey to increase the way we communicate and touch the
marketplace, so were looking at social initiatives through Facebook and online media, however,
were kind of in the early phases of that, so its definitely an important part of our strategy but we
havent quite figured it out yet.

9.8

1) E 2) H 3) A 4) J 5) I 6) C 7) B 8) D 9) G 10) F

9.9

1) F 2) C 3) G 4) J 5) A 6) B 7) H 8) D 9) E 10) I

A-4 B7 C1 D2 E8 F3 G5 H 10 I 6 J-9

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UNIT 10

10.1

Students own answers

10.2
1- Austrian 2-Belgian 3 -Bulgarian 4 -Croatian 5- Cyprian 6 -Czech
7 -Danish 8-Estonian 9- Finnish 10- French 11-German 12-Greek
13- Hungarian 14 - Irish 15 -Italian 16 -Latvian 17 -Lithuanian 18 -Luxembourger
19 -Maltese 20 -Dutch 21 -Polish 22 -Portuguese 23 -Romanian 24 -Slovakian
25 -Slovenian 26 -Spanish 27- Swedish 28-British

10.3

1. applicant 2. membership

3. regulations 4. conditions

5. legislation 6. submits

7. negotiations 8. candidate

9. supported 10. pre-accession

10.4

1. The European flag

2. The European anthem

3. Europe Day

4. The EU motto

10.5

1. D 2. C 3. B 4. A

10.6

294
1. C 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. D 7. C 8.C

10.7

Area Name of the EU Aims


Concerned Program
School Comenius 5% of schoolchildren in the EU will participate in the joint
education educational activities

Higher Erasmus 3 million students will be able to study at universities abroad


education

Vocational Leonardo da Vinci 80 000 people will be able to do traineeships in companies


training and training centers in other EU countries

Adult Gruntwig 7000 people every year will be able to carry out educational
education activities abroad

European Jean Monnet support for academic research and teaching in European
integration integration
studies

10.9

A. 4 B. 2 C. 5 D. 2 E. 1 F. 6 G. 3

10.10

1. D

2. G 3. B 4. F 5. A 6. E 7. C

10.14

A C D F G

11. What do we know about the size of the university?

..........one of the biggest universities in the Netherlands


295
12. On what is there a strong focus?

.strong focus on the city and international context

13. What education is Erasmus is about?

analyzing problems and finding solutions

14. What do they organize for students?

recruitment days, presentations, workshops, dinners and interviews

15. What IT facilities are mentioned?

.computers and printing facilities

16. What feeling does Erasmus give you?

gives the feeling that you are prepared for a great career

10.14

YouTube link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy1cef5abCQ

The first thing that comes to my mind when I think of Erasmus University: rising to higher standards
and achieving new goals. I think its one of the biggest universities in the Netherlands. It has strong
international fields. Ive been abroad several times and I can honestly say that Erasmus is one of the
best in the world. We have produced a lot of big names, a strong focus on the city and the
international context. Erasmus has this policy which combines the more theoretical aspects and
offers opportunity to apply them on things in daily life. Memorizing books is not learning. Education
at Erasmus is all about analyzing problems and finding solutions. The ranking of the university is kind
of important. And before I chose this university I looked up the world rank and said well its quite
high. When I first came here I noticed straight away that everything is so well organized. We
296
organized the Erasmus recruitment days so that orientations, workshops, and interviews will get
students into international companies. We are the biggest in the Benelux countries and companies
enjoy coming here. This is really important for Shell. Its a great opportunity to get into contact with
really talented students; and we wouldnt want to miss that. There is a lot to do for students which
means that there are student associations; there are a lot of social things. This is my study, of course
but you can also do sports, make friends, drink coffee and have lunch. Theres a bar too so you can
even have a beer. When the weathers nice you see people sitting outside enjoying the sun; chatting,
studying. There are computers and printing facilities everywhere. There are loads to do here. I feel
right at home at Erasmus. This is my university. Erasmus gives you the feeling that youre being
prepared for a great career. So, youre not just having education but youre working on your future

B, C, E, F, J

1. doubts, 2. costs, 3. tuition, 4. counselors, 5. determine , 6. academic, 7. career, 8. course, 9.


Campus, 10.available, 11. concerns, 12. visas, 13. partnerships, 14. destination, 15. Smuggle

297
List of Videos

Unit 1

1.4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxbIJH4fTYo

1.7 -

1.9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc

Unit2

2.3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MFr2cC3erk

2.15 www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSylCmes5dw

Unit 3

3.6 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zNyVPsj8zc

Unit 4

4.8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywaV5NRkFik

Unit 5

5.9 : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBGEknzJu_Q

5.10 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqnF-4V4j24

Unit 6

6.8 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17477469

6.10 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

298
6.12 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003sl42

Unit 7

7.16 http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/nicework/nicework_20041130.shtml

Unit 8 -

Unit 9 -

9.4 http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/basics/today/greenhouse-effect.html

9.7 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0tsmCTSuA0&list=PLK9V3lQzn0ONJHtU3FH-
Qoop734Xu2Jzm

Unit 10
10.9 10.10 European Parliament Video

10.14 : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fy1cef5abCQ

10.15 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5dgTSbNB6Y

299