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Training Manual

A 319/320/321

ATA 34
Navigation
Radio Navigation

Level 3

Lufthansa Issue: August 2001


Technical Training GmbH For Training Purposes Only
Book No: A320 34-36 L3 Lufthansa Base Lufthansa 1995
For training purpose and internal use only.
Copyright by Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH.
All rights reserved. No parts of this training
manual may be sold or reproduced in any form
without permission of:

Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH

Lufthansa Base Frankfurt


D-60546 Frankfurt/Main
Tel. +49 69 / 696 41 78
Fax +49 69 / 696 63 84

Lufthansa Base Hamburg


Weg beim Jger 193
D-22335 Hamburg
Tel. +49 40 / 5070 24 13
Fax +49 40 / 5070 47 46
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321

ATA 34 NAVIGATION
Radio Navigation
For Training Purposes Only

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36
Antenna
34-36 ILS-SYSTEM The GlideSlope (G/S) and Localizer (LOC) antennas are common to both re-
ceivers. Each antenna has two independent connectors, used to feed the two
DESCRIPTION ILS receivers.

General Inputs
The Instrument Landing system allows the aircraft to follow an optimum de- The ILS TUNE/TEST INHIBIT discrete from the associated FMGC is used to
scent axis in order to perform safe landing with poor visibility conditions. lock the last used frequency and to inhibit the test of the receiver during ap-
proach phase below 700 ft.
The A320 uses two independent ILS systems.
Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the ILS receiver for internal BITE pur-
The localizer operates in a frequency band which ranges from 108 MHz to
111.95 MHz. The glide operates in a frequency band which ranges from 328.6 poses.
MHz to 335.4 MHz. Indication
Tuning All DMCs receive ILS data from both receivers such as LOC/GS deviation, ILS
S Auto Tuning frequency, course (Runway Heading) and ILS identifier. ILS 1 data is shown on
Capts PFD and F/Os ND, ILS 2 data on F/Os PFD and Capts ND.
In normal operation the ILS receiver 1 (2) is automatically tuned by the on-
side FMGC 1 (2) through the associated RMP 1 (2). In this case, the RMP Audio
is only used to transmit the frequency and course information from the The ILS audio signal is processed by the receiver and sent to the AMU and can
FMGCs to the frequency input port A of the receiver. be heard by the crew on headphones or cockpit loudspeaker.
S Manual Tuning
Users
Frequency and course data can by manually entered on the RAD/NAV page
of the MCDUs. The FMGCs sent this information to the receivers in the The FWCs receive ILS data in order to create ILS warnings on the ECAM in
same way like the auto-tuning mode. case of ILS failure and to create the ILS deviation warning.
S FM Switching The GPWC uses die GS deviation of ILS 1 to create the Below GS-Warning
(Mode 5).
If a FMGC fails, a discrete is sent to the receiver (via the RMP) to activate
the frequency input port B. This port receives information direct from the The FMGCs get ILS data for navigation purpose during various flight phases.
opposite FMGC. In this case, one FMGC tunes both ILS receivers. The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the ILS
S NAV Back Up Tuning receivers (tests only available on ground).
For Training Purposes Only

If both FMGC fail, each ILS receiver must be tuned directly from the onside Warnings and Flags
RMP. To do so, press the NAV and the ILS pushbuttons on both RMPs. The
A faulty ILS system results in the following cockpit effects:
RMP now uses manually entered data and not the data coming from the
FMGC. A discrete selects the frequency input port A, which is directly sup- S Flags on PFD and ND
plied from the associated RMP. A second discrete inhibits the data display S Master Caution Lights on the glareshield
on the RAD/NAV Page of the MCDUs to indicate that no FMGC tuning is S Aural Warning (Single Chime)
possible. To avoid different ILS data on the two receivers, the ILS data is
S NAV ILS 1 (2,1+2) FAULT on the upper ECAM display.
exchanged between the RMPs if both RMP are in NAV back up mode.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

ILS 1 DATA ILS 2 DATA ILS 1 DATA ILS 2 DATA


For Training Purposes Only

Figure 1 ILS System Schematic


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

INDICATION
Normal Indication on PFD Flags or NCD Indication on PFD
If the ILS pushbutton is pressed and a ILS frequency is sent to the receiver If the ILS pushbutton is pressed and the ILS receiver fails (LOC or GS) a red
(flight plane insertion on auto tuning, MCDU or RMP insertion on manual tun- ILS message is displayed instead of ILS information in the left bottom corner.
ing), the white ILS deviation scales appear. Frequency and identifier disappear.
The magenta deviation indexes appear, when the Localizer or Glide Slope sig- With LOC failure, a red LOC flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
nals are valid. When the deviation is out of range, the index is against one stop the middle of the LOC scale and the LOC deviation bar goes out of view. With
and only its outer half remains in view. The scale and the index flash, when the LOC data not available (NCD), the LOC deviation index goes out of view.
deviation is excessive (ILS deviation warning). With G/S failure, a red G/S flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
The magenta course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course against the head- the middle of the G/S scale and the G/S deviation bar goes out of view. With
ing scale. When the course is out of range, the numeric value is shown on the G/S data not available (NCD), the G/S deviation index goes out of view.
left or right corner of the heading scale. If course input is not available (fail or NCD), the course cursor disappears.
The magenta ILS Information shows: The last use frequency will be locked, if the frequency information becomes
S ILS identifier, if decoded by the ILS receiver. NCD or fail.
S ILS frequency
S ILS DME distance, if there is a ILS/DME.
For Training Purposes Only

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

G/S Scale
G/S Flag
G/S Dev. Index

LOC Scale

LOC Dev. Index


For Training Purposes Only

ILS Characteristics Runway Heading ILS Flag LOC Flag

Figure 2 ILS Indication on PFD


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36
Normal Indication on ND Flags and NCD Indication on ND
S ND in Rose ILS Mode If the ILS receiver faILS (LOC or GS) a red ILS message is displayed instead
The white ILS deviation scales appear. of ILS Information in the right top corner. Frequency and identifier disappear.
The magenta course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course (runway head- With LOC failure, a red LOC flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
ing) against the heading scale. the middle of the LOC scale and the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
With LOC data not available (NCD), the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
The magenta LOC deviation bar appears, when the Localizer signal is valid.
It moves perpendicular to the course cursor. When the deviation is out of With G/S failure, a red G/S flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
range, the bar moves against one stop. The scale and the bar flash, when the middle of the G/S scale and the G/S deviation bar goes out of view.
the deviation is excessive (ILS deviation warning). With G/S data not available (NCD), the G/S deviation index goes out of view.
The magenta G/S deviation index appear, when the glide slope signal is If the course input fails, a vertical red dagger and a red course flags (CRS
valid. When the deviation is out of range, the index moves against one stop XXX) is shown. If the course information is NCD, a course of 0_is displayed
and only its outer half remains in view.. The scale and the index flash, when and the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
the deviation is excessive (ILS deviation warning). The last use frequency will be locked, if the frequency information becomes
The magenta ILS information shows: NCD or fail.
- ILS system and frequency
- ILS course
- ILS identifier, if decoded by the ILS receiver.
S ND in Rose NAV or ARC Mode
If the ILS pushbutton on the EFIS control panel is pressed, the magenta
course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course (runway heading) against the
heading scale.
For Training Purposes Only

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

ILS Information Dagger


Dagger ILS Flag Course Flag

LOC Scale and G/S Scale and LOC Flag


G/S Flag
Dev.-Bar Dev.-Index
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 3 ILS Indication on ND


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

MANUAL TUNING OF ILS, VOR/DME, ADF


MCDU-T uning S ADF-TUNING
A frequency selection is done at the RAD/NAV page via the Alpha-Numeric same as VOR-Tuning.
Keys on the MCDU. To clear a selection, press the CLEAR key (CLR is written After selection of a new ADF frequency, in the lower left or right corner (LSK
in the scratchpad) and press the LSK associated to the system data you want 6L or 6R ) a ADF 1 or 2 BFO prompt appears. Press the LSK to activate
to clear. this function. To cancel this function, enter a new frequency or use the
S ILS-TUNING CLEAR function key on the MCDU.
On the RAD/NAV page it is possible to enter a ILS identifier or a frequency Manual tuned station will be displayed:
and a course. The course will be automatically cleared, if a new ILS station S on MCDU screen in large fonts
is entered.
S on PFD with mode of tuning field shows M.
- After insertion of a new identifier, the FMGEC uses the NAV DATA BASE
to search for the new frequency and sent it to the receiver. If the identi- RMP Tuning (Radio Navigation Back Up Mode)
fier is not in DATA BASE, the NEW NAV AID page is shown. The RMPs can be used to tune the radio navigation systems:
- After insertion of a new frequency, the FMGEC uses the NAV DATA - RMP 1 for VOR 1, DME 1, ILS 1 and ADF 1
BASE to search for the new identifier to display the data on the MCDU
- RMP 2 for VOR 2, DME 2, ILS 2 and ADF 2
screen. If the identifier is not in DATA BASE, the message NOT IN DATA
BASE is shown in the scratchpad and the identifier field is empty. To do so, the guarded NAV pushbutton must be pressed to switch the RMP in
the radio navigation back up mode (green NAV LED on). All navigation systems
If a flight plan is entered, the system compares this frequency :
associated to that RMP now uses the last stored RMP NAV frequencies.
- on preflight: with the ILS frequency of the Origin-Airport
After selection of the NAV system via the pushbuttons, a new frequency and a
- after preflight: with the ILS frequency of the Destination-Airport new course can be entered by using rotary knob and the transfer switch.
If there is no difference, the identifier and the frequency are displayed in If both RMPs are in navigation back up mode, the ILS frequency and course
cyan (identifier in small fonts, frequency in large fonts). are exchanged between both RMPs to avoid different ILS settings to the ILS
If there is a difference and the frequency is found in the DATA BASE, the receivers.
frequency is displayed in cyan and the message RWY/ILS MISMATCH is
shown in the scratchpad.
S VOR-TUNING
For Training Purposes Only

On the RAD/NAV page it is possible to enter a Station identifier or a fre-


quency and a course. The course will be automatically cleared, if a new sta-
tion is entered.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 4 ILS-, VOR/DME-, ADF- Manuell Tuning by MCDU, RMP


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


ECAM WARNING
The different BITE menu selections are:
In case of ILS 1 (2) failure, the ILS waring message NAV ILS 1 (2) FAULT is
shown on the upper ECAM display, the MASTER CAUTION comes on and the S LAST LEG REPORT
single chime sounds. S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the System and transfered to the CFDS causes the follo-
wing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
ILS 1(2) :
S NO DATA FROM CONTROL SOURCE
There is no correct frequency data input on the active input port of the ILS
receiver.
S RECEIVER
The ILS receiver is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
For Training Purposes Only

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
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Capt Capt F/O F/O


PFD ND ECAM ND PFD

Warning

EFIS System

LOC
Antenna


GS
Antenna
other Systems
FMGC 1,2


other Systems


FWC 1,2 FMGC 1,2
ILS 1 ILS 2 FWC 1,2


GPWS

AMU (Audio)
AMU (Audio)

CFDS
For Training Purposes Only

RMP 1 RMP 2

FMGC 1 FMGC 2


CFDS monitored

Figure 5 ILS BITE Schematic


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 6 ILS CFDS BITE Menu


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 7 ILS CDFS BITE Test


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

BITE TEST INDICATION


For Training Purposes Only

FRA US/E MK 6.12.95 Page: 14


Lufthansa Technical Training GS scale
NAVIGATIONand index A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

1 GS scale and index (white and magenta)

2 LOC scale and index (white and magenta)


1
3 ILS data (magenta)

5
4 LOC flag (red)

5 G/S flag (red)

6 ILS flag (red)


4 2
6 3

6 3

5 2
4
For Training Purposes Only

EFIS mode selector

ILS pushbutton

Figure 8 ILS BITE Indication on PFD and ND


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated by pushing the TEST pushbutton switch
on the face of the receiver, if the test inhibit discrete is not active.
During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs on the face of the receiver are on.
During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs go off.
During the last 6 seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released) the
green ILS LED is on (except if a fault has been detected during the test).
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
S ILS (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected
S ILS (green) indicates that no internal fault is detected
S DATA IN (red) indicates that no control input is available (frequency).
However, FMGC sends a discrete to inhibit this test during approach phase
below 700 feet.
For Training Purposes Only

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
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ILS
green

red
DATA IN
red

TEST
For Training Purposes Only

ILS RECEIVER

Figure 9 ILS Front Panel Test


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36

LOCATION

lLS Receiver
For Training Purposes Only

GLIDE/SLOPE ANTENNA LOCALIZER ANTENNA

Figure 10 ILS Location Receiver and Antenna


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INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 11 ILS Location Control and Indication


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36

34-36 ILS (MULTI MODE RECEIVER)


DESCRIPTION
General
The primary function of the Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR) is The ILS data are shown on the EFIS displays:
to receive and process Instrument Landing System (ILS) and S the CAPT PFD and F/O ND show the deviations from the ILS1.
Global Positioning System (GPS) signals.
S the F/O PFD and CAPT ND show the deviations from the ILS2.
The A/C comprises two independent MMRs, linked to:
The Morse-coded audio identification signals are sent to the
S a common glide/slope antenna Audio Management Unit (AMU).
S a GPS active antenna, linked to MMR1
GPS Operation
S a GPS active antenna, linked to MMR2.
In normal operation, the GPS 1 data are used by the ADIRUs 1 and 3;
The MMR is a navigation sensor with two internal receivers:
the GPS 2 data by the ADIRU 2.
S ILS Receiver
NOTE: IN ORDER TO REDUCE GPS INITIALIZATION TIME,
The function of the ILS is to provide the crew and airborne system users
THE GPS 1(2) RECEIVES DATA FROM THE ADIRU 1(2).
with lateral (LOC) and vertical (G/S) deviation signals, with respect to the
approach ILS radio beam transmitted by a ground station. The IR portion of the ADIRU 1(2) provides the FMGC 1(2) with:
The localizer operates in a frequency band which ranges from 108.1 MHz to S pure IR data
111.95 MHz and the glide uses the band from 329.15 MHz to 335 MHz. S pure GPS data (in this case the ADIRU operates as a relay)
S GPS Receiver The pure GPS data are used for display on the MCDU 1 and 2.
The GPS is a radio aid to worldwide navigation which provides: S hybrid GPIR data. The hybrid GPIR 1(2) data are used by the FMGC 1(2)
- the crew with a readout of accurate navigation information, e.g. position, for position fixing purposes.
track and speed. In case of one GPS failure, the three ADIRUs automatically select
- the Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC) with position the only operative GPS to compute hybrid GPIR data.
information, after hybridization in the Air Data/Inertial Reference Unit In case of ADIRU 1 failure, the FMGC 1 uses ADIRU 3 / GPS 1 data.
(ADIRU) with inertial parameters, for accurate position fixing. In case of ADIRU 2 failure, the FMGC 2 uses ADIRU 3 / GPS 2 data.
For Training Purposes Only

ILS Operation NOTE: THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF THE ADIRU 3 BEING THE GPS 1,
The equipment given below can control the ILS operation: IT IS NECESSARY TO SELECT THE SECONDARY INPUT PORT
OF THE ADIRU 3 (GPS 2) BY MEANS OF THE ATT HDG
S the Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDU) and
SELECTOR SWITCH TO PRESERVE SIDE 1 / SIDE 2
the Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC) for frequency/
SEGREGATION (GPS 1 / ADIRU 1 / FMGC 1 AND
course selection in normal operating mode.
GPS 2 / ADIRU 3 / FMGC 2 ARCHITECTURE).
S the Radio Management Panels (RMPs) for frequency/course selection in
In case of failure of two ADIRUs, the two FMGCs use only the operative
back-up mode.
ADIRU.
This ADIRU receives data from its own side GPS (e.g. ADIRU 1 - GPS 1).

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MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 12 MMR Data Acquisition


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36
Maintenance Operation
The MMR system provides the Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit
(CFDIU) with an interface for onboard testing and fault reporting purposes.
The MCDUs show the maintenance data.

Power Supply
Each system is energized through 115VAC busbars as follows:
S 401XP for system 1
S 204XP for system 2.
The system is supplied through these circuit breakers:
49VU COM NAV/MMR/1
121VU COM NAV/MMR/2
For Training Purposes Only

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 13 MMR Monitoring and Display


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36

ILS FUNCTION
Normal operation Reconfiguration switching
Each MMR is connected to one Radio Management Panel (RMP). In normal utilization, the ILS 1 data are shown on the CAPT PFD and the F/O
The MMR 1 is connected to the RMP 1 (the MMR 2 to the RMP 2). ND; the ILS 2 data on the F/O PFD and the CAPT ND.
The MMR 1 receives management bus from the FMGC 1 through the RMP 1 The DMC 1 supplies data to the CAPT PFD and ND; the DMC 2 to the F/O
(the MMR 2 from the FMGC 2 through the RMP 2). PFD and ND.
In normal operation, the FMGC 1(2) tunes the MMR 1(2) either automatically With failure of the DMC 1(2) it is possible to switch over to the DMC 3 with the
or manually by means of the MCDU. EIS DMC selector switch located on the center pedestal.
In this case the RMP 1(2) operates as a relay which sends the frequency In this case, the DMC 3 totally replaces the DMC 1(2) through the stage of the
information from the FMGC 1(2) to the receiver 1(2). output switching relay of the failed DMC.
Via a second port, the MMR 1(2) receives a second management bus With failure of the PFD, there is an automatic transfer of the PFD image onto
(ILS FREQ + RWY HDG) directly from the FMGC 2(1). the ND.
The receiver selects one of the two input ports according to With failure of the CAPT (F/O) ND, you obtain the transfer of the ND image
the FREQ / FUNCT DATA SOURCE SEL discrete signal, which is received onto the CAPT (F/O) PFD when you push the PFD/ND XFR pushbutton switch.
from the FMGC 1(2) through the RMP 1(2). When you set the PFD potentiometer to OFF this causes:
S deactivation of the CAPT (F/O) PFD
Operation in case of failure
S transfer of the PFD image onto the CAPT (F/O) ND.
With failure of one FMGC, the second FMGC, can control the two MMRs,
the off side directly, the on side through its RMP. Audio control
With failure of the RMP 1(2) or two RMPs, the RMP concerned is transparent The MMR applies its audio output to the audio integrating system.
to data and discrete from FMGC. This system controls and directs the output to the headsets and / or
the loudspeakers.
Manual operation
The Audio Management Unit (AMU) controls the audio level through the ACP.
In manual operation (at any time, or with failure of two FMGCs) On the ACP, the pilot must push the ILS pushbutton switch and adjust
the RMP 1 can control the MMR 1 after ON NAV mode selection. the related potentiometer to the correct audio level.
Same possibility for the RMP 2 (MMR 2).
With ILS / DME collocated stations, the DME identification morse code can be
In this mode the RMP 1 can control the MMR 2 through the RMP 2 after
listened in sequence with the ILS audio signal when you push the ILS pushbut-
ON NAV mode selection on the RMP 2.
ton switch on the ACP and the ILS pushbutton switch on the FCU.
For Training Purposes Only

Same possibility for RMP 2 through RMP 1.


After any frequency selection it is always necessary to select the associated
course.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 14 MMR ILS Operation


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MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
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MANUAL TUNING OF ILS


MCDU-T uning RMP Tuning (Radio Navigation Back Up Mode)
A frequency selection is done at the RAD/NAV page via the Alpha-Numeric The RMPs can be used to tune the radio navigation systems:
Keys on the MCDU. To clear a selection, press the CLEAR key - RMP 1 for VOR 1, DME 1, ILS 1 and ADF 1
(CLR is written in the scratchpad) and press the LSK associated to the system
- RMP 2 for VOR 2, DME 2, ILS 2 and ADF 2
data you want to clear.
To do so, the guarded NAV pushbutton must be pressed to switch the RMP
S ILS-TUNING
in the radio navigation back up mode (green NAV LED on).
On the RAD/NAV page it is possible to enter a ILS identifier or a frequency All navigation systems associated to that RMP now uses the last stored RMP
and a course. The course will be automatically cleared, if a new ILS station NAV frequencies.
is entered.
After selection of the NAV system via the pushbuttons, a new frequency and a
- After insertion of a new identifier, the FMGEC uses the NAV DATA BASE new course can be entered by using rotary knob and the transfer switch.
to search for the new frequency and sent it to the receiver.
If both RMPs are in navigation back up mode, the ILS frequency and course
If the identifier is not in DATA BASE, the NEW NAV AID page is shown.
are exchanged between both RMPs to avoid different ILS settings to the ILS
- After insertion of a new frequency, the FMGEC uses the NAV DATA receivers.
BASE to search for the new identifier to display the data on the MCDU
screen.
If the identifier is not in DATA BASE, the message NOT IN DATA BASE
is shown in the scratchpad and the identifier field is empty.
If a flight plan is entered, the system compares this frequency :
- on preflight: with the ILS frequency of the Origin-Airport
- after preflight: with the ILS frequency of the Destination-Airport
If there is no difference, the identifier and the frequency are displayed in
cyan (identifier in small fonts, frequency in large fonts).
If there is a difference and the frequency is found in the DATA BASE, the
frequency is displayed in cyan and the message RWY/ILS MISMATCH is
shown in the scratchpad.
For Training Purposes Only

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MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 15 ILS Manual Tuning with MCDU, RMP


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MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
34-36

ILS INDICATION
Normal Indication on PFD Flags or NCD Indication on PFD
If the ILS pushbutton is pressed and a ILS frequency is sent to the receiver If the ILS pushbutton is pressed and the ILS receiver fails (LOC or GS) a red
(flight plane insertion on auto tuning, MCDU or RMP insertion on manual ILS message is displayed instead of ILS information in the left bottom corner.
tuning), the white ILS deviation scales appear. Frequency and identifier disappear.
The magenta deviation indexes appear, when the Localizer or Glide Slope With LOC failure, a red LOC flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
signals are valid. the middle of the LOC scale and the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
When the deviation is out of range, the index is against one stop and only its With LOC data not available (NCD), the LOC deviation index goes out of view.
outer half remains in view. With G/S failure, a red G/S flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
The scale and the index flash, when the deviation is excessive the middle of the G/S scale and the G/S deviation bar goes out of view.
(ILS deviation warning). With G/S data not available (NCD), the G/S deviation index goes out of view.
The magenta course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course against the head- If course input is not available (fail or NCD), the course cursor disappears.
ing scale.
The last use frequency will be locked, if the frequency information becomes
When the course is out of range, the numeric value is shown on the left or right NCD or fail.
corner of the heading scale.
The magenta ILS Information shows:
S ILS identifier, if decoded by the ILS receiver.
S ILS frequency
S ILS DME distance, if there is a ILS/DME.
For Training Purposes Only

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G/S Scale
G/S Flag
G/S Dev. Index

LOC Scale

LOC Dev. Index


For Training Purposes Only

ILS Characteristics Runway Heading ILS Flag LOC Flag

Figure 16 ILS Indication on PFD


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Normal Indication on ND Flags and NCD Indication on ND
S ND in Rose ILS Mode If the ILS receiver faILS (LOC or GS) a red ILS message is displayed instead
The white ILS deviation scales appear. of ILS Information in the right top corner. Frequency and identifier disappear.
The magenta course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course With LOC failure, a red LOC flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
(runway heading) against the heading scale. the middle of the LOC scale and the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
The magenta LOC deviation bar appears, when the Localizer signal is valid. With LOC data not available (NCD), the LOC deviation bar goes out of view.
It moves perpendicular to the course cursor. With G/S failure, a red G/S flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes into view in
When the deviation is out of range, the bar moves against one stop. the middle of the G/S scale and the G/S deviation bar goes out of view.
The scale and the bar flash, when the deviation is excessive With G/S data not available (NCD), the G/S deviation index goes out of view.
(ILS deviation warning). If the course input fails, a vertical red dagger and a red course flags
The magenta G/S deviation index appear, when the glide slope signal is (CRS XXX) is shown.
valid. If the course information is NCD, a course of 0_is displayed and the LOC devi-
When the deviation is out of range, the index moves against one stop and ation bar goes out of view.
only its outer half remains in view. The last use frequency will be locked, if the frequency information becomes
The scale and the index flash, when the deviation is excessive NCD or fail.
(ILS deviation warning).
The magenta ILS information shows:
- ILS system and frequency
- ILS course
- ILS identifier, if decoded by the ILS receiver.
S ND in Rose NAV or ARC Mode
If the ILS pushbutton on the EFIS control panel is pressed, the magenta
course cursor or dagger shows the ILS course (runway heading) against the
heading scale.
For Training Purposes Only

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ILS Information Dagger


Dagger ILS Flag Course Flag

LOC Scale and G/S Scale and LOC Flag


G/S Flag
Dev.-Bar Dev.-Index
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 17 ILS Indication on ND


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GPS FUNCTION
Normal operation The FMS mode of navigation is selected according to the following hierarchy:
To reduce initialization time, the MMR 1(2) receives position data, LAT/LONG S GPIR/Inertial
from the ADIRU 1(2) and SET LAT, SET LONG UTC/Date from the FMGC 1(2) S DME/DME/Inertial
through the ADIRU 1(2).
S DME/VOR/Inertial
Each MMR receives the GPS satellite RF signals from the active antenna to
S Inertial only.
compute and provide the three ADIRUs with:
The GPIR/INERTIAL mode is selected as long as the following conditions are
S UTC, date
satisfied:
S position, altitude
S GPIR position is available and with an estimated accuracy consistent with
S ground speed, track angle the intended operation.
S N/S speed, E/W speed, vertical speed S GPIR integrity is available and compatible with the applicable phase of flight
S horizontal and vertical dilution of precision, figure of merit requirement.
S satellite position As long as the GPS/INERTIAL mode is active, no DME/DME or VOR/DME
S satellite measurement (pseudo-range, delta range, range rate, radio updating is allowed.
UTC measurement time) However, LOC updating can apply to GPS/INERTIAL position. In this naviga-
tion mode, N IR/GPS indication is displayed on the POSITION MONITOR page
S GPS measurement status, sensor status
with N being the number of IRs used to compute mixed IR position.
S real time and predictive integrity data.
The selected hybrid GPIRS position is displayed on the POSITION MONITOR
Within each ADIRU an hybridization function performs the following: page in place of the radio position.
S monitoring of the MMR using GPS status word and ADIRU BITE The mixed IR position and the IR deviations displayed on the POSITION
S generation of failure message for ECAM display MONITOR page do not change and are still computed using pure IR inputs.
S use of pseudo-range/delta range data to compute GPS position Aircraft position is generated by a series of filters which use inertial position,
GPIR position or radio position, and aircraft velocity as input.
S use of inertial data to smooth GPS position/velocity
A position bias is computed once every second through the position bias filter.
S use of a Kalman filter to estimate and minimize errors This position bias is computed as the difference between the GPIR position
S use of IR data to improve the robustness of the MMR RAIM algorithm. (or radio position) and the inertial position.
S transmission of GPS and GPIR data to the FMGC for position fixing The aircraft position is finally computed every 200 ms based on the corrected
For Training Purposes Only

and display purposes. inertial position and the aircraft velocity using the aircraft position filter.
The GPS/INERTIAL mode can be manually inhibited by pushing the line key
GPS primary navigation function principle in the FMGC adjacent to the DESELECT GPS indication on the SELECTED NAVAIDS page.
A navigation mode with the least error is chosen based upon the mixed IR posi- FMGC computed integrity:
tion and the best GPIR or radio position available. When the GPIR position is available in the FMGC but the GPIR integrity is not
NOTE: THE GPIR POSITION USED BY THE FMGC TO DETERMINE THE delivered by the ADIRS, the FMGC is capable of computing an equivalent
AIRCRAFT POSITION IS COMPUTED IN THE GPIR PARTITION integrity called AIM (Alternate Integrity Monitoring), using IR data, during
OF THE ADIRU (HYBRID SOLUTION). a limited period of time. The goal of this FMGC functionality is to improve the
availability of the GPS Primary function in the cockpit.

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 18 MMR GPS Operation


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DISPLAY OF GPS DATA ON MCDU


GPS MONITOR Progress page
The GPS data are displayed on the GPS MONITOR page of the MCDU. The progress page indicates whether the GPS is used by the FMGC for
To get the GPS MONITOR page, push the DATA key on the MCDU, navigation.
then the line key adjacent to the GPS MONITOR indication. If it is used, the GPS PRIMARY indication is displayed.
If it is not used, the GPS PRIMARY LOST message is shown.
The upper part is dedicated to GPS 1 data, the lower part to GPS 2 data.
The following data are displayed: MCDU scratchpad
S GPS position (lat/long) GPS PRIMARY in white or GPS PRIMARY LOST in amber show on the MCDU
S true track scratchpad.
S GPS altitude SELECTED NAVAIDS page
S figure of merit (in meters) It is possible to select GPS for navigation computation within the FMS on the
S ground speed SELECTED NAVAIDS page.
S number of satellites tracked If you deselected GPS, the message GPS IS DESELECTED appears on the
S mode. MCDU when a GPS approach starts.

PREDICTIVE GPS ARRIVAL page


The integrity prediction results given by the GPS portion of the MMR on Flight To select a GPS approach, use the ARRIVAL page.
Management System (FMS) request are displayed on the PREDICTIVE GPS
page of the MCDU (from the progress page which displays required navigation
accuracy and estimated position accuracy and GPS PRIMARY indication).
The prediction concerns the destination (DEST) and any pilot entered waypoint
(WPT) and the integrity availability (HIL < 0.3 Nm) is displayed by Yes (Y) or
No (N) for the seven times defined by the five minutes increments for plus or
minus 15 minutes around DEST or WPT.
For Training Purposes Only

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 19 GPS Data on MCDU


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DISPLAY OF GPS MESSAGES ON ND WARNING


GPS PRIMARY LOST amber message GPS failure
This message is displayed at the bottom of the image in all the ND modes The GPSs are monitored by the both FWCs using a status word sent by each
when the GPS primary is lost (this message cannot be cleared from the GPS.
MCDU). In case of GPS failure, the NAV GPS 1(2) FAULT message is displayed in the
In this case, the GPS is not used for navigation (accuracy and integrity for the lower part of the upper ECAM DU.
intended operation can still be met by the use of alternate navigation means). This message is accompanied by:
Display of GPS PRIMARY white message S activation of the MASTER CAUT lights on the glareshield
This message is displayed at the bottom of the image in all the ND modes S aural warning: Single Chime (SC).
when the GPS becomes primary (this message can be cleared from the NOTE: THE FAILURE IS REMINDED ON THE INOP SYSTEM PAGE OF
MCDU). THE LOWER ECAM DU. THE MESSAGE DISPLAYED IS GPS 1(2).
Display of GPS APP green message Loss of the GPS primary navigation
This approach message is displayed at the top of the image in all the ND When the GPS navigation is lost for any reason, the navigation function is
modes when a GPS approach is selected in the flight plan. degraded and reverts to the traditional navigation function with IRS positions
and radio positions if available (in this case the RNP (Required Navigation
Performance) features are still available).
Warnings are generated to indicate the loss of GPS PRIMARY navigation:
S GPS PRIMARY LOST message on the NDs (cannot be cleared) and MCDU
(can be cleared)
S in case of GPS non-precision approach, an aural alert is generated
(Triple Click)

GPS/FMS position disagreement


When GPS Primary is active and either FMGC 1 or FMGC 2 latitude
(longitude) deviates from either MMR 1 or MMR 2 latitude (longitude) by more
than 0.5 Nm, the NAV FMS/GPS POS DISAGREE and
For Training Purposes Only

A/C POS...........CHECK messages are displayed in amber


and cyan respectively on the ECAM DU.
These messages are accompanied by:
S activation of the MASTER CAUT lights on the glareshield
S aural warning: Single Chime (SC).

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 20 GPS Messages on ND


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BITE MENU
CFDIU Interface
BITE description Menu mode
The BITE facilitates maintenance on in-service aircraft. The menu mode can only be activated on the ground.
It detects and identifies a failure related to the MMR. This mode enables communication between the CFDIU and the MMR BITE by
The BITE of the MMR receiver is connected to the CFDIU. means of the MCDU.
The BITE: All the information displayed on the MCDU during the BITE Test configuration
can be printed by the printer.
S transmits permanently MMR status and its identification message
to the CFDIU The MMR menu mode is composed of:
S memorizes the failures which occurred during the last 63 flight legs S LAST LEG REPORT
S monitors data inputs from the various peripherals This menu contains the fault messages (class 1 internal and external)
detected during the last flight.
S transmits to the CFDIU the result of the tests performed and selt-tests
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S can communicate with the CFDIU through the menus.
This report contains the fault messages related to the external or internal
The BITE can operate in two modes:
failures (class 1) recorded during the previous 63 flight legs.
- the normal mode
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
- the menu mode.
Allows to display the P/N, the S/N and the SW/N of the equipment.
Normal mode
S GND SCANNING
During the normal mode, the BITE monitors cyclically the status of the MMR. It
Based on the monitoring and fault analysis during flight,
transmits its information to the CFDIU during the concerned flight.
provides information of the failures detected while using this function.
In case of fault detection the BITE stores the information in the fault memories.
These items of information are transmitted to the CFDIU. S TROUBLE SHOOTING DATA
In case of ILS 1 (2) failure, the ILS waring message NAV ILS 1 (2) FAULT is Provides correlation parameters and snapshot data concerning the failure
shown on the lower part of the Engine/Warning Display, displayed in the LAST LEG REPORT and PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT.
the MASTER CAUTION comes on and the single chime sounds. S CLASS 3 FAULTS
In case of GPS failure, the NAV GPS 1(2) FAULT message is displayed in the Allows to display the class 3 faults recorded during the last flight leg.
For Training Purposes Only

lower part of the Engine/Warning Display (EWD). S SYSTEM TEST


This message is accompanied by:
Allows a check of the correct operation of the MMR interrogator.
- activation of the MASTER CAUT lights on the glareshield
S GROUND REPORT
- aural warning: Single Chime (SC).
Allows to present the class 1 or 3 internal failures detected on ground.
NOTE: THESE FAILURES ARE REMINDED ON THE INOP SYSTEM PAGE
OF THE SYSTEM DISPLAY (SD).
THE MESSAGE DISPLAYED IS ILS 1(2) / GPS 1(2).

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 21 MMR System Test (Fig. 1)


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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 22 MMR System Test (Fig. 2)


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MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR)
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1 GS scale and index (white and magenta)

2 LOC scale and index (white and magenta)


1
3 ILS data (magenta)

5
4 LOC flag (red)

5 G/S flag (red)

6 ILS flag (red)


4 2
6 3

6 3

1
ILS

5 2
4
For Training Purposes Only

ILS

EFIS mode selector

ILS pushbutton

Figure 23 MMR ILS BITE Indication on PFD and ND


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LOCATION
ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST
GPS Antenna
General
Two L-Band Antennas are mounted on the top of the fuselage,
The face of the MMR is fitted with a handle, two attaching parts, at the centerline, to receive signals from the GPS satellites.
a TEST pushbutton switch and four Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The GPS antenna is an active antenna with an integrated preamplifier
The four LEDs have the following name, color and function: and filter. It receives GPS signals at 1575.42 MHz and matches to a 50 -ohms
S TEST OK (green) indicates that no fault is detected during the initiated coaxial cable at the input to the MMR. The antenna has a right-hand circular
(by pushbutton switch or by MCDU) self-test or during the power-up test. polarized and omnidirectional radiation pattern.
S MMR FAULT (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected by the MMR The power supply of the preamplifier is provided by the MMR through
itself. the coaxial cable.
S BUS IN FAIL (red) indicates that no control input is available. NOTE: THE ANTENNA CONNECTORS HAVE A HOLE TO INSTALL
S TEST ANT (red) indicates that a failed antenna (or coaxial cable) A LOCKWIRE AND SAFETY THE COAXIAL CABLE.
is detected.
Localizer Antenna
The back of the MMR is equipped with one ARINC 600 size one connector,
The localizer antenna is an airborne antenna used to receive LOC signals in
which includes three plugs:
the 108-112MHz range. It is a folded half-loop type driven by capacitive
S Top Plug (TP): connection with the GPS antenna coupling. The antenna has two independent RF connectors used to feed two
S Middle Plug (MP): service interconnection independent ILS receivers. Connector separation is provided by a hybrid
S Bottom Plug (BP): connection with the power supply circuit, junction in the antenna.
and the LOC and G/S coaxial interconnections.
Glide Slope Antenna
The glide slope antenna is an airborne antenna used to receive GLIDE signals
in the 329-335MHz range. It is a folded half-loop type driven by capacitive
coupling. The antenna has two independent RF connectors used to feed two
independent ILS receivers. Connector separation is provided by a hybrid
junction in the antenna.
For Training Purposes Only

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 24 MMR Front Panel Test


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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 25 MMR Location


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GPS-Antenna
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 26 LOC and G/S Antenna


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VOR/MARKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
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34-55 VOR/MARKER
DESCRIPTION
General Inputs
The VOR (VHF Omni-Range) system is a medium range navigation aid, which Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the VOR receiver for internal BITE pur-
provides, when tuned to a station, the radial of the station the A/C is flying and poses.
the A/C angular deviation with respect to a selected course.
Indication
The A320 uses two independent VOR systems. Both VOR receivers are
equipped with a Marker module, but only VOR 1 Marker part is used. All DMCs receive VOR data from both receivers such as VOR bearing, fre-
quency, VOR course, VOR deviation and VOR identifier. Data of both systems
Tuning are shown on Capts and F/Os ND.
S Auto Tuning Only in ROSE VOR mode, the specific VOR 1 data (characteristics, course,
In normal operation the VOR receiver 1 (2) is automatically tuned by the deviation) is shown on Capts ND and specific VOR 2 data on F/Os ND..
onside FMGC 1 (2) through the associated RMP 1 (2). In this case, the All DMCs receive Marker data (OM, MM, AM) from VOR1 receiver to display it
RMP is only used to transmit the frequency and course information from the on both PFDs.
FMGCs to the frequency input port A of the receiver. The DDRMI receive VOR bearing from both VOR receivers to show the VOR
S Manual Tuning bearing.
Frequency and course data can by manually entered on the RAD/NAV page
Audio
of the MCDUs. The FMGCs sent this information to the receivers in the
same way like in then auto-tuning mode. The VOR/MKR audio signal is processed by the receiver ,sent to the AMU and
can be heard by the crew on headphones or cockpit loudspeaker.
S FM Switching
If a FMGC fails, a discrete is sent to the receiver (via the RMP) to activate Users
the frequency input port B. This port receives information direct from the The FMGCs receives the VOR Data for navigation purpose during various flight
opposite FMGC. In this case, one FMGC tunes both VOR receivers. phases.
S NAV Back Up Tuning The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
If both FMGC fail, each VOR receiver must be tuned directly from the on- VOR receivers (tests only available on ground).
side RMP. To do so, press the NAV and the VOR pushbutton on both
For Training Purposes Only

RMPs. The RMP now uses manually entered data and not the data coming Warnings and Flags
from the FMGC. A discrete reselects the frequency input port A, which is A faulty VOR system results in the following cockpit effects:
directly supplied from the associated RMP. A second discrete inhibits the S Flags on PFD and ND
data display on the RAD/NAV page of the MCDUs to indicate that no FMGC S Flags on DDRMI
tuning is possible.
Antenna
The VOR antenna is common to both receivers. The antenna has two indepen-
dent connectors, used to feed the two VOR receivers.
VOR1 receiver is connected to the Marker antenna.

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VOR/MARKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 27 VOR/MKR System Schematic


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VOR/MARKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55

INDICATION
Marker Indication on PFD Flags and NCD Indication on PFD
At the intersection of the LOC and G/S scale on the PFD the following Marker If the Marker part of the VOR receiver fails or NCD is sent, no Marker indica-
indication appears: tion is displayed.
S AWY (Airways Marker) in white or
S OM (Outer Marker) in cyan or
S MM (Middle Marker) in amber.
Marker audio signals are processed by the receiver and sent to the AMU.
For Training Purposes Only

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( )
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 28 Marker Indication on PFD


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VOR/MARKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55
Normal Indication on ND Flags and NCD Indication on ND
S ND in ROSE VOR Mode S ND in ROSE VOR Mode
The white VOR deviation scale appears. If the VOR receiver fails, a red VOR1 (2) flag (flashing 9s, then steady)
The cyan course cursor or dagger shows the preselected course PSC in comes into view instead of VOR deviation scale and VOR information and
relation to the heading rose. the deviation bar goes out of view.
The cyan deviation bar appears, when the VOR signal is valid. It moves per- In case of NCD, the VOR deviation bar goes out of view.
pendicular to the course cursor (1 dot = 5_). When the deviation is out of If the course input fails, a vertical red dagger and a red course flag (CRS
range, the bar moves against one stop. The arrow shows the direction to XXX) is shown .
the station (TO/FROM). If the course information is NCD, the course data shows dashes and the
The VOR information (white) shows: dagger and the VOR deviation bar goes out of view.
- VOR system and frequency If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the frequency data and the devi-
- VOR course (PSC) ation goes out of view.
- VOR identifier, when decoded by the VOR receiver S ND in ROSE VOR,ROSE ILS, ROSE NAV or ARC Mode and VOR/ADF
Selector in position VOR
- Tuning mode
If the VOR receiver fails, a red VOR1 (2) flag (flashing 9s, then steady)
S blank if autotuned
comes into view instead of VOR characterictics and the VOR bearing
S M for manual tuning via MCDU pointer goes out of view.
S R for manual tuning via RMP In case of NCD, the VOR bearing pointer goes out of view and on VOR
S ND in ROSE NAV or ARC Mode characteristics, the VOR identifier is replaced by the frequency.
When the VOR.D pushbutton on the EFIS control panel is pressed, all VOR/ If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the VOR bearing pointer goes
DME stations contained in the FMGECs NAV DATA BASE are displayed on out of view. Identifier and frequency data are sent by the DME interrogator.
the ND, depending on the selected range:
Normal Indication on DDRMI
O for DME + for VOR
The pointer shows VOR ground station bearing on the heading dial.
S ND in ROSE VOR, ROSE ILS, ROSE NAV or ARC Mode
When the VOR/ADF selector is switched to VOR and the VOR signal is Flags and NCD Indication on DDRMI
valid, the white VOR pointer appears and shows the bearing to the VOR If the VOR receiver fails, a red VOR flag comes into view and the bearing
station. The VOR station characteristics is displayed in the left or right lower pointer is driven in 3 oclock position.
For Training Purposes Only

corner of the ND and shows:


In case of NCD, the bearing pointer shows 3 oclock position.
- VOR system
- Pointer symbol
- VOR/DME frequency or identifier, if decoded by the VOR receiver
- Tuning mode

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34-55

VOR Deviation Bar


Dagger VOR Information VOR Flag Course Flag

VOR Characteristics VOR Pointer

VOR Flag
For Training Purposes Only

VOR Pointer
3 oclock

Figure 29 VOR/MKR Indication on ND and RMI


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34-55

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


The different BITE menu selections are:
S LAST LEG REPORT
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the System and transfered to the CFDS causes the follow-
ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
VOR 1(2):
S NO DATA FROM CONTROL SOURCE
There is no correct frequency data input on the active input port of the VOR
receiver.
S RECEIVER
The VOR receiver is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
For Training Purposes Only

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34-55

Capt Capt F/O F/O


PFD ND RMI ND PFD

EFIS System


VOR



Antenna





MKR
other Systems Antenna other Systems
FMGC 1,2

VOR/MKR 1

VOR/MKR 2 FMGC 1,2



AMU (Audio) AMU (Audio)

CFDS
For Training Purposes Only

RMP 1 RMP 2

FMGC 1 FMGC 2


CFDS monitored

Figure 30 VOR/MKR BITE Schematic


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1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 31 VOR/MKR CFDS BITE Menu


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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 32 VOR/MKR CFDS BITE Test


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55

BITE TEST INDICATION


For Training Purposes Only

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VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55

1 VOR Pointer (white)

2 VOR Course (Dagger) (cyan)

3 VOR Deviation (cyan) 6


4 MKR Indication

5 VOR Data (white) 1


1
6 VOR flag (red)

6 5

1
1
2
For Training Purposes Only

3
6
VOR/ADF Switches
EFIS mode selector
6 6 5 5

Figure 33 VOR/MKR BITE Indication on PFD, ND and RMI


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated in ground condition only by pushing the
TEST pushbutton switch on the face of the receiver.
S During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs on the face of the receiver are on.
S During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs go off.
S During the last 3 seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released)
the green VOR LED is on (except if a fault has been detected during the
test).
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
S VOR (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected of the VOR Receiver
S VOR (green) indicates that no internal fault is detected of the VOR Receiver
S MKR (red) indicates that a internal fault is detected of the MKR receiver
S DATA IN (red) indicates that no control input is available (frequency).
For Training Purposes Only

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VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 34 VOR/MKR Front Panel Test


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VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 35 VOR/MKR Location Receiver and Antenna


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VOR/MAKER SYSTEM (VOR/MKR)
34-55
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 36 VOR/MKR Location Control and Indication


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

34-51 DME
DESCRIPTION
General Antenna
The DME system is a radio aid for medium range navigation, which provides Each DME interrogator uses its own DME antenna for radio transmission and
the crew, when tuned to a station, with a digital readout of the slant range dis- reception. A suppression signal is transmitted by the DME interrogator each
tance between the A/C and the selected ground station. time when in transmission mode to inhibit other systems working in same fre-
The A320 uses two independent DME systems. Each system can work with up quency range (ATC, TCAS) and to prevent simultaneous transmission.
to 5 independent stations simultaneously.
Inputs
Tuning Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the DME interrogator for internal BITE
S Auto Tuning purposes.
In normal operation the DME interrogator 1 (2) is automatically tuned by the Indication
onside FMGEC 1 (2) through the associated RMP 1 (2). In this case, the
All DMCs receive DME data from both interrogators such as DME distance,
RMP is only used to transmit the frequency and course information from the
frequency and identifier. Data of both systems are shown on Capts and F/Os
FMGCs to the frequency input port A of the receiver. VOR/DME and
ND. ILS DME information is only shown on the associated PFD.
ILS/DME distance can be calculated and displayed simultaneously.
The DDRMI receive DME data from both DME interrogators to show the DME
S Manual Tuning
distance in the upper left and right corner.
Frequency and course data can by manually entered on the RAD/NAV page
of the MCDUs. The FMGCs sent this information to the receivers in the Audio
same way then in auto-tuning mode. The DME audio signal is processed by the Interrogator and sent to the AMU
S FM Switching and can be heard by the crew on headphones or cockpit loudspeaker in parallel
If a FMGC fails, a discrete is sent to the interrogator (via the RMP) to acti- to the VOR audio signal.
vate the frequency input port B. This port receives information direct from
Users
the opposite FMGC. In this case, one FMGC tunes both DME interrogators.
The FMGCs receive DME Data (5 stations max.) for navigation purpose during
S NAV Back Up Tuning various flight phases.
If both FMGC fail, each DME Interrogator must be tuned directly from the The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
For Training Purposes Only

onside RMP. To do so, press the NAV and the VOR pushbutton on both DME Interrogators (tests only available on ground).
RMPs. The RMP now uses manually entered data and not the data coming
from the FMGC. A discrete reselects the frequency input port A, which is Warnings and Flags
directly supplied from the associated RMP. A second discrete inhibits the A faulty DME system results in the following cockpit effects:
data display on the RAD/NAV page of the MCDUs to indicate that no
FMGEC tuning is possible. No ILS/DME indication is possible. S Flags on PFD and ND
S blank display in DDRMI

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

CAPT
PFD PFD
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 37 DME System Schematic


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

INDICATION
Normal Indication on PFD Flags or NCD Indication on PFD
If the ILS pushbutton on the EFIS control panel is pressed, on the lower left If the DME interrogator fails and the ILS pushbutton on the EFIS control panel
corner of the PFD the ILS DME distance is shown (if a ILS/DME station is is pressed, a red DME1 (2) flag (flashing 9s, the steady) comes into view
available). On Capts PFD ILS/DME1 distance is displayed, on F/Os PFD, ILS/ instead of the DME distance.
DME 2 is displayed. With NCD and ILS pushbutton pressed, dashes are displayed.
If no ILS/DME station is available, the display is blank. If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the DME indication is blank.
For Training Purposes Only

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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51
For Training Purposes Only

ILS/DME Indication ILS DME Flag


Capt PFD DME1
F/O PFD DME2

Figure 38 DME Indication on PFD


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51
Normal Indication on ND Flags or NCD Indication on ND
S ND in ROSE ILS, ROSE VOR, ROSE NAV or ARC Mode Flags or DME NCD indication are only displayed on ND, when in ROSE or
When the VOR/ADF selector is switched to VOR, the DME distance is dis- ARC mode and the VOR/ADF selector is switched to VOR.
played in green under the associated VOR characteristics in the lower left or If the DME interrogator fails, a red DME1 (2) flag (flashing 9s, the steady)
right corner. comes into view instead of DME distance.
S ND in ROSE NAV or ARC Mode In case of NCD, two dashes are shown.
When the VOR.D pushbutton on the EFIS control panel is pressed, all VOR/ If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the DME indication is blank.
DME stations around the aircraft and contained in the FMGCs NAV DATA
BASE are displayed on the ND, depending on the selected range. Flags or NCD Indication on DDRMI
If the DME interrogator fails, the DME1 (2) window is blanked. There is no
Normal Indication on DDRMI DME flag.
The DDRMI shows DME1 and DME2 distance in the upper left and right cor- In case of NCD, dashes are shown.
ner.
If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the DME indication is blank.
For Training Purposes Only

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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

VOR DME Indication


For Training Purposes Only

VOR DME NCD Indication VOR DME Flag

Figure 39 DME Indication on ND and RMI


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


The different BITE menu selections are:
S LAST LEG REPORT
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the System and transferred to the CFDS causes the follow-
ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
DME 1(2) :
S NO DATA FROM CONTROL SOURCE
There is no correct frequency data input on the active input port of the DME
interrogator.
S RECEIVER
The DME Interrogator is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
For Training Purposes Only

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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

Capt Capt F/O F/O


PFD ND RMI ND PFD

EFIS System

DME 1 DME 2


Antenna Antenna

other Systems


other Systems
FMGC 1,2


DME 1


DME 2
FMGC 1,2

AMU (Audio)
AMU (Audio)


ATC 1,2 TCAS (Supp.) ATC 1,2 TCAS (Supp.)
CFDS
For Training Purposes Only

RMP 1 RMP 2

FMGC 1 FMGC 2


CFDS monitored

Figure 40 DME BITE Schematic


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 41 DME CFDS BITE Menu


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 42 DME CFDS BITE Test


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

BITE TEST INDICATION


For Training Purposes Only

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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

1 ILS DME Indication (magenta)


2 5
2 VOR DME Indication (white)

3 DME NCD Indication (white)

4 ILS DME flag (red)

5 VOR DME flag (red)

4
1
For Training Purposes Only

VOR/ADF Switches

ILS pushbutton

3 3 2 5

Figure 43 DME BITE Indication on PFD, ND and RMI


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated in ground condition only by pushing the
TEST pushbutton switch on the face of the interrogator.
S During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs on the face of the interrogator are on.
S During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs go off.
S During the last 3 seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released)
the green R/T LED is on (except if a fault has been detected during the
test).
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
S R/T (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected of the DME interrogator
S R/T (green) indicates that no internal fault is detected of the DME interroga-
tor
S DATA IN (red) indicates that no control input is available (frequency).
For Training Purposes Only

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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 44 DME Front Panel Test


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DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 45 DME Location Interrogator and Antenna


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPM. (DME)
34-51
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 46 DME Location Control and Indication


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Lufthansa Technical Training
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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

34-53 ADF
DESCRIPTION
General Antenna
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system is a medium range radio naviga- Each ADF receiver is connected to its own ADF antenna. The ADF antenna
tion aid which provides: consists of one sense antenna and two loop antenna elements, which are pre-
S an indication of the relative bearing of the aircraft to a selected ground amplified by integrated amplifiers.
station (frequency range 190 to 1750 KHz). A test loop input is not used.
The ADF comprises two independent systems. Each system consists of:
Inputs
S one receiver
Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the ADF receiver for internal BITE pur-
S one loop and sense antenna poses.
Tuning Indication
S Auto Tuning All DMCs receive ADF data from both receivers such as ADF bearing, fre-
In normal operation the ADF receiver 1 (2) is automatically tuned by the quency and ADF identifier. Data of both systems are shown on Capts and F/Os
onside FMGC 1 (2) through the associated RMP 1 (2). In this case, the ND.
RMP is only used to transmit the frequency and course information from the
FMGCs to the frequency input port A of the receiver. Audio
S Manual Tuning The ADF audio signal is processed by the receiver and sent to the AMU and
can be heard by the crew on headphones or cockpit loudspeaker.
Frequency and course data can by manually entered on the RAD/NAV page
of the MCDUs. The FMGCs sent this information to the receivers in the Users
same way like in the auto-tuning mode. The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the ADF
S FM Switching receivers (tests only available on ground).
If a FMGC fails, a discrete is sent to the receiver (via the RMP) to activate
the frequency input port B. This port receives information direct from the Warnings and Flags
opposite FMGC. In this case, one FMGC tunes both ADF receivers. A faulty ADF system results in the following cockpit effects:
S NAV Back Up Tuning S Flags on ND
For Training Purposes Only

If both FMGC fail, each ADF receiver must be tuned directly from the on-
side RMP. To do so, press the NAV and the ADF pushbuttons on both
RMPs. The RMP now uses manually entered data and not the data coming
from the FMGC. A discrete reselects the frequency input port A, which is
directly supplied from the associated RMP. A second discrete inhibits the
data display on the RAD/NAV page of the MCDUs to indicate that no FMGC
tuning is possible.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 47 ADF System Schematic


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

INDICATION
Normal Indication on ND Flags or NCD Indication on ND
S ND in ROSE VOR,ROSE ILS, ROSE NAV or ARC Mode Flags or NCD indication are only displayed on ND, when in ROSE or ARC
When the ADF/VOR selector is switched to ADF and the ADF signal is mode and the VOR/ADF selector is switched to ADF.
valid, the green ADF pointer appears and shows the bearing to the ADF If the ADF receiver fails, a red ADF1 (2) flag (flashing 9s, then steady) comes
station. The ADF station characteristics is displayed in the left or right lower into view instead of ADF characteristics and the ADF bearing pointer goes out
corner of the ND and shows: of view.
- ADF system In case of NCD, the ADF bearing pointer goes out of view and on ADF charac-
- Pointer symbol teristics, the ADF identifier is replaced by the frequency.
- ADF frequency or identifier, if decoded by the ADF receiver If the frequency information is fail or NCD, the ADF bearing pointer, the fre-
quency or the identifier goes out of view.
- Tuning mode
S ND in ROSE NAV or ARC Mode
When the NDB pushbutton on the EFIS Control Panel is pressed, all ADF
stations contained in the FMGCs NAV DATA BASE are displayed on the
ND, depending on the selected range.
NOTE: IF ONLY ONE ADF SYSTEM IS INSTALLED, THE SINGLE ADF
POINTER IS SHOWN, IF ADF/VOR SELECTOR 2 IS SWITCHED
TO ADF.
For Training Purposes Only

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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53
For Training Purposes Only

ADF Flag
ADF Pointer ADF Characteristics (Pointer disappears)

Figure 48 ADF Indication on ND


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
Loop and Sense Antenna
The combined loop and sense antenna operates in the 190 to 1750 kHz fre-
quency range and consists of the following components enclosed in a fiber-
glass housing:
S a vertically polarized sense antenna which is omnidirectional in the horizon-
tal plane
S two horizontally polarized loop antennas which are directional in the horizon-
tal plane
S a test loop which enables a self-test of the antenna (not used).
S a printed circuit board which contains three pre-amplifiers used to amplify
the loop and sense antennas signals. The pre-amplifiers are energized by
plus or minus 12VDC from the ADF receiver.
The output impedance of the antenna is 78 Ohm and the Voltage Standing
Wave Ratio (VSWR) 1.2:1.
For Training Purposes Only

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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

ADF2 ADF1
For Training Purposes Only

(n.u.)

Figure 49 ADF Antenna


FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: 83
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


The different BITE menu selections are:
S LAST LEG REPORT
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the System and transferred to the CFDS causes the follow-
ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
ADF 1(2) :
S NO DATA FROM CONTROL SOURCE
There is no correct frequency data input on the active input port of the ADF
receiver.
S RECEIVER
The ADF receiver is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
For Training Purposes Only

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

Capt F/O
ND ND

EFIS System

ADF 1 ADF 2


Antenna Antenna






ADF 1


ADF 2
AMU (Audio)
AMU (Audio)

CFDS
For Training Purposes Only

RMP 1 RMP 2

FMGC 1 FMGC 2


CFDS monitored

Figure 50 ADF BITE Schematic


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 51 ADF CFDS BITE Menu


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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 52 ADF CFDS BITE Test


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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

BITE TEST INDICATION


For Training Purposes Only

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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

1 ADF pointer (green)

2 ADF data (green)

3 ADF flag (red)

1
3 3 2 2
For Training Purposes Only

VOR/ADF Switches

Figure 53 ADF BITE Indication on ND


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated in ground condition only by pushing the
TEST pushbutton switch on the face of the receiver.
S During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs on the face of the receiver are on.
S During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs go off.
S During the last 3 seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released)
the green ADF LED is on (except if a fault has been detected during the
test).
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
S ADF (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected of the ADF Receiver
S ADF (green) indicates that no internal fault is detected of the ADF Receiver
S DATA IN (red) indicates that no control input is available (frequency).
For Training Purposes Only

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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

green

red

red
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 54 ADF Front Panel Test


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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 55 ADF Location Receiver and Antenna


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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
34-53
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 56 ADF Location Control and Indication


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Lufthansa Technical Training
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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

34-42 RADIO ALTIMETER


DESCRIPTION
General FAN
The LRRA system is a radio system, which determines the distance between Each transceiver is cooled by a associated fan. The fan is installed under the
the A/C and the terrain. The system is used during climb, approach and landing transceiver and receives power from the transceiver.
phase.
Users
The A320 uses two independent LRRA systems.
The LRRA data is sent to the GPWS for different warning activations.
Antenna The FWCs receive LRRA information to create the altitude call-outs during ap-
Each transceiver works with one transmission and one reception antenna. Both proach and warnings in case of failure.
antennas are identical. (The TCAS Computer needs radio height to modify the trigger levels of traffic
and collision warnings.)
Inputs
The FMGCs and ELACs use radio height for navigation and automatic flight
Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the LRRA transceiver for internal BITE
purposes.
purposes.
The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
A function test inhibit signal from the EIU blocks the system test, when the
LRRA transceivers (tests only available on ground and engine off).
associated engine is operating (engine 1 for system 1, engine 2 for system 2).
Warnings and Flags
Indication
A faulty LRRA system results in the following cockpit effects:
All DMC receives radio height data from both LRRA transceiver. In normal
case, LRRA1 data is displayed on Capts PFD and LRRA2 data on F/Os PFD. S Flags on PFD (both systems fail and slats > 0_ )
If LRRA1 (2) fails, the PFD indication automatically switches over to the offside S Master Caution Lights on the glareshield
LRRA. S Aural Warning (Single Chime)
S NAV LRRA 1 (2,1+2) FAULT on the upper ECAM display.
For Training Purposes Only

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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 57 Radio Altimeter Block Diagram


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42
Flags and NCD Indication on PFD
INDICATION S Failure on one system, the valid system is automatically switched to both
Capt and F/O PFDs.
Normal Indication on PFD
- On the upper ECAM display the warning message appears:
S Radio Altitude
NAV LRRA 1 (2) FAULT.
This indication is on the bottom of the attitude sphere for height less than or
equal 2500 ft. The dimension and the color of the digits change in relation to S Failure of both systems, all information go out of view on both PFD.
the height (RA) and the decision height (DH) as follows: In slat extended configuration, a red RA warning message (flashing 3s, then
remains on) appears in place of RA indication.
- 400 ft < RA < 2500 ft 3mm green
- On the upper ECAM display the warning message appears:
- DH+100 ft < RA < 400 ft 4mm green
NAV LRRA 1+2 FAULT.
- RA < DH+100 ft 4mm amber
The resolution of the display is also a function of height: AUTOMATIC CALL OUTS (FWC)
- RA > 50 ft 10 ft steps Altitude Call Outs
- 5 ft < RA < 50 FT 5 ft steps Height Call Out
- RA < 5 ft 1 ft steps 400 four hundred
S Decision Height 300 three hundred
The DH value is shown on the right top corner of the PFD (FMA indication) 200 two hundred
as soon as the radio altimeter operates. The DH is entered on APP page of
100 one hundred
the MCDU and is transmit by the FMGCs if ILS approach is selected.
50 fifty
When the radio height is lower then the DH, a amber DH warning message
(flashing first, the steady) comes into view at the bottom of the attitude 40 forty
sphere. 30 thirty
S Rising Runway Indication 20 twenty
Below 300 ft, the height is shown by the distance between the horizon line 10 ten
and the limit of the sector 2. The limit of the sector 2 moves up as the air- DH+100 hundred above
craft is in the descent phase. The distance between these two lines is pro-
DH minimum
portional to the ground height (sensitivity 5 ft/mm). As it moves up, the limit
For Training Purposes Only

line erases the graduations on the pitch scale.


S Red Ribbon If the time between two call outs is greater then 11 sec. (RH > 50 ft) or 4 sec.
(RH < 50 ft), intermediate call outs are generated.
When the aircraft is below 500 ft height, a red ribbon comes into view on the
bottom and at the right of the altitude scale and moves up as the aircraft is Retard Announcement
in the descent phase. When the aircraft has touched the ground, the top of
The retard-announcement is generated at:
the ribbon is at the middle of the altitude window.
S 10 ft if Autothrust or one Autopilot in LAND
S 20 ft, if no Autothrust or Autothrust and Autopilot not in LAND.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

DH Indication DH Indication
and DH Alert

RA Flag
Horizon
line Red Ribbon

RA Indication

Rising Runway
Indication PERF

X 6R
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 58 Radio Altimeter Indication on PFD


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Lufthansa Technical Training
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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


ECAM WARNING
The different BITE menu selections are:
In case of LRRA1 (2) failure, the LRRA waring message NAV RA1 (2) FAULT
is shown on the upper ECAM display, the MASTER CAUTION comes on and S LAST LEG REPORT
the single chime sounds. S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S ARINC TEST
S RAMP TEST

Note: The tests are possible, if no inhibit signal form the EIUs are present.

Faults detected by the System and transferred to the CFDS causes the follow-
ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
RADIO ALTM 1(2) :
S TRANSCEIVER
The LRRA Transceiver is faulty.
S RECEPTION ANTENNA
The Reception Antenna or coaxial cable is faulty.
S TRANSMISSION ANTENNA
The Transmission Antenna or coaxial cable is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
For Training Purposes Only

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

Capt F/O
PFD ECAM PFD

Warning

EFIS System

EIU1 EIU2

Test inhibit

other Systems
FMGC 1,2


other Systems
ELAC 1,2
FWC 1,2

LRRA 1


LRRA 2 FMGC 1,2
ELAC 1,2


GPWS FWC 1,2

CFDS


For Training Purposes Only

CFDS monitored





Receive Transmit


Receive Transmit


Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna


Figure 59 Radio Altimeter BITE Schematic
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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 60 Radio Altimeter CFDS BITE Menu


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 61 Radio Altimeter CFDS BITE Test


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

BITE TEST INDICATION


For Training Purposes Only

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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

1 LRRA Indication

2 LRRA flag (LRRA 1+2 fail and Slats >0)

1
1
2 1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 62 Radio Altimeter BITE Indication on PFD


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated by pushing the pushbutton switch on the
face of the receiver, if the test inhibit discrete is not active.
S the green SYSTEM OK LED comes on at the beginning of the test. It re-
mains on until the TEST pushbutton switch is released, if no fault is de-
tected.
S the three red LEDs comes on when a fault is detected. In this case, they
remain on until the TEST pushbutton switch is released:
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
- the R/T UNIT LED indicates a transceiver fault
- the ANT TX LED indicates a fault in the transmission antenna circuit.
- the ANT RX LED indicates a fault in the reception antenna circuit.
NOTE : The green LED remains on until the pushbutton switch on the face of the
transceiver is released.
For Training Purposes Only

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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 63 Radio Altimeter Front Panel Test


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 64 Radio Altimeter Location Transceiver and Antenna


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RADIO ALTIMETER
34-42
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 65 Radio Altimeter Location Control and Indication


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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

34-41 WEATHER RADAR


DESCRIPTION
General Antenna
The aircraft is equipped with an X-band weather radar system. This system The weather radar antenna is energized and monitored in azimuth and eleva-
complies with ARINC Characteristics 708. The weather radar enables detection tion by the transceiver. The radio frequency signals are exchanged between
and localization of the atmospheric disturbances in the area defined by the an- transceiver and the antenna via a wave guide.
tenna scanning: plus or minus 90 deg. of aircraft centerline and up to 320 NM The antenna scans a 180_ sector in azimuth and has a tilt coverage of " 15_.
in front of the aircraft.
In addition the weather radar system enables: Inputs
S detection of turbulence areas caused by the presence of precipitations The ADIRUs give the pitch and roll angles to ensure antenna stabilization and
the ground speed for Doppler mode correction. ADIRU 1 supplies WX TXR 1.
NOTE: THERE IS NO DETECTION OF TURBULENCE IN CLEAR SKY.
ADIRU 3 is automatic back up for the systems and can by manually activated
S presentation of terrain mapping information by the combination of the orien- via the ADIRS TXR switch.
tation of the radar beam and of the receiver gain.
The EFIS control panels transmit the range selected on Capts and F/Os side in
Five color displays are used to show precipitations and turbulences to the crew. order to create two WX images.
The weather radar system, consists of: A signal from the wave guide switch activates the transceiver, when the wave
S a transceiver guide is correctly connected to this transceiver.
S a single control unit Each LGCIU sends discrete signals to the WX transceiver for internal BITE
S a single antenna drive purposes.
S an antenna Users
S a dual transceiver mounting tray with a wave guide switch. The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
WX-T ransceivers (tests only available on ground).
Indication
The weather radar image is shown on the Captain and First Officer Navigation NOTE: IF THE ENHANCED GPWS IS OPERATIVE, THE WR IMAGE IS
Displays (ND). The NDs are connected to the three Display Management Com- REPLACED BY THE TERRAIN IMAGE, ON THE CAPTAIN AND
puters (DMC) and to the Captain and First Officer EFIS control sections of the FIRST OFFICER NDS, DURING A TERRAIN ALERT OR A CREW
For Training Purposes Only

FCU. ACTION.

Control Panel Warnings and Flags


The control panel provides mode of operation, antenna tilt and gain informa- A faulty WX system results in the following cockpit effects:
tion. Discretes enables the transceivers and activates the wave guide switch to S Flags or Fault-Messages on NDs
connect the antenna to the transceiver. S no WX-image on ND (depending on type of failure).

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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 66 Weather Radar Block Diagram


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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

CONTROL
Weather radar control unit 3 TILT control
The face of the weather radar control unit includes the following controls:
The TILT selector switch enables the variation of the antenna elevation angle in
1 SYS ON/OFF switch 1/4 deg. steps on a non-linear scale graduated in degrees, within a range of
+15 deg. (UP) to -15 deg. (DOWN) in relation to a horizontal plane defined by
This switch enables:
the stabilization system.
S the activation of the transceiver
This antenna elevation angle is displayed in cyan in the R lower corner of the
S the suppression of the radar image on the NDs when these NDs are in the ND and progresses in steps of 0.25 degrees.
ARC or ROSE mode.
If the antenna position is different from the TILT selector switch position, a red
2 Mode selection ANT failure warning message replaces the TILT indication in the R lower corner
of the ND.
S WX
This mode corresponds to the normal operation in weather detection. The 4 Gain control
radar images are displayed on the NDs in four colors (black,green, yellow, The GAIN potentiometer, item 4, is used to adjust the sensitivity of the receiver
red); their intensity corresponds to the strength of the return signal. in WX, WX+T, TURB and MAP modes.
S WX +T The CAL gain position provides minimum gain setting and corresponds to the
This mode corresponds to operation in weather and turbulence detections. normal gain for operation. In this case, the radar system is aligned to give an
All turbulent (within 50 NM) and non turbulent areas beyond 50 NM are dis- accurate representation of rain levels corresponding to the real weather situa-
played in the conventional black, green, yellow and red as in weather (WX) tion.
mode. The manual use of the GAIN potentiometer mainly allows to see as many pre-
S TURB cipitations as possible and in particular to view very light rain.
This mode corresponds to operation in turbulence detection. Turbulence In MAX position, the receiver sensitivity, the transmitter pulse width and the
detection is limited to the first 50 NM regardless of the weather radar range antenna beam width are increased. MAX gain is used for the same reasons as
selected and displayed. manual use and also to better display the leading edges of cells and to view
Turbulence areas are displayed on the NDs in magenta. patterns and characteristics of these cells.
S MAP Therefore the GAIN potentiometer must be in the CAL position to determine
For Training Purposes Only

the actual calibrated precipitation rate before taking an avoidance decision.


This mode is only used for display of the ground map. A combination of
transceiver gain, antenna position (TILT) and range selection enables the
display of a larger area. 5 GND CLTR SPRS switch
If the image is too bright, due to too great reflection intensity, it can be
dimmed by the GAIN potentiometer, item 4. Activation of the ground clutter suppression switch in the WX mode reduces
the intensity of the ground clutter.

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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

4 3

1 2 5
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 67 Weather Radar Control Panel


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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
EFIS control panel (on the FCU) Utilization of the EFIS control panels and EFIS switching panels
Only the controls related to the selection and use of the radar image on the 1 Mode selector switch
NDs are described.
S A mode selector switch, item 1, made up of a rotary switch enables the This mode selector switch enables the image display on the corresponding
selection of the ROSE or ARC function for display of a weather radar image ND whenever the ARC or ROSE mode is selected and the transceiver is
on the CAPT and F/O NDs. supplied. In that case, the radar image is displayed in the background of
the navigation image.
S A scale selector switch, item 2, common to EFIS, FMGS and radar sys-
tems, enables the selection of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 or 320 operation range in 2 Scale selector switch
nautical miles (NM) for display of the weather radar image on the CAPT and
This selector switch enables the display of the range selected for an opti-
F/O NDs.
mum use of the radar image on the corresponding ND.
EFIS switching panels For each of the following ranges: 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320, four concen-
The CAPT and F/O EFIS switching panels which are connected to the CAPT tric range arcs are displayed respectively spaced 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80
and F/O NDs, include ND concentric potentiometers which enable the bright- NM, when the mode selector switch is in the ARC position.
ness adjustment of the image displayed on the NDs. Only 2 range arcs are displayed in the ROSE mode.
The outer knob of each potentiometer controls the brightness of the radar 3 Radar image brightness control
image only, item 3.
The ND outher potentiometer enables the adjustment of brightness and
contrast of radar echoes in relation to the navigation image, which is super-
imposed. However, the adjustment range does not allow total extinction of
the image.
The OFF position of the potentiometer corresponds to the minimum bright-
ness.
The BRT position corresponds to the maximum brightness.
NOTE: A PHOTOELECTRIC CELL ASSOCIATED WITH EACH ND ALSO
ADJUSTS IMAGE BRIGHTNESS AS A FUNCTION OF AMBIENT
LIGHT VARIATIONS.
For Training Purposes Only

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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 68 Weather Radar EFIS and ND Control


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Lufthansa Technical Training
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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

INDICATION
Normal Indication on ND Flags and NCD Indication on ND
The weather radar image is shown on the ND, when the EFIS mode selector is When the WX system fails, in the lower right corner a warning message comes
switched to a ROSE or the ARC mode. The image depends on range selection. into view and shows the faulty components. The tilt indication goes out of view.
The system shows the disturbance intensity through the use of colors which There are failures which result in the loss of the radar image (red warnings)
vary with the atmospheric precipitation rate. and failures, which do not effect the radar image (amber warnings).
The disturbances are shown to the crew members on the NDs with different If there is no range input, the radar image is lost and the WXR RNG message
colors: appears.
S black, green, yellow, red to quantify the precipitation rates Failures which result in the loss of the radar image. The corresponding mes-
S magenta to represent the turbulence areas up to 50 NM.: sages are displayed in red
S WXR R/T : indicates a failure of the weather radar transceiver
PRECIPITATION RATE | COLOR OF ECHOES S WXR ANT : indicates a failure of the weather radar antenna
-------------------- |---------------------- S WXR CTL : indicates a failure of the weather radar control unit
less than 0.76 mm/h | black
S WXR RNG : indicates an error of comparison between the range from the
from 0.76 to 3.81 mm/h | green
EFIS control panel and the copy data received on the symbol generator via
from 3.81 to 12.7 mm/h | yellow
the radar data bus.
from 12.7 to 50.8 mm/h | red
--------------------------------------------- Failures which do not affect the radar image. The corresponding messages are
displayed in amber
S WXR WEAK : indicates the loss of the transceiver calibration
| PRECIPITATION RATE | COLOR OF ECHOES
S WXR ATT : indicates an attitude failure from the ADIRU

S WXR STAB : indicates the loss of the radar antenna stabilization
Turbulence | 50.8 mm/h and above | magenta
----------------------------------------------------- S WXR TEST : indicates the selection of the radar TEST mode.
The actual operating range of the system is 320 NM. The peak power emitted NOTE: IN CASE OF VENTILATION FAILURE OR WHEN THE BLOWER
is approximately 100 W. AND EXTRACT PUSHBUTTON SWITCHES ARE BOTH RE-
The antenna scans the 180 deg. sector in azimuth 15 times per minute. LEASED, THE COLORED BACKGROUNDS OF THE WEATHER
For Training Purposes Only

RADAR IMAGE DISAPPEAR.


Additionally, the weather radar may be used as a navigation aid. In the map-
ping mode, it allows identification of major changes in the ground map:
(e.g. a sea coast, an estuary, a lake, a mountain, an island, a big city, etc.).
The brightness of the weather radar image is separately adjustable with a
brightness control potentiometer.
In the lower right corner, the antenna tilt is displayed in green.
If the gain potentiometer is not in the AUTO position, MAN is displayed in
green in front of the tilt indication.

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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

Weather Image

WX-Mode
Tilt Indication

Ground Image
Fault Message
For Training Purposes Only

Manual Gain Indication

MAP-Mode
Figure 69 Weather Radar Indication on ND
FRA US/E Mk 18.12.95 Page: Page: 115
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR
34-41

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


The different BITE menu selections are:
S LAST LEG REPORT
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the Weather Radar System or the connected systems


causes the following CFDS and/or BITE messages.
S RADAR 1 TRANSCEIVER
Failure of the Weather Radar Transceiver
S RADAR 1 CONTROL UNIT
Failure of the Weather Radar Control Unit
S RADAR 1 ANTENNA
Failure of the Weather Radar Antenna
S RADAR 1 MOUNTING TRAY
Failure of the Waveguide Switch
S RADAR 1 NO DATA FROM ADIRU
Loss of ADIRU Input Data
S NO RADAR 1 DATA
Loss of the Bus Output from Weather Radar Transceiver to the CFDIU
S DMC 1: NO WXR 1 DATA
Loss of WXR Data or Bus Fault
S DMC 2: NO WXR 1 DATA
For Training Purposes Only

Loss of WXR Data or Bus Fault


S DMC 3: NO WXR 1 DATA
Loss of WXR Data or Bus Fault

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Lufthansa Technical Training
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WEATHER RADAR
34-41

Capt F/O
ND ND

EFIS System




WXR Control


other Systems:
-FCU
(EFIS Ctrl Capt)

(EFIS Ctrl F/O)
ADIRU 1,3
WXR 1

WXR 2 MOUNT


CFDS
-ATT,HDG Transfer


WG
For Training Purposes Only





Antenna

CFDS monitored


Figure 70 Weather Radar BITE Schematic
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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 71 Weather Radar CFDS BITE Test


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR
34-41

BITE TEST
The TEST mode becomes active when it is selected through the
CFDS via MCDU 1 or 2.
It enables an operational check of the main circuits which consti-
tute the system.
The transmission/reception channel is tested for less than one
second, then a special test pattern is displayed on the NDs as
long as TEST mode is active.
Moreover the elevation and azimuth control circuits of the antenna
drive are excited during the test period. The complete test period
lasts 15 seconds approximately.
When the TEST mode is activated:
The antenna carries out an elevation scanning sequence from up
to down positions (+ 15 deg., - 15 deg.) then an azimuth scanning
sequence from right to left, then stabilizes at 0 deg, perpendicular
to the aircraft centerline.
It should be noted that:
S the special test pattern, with TEST indication displayed in the
R lower corner of the NDs, can only be displayed if no fault is
detected
S the antenna no longer responds to the stabilization signals
from the ADIRU when the TEST mode is active. At the first
ground supply, the antenna test sequence is performed inde-
pendently of the TEST mode selection and SYS switch. The
test image is not displayed on the ND. This antenna test se-
quence is the same as the Bite test sequence.
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 72 Weather Radar Test Pattern on ND


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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 73 Weather Radar Location Transceiver and Antenna


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WEATHER RADAR
34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 74 Weather Radar Location Control and Indication


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

34-41 WXR/PWS
DESCRIPTION
General System Architecture
The aircraft is equipped with an X-band weather radar system with Predictive The weather radar system is composed of items closely associated with its op-
Windshear capability. eration, such as peripherals supplying parameters, EFIS display units or main-
The weather radar system enables: tenance functions.
S detection and localization of the atmospheric disturbances in the area de- The weather radar image is shown on the CAPT and F/O Navigation Displays
fined by the antenna scanning: plus or minus 90 deg. of aircraft centerline (ND).The NDs are connected to the three Display Management Computers
and up to 320NM in front of the aircraft, (DMC) and to the CAPT and F/O EFIS control panels of the FCU.
S detection of turbulence areas caused by the presence of precipitations up to The weather radar and windshear detection image is shown on the Captain and
a distance of 40NM, First Officer Navigation Displays (ND) and the windshear warning is shown on
Captain and First Officer Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and on the upper
S presentation of terrain mapping information by the combination of the orien-
ECAM DU.
tation of the radar beam and of the receiver gain,
The weather radar system consists of:
S detection of a microburst windshear event in the area defined by the an-
tenna scanning: plus or minus 60 deg. S a transceiver,
S presentation of windshear events within an area plus or minus 30 deg. of S a dual control unit,
aircraft centerline and up to 5NM in front of the aircraft. S a dual antenna drive,
NOTE: A MICROBURST IS A COOL SHAFT OF AIR, LIKE A CYLINDER, S an antenna,
BETWEEN 1000 AND 3000 FT. WHEN IT ENCOUNTERS THE S a transceiver dual mounting tray with a wave guide switch.
GROUND (AIRFLOW VELOCITY FROM 40 TO 110 KTS) THE
NOTE: ONLY THE ANTENNA DRIVE OF THE WXR/PWS SYSTEM IS THE
DOWNWARD MOVING AIRFLOW IS TRANSLATED TO A HORI-
SAME AS THAT OF THE NORMAL WXR SYSTEM.
ZONTAL FLOW (FROM 80 TO 220 KTS), AT THE BASE OF THE
AIR SHAFT. TWO TYPES OF MICROBURST EXIST, WET AND NOTE: IF THE ENHANCED GPWS IS OPERATIVE, THE WR IMAGE IS
DRY. REPLACED BY THE TERRAIN IMAGE ON THE NAVIGATION DIS-
Five color displays are used to show precipitations, turbulence and ground PLAYS, DURING A TERRAIN ALERT OR A CREW ACTION.
For Training Purposes Only

mapping to the crew.


The location of the windshear events is indicated by an icon (symbol consisting
of alternating red and black arcs).

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WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 75 WXR/PWS Block Diagram


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
Weather Radar Transceiver Peripherals (Inputs)
The receiver-transmitter is the heart of the WR/PWS, the additional necessary The transceiver receives digital serial data inputs from the components:
wiring and interfaces enable the weather radar transceiver to operate as a S Radio Altimeter
PWS (WR/PWS).
- The Radio Altimeter provides altitude information over two ARINC 429
The receiver-transmitter ensures the following functions: bus inputs to the WR/PWS.
S generation of the very short intense pulses of microwave energy via an This data is used for automatic activation of the windshear function.
X-band wave guide to the antenna, and the processing of their echoes S Air Data Reference
(radio frequency signals) to obtain the desired information,
- true airspeed data and computed airspeed used for velocity calculations,
S the receiver signal is formatted into 1600-bit ARINC 453 words and sent to
- altitude data used for sensitivity time control (STC) calculations,
the DMCs,
- corrected altitude data used only when altitude data not available.
S acquisition of data from Radio Altimeters (RA1 and RA2) and other specific
interfaces, S Inertial Reference
S windshear event detection and generation of the appropriate signal, - pitch and roll data for the stabilization and control of the antenna,
S BITE function the system. - east/west velocity and north/south velocity used for velocity calculations,
The radar transceiver is de-activated when the 1/OFF/2 switch on the weather - ground speed used for velocity calculations,
radar control unit is set to the OFF position or by placing the mode selector - track angle and drift angle used for velocity calculations,
switches on both EFIS control sections in any position other than ROSE or - true heading,
ARC (exception windshear function).
- Magnetic heading.
Weather Radar Control Unit S Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU)
The dual control unit generates a 32-bit (label 270) serial control word which S EFIS Control Section
describes the selected operating modes (1/OFF/2, WX, WX + T, TURB, MAP, - The receiver/transmitter receives one bus from the CAPT EFIS control
GND CLTR SPRS, PWS). section and another one from the F/O EFIS control section.
WR Antenna Drive The transceiver receives the following discrete inputs:
The weather radar system has one dual antenna drive which is the interface of S Ground/flight signal and landing gear extended signal
the transceiver to control and monitor the azimuth and elevation of the an- - is used to determine the identifying flight phase for BITE
tenna. - Landing gear extended signal is used to determine transition from land-
For Training Purposes Only

ing mode to takeoff mode to identify a GO AROUND condition. In this


Weather Radar Antenna
case the appropriate aural message is generated.
The antenna is used for transmitting and receiving radar radio frequency sig-
S Qualifiers A and B signals
nals.
- In order to activate automatically the windshear function, one of each
Transceiver Dual Mounting Tray with a Wave Guide Switch qualifier A and one of each qualifier B have to be valid.
It allows to install each transceiver on the aircraft rack and connects the acti- S Windshear function enable signal
vated transceiver to the wave guide. - This discrete input provided by the WXR control unit through PWS/OFF/
The wave guide switch is integral with the mounting tray. It ensures switching AUTO switch enables the windshear function. Also transmitted to the
of the RF signal from the antenna to each transceiver. DMCs which use it for the logic of windshear messages displayed.

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WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 76 WXR/PWS Data Acquisition


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WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
Peripherals (Outputs)
The transceiver provides the following outputs: 1- WR/PWS Warning,
Displays 2- WR/PWS Caution,
The WXR/PWS is connected to the DMCs by an ARINC 453 bus to transmit 3- Terrain Warning,
the weather radar data and windshear data on the data word. 4- Terrain Caution,
All the weather and windshear data received by the DMCs are processed to 5- WR/PWS advisory (no audio),
display weather radar image and windshear events by the Electromic Instru-
6- Terrain background (no audio).
ment System (EIS).
S The Navigation Display (ND) provides the following indications: Audio Inhibit Discrete Signals
- weather radar image These discretes are used to indicate whether the aural alert output has to be
- windshear events location for advisory, caution or warning alert active or not.
- windshear failures. S predictive windshear aural alerts (audio inhibit discrete input) are inhibited
by the Reactive Windshear System and stall warning.
S The Primary Flight Display (PFD) provides all visual alerts for caution or
warning alert. S predictive windshear audio inhibit discrete output is used to inhibit other au-
ral alerts generated by systems such as: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoid-
NOTE: THE FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTERS (FWC) AND THE FDIU RE- ance System (TCAS) or Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) or
CEIVE WR/PWS DATA THROUGH THE DMCS. THESE DATA ARE other FWC warnings. This inhibition occurs each time there is a PWS aural
USED BY THE FWCS TO DISPLAY PWS FAILURE AND WIND- alert.
SHEAR FUNCTION OFF.THE FDIU RECORDS THE WINDSHEAR
ALERT AND FAILURE. Pin Programming
Centralized Fault Display System (CFDIU) S audio level program pins set the audio output level of the synthetic voice
The WR/PWS is connected to the CFDS to transmit the following words: (windshear aural alert).
S label 354: LRU identification P/N and S/N (coded in ISO5), S SDI (Source Destination Identification Encoder) program pins encode the
location of the WR/PWS unit on the aircraft.
S label 356: fault message (coded in ISO5),
S qualifier polarity program pins: for both qualifiers, this pin program indicates
S label 377: equipment identification.
the validity of the signal.
Audio Mixing Box
S CFDIU interface program pins: when the second WR/PWS is installed on
An analog audio output allows to transmit the aural alert windshear (synthetic the aircraft, this program pin is activated. The WR/PWS can communicate
For Training Purposes Only

voice message) to an audio mixing box connected to loud speakers. with the CFDIU.
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (Enhanced GPWS) S caution alert audio program: two program pins are provided to select the
The Enhanced GPWS receives WR/PWS alerts from WXR1 Hazard bus to type of windshear caution aural alert. The MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY
determine the alert priorities. synthetic voice is generated instead of the chime.
Predictive Windshear alerts override a terrain display and revert to the WR dis- S windshear function enable program pins is used to activate the windshear
play with the corresponding windshear data. function.
The alert priorities between the WR/PWS and the Enhanced GPWS have S windshear function bite enable signal allows to send to CFDIU failure re-
been defined as follows: lated to the predictive windshear function.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 77 WXR/PWS Block Diagram


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 127
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

CONTROLS AND INDICATING


The various system controls are grouped on the weather radar control unit and 6 A GND CLTR SPRS switch, which enables the selection of the ground
on the EFIS control sections of the FCU.
clutter suppression (ON/OFF).
Weather radar control unit
EFIS control section (on the FCU)
The face of the weather radar control unit includes the following controls:
In this part, the controls related to the selection of WX and W/S functions are
described.
1 A mode selector switch, which enables the selection of the WX, WX+T,
TURB or MAP function. 7 A mode selector switch, made up of a rotary switch enables the selection
of the ROSE or ARC function for display of a weather radar image on the
2 A TILT selector switch, which enables the control of the antenna eleva-
CAPT and F/O NDs.
tion.
If neither ROSE or ARC mode is selected, the message W/S CHANGE MODE
Antenna position is read in degrees, opposite the notch on the switch: is shown on both NDs, if there is a windshear alert. The color depends on the
- either from 0 to 15 deg. upwards (UP) W/S alert level.
- or from 0 to 15 deg. downwards (DN).
In windshear mode, the tilt control is automatic in the WR/PWS for the scan- 8 A scale selector switch, common to EFIS, FMGS and radar systems,
ning. However, the tilt displayed on ND is in accordance with the one selected enables the selection of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 or 320 operation range in
on the radar control unit. nautical miles (NM) for display of the weather radar image on the CAPT
and F/O NDs.
3 A GAIN potentiometer, which enables the manual adjustment of the Windshear information is presented in the 10 NM range only. If a windshear
transceiver gain. alert is generated but the selected range is greater than 10 NM, the message
W/S: SET RNG 10 NM is shown on the NDs. The color depends on the W/S
In the windshear position, the gain control is automatic in the WR/PWS for the
alert level.
scanning.
Lighting/LOUDSPEAKER control panel
4 A switch, with three stable positions 1/OFF/2, which enables the selec- CAPT and F/O lighting/LOUDSPEAKER control panels 301VU and 500VU
tion of the transceiver 1 or 2 and the deactivation of the transceivers. which are connected to CAPT and F/O NDs, include ND concentric potentiom-
For Training Purposes Only

eters for adjusting the brightness of the image displayed on the NDs.
5 A PWS/AUTO/OFF switch, which enables the selection of the windshear
function. 9 The outer knob of each potentiometer controls the brightness of the
In AUTO position, the windshear detection is automatic if altitude is lower than radar image only.
2300 ft and qualifiers A and B are valid.
This automatic operation can be inhibited when the switch is in the OFF posi-
tion.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

3 5 2 7

4 1 6
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 78 WXR/PWS Controls and Indicating


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 129
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

WEATHER RADAR DATA DISPLAYED ON NDS


Indication on ND
On the figure, the details A) and B) respectively correspond to the ARC and S Failures which do not affect the radar image
ROSE ND modes for which the display of the radar image is possible. The corresponding messages are displayed in amber
Messages inform the crew of the tilt angle and gain selected on the weather - WR : indicates the loss of the transceiver calibration
radar control unit. Other messages indicate the failures which affect the opera- WEAK
tion of the radar system. All these messages are displayed in the R lower cor-
- WR : indicates an attitude failure from the ADIRU
ner of each ND whenever a radar image is selected.
ATT
Tilt information and gain selection are displayed on the ND when no failure
- WR : indicates the loss of the radar antenna stabilization
warning message is generated, or when the TEST mode is not selected.
STAB
The various failures which can affect the radar image are listed in decreasing
- WR : indicates the selection of the radar TEST mode.
order of importance. If several failures occur, only the most important one is
TEST
displayed (Ref. details C) and D) on the figure).
Two types of failures can affect the radar system:
S Failures which result in the loss of the radar image
The corresponding messages are displayed in red
- WR : indicates a failure of the weather radar transceiver
R/T
- WR : indicates a failure of the weather radar antenna
ANT
- WR : indicates a failure of the weather radar control unit
CTL
- WR : indicates an error of comparison between the range
RNG from the EFIS control section and the copy data received
on the symbol generator via the radar data bus.
NOTE: IN CASE OF INSUFFICIENT AVIONICS VENTILATION, THE
For Training Purposes Only

WEATHER RADAR IMAGE IS LOST IN ORDER TO PREVENT NDS


OVERHEAT.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 79 WXR/PWS Weather Radar Indication on ND


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 131
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

WINDSHEAR INFORMATION ON PFD AND ND


Windshear indications Then, when the two ranges selected on both EFIS control panels are identical,
The location of a windshear phenomenon is indicated to the crew by means of the radar images displayed on the NDs are refreshed every 6 seconds.
an icon superimposed on the radar image. On the contrary, when two different ranges are selected on the EFIS control
This icon consists of alternating red and black arcs. panels, the images are refreshed every 12 seconds.
For 10 NM range selection and above, yellow radial lines appear at the edges S Windshear scan pattern
and start beyond the windshear event. The windshear processing is operating during right-to-left scans and left-to-
These lines, superimposed on the radar image, continue to the edge of the dis- right scans.
play area to provide directional information for the event. The antenna scans only plus or minus 60 deg.
The windshear data are always displayed even if the 1/OFF/2 selector switch The detected windshear targets are displayed only in the area plus or minus 30
on the radar control unit is set to OFF. deg. From the aircraft centerline.
The PWS/OFF/AUTO switch on the radar control unit has to be set to AUTO. When the two ranges selected on both EFIs control panels are identical, the
radar images displayed on the NDs are refreshed every 6 seconds.
Logic of scanning mode
On the contrary, when two different ranges are selected on the EFIS control
The antenna scan pattern varies depending on the mode of operation. panels the images are refreshed every 12 seconds.
S Weather radar scan pattern
NOTE: FOR ROLL ANGLE EXCEEDING 28 DEG., THE WINDSHEAR
In weather radar mode, the antenna scans a 180 deg. in azimuth and has tilt DETECTION IS NOT ACTIVE.
(pitch) coverage of plus or minus 15 deg.
Stabilization limits are plus or minus 25 deg. in the pitch axis and plus or minus
40 deg. in the roll axis. The antenna scans the zone 15 times per minute.
Beam opening is 3.6 deg. in elevation and 3.5 deg. in azimuth.
An antenna scanning is performed in 4 seconds, this causes the transmission
of 720 data words to the data bus lines.
When the two ranges selected on both EFIS control panels are identical, the
radar images displayed on the NDs are refreshed every 4 seconds.
On the contrary, when two different ranges are selected on the EFIS control
panels, the images are refreshed every 8 seconds.
For Training Purposes Only

S Weather and windshear scan pattern


When the system is placed into alternate weather/windshear mode, the
weather processing is operating during left-to-right scans and windshear proc-
essing is operating during right-to-left scans. In this case, the antenna scans
only plus or minus 60 deg.
But windshear the targets are displayed only in the area plus or minus 30 deg.
from the aircraft centerline.
An antenna scanning is performed in 3 seconds three other seconds are used
to refresh data inside the CPU.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 80 WXR/PWS Windshear Indications and Scanning Logic


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 133
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

WINDSHEAR ALERT Windshear caution alert (level 2)


This level covers the events detected in a region from 0 to 3 NM, within +/- 30
Alert Levels deg. of the aircraft heading but outside the windshear warning alert region
There are three alert levels defined in function of event seriousness and dis- (level 3).
tance from the aircraft. The weather radar provides the crew with visual and This caution alert is inhibited:
aural warnings which vary in function of the level detected. S during takeoff, from the time the aircraft attains 100 kts and until it reaches
Windshear warning alert (level 3) 50 ft AGL,
This alert corresponds to the most dangerous phenomenons. S during landing, below 50 ft AGL.
It is generated for windshear events detected within +/- 0.25 NM from the lon- There should be no windshear caution alert (level 2) above 1200 ft.
gitudinal axis of the aircraft and within +/- 30 deg. scan of the aircraft heading. The windshear caution alert is announced by:
On the ground, the maximum range is 3 NM. In flight, the maximum range is S an aural warning: MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY
reduced to 1.5 NM.
S a visual warning: amber W/S AHEAD message on the PFD.
During takeoff, level 3 covers ranges from 0 to 1.5 NM, from 50 to 1200 ft
Above Ground Level (AGL). During landing, this coverage is from 1.5 to 0.5 Windshear advisory alert (level 1)
NM, from 370 to 50 ft. This level covers the events located within 5 NM from the aircraft, within +/- 30
Range reduction is a linear function of altitude: at 370 ft, range is equal to 1.5 deg. of the aircraft heading but outside the windshear warning and caution alert
NM and reaches 0.5 NM at 50 ft. regions (levels 2 and 3).
During takeoff, this warning is inhibited from the time the aircraft attains 100 kts There should be no windshear advisory alert (level 1) above 1500 ft.
and until it reaches 50 ft AGL. No aural or visual warnings are provided for this advisory alert: only the
Level 3 warning is inhibited below 50 ft (in approach phase) and above 1200 ft. windshear icon is superimposed on the radar image.
The windshear warning alert is announced by: The weather radar transmits the windshear alerts following their detection or-
der. A maximum of 8 events can be transmitted. Therefore, alerts of different
S an aural warning message: GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD in levels can be generated simultaneously.
approach or WINDSHEAR AHEAD, WINDSHEAR AHEAD at takeoff,
generated by the radar synthesized voice.
S a visual warning: red W/S AHEAD message on the PFD. ALERTS PFD ND AURAL WARNING
Display priority on PFD is given to level 3.
Advisory (Level1) windshear icon
The computer has to determine whether the aircraft is taking-off or landing to
For Training Purposes Only

generate the aural warning message GO AROUND, WINDSHEAR AHEAD or Caution (Level 2) W/S AHEAD windshear icon MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY
(AMBER)
WINDSHEAR AHEAD, WINDSHEAR AHEAD.
Transition between the aural warning messages is controlled by the GEAR UP Warning (Level 3) WINDSHEAR windshear icon during takeoff:
discrete input. AHEAD (RED) WINDSHEAR AHEAD
WINDSHEAR AHEAD
during landing:
GO AROUND
WINDSHEAR AHEAD

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 81 WXR/PWS Alert Ranges and Alert Levels


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 135
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41

WINDSHEAR WARNING DISPLAYED


Windshear flags on NDs
When a windshear fault occurs, an amber PRED W/S message comes into
view. The radar image remains available if this fault does not affect the radar
modes or detection function.
A detected fault is displayed when:
S the aircraft is on the ground or the flap and slat control lever is in a position
different from 0.
S the windshear PWS/OFF/AUTO switch on the radar control unit is set to
AUTO (the fault message is not displayed whent the switch is set to OFF).
Warning display on Upper ECAM Display Unit
A detected windshear fault is indicated by the following amber messages:
S NAV: PRED. W/S DET FAULT on EWD.
S PRED. W/S DET on SD INOP SYSTEM area.
This message is associated to the indications presented on the NDs.

When the PWS/OFF/AUTO switch is set to OFF on the weather radar control
unit, a green or amber PRED W/S OFF memo message is presented to the
crew.
The color of this message depends on the flight phases.
For Training Purposes Only

FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 136


Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM (WXR/PWS) 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 82 WXR/PWS Indication of Failure messages


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 137
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM 34-41

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


General
The BITE facilitates maintenance on in-service aircraft. It detects and identifies S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
a failure related to the system. This report contains the fault messages related to the external or internal
The BITE of the WR/PWS is situated in the radar transceiver and through two failures (class 1 and 2) recorded during the previous 63 flight legs.
ARINC 429 low-speed buses (an input bus from the CFDIU and an output bus S LRU IDENTIFICATION
to the CFDIU).
Allows to display the P/N, the S/N and the SW/N of the equipment.
The BITE:
S GND SCANNING
S transmits permanently weather radar system status and its identification
Based on the monitoring and fault analysis during flight, provides informa-
message to the CFDIU,
tion of the failures detected while using this function. The WR/PWS periph-
S memorizes the failures which occurred during the last 63 flight legs, eral monitoring and internal cycle tests are used to detect transient failures.
S monitors data inputs from the various peripherals (EFIS control section, The peripheral monitoring and WR/PWS internal cyclic tests are used to
ADIRUs, RAs), detect transient failures.
S transmits to the CFDIU the result of the tests performed and self-tests, S TROUBLE SHOOTING DATA
S can communicate with the CFDIU through the MCDU menus. Provides correlation parameters and snapshot data concerning the failure
S acquires the general maintenance parameters (UTC, date, A/C ident...) and displayed in the LAST LEG REPORT and PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT.
command codes from the CFDIU. S CLASS 3 FAULTS
Allows to display the class 3 faults recorded during the last flight leg.
Normal mode
S GROUND REPORT
During the normal mode the BITE monitors cyclically the status of the WR/
PWS. It transmits its information to the CFDIU during the concerned flight. Allows to present the class 1, 2 or 3 internal failures detected on ground.
These failures differ from those displayed on the LAST LEG REPORT and
In case of fault detection the BITE stores the information in the fault memories.
CLASS 3 FAULTS. By pressing the line key adjacent to the failure mes-
These items of information are transmitted to the CFDIU by an ARINC 429
sage, the operator is allowed to access to the corresponding Trouble Shoot-
message with label 356.
ing Data.
Interactive mode S TEST
For Training Purposes Only

The interactive mode can only be activated on the ground and through the line Allows a check of the correct operation of the WR/PWS on ground.
key adjacent to the RADAR 1 indication, presented on the SYSTEM REPORT/ This test can be performed through the CFDS by selecting on the MCDU
TEST/NAV page of any MCDU. the test function on the RADAR 1 main menu page. At the end of the BITE
This mode enables communication between the CFDIU and the BITE of the TEST, the test pattern comes into view.
weather radar transceiver by means of the MCDU.
The interactive mode is composed of:
S LAST LEG REPORT
This report contains the fault messages related to the external or internal
failures (class 1 and 2) recorded during the last flight leg.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 83 WXR/PWS BITE Test (figure 1)


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 139
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 84 WXR/PWS BITE Test (figure 2)


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 140
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
WEATHER RADAR AND PREDICTIVE
WINDSHEAR SYSTEM 34-41
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 85 WXR/PWS Component Location


FRA US/T WB 03.01.2001 Page: 141
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52
Control Panel
34-52 ATC/MODE S The control panel is used to activate one of the two transponders and for mode
switching. It transmits the ATC code and the ident pushbutton activation to the
DESCRIPTION active transponder.
The TCAS computer is controlled through the active transponder by the
General ATC/TCAS control panel.
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) system is based on the replies provided by the
airborne transponders in response to interrogations from the ATC secondary Antenna
radar. Each transponder works with a TOP and a BOTTOM antenna. The system re-
The ground ATC secondary radar uses technics which provide the air traffic ceive signals from both antennas. Replies are transmitted to the antenna with
control with information that cannot be acquired by the primary radar. the strongest receive level. A squitter (ATC mode S address) is transmitted
This system enables to distinguish between aircraft and to maintain effective alternatively by TOP and BOTTOM antenna for TCAS purpose.
ground surveillance of the air traffic. A suppression signal is transmitted by the ATC transponder each time when in
The system provides the air traffic controllers with : transmission mode to inhibit other systems working in same frequency range
(DME, TCAS) and to prevent simultaneous transmission.
S Mode A : transmission of aircraft identification or,
S Mode C : transmission of aircraft barometric altitude or, Inputs
S Mode S : aircraft selection and transmission of flight data for the ground sur- The ADIRUs provide baro altitude to the associated transponder for transmis-
veillance. The mode S is fully compatible with the other modes, A and C. sion to a ATC ground station or to other TCAS equipped aircraft. ADIRU 1 sup-
The mode S bas been designed as an evolutionary addition to the ATC sys- plies ATC 1, ADIRU 2 supplies ATC 2. ADIRU 3 is a back up and will be used
tem to provide the enhanced surveillance and communication capability re- according to the AIR DATA switch status.
quired for air traffic control automation. The FMGC provide flight identification. This data will be transmitted to an ATC
ground station after a mode S interrogation.
NOTE: THE ATC/MODE S WILL BE ABLE TO PROVIDE THE TRAFFIC
COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS) WITH THE AIRCRAFT Each LGCIU sends a discrete signal to the ATC control panel which is used for
ADDRESS. transponder activation and for internal BITE purposes.
The interrogation frequency is 1030 MHz. The TCAS computer transmits data to the ATC transponder to reply to a mode
S interrogation and coordination messages during a coordinated resolution ad-
The reply frequency is 1090 MHz.
visory (RA).
An airborne transponder provides coded reply signals in response to interroga-
For Training Purposes Only

tion signals from the ground secondary radar and from aircraft which will be Users
eventually equipped with the TCAS. The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the ATC
This ground interrogation is transmitted in the form of pair of pulses P1 and P3 transponders.
for the mode A or C and in the form of pulses P1, P3 and P4 for the mode S. The operative ATC transponder transmits data to the TCAS such as baro alti-
The A320 uses two independent ATC Mode S systems. tude, TCAS operation mode from the control panel, TCAS BROADCAST MES-
The Control Panel is common for both ATC transponders. SAGE received, coordination messages during a corrective resolution advisory
(RA) and max. A/S capability of the own aircraft.
Warnings and Flags
ATC FAIL indicator light (control panel) which indicates transponder failure.

FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: Page: 142


Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

ICAO Addr. ICAO Addr.


(Mode S Addr.) (Mode S Addr.)
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 86 ATC System Schematic


FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: Page: 143
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

CONTROL
1 ATC mode of operation 4 IDENT pushbutton switch
The mode of operation of the transponder is selected by a switch with three On ground station request, an addition pulse must be included in the Mode A
positions STBY, AUTO, ON. and Mode C replies transmitted by the transponder to enable a more precise
S STBY mode location. This operation is performed by pressing the IDENT pushbutton switch
on the control unit.
When the transponder is in standby it does not transmit either squitters or
replies to ground station or other aircraft interrogations.
5 XPDR Fault Light
S AUTO mode
In flight, the aircraft operates as in the ON mode : all its functions are active. The Fault light illuminates,if the selected transponder is fail.
When the aircraft touches down, the landing gear ground/flight relay dis-
ables the Mode A and C replies of the selected transponder from ground 6 ALT Reporting Switch
station interrogations. The ALT RPTG switch inhibits altitude information when in the OFF position.
S ON mode
The Mode S transponder operates permanently, both in flight and on the
ground. It periodically transmits squitters (at 1 second intervals) to be de-
tected by other aircraft and replies to their interrogations and those from
ground stations. This function permits, on ground, to override the inhibition
of replies from interrogations in Mode A or C. It is used by the air traffic con-
troller to check the correct operation of the aircraft Mode A or C transponder
prior to takeoff.

2 Selection of SYS 1/2 active transponder


The SYS 1/2 switch permits selection of the active transponder. The non-se-
lected transponder is placed in standby.

3 Identification code in Mode A


For Training Purposes Only

The Mode S transponder also replies to Mode A interrogations from ground


stations. Nine numeric keys permit the pilot to set the Mode A octal code as-
signed to the aircraft by the ATC ground station controller and included in the
transmitted replies. A window on the control unit displays this code perma-
nently as long as the content of the digital output message complies with the
displayed data.

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

1 5 3 3
For Training Purposes Only

6 2 4

Figure 87 ATC Control Panel


FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: Page: 145
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE


The different BITE menu selections are:
S LAST LEG REPORT
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S TEST

Faults detected by the System and transferred to the CFDS causes the follow-
ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
ATC 1(2) :
S NO DATA FROM CONTROL SOURCE
There is no correct data input from the Control Panel to the ATC Trans-
ponder.
S NO DATA FROM ADIRU
There is no correct data input from the ADIRU1 (2) to the ATC Transponder.
S TRANSPONDER
The ATC Transponder is faulty.
S NO DATA FROM CFDIU
No connection to the CFDS.
S ANTENNA BOT
The Bottom Antenna or the coaxial cable is faulty.
S ANTENNA TOP
The Top Antenna or the coaxial cable is faulty.
For Training Purposes Only

FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: Page: 146


Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52





ATC Control



other Systems:
ADIRU 1,3


other Systems:
ADIRU 2,3

(FMGC 1) TCAS
(FMGC 2)


ATC 1 ATC 2




CFDS


CFDS monitored







For Training Purposes Only

Top Bottom Top Bottom



Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Figure 88 ATC BITE Schematic


FRA US/E MK 18.12.95 Page: Page: 147
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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 89 ATC CFDS BITE Menu


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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 90 ATC CFDS BITE Test


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated in ground condition only by pushing the
TEST pushbutton switch on the face of the transponder.
S During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs on the face of the transponder are on.
S During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs go off.
S During the last 3 seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released)
the green TPR LED is on (except if a fault has been detected during the
test).
The name, color and function of the three LEDs are as follows:
S TPR (red) indicates that an internal fault is detected of the transponder
S TPR (green) indicates that no internal fault is detected of the transponder
S ALT (red) indicates that no altitude data input is available
S DATA IN (red) indicates that no control panel input is available (same as
CTL)
S ANT TOP (red) indicates that a upper antenna or associated circuitry fault is
detected (same as UPPER ANT)
S ANT BOT (red) indicates that a lower antenna or associated circuitry fault is
detected (same as LOWER ANT )
S TCAS (red) indicates that the TCAS System connection is not available (if
installed)
S MAINTENANCE (red) indicates that the CFDIU System connection is not
available.
For Training Purposes Only

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AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 91 ATC Front Panel Test


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Lufthansa Technical Training
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AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 92 ATC Location Transponder and Antenna


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AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
34-52
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 93 ATC Location Control and Indication


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

34-43 TCAS
The LRRAs provides radio altitude for system activation and sensitivity modula-
tion (sensitivity level). One LRRA signal is active, the other is standby.
DESCRIPTION The LGCIU 1 sends Air/Gnd and LDG extend information for TCAS mode con-
trol and for internal BITE purposes.
General
The active ATC transponder transmits control panel data and baro altitude for
The TCAS II (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) is a system whose function is TCAS mode control and sensitivity modulation.
to detect and display aircraft in the immediate vicinity and to provide the flight
crew with indications to avoid these intruders by changing the flight path in the Discrete signals from the FWCs and the GPWS are used for the inhibition of
vertical plane only. The TCAS periodically interrogates their transponders, com- certain advisories by equipment with higher priority than TCAS. This is also
putes their trajectories and constantly determines their potential threat. possible by pressing the Master Warning pushbutton.
When an aircraft is airborne, its TCAS periodically transmits interrogation sig- Indication
nals for all ATC mode A/C and Mode S transponder-equipped aircraft in the All DMCs receives TCAS data to display them on Capts PFD, ND and on F/Os
vicinity. These interrogations are received by the ATC ground stations and by PFD, ND.
the transponders of the other aircraft. In response to these interrogations, the
transponders of nearby aircraft return signals containing their altitude value. The NDs displays the bearing and relative height of aircraft in the immediate
The TCAS computes the range between the two aircraft by measuring the vicinity (< 40NM). The PFDs shows the necessary V/S to reach sufficient verti-
elapsed time between transmission of the interrogation and reception of the cal separation in case of a resolution advisory (red and green sectors).
reply. The altitude, altitude rate, range and range rate are determined by a peri- Warnings and advisories are accompanied by synthesized voice announce-
odic tracking of these exchanges and the data are used for intruder threat as- ments via the Cockpit loudspeakers.
sessment.
Users
Visual and aural advisories are supplied by the TCAS computer whenever as-
The ATC mode S transponder gets TCAS status information and RA calcula-
sessment of the relative position of two aircraft reveals a potential collision haz-
tion data for transmission to other TCAS equipped aircraft or mode S ground
ard.
stations.
Control Panel The FWCs receive TCAS status data to create ECAM warnings in case of fail-
The Control Panel is used to activate the operating and display mode of the ure.
TCAS system. This information is transmitted across the active ATC system. The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
TCAS computer (tests only available on ground).
Antenna
For Training Purposes Only

The TCAS system works with a TOP and a BOTTOM antenna. The antennas Warnings and Flags
are used for transmission and reception. The antenna consist of four indepen- A faulty TCAS system results in the following cockpit effects:
dent elements. Based on a comparison of signal phases received by the four S Flags on PFD and ND
independent elements or on a phase shifting transmission it is possible to get a
S Master Caution Lights on glareshield
directional antenna characteristics. The system activates the TOP and BOT-
TOM antenna alternatively. S Aural Warning (Single Chime)
S NAV TCAS FAULT on the upper ECAM display.
Inputs
The ADIRU 1 transmits aircraft attitude and heading for ND display calculation.

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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 94 TCAS Block Diagram


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

CONTROL
ATC/TCAS Control Unit Operational Use TCAS modes of indication
The TCAS is a cooperative system whose operating mode is very close to the The TCAS mode of indication is selected by means of a switch with 4 positions:
ATC Mode S transponder associated to it. The main controls are thus grouped THRT, ALL, ABV, BLW.
on the ATC/TCAS control unit and the traffic and conflict resolution information S THRT
is presented on the EFIS displays.
Proximate and other intruders are displayed on the ND only, if a TA (Traffic
The manual operating modes of the TCAS are selected via the ATC/TCAS con- Advisory) or RA (Resolution Advisory) is present, and they are within 2700
trol unit. feet above and 2700 feet below the aircraft.
TCAS modes of operation S ALL
The TCAS mode of operation is selected by means of a switch with three posi- In this mode, all intruders are displayed on the ND according to their posi-
tions: STBY, TA, TA/RA. tion in the airspace. The altitude range is -2700 feet to +2700 feet.
S STBY mode S ABV and BLW modes
In the STBY Mode, the advisory generation and surveillance functions are This selection controls the above and below vertical altitude for traffic
inhibited. advisory:
No TCAS information can be displayed on the PFDs and NDs. -ABV : altitude range is set to 9900 ft above the aircraft and 2700 ft below
The green TCAS STBY message is displayed in the memo section of the -BL W: altitude range is set to 9900 ft below the aircraft and 2700 ft above.
EWD.
S TA mode
In this mode, intruders are displayed on the ND according to their position in
the airspace. The TCAS does not generate any vertival orders.
The RA type intruder symbols are converted into TA type symbols.
The TA ONLY message is displayed in white on the ND at the bottom.
S TA/RA mode
The TCAS performs all TA mode functions and also issues preventive or
corrective resolution advisories, represented in the form of colored sectors
along the vertical speed scale on the PFD. The sensitivity level is deter-
For Training Purposes Only

mined automatically in function of altitude.

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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43
For Training Purposes Only

2
TCAS Display Switch

1
TCAS Mode Switch

Figure 95 TCAS Control Panel


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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

INDICATION
Normal Indication on PFD Fail Indication on PFD
A TCAS indication appears on PFD only in case of a resolution advisory (RA). If the TCAS system fails, a red TCAS message (flashing 9s, the steady) comes
So the system must be active and switched to TA/RA mode. into view to the left of the vertical speed scale on the PFD and no advisories
If a RA is initiated, red and/or green sectors are shown on the vertical speed can be displayed.
scale of the PFD. There are two different types of RAs: In case of vertical speed fail, the RAs (red and/or green sectors) are displayed
S Preventive resolution advisory without a reference to a vertical speed scale to inform the crew about the nec-
essary action (climb or descend).
In this case, the advisory instructs the pilot to avoid certain deviations from
current vertical speed rate to avoid a risk of collision. On the PFD vertical
speed scales the forbidden values are indicated by red sectors.
S Corrective resolution advisory
In this case, the advisory instructs the pilot to change current flightpath (ver-
tical plan only) to avoid a collision. On the vertical speed scale of the PFD,
colored sectors indicate avoidance maneuvers to be performed:
- red sector -> forbidden vertical speed (v/s)
- green fly to sector -> a v/s range to be respected

Aural Alerts
Trajectory correction or holding visual orders are accompanied by synthesized
voice announcements. These announcements are generated by the TCAS
computer.
S Preventive resolution advisory
monitor vertical speed, monitor vertical speed
S Corrective resolution advisory
depending on situation (climb or descend):
climb, climb, climb
For Training Purposes Only

climb, crossing climb, climb, crossing climb


reduce climb, reduce climb
increase climb, increase climb
climb, climb now, climb, climb now
If separation is achieved and situation is save, the following announcement is
generated:
clear of conflict

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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

Corrective RA

FLY TO Vertical Fail Indication


Speed Sector
Preventive RA (green)

FORBITTEN
FORBITTEN Vertical Speed
Vertical Speed Sector (red)
Sector (red)

Corrective RA with V/S Fail

FLY TO Vertical
Speed Sector
(green)
For Training Purposes Only

TCAS Flag (red)


FORBITTEN
Vertical Speed
Sector (red)

Figure 96 TCAS Indication on PFD


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43
Normal Indication on ND No Bearing Indication on ND
A TCAS indication on ND appears, when: Without bearing acquisition, the intruder characteristics are displayed on the
S the TCAS mode switch is in TA or TA/RA mode, and bottom of the NDs (range, relative altitude, v/s tendency).
S the ALT RPTG switch is ON, and Only the two most threatening intruders are displayed. The most dangerous is
displayed on the left side. If the intruder becomes a potential threat, the charac-
S the ATC transponder is not in STBY, and
teristics is displayed in amber (TA) or in red (RA).
S a ROSE or the ARC mode is selected on EFIS control panel.
The aircrafts present in the surveillance zone are represented by symbols Advisory messages
whose shape and color correspond to the type of intruder defined in the TCAS: S If a TA or RA intruder is detected and the display range is greater then 40
S Other Traffic -> white diamond (7mm) NM, the following message comes into view at the center of the ND, in red
for RA and in amber for TA:
no collision threat
TCAS : REDUCE RANGE
S Proximate Traffic -> white filled diamond (7mm)
S If a TA or RA intruder is detected and the display is in PLAN mode,
no collision threat; intruder in vicinity to A/C (closer than 6 NM in lateral and
the following message comes into view at the center of the ND, in red for
+- 1200 ft in vertical direction)
RA and in amber for TA:
S Traffic Advisory -> amber filled circle (5mm)
TCAS : CHANGE MODE
potential collision threat; time to intercept appr. 40 s
S Resolution Advisory -> red filled square (5mm) Status messages
real collision threat; time to intercept appr. 25 s S If the TCAS is in TA mode, the following message comes into view at the
bottom of the ND to indicate, that no RA are possible:
The symbols are positioned on the ND so as to depict their relative bearing and
range. Data tags are associated with intruders. These tags consist of: TA ONLY
S two digits indicating their relative altitude in hundreds of feet Fault Indication on ND
S a symbol indicating whether the intruder is above (+) or below (-) the air- If the TCAS system fails, a red TCAS message (flashing 9s, the steady) comes
craft. into view at the bottom of the NDs.
S an arrow to the right of the symbol indicates the vertical trend of the aircraft
(v/s > "500ft/min).
These indications are only present for the 10, 20 and 40 NM range selection.
For Training Purposes Only

If a TA or RA type intruder is detected at wrong range or mode selection, mes-


sages come into view on the ND.
If the range is 20 or 10 NM, a white range ring with markings at each of the
twelve clock positions is placed around the own aircraft symbol at a radius of
2.5 NM.
Only the 8 most threatening intruders are displayed.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

Advisory Messages:
TCAS: CHANGE MODE (amber or red)
TCAS: REDUCE RANGE (amber or red)

Other Traffic Message Window


(white)
Status Messages:
Proximate Traffic
TA ONLY (white, Crew activated)
(white)
TA ONLY (amber, ATC activated)
For Training Purposes Only

Traffic Advisory
TCAS (red) TCAS Flag
(amber)

Resolution Advisory No Bearing Indication


(red) 10.3NM+10 12.4NM-09

Figure 97 TCAS Indication on ND


FRA US/E MK 21.2.96 Page: 161
Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/321
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

SENSITIVITY LEVELS
The notion of sensitivity level is very important in the TCAS as many of the op- S the ATC Mode S equipped ground stations may modify the sensitivity level
erating modes depend on it. The TCAS separates the surrounding airspace of the aircraft TCAS via the uplink without, however, having the capability to
into altitude layers. A different Sensitivity Level (SL) threshold for issuing advi- force the Standby Mode. If several ground stations command sensitivity lev-
sories is applied to each altitude layer. The sensitivity level is decreased at low els, the TCAS logic selects the lowest level.
altitude to prevent unnecessary advisories in higher traffic densities such as Definition of priority logic:
terminal areas. Generally, the level is determined automatically by the TCAS in
First a sensitivity level based on altitude is selected. Level 2 is selected if the
function of:
radio altimeter altitude is less than 500 ft. Level 2 is also selected if own aircraft
S altitude values from the radio altimeter up to 2500 ft AGL is configured such that both CLIMB and DESCEND RAs are inhibited (e.g.,
S barometric altitude values in the 2500 ft to 36,000 ft range. Time to intercept below 1000 ft AGL with insufficient climb performance). Level 4 is selected if
(TAU) values corresponding to each sensitivity level indicate the TA and RA the aircraft is above 500 ft and below 2500 ft AGL. Level 4 is the least sensitive
thresholds. The vertical separation thresholds at closest point of approach of the levels selected automatically by the TCAS ; in fact in this altitude layer,
(CPA) also vary in function of the sensitivity level for the different types of the numerous inhibitions reduce the appearance of RA. If the aircraft is above
advisory. 2500 ft AGL, barometric altitude is used to select either level 5 (below 10,000
The following table summarizes these data: ft), 6 (from 10,000 to 20,000 ft), and 7 (above 20,000 ft). ATC/TCAS control
---------------------------------------------------------------------
unit input is read by the TCAS computer. If the pilot has selected Automatic
I I TAU thresholds I Vertical separation I Mode (TA/RA), then the altitude-based sensitivity level will be used in compari-
I I I thresholds I sons to determine the final level. From all sensitivity level commands, if any,
-----------------------------I-----------------I---------------------I received from ground stations, the lowest is selected.
I Source I Altitude I SL TA RA I S0 S1 S2 I If the TA ONLY mode is selected, either manually via the control unit or by a
I Altitude I I I TA RA RA I
ground station, the altitude-based sensitivity level is used for TA thresholds
I I I I prev cor I
I I I (sec) (sec) I (ft) (ft) (ft) I
and the RAs are inhibited. Otherwise, the lowest of all inputs is chosen.
I--------------------------------------------------------------------I
I Radio Alt Iless than 500 I 2 20 I 1200 I
I Radio Alt I 500-2500 I 4 35 20 I 1200 750 400 I
I Baro I 2500-10000 I 5 40 25 I 1200 750 400 I
I Baro I 10000-20000 I 6 45 30 I 1200 750 500 I
I Baro I 20000-30000 I 7 45 35 I 1200 850 640 I
For Training Purposes Only

I Baro Imore than 30000I 7 48 35 I 1200 950 750 I


I--------------------------------------------------------------------I

Level 1 corresponds to Standby Mode in which no advisory is generated and


Level 3 is reserved for the future TCAS III which will have the capability to gen-
erate horizontal maneuver advisories.
There are two other means of modifying the sensitivity level:
S selecting TA only mode on the ATC/TCAS control unit forces level 2. In this
case, intruders of all types are displayed but will not be transformed into RA
symbols and no vertical speed modification indications will be issued.

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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 98 TCAS Sensitifity Levels


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

ECAM WARNING
In case of TCAS failure, the TCAS warning message NAV TCAS FAULT is Faults detected by the system and transferred to the CFDIU causes the follow-
shown on the upper ECAM display, the MASTER CAUTION comes on and the ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
single chime sounds.
Internal Faults
FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE S TCAS (1SG)
The different BITE menu selections are: The TCAS computer is faulty.
S LAST LEG REPORT S TCAS TOP ANTENNA (7SG1)
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT The TOP antenna is faulty.
S LRU IDENTIFICATION S TCAS TOP ANTENNA (7SG1) COAXIAL JX
S GND SCANNING The TOP antenna segment X or coaxial connection or cable is faulty.
S CLASS 3 FAULTS S TCAS BOT ANTENNA (7SG2)
S TEST The BOT antenna is faulty.
S GROUND REPORT S TCAS BOT ANTENNA (7SG2) COAXIAL JX
The BOT antenna segment X or coaxial connection or cable is faulty.
External Faults
S RA X (1SAX) / TCAS (1SG)
No connection to the LRRA X.
S ATC X (1SHX) / TCAS (1SG)
No connection to the ATC X system.
S ADIRU1 (1FP1) / TCAS (1SG)
No connection to the ADIRU 1 system.
S ATC-TCAS CTL PNL (3SH) / TCAS (1SG)
No data from control panel.
For Training Purposes Only

S CFDIU (1TW) / TCAS (1SG)


No connection to the CFDIU.
S POWER SUPPLY INTERRUPT
A power supply interrupt has occurred.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

Capt Loudspeaker Capt Capt F/O F/O F/O Loudspeaker


PFD ND ECAM ND PFD

Warning

EFIS System

CFDIU

other Systems
LRRA 1,2

other Systems
ADIRU 1

TCAS
FWC 1,2
Audio



ATC 1



ATC 2


Top Bottom
For Training Purposes Only


Antenna


Antenna





CFDIU monitored


ATC/TCAS Control


Figure 99 TCAS BITE Schematic
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(TCAS) 34-43

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For Training Purposes Only

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(TCAS) 34-43

A
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 100 TCAS CFDIU Test Procedure


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43
Self Test Failure indication
A quick check of the correct operation of the TCAS installation can be per- At the end of the test sequence the system generates a synthesized voice
formed by activating the TEST function : message:
S either by pressing the pushbutton switch on the front of the TCAS computer S TCAS SYSTEM TEST OK
S or through the CFDIU by applying the procedure TCAS Functional Test on if the system operates correctly or
the Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU). S TCAS SYSTEM TEST FAIL
The self-test sequence checks the main functions of the computer and trans- if an anomaly has been detected.
mits to the displays:
S resolution advisory characteristics (0 ft/min advisory, up corrective advisory,
dont descend, dont climb > 2000 ft/min, rate to maintain).
S four intruder data according to the following table:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I INTRUDER I TYPE I RANGE I REL ALT I BEARING I VERTICAL RATE I
I I I (NM) I (FEET) I (DEG) I I
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
I 1 I RA I 2.00 I +200 I +90 I no vertical rate I
I 2 I TA I 2.00 I -200 I -90 I climbing I
I 3 I PROX I 3.625 I -1000 I +33.75 I descending I
I 4 I OTHER I 3.625 I +1000 I -33.75 I no vertical rate I
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

ND image
The ND must display the images corresponding to the four types of intruders :
Other, Proximate, TA and RA. The shapes and colors of the traffic symbols are:
S white outlined diamond for Other traffic
S white diamond for Proximate traffic
S amber circle for TA traffic
For Training Purposes Only

S red square for RA traffic.

PFD image
At the beginning of the test sequence, green and red sectors must appear se-
quentially on the vertical speed scale of the PFD. Then a resolution advisory
display is shown.

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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

BITE TEST INDICATION

1 TCAS prox. traffic (white)

2 TCAS traffic adv (yellow)

3 TCAS resolution adv (red)

4 TCAS resolution adv. on V/S scale

5 TCAS flag (red)


4
5

1
For Training Purposes Only

2
3

5
TCAS Display Switch
TCAS
TCAS mode selector
Figure 101 TCAS BITE Indication on PFD, ND
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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

ACTIVATION OF THE FRONTPANEL TEST


The front panel test can be activated in ground condition only by pushing the
TEST pushbutton switch on the face of the TCAS computer.
S During the first 3 seconds, all LEDs are on.
S During the next 3 seconds, all LEDs turn off.
S During the last seconds (or until the TEST pushbutton switch is released)
the TTR PASS LED is shown (except if a fault has been detected during the
test).
If a fault exists, the faulty component is coded as follows:
-----------------------------------------------------
LED I COMPONENT
-----------------------------------------------------
TTR FAIL I TCAS PROCESSOR FAIL
XPNDR I MODE S TRANSPONDER or DATA LINK FAIL
UPPER ANT I UPPER TCAS ANTENNA FAIL
LOWER ANT I LOWER TCAS ANTENNA FAIL
RAD ALT I RADIO ALTIMETER or DATA LINK FAIL
HDNG I HEADING DATA FAIL
R/A I RA DISPLAY FAIL
T/A I TA DISPLAY FAIL
------------------------------------------------------
For Training Purposes Only

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(TCAS) 34-43

Test Push Button


For Training Purposes Only

Figure 102 TCAS Front Panel Test


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 103 TCAS Location Computer and Antennas


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TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYS.
(TCAS) 34-43

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

34-48 GPWS
DESCRIPTION
General Outputs
The GPWS system generates aural and visual warnings, if the A/C adopts a All warnings activations are monitored by the FWCs to inhibit simultaneous alti-
potentially hazardous configuration (excessive descent rate or unsafe terrain tude call outs an for recording by the DFDR.
clearance, below G/S) When the system fails, a discrete switches on the FAULT legend on the GPWS
The A320 uses one GPWS systems. control panel. A ECAM message appear via the SDAC.
The system is active between 2450 ft and 10 ft for mode 1 and 3 warnings and The CFDIU is used to communicate with the internal BITE functions of the
between 2450 ft and 30 ft for mode 2, 4 and 5 warnings. GPWS computer (test only available on ground).

Control Panel Warnings and Flags


Switches on the control panel are used to switch the system on and off and to A faulty GPWS system results in the following cockpit effects:
control the different modes of operation. S Master Caution Lights on glareshield
Inputs S Aural Warning (Single Chime)
The radio height from LRRA1 is used for mode 1-4 warning calculation. S NAV GPWS FAULT on the upper ECAM display
The ADIRU1 sends data for warning profile calculation and position data for S Fault Light on GPWS control panel.
envelope modulation (profile modulation of known critical airports, runways).
The ILS receiver transmits G/S deviation for mode 5 warning.
The FMGC1 provides data for envelope modulation and the landing configura-
tion 3 signal (activated via the MCDU).
The SFCC sends flap position (conf 3 or full) for landing config relay.
A signal from the FWCs inhibits all aural GPWS warnings as long as a stall or
windshear warning is active.
Pressing the GPWS-GS warning light activates the cockpit self test (AIR and
For Training Purposes Only

RA>1000 ft or GND) or inhibits the mode 5 warning (AIR and RA<1000 ft).
The audio suppression on the ECAM control panel cancels all GPWS aural
warnings.
The LCGIU sends a discrete signal to the GPWS which is used for internal
BITE purposes.

Warning Outputs
The GPWS generates visual warnings through associated lights (red GPWS
light for mode 1-4 and amber G/S light for mode 5) and synthetic voice through
the loudspeakers.

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 104 GPWS System Schematic Inputs digital


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 105 GPWS System Schematic Inputs discrete


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 106 GPWS System Schematic Outputs


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

CONTROL

1 SYS pushbutton switch


This pushbutton switch when pressed (in) (white OFF legend on), inhibits all
the GPWS warnings an no GPWS self test is possible.
The SYS pushbutton switch provides a FAULT warning indicating that a sys-
tem fault has been detected by the GPWC.
When the FAULT legend comes on, these messages are displayed on the
EWD:
NAV GPWS FAULT (amber) associated with action requested.
GPWS .... OFF (cyan).
A GPWS message (amber) is also displayed on the STATUS page on the
System Display (SD).

2 G/S MODE pushbutton switch


This pushbutton switch when pressed (in) (white OFF legend on), inhibits
the glide slope mode.

3 FLAP MODE pushbutton switch


This pushbutton switch when pressed (in) (white OFF legend on), inhibits
flap abnormal condition input and generates the GPWS FLAP MODE OFF
message (green) in the MEMO area of the EWD.

4 LDG FLAP 3 pushbutton switch


The LDG FLAP 3 pushbutton switch when pressed (in) (white ON legend
on), selects the landing flap 3 position, when released (out) , the FULL posi-
For Training Purposes Only

tion. The GPWS FLAP message is permanently displayed (green) in the


MEMO of the EWD.

5 CAPT and F/O GPWS/G/S pushbutton switches


These pushbutton switches have two functions when pressed (in):
- they cancel the glide slope alert or
- they initiate the self test sequence if the aircraft is on ground or above
1000 ft.

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

5 5
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 107 GPWS Contol and Indication 1


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

OPERATION AND INDICATION


Warning modes Inhibitions
The serial digital data and discrete data inputs are interfaced and used in differ- You can cancel the warnings if:
ent combinations to monitor aircraft vertical performance. The following func- S You press the EMER CANC key on the ECAM control panel (aural warning
tions are monitored: only).
S Mode 1 - Excessive rate of descent S You press the GPWS/G/S pushbutton switch for mode 5 (glide slope) visual
S Mode 2 - Excessive closure rate with terrain and aural warning. This inhibition is temporary and the mode will be auto-
S Mode 3 - Descent after take off and minimum terrain clearance matically reactivated for a new envelope penetration.
S Mode 4 - Unsafe terrain clearance S You press the G/S MODE pushbutton switch for mode 5 (glide slope) visual
and aural warning (permanent inhibition).
S Mode 5 - Descent below glide slope
S You press the SYS pushbutton switch for inhibition of all the modes (visual
Warning messages and aural warnings).
Each mode computes and compares the aircraft behavior with a corresponding NOTE: ALL AURAL MESSAGES ARE INHIBITED IF A STALL OR
warning envelope. If the warning envelope is penetrated, visual and aural warn- A WINDSHEAR (IF WR/PWS IS INSTALLED) IS IN PROGRESS.
ings are generated. The aural message is broadcast through the cockpit loud-
speakers. The basic messages are as follows : Landing configuration switching
MODE AURAL WARNING VISUAL WARNING To avoid the nuisance warnings during the approach, the GPWC needs to
---------------------------------------------------- know at which flap position (FULL or 3) the crew intends to land. If the flap 3
1 SINK RATE GPWS position is selected from the control panel switch, it switches the ground signal
1 WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP GPWS from the SFCC 1 to the GPWC.
2 TERRAIN GPWS
2 TERRAIN TERRAIN GPWS Fault indication
2 WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP GPWS The faults which prevent the normal operation of the GPWC are stored in the
3 DONT SINK GPWS BITE memory. They can be read on the BITE display if you operate the STA-
4 TOO LOW TERRAIN GPWS TUS/HISTORY switch located on the GPWC face below the BITE display.
4 TOO LOW GEAR GPWS When a class 1 fault is stored, the FAULT legend of the SYS pushbutton switch
4 TOO LOW FLAPS GPWS comes on.
5 GLIDE SLOPE G/S
For Training Purposes Only

Each of these warnings inhibits the automatic call out.

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 108 GPWS Control and Indication 2


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48
Faults detected by the System and transferred to the CFDS causes the follow-
ECAM WARNING ing messages displayed on the MCDU during BITE.
In case of GPWS failure, the GPWS waring message NAV GPWS FAULT is S GPWC (1WZ)
shown on the upper ECAM display, the MASTER CAUTION comes on and the The GWPS Computer is faulty.
single chime sounds. S WRG: PIN PROG/GPWC (1WZ)
FAULT ISOLATION AND BITE Any program pins change while in flight mode.
S CAPT/FO GPWS GS PB SW(4WZ1/2) / GPWC(1WZ)
A GPWS FAULT light shows the status of the system.
G/S cancel > 15s, self test > 60s.
The test is initiated by pressing GPWS G/S pushbutton for at least .5 sec
(Ground Test) or at least 5 sec. (Ground vocabulary test). S ECP (2WN) / GPWC (1WZ)
audio cancel > 30s.
BITE Test
S GPWS FLP MODE PB SW(7WZ) / SFCC(21VC) / GPWC(1WZ)
The different BITE menu selections are:
Flap discrete signal not valid.
S LAST LEG REPORT
S GPWS SYS PB SW(9WZ) / GPWC(1WZ) / FWC 1/2(1WW1/2)
S PREVIOUS LEGS REPORT
Permanent GPWS inhibition signal.
S LRU IDENTIFICATION
S LGCIU 1 (5GA1) / GPWC (1WZ)
S GROUND SCANNING
Gear discrete signal not valid
S TROUBLE SHOOTING DATA
S CFDIU / GPWC (1WZ)
S CLASS 3 FAULTS
No connection to the CFDS
S TEST
S RA1 (1SA1) / GPWC (1WZ)
S GROUND REPORT
There is no correct data input form the LRRA system 1.
S ADIRU 1 (1FP1) / GPWC (1WZ)
There is no correct data input form the ADIRU system 1.
S ILS 1 (1RT1) / GPWC (1WZ)
There is no correct data input form the ILS system 1.
S FMGC 1 (1CA1) / GPWC (1WZ)
For Training Purposes Only

There is no correct data input form the FMGC system 1.

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

Capt Loudspeaker F/O Loudspeaker




GPWS Control

other Systems:
other Systems:
LRRA 1
ADIRU 1

SFCC 1
LGCIU
ILS 1
FMGC 1

FWC 1,2
ECAM Ctrl


GPWC
DMU (AIDS) SDAC 1,2


FWC 1,2

CFDS


For Training Purposes Only


GPWS


GPWS



G/S

G/S

Figure 109 GPWS BITE Schematic
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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 110 GPWS CFDS BITE Menu


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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1
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 111 GPWS CFDS BITE Test


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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Internal Built In Test Equipment (BITE) Capability 3) Ground vocabulary test
The interruptive self test facility of the GPWC System provides the following The ground vocabulary test is initiated if you press the GPWS/G/S pushbutton
test modes : switch continuously or during the PULL UP portion of the ground test.
S airborne self test The test sequence is as follows :
S ground self test S Verify that the system status is correct for the ground test (radio altitude <
S ground vocabulary test 30 ft., landing gear downlocked).
S status/history test (GPWS Frontpanel). S Carry out the internal tests as detailed in the ground self test.
S Carry out the output sequence of the ground self test of the GPWC.
1) Airborne self test
S Generate all aural warnings in this sequence :
The airborne self test is enabled when these conditions are met :
S the radio altitude input is greater than 1000 ft. and valid and the airspeed is
ORDER TRIGGER WARNING
greater than 90 Kts
S the GPWS/G/S pushbutton switch is pressed. ------------------------------------------------------------
With no system faults present, the GPWC System generates this warning se- 1 Sink rate SINK RATE
quence : 2 Pull up WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP
S A single soft GLIDE SLOPE aural warning is broadcast. 3 Terrain TERRAIN
4 Pull up WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP
S A single WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP aural warning is broadcast.
5 Dont sink DONT SINK
2) Ground self test 6 Too low terrain TOO LOW TERRAIN
The ground self test presents the same test sequence as the airborne test but 7 Too low gear TOO LOW GEAR
also includes an internal check. The internal test is enabled by a radio altitude 8 Too low flaps TOO LOW FLAPS
input indicating an altitude below 5 ft. and computed airspeed below 60 kts. 9 Too low terrain TOO LOW TERRAIN
10 Glide slope GLIDE SLOPE
The test is initiated if you press and hold the TEST pushbutton switch for 0.5
11 Minimums MINIMUMS MINIMUMS
seconds.
NOTE: IF YOU HOLD THE SWITCH PRESSED EITHER CONTINUOUSLY
OR DURING THE PULL UP SEQUENCE OF THE GROUND TEST
YOU WILL INITIATE THE VOCABULARY TEST.
For Training Purposes Only

Upon initiation of the test, if no fault is present, the sequence will start.
Between the first and second sequence steps (soft GLIDE SLOPE and
WHOOP WHOOP PULL UP broadcasts) an internal check is made of the fol-
lowing :
S processor instruction set
S program memory contents
S voice memory contents
The internal clock must not exceed four seconds.

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

Fault Light

press button for test


1) RA > 1000 ft and TAS > 90 kts -----> Airborne self test
2) RA < 5 ft and TAS < 60 kts and t < 1s -----> Ground self test
3) RA < 30 ft and LG downlocked and t > 5s -----> Ground vocabulary test

1) +2) GLIDE SLOPE


WHOOP WHOOP PULL
UP

3) SINK RATE
WHOOP WHOOP PULL
UP
TERRAIN
WHOOP WHOOP PULL
UP
For Training Purposes Only

DONT SINK#
TOO LOW TERRAIN
TOO LOW GEAR
TOO LOW FLAPS
TOO LOW TERRAIN
GLIDE SLOPE
MINIMUMS MINIMUMS

Figure 112 GPWS Cockpit Self Tests


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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ACTIVATION OF THE FRONT PANEL TEST


Status history test Examples of the STATUS test vocabulary are :
The test is controlled by the STATUS/HISTORY switch on the GPWC. GPWS OF
The results are shown on an 8-character BITE display also located on the face GPWC FAILED
of the GPWC.
GEAR INVALID
The STATUS test is initiated if you momentarily select PRESENT STATUS with
the STATUS/HISTORY switch.The STATUS test will show the status of the lat-
est flight information. Examples of the HISTORY test vocabulary are :
The HISTORY test is initiated if you momentarily select FLIGHT HISTORY with RADIO ALTIMETR INACTIVE FLIGHT-1
the STATUS/HISTORY switch. The HISTORY test will depict the information PREVIOUS TEN FLIGHTS OK
related to the last ten flights. FLAPS INVALID FLIGHT-8
Both tests commence with ALL SEGMENTS TEST and terminate with END BARORATE INVALID FLIGHT -2
TEST messages. The computer failures are indicated by the message GPWC
ILS DATA INACTIVE FLIGHT-3
FAILED or FLT HIST INVALID. All other failure messages indicate an incorrect
input condition.
The desired information is read from memory and converted to alphanumeric If the history test message you read is too long, you can stop the test.
data for presentation on the BITE display. Messages are presented by means To do this, you must set the STATUS/HISTORY switch to PRESENT STATUS
of this vocabulary : until the BITE display is blank. The display will then show CANCEL followed by
END TEST. This operation will have no adverse effect on the data held in the
IN TEST INVALID LAMPTEST
flight history memory.
END TEST INACTIVE AUDIO
GPWS OK INHIBIT SELECT The sequences of the flight history test and those of the present status test will
GPWC PREVIOUS FLIGHT-0 not activate the cockpit voice outputs.
RADIO TEN FLIGHT-1
ALTIMETR FLIGHTS FLIGHT-2
BARORATE OK FLIGHT-3
AIRSPEED FAILED FLIGHT-4
ALTITUDE AIR DATA FLIGHT-5
For Training Purposes Only

GLIDE ILS DATA FLIGHT-6


SLOPE IRS DATA FLIGHT-7
CANCEL EXTERNAL FLIGHT-8
COURSE FLT HIST FLIGHT-9
GEAR INPUT CORRECTD
RUNWAY PROCESSR LOCALIZR
HEADING OUTPUT LATITUDE
FLAPS ASSEMBLY LONGITUD

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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
(GPWS) 34-48

PRES FLT
STAT HIST
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 113 GPWS Status/History Test


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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LOCATION
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 114 GPWS Location Computer


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GROUND PROX. WARNING SYSTEM
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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 115 GPWS Location Control and Indication


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EGPWS
34-48

34-48 ENHANCED GPWS


SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
General Enhanced Features
The purpose of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (Enhanced The Enhanced GPWC includes enhanced features which complete the basic
GPWS) is to alert the flight crew of potentially hazardous conditions with GPWS modes:
respect to the terrain. S Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD) function
The system achieves this objective by accepting a variety of aircraft - A major new feature of the Enhanced GPWS is the incorporation of the
parameters and providing the flight crew with aural alert messages and visual terrain awareness alerting and display functions.
annunciations and displays in the event that the boundaries of any alerting These functions use aircraft geographic position, aircraft altitude and
envelope are exceeded. a terrain data base to predict potential conflicts between the aircraft flight
Enhanced features have been added to existing basic Ground Proximity path and the terrain, and to provide graphic displays of the conflicting
Warning Modes 1 to 5 which are the backbone of the system. terrain.
Several main alerting functional areas are integrated into the The terrain awareness alerting algorithms continuously compute terrain
Enhanced GPWC. clearance envelopes ahead of the aircraft.
The functional areas are: If the boundaries of these envelopes conflict with terrain elevation data
in the terrain database, then alerts are issued.
S basic Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) (Modes 1 to 5),
S Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function
S Terrain Awareness and Display (TAD) function,
- The Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function adds an additional element
S Terrain Clearance Floor function (TCF).
of protection to the basic GPWS modes.
Basic GPWS Modes - It creates an increasing terrain clearance envelope around the intended
The basic GPWS modes generate aural and visual warnings if the aircraft airport runway directly related to the distance from the runway.
adopts a potentially hazardous condition with respect to: - TCF alerts are based on current aircraft location, nearest runway center
S Mode 1 - Excessive rate of descent. point position and radio altitude.
S Mode 2 - Excessive closure rate with terrain. - TCF is active during takeoff, cruise and final approach.
S Mode 3 - Descent after takeoff and minimum terrain clearance. - This alert mode complements existing Mode 4 protection by providing an
alert based on insufficient terrain clearance even when in landing
S Mode 4 - Unsafe terrain clearance.
For Training Purposes Only

configuration.
S Mode 5 - Descent below glide slope.
- TCF function generates aural and visual alert.

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 116 Enhanced GPWS


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EGPWS
34-48

TERRAIN AWARENESS ALERTING AND DISPLAY (TAD)


Description Input Processing and Signal Selection
The terrain awareness component of the Enhanced GPWS is divided into The Enhanced GPWS Input Processing and Signal Selection function
functional blocks with an interface to Navigation Display. conditions and formats aircraft data into proper form for use by the Enhanced
GPWS while insulating the Enhanced GPWS from variations in aircraft type
The highlighted blocks monitor aircraft position with respect to local terrain data and configuration.
base and provide rapid audio and visual alerts when a terrain threat is S Aircraft Data Inputs
detected. - Aircraft position latitude and longitude are required for terrain awareness
Terrain threats are recognized and annunciated when terrain violates specific operation and are received from the Flight Management System (FMS).
computed envelope boundaries forward of the aircraft path. The terrain threat detection and display processing are automatically
disabled in some particular conditions. This is indicated to the flight crew
The terrain awareness alert lamps and audio outputs behave in the same by an ECAM memo (TERR STBY).
manner as the standard GPWS mode alerts. Additionally, aircraft ground track and ground speed data are received
A terrain caution alert or terrain warning alert initiates a specific audio alert from the IR portion of the ADIRU 1 (IRS). The aircraft altitude MSL is
phrase. received from the air data portion of the ADIRU 1.
Other aircraft inputs include aircraft heading (from the IR), roll attitude
Complementing the terrain threat alerts, the Enhanced GPWS also maintains a (from IR) and flight path angle (derived by EGPWS).
synthetic image of local terrain forward of the aircraft for display on EFIS
Local Terrain Processing
Navigation Displays (ND).
The local terrain processing block extracts and formats local topographic data
and terrain features from the related data bases creating a set of digital
The Enhanced GPWS is configured to automatically de-select the weather
elevation matrix overlays for use by the terrain threat detection and display
display and pop-up a display of the terrain threats when they occur.
processing functions.
The logic used provides an external input for predictive windshear alerts that
can override a terrain display and revert to the weather display with the Additionally, data for the nearest runway are also extracted for use by the
corresponding windshear data (if WR/PWS installed). terrain threat detection and display processing functions.
Terrain Threat Detection
The Enhanced GPWS provides two external display outputs, each with
The terrain threat detection and display processing block performs the threat
For Training Purposes Only

independent range-scaling control in the same fashion as a weather radar on


analysis on the terrain data within computed caution and warning envelope
both NDs. Changes of range scaling to one ND do not affect the other display.
boundaries below and forward of the aircraft path.
Each of these two independent outputs may be used to drive more than one
display. Results of these threat assessments are combined with background terrain
data and data for the nearest runway and formatted into a terrain display image
which can be displayed on Navigation Display in place of the weather image.
In the event of terrain caution or warning conditions, a specific audio alert is
triggered and the terrain display image is enhanced to highlight each of the
types of terrain threats.

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 117 EGPWS Terrain Awareness Functions


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34-48

TAD AUDIO ALERTS AND INDICATION


Terrain Displays and Alerts Terrain Caution Alert
The terrain awareness alerting and display function maintains a background A specific audio alert and light output is triggered and the background image is
display of local terrain forward of the aircraft for cockpit display. enhanced to highlight the terrain caution threats.
In the event of terrain caution or warning conditions, an aural alert and lamp At the start of a terrain caution alert, the terrain awareness function triggers the
outputs are triggered. The background image is then enhanced to highlight caution audio alert phrase TERRAIN AHEAD. The phrase is repeated after
related terrain threats forward of the aircraft. seven seconds if still within the terrain caution envelope.
NOTE: TERRAIN IS NOT SHOWN IF MORE THAN 2000 FT BELOW During a terrain caution alert, the GPWS legend of pushbutton switches is on.
REFERENCE ALTITUDE AND / OR TERRAIN IS NOT SHOWN During a terrain caution alert, areas where terrain violates the terrain caution
IF TERRAIN ELEVATION IS WITHIN 400 FT OF RUNWAY envelope along the aircraft track, and within plus or minus 90 deg. of the
ELEVATION NEAREST THE AIRCRAFT. aircraft track, are painted with the caution color 100 per cent yellow.
Terrain Warning Alert
Color Threat When the conditions have been met to generate a terrain warning alert,
a specific audio alert and light output is triggered and the background image is
Warning terrain (approx. 30 sec. from impact); enhanced to highlight the terrain caution and warning threats.
Solid Red
audio alert TERRAIN AHEAD, PULL UP
At the start of a terrain warning alert, the terrain awareness function triggers
Caution terrain (approx. 60 sec. from impact); the warning audio alert phrase TERRAIN AHEAD, PULL UP.
Solid Yellow
audio alert: TERRAIN AHEAD The phrase is repeated continuously while within the terrain warning envelope.
Terrain that is more than 2000 ft. above During a terrain warning alert, the GPWS legend of pushbutton switches is on.
High Density Red
aircraft altitude
During a terrain warning alert, areas where terrain violates the terrain warning
Terrain that is between 1000 and 2000 ft. above envelope along the aircraft track, and within plus or minus 90 deg. of the
High Density Yellow
aircraft altitude aircraft track, are painted with the warning color 100 per cent red.
Terrain that is 500 (250 with gear down) ft. NOTE: -WHEN AN ALERT OCCURS (CAUTION OR WARNING) AND THE
Medium Density Yellow
below to 1000 ft. above aircraft altitude FCU MODE IS NOT IN A CORRECT MODE (ARC OR ROSE),
Terrain that is 500 (250 with gear down) ft. below THE MESSAGE TERR. CHANGE MODE IS DISPLAYED ON NDS.
Medium Density Green
to 1000 ft. below aircraft altitude -WHEN AN ALERT OCCURS (CAUTION OR WARNING) AND THE
For Training Purposes Only

Terrain that is 1000 to 2000 ft. below FCU RANGE SELECTED IS 160 OR 320NM THE MESSAGE
Light Density Green TERR. REDUCE RANGE IS DISPLAYED ON NDS.
aircraft altitude
Black No close terrain TAD inhibitions
Light Density Magenta Unknown terrain S manually by the GPWS/TERR P.B. switch
S automatically when the FMS aircraft position accuracy is not accurate
enough. This is indicated to the crew by the automatic deselection of terrain
display and the illumation of the TERR STBY memo on the ECAM display
unit.

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TERR
AHEAD

-message TERR AHEAD in RED: Warning Terrain


-message TERR AHEAD in AMBER: Caution Terrain
-message TERR in CYAN: normal indication
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 118 EGPWS Terrain Indication on ND


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EGPWS
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TERRAIN CLEARANCE FLOOR (TCF)


Description Runway Data Base
The Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) alert function adds an additional element of The TCF runway data base consists of data records containing the position of
protection to the standard GPWS. airport runway center points along with 1/2 the runway length.
It creates an increasing terrain clearance envelope around the airport runway The data base includes all hard surface runways in the world greater than or
to provide protection against Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) situations equal to 3500 ft in length.
beyond that which is currently provided. The process of generating this data base is certified and includes an end check
TCF alerts are based on current aircraft location, nearest runway center point that validates that the data was not corrupted in the translation process.
position and radio altitude. This data base can be updated without affecting the customer certified system
TCF is active during takeoff, cruise and final approach. part number.
This alert mode complements the existing Mode 4 protection by providing an The design of the data base and related software is such that additional runway
alert based on insufficient terrain clearance even when in landing configuration. records can be added in the future without altering the code.
The data base provides a means of accessing the runway record of the runway
Alerts for TCF illuminate GPWS cockpit lamps and produce aural messages.
closest to the current aircraft position.
System Inputs
Alert Envelope
Input Source The TCF alert envelope is a circular band centered over the nearest runway.
Radio Altitude External: Radio Altimeter The distance from the runway center to the inner envelope edge is equal to
1/2 the runway length plus the envelope bias factor.
Latitude External: FMS Thus the inner and outer radius of the envelope are modulated based on the
Longitude External: FMS runway length and envelope bias factor. Runway length varies from one
Runway Center Latitude Internal: data base runway to the next, and the envelope bias factor is typically 1/2 NM to 2 NM
and varies with position accuracy.
Runway Center Longitude Internal: data base
The outer alert envelope boundary extends to infinity, or until it meets the outer
Navigation Mode FMS alert envelope boundary of another runway.
Alert Envelope Parameters Internal: data base The alert is inhibited below radio altitude of 30 ft.
For Training Purposes Only

1/2 Runway Length Internal: data base TCF inhibitions


System Error Factor Internal: data base S manually by the GPWS/TERR P.B. switch
S automatically when the FMS aircraft position accuracy is not accurate
System Outputs enough. This is indicated to the crew by the automatic deselection of terrain
When an aircraft penetrates the TCF alert envelope the following aural display and the illumation of the TERR STBY memo on the ECAM display
message occurs: TOO LOW TERRAIN. unit.
This aural message occurs once when initial envelope penetration occurs,
and one time thereafter for each 20 per cent degradation in radio altitude.
At the same time the GPWS legend of pushbutton switches comes on.

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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 119 EGPWS Terrain Clearance Floor alert envelope


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OUTPUTS EGPWC
INPUTS EGPWC
Warning Outputs
Digital Data Inputs
S Two discrete outputs from the EGPWC control the GPWS/G/S pushbutton
The Enhanced GPWC receives serial digital data inputs from: switches located on Captain and First Officer main instrument panels.
S radio altimeter transceiver 1 (radio altitude), - The upper legend identified GPWS, controlled by the first output, comes
S Air Data/Inertial Reference Unit 1 (ADIRU), on red when a ground proximity warning is generated by the EGPWC for
S ADR portion (barom. altitude, barom. altitude rate, computed airspeed), Modes 1 to 4 or TAD and TCF warnings.
IR portion (latitude, longitude, magnetic heading), - The lower legend identified G/S, controlled by the second output, comes
S IR portion (latitude, longitude, magnetic heading), on amber when a glide slope (Mode 5) caution alert is generated by the
S ILS receiver 1 (glide slope dev., localizer dev., selected runway heading), Enhanced GPWC.
The pushbutton switch provides a facility to cancel a glide slope warning,
S FMGC (latitude, longitude, track, navigation modes), if in progress, or to initiate an Enhanced GPWS self-test.
S CFDIU (command word, date, flight number, UTC), S Both discrete outputs are also used to inhibit TCAS and automatic call out
S FCU 1 and 2 (CAPT and F/O ranges), when the GPWS or G/S warnings are in progress.
S Weather Radar 1 (hazard bus). S Both discrete outputs are also used for the Digital Flight Data Recorder
(DFDR).
Discrete Data Inputs
Discrete data inputs are received from the following: Monitor Outputs
S Slat Flap Control Computer 1 (SFCC) (3 and FULL flap position), There are two monitor outputs:
S Flight Warning Computer 1 and 2 (FWC) (all audio inhibition), S GPWS monitor output controls the FAULT legend of the SYS pushbutton
S Landing Gear Control and Interface Unit (LGCIU), switch and indicates a failure of Modes 1 to 5,
S ECAM control panel (audio suppression), S TERR monitor output controls the FAULT legend of the TERR pushbutton
switch and indicates a failure of TAD and TCF functions.
S GPWS/FLAP MODE pushbutton switch which, when pressed (in)
(white OFF legend on), overrides a flap abnormal condition input, Bus Output
S GPWS/SYS pushbutton switch which, when pressed (in) The bus output is used by the Aircraft Integrated Data System (AIDS), Data
(white OFF legend on), inhibits Modes 1 to 5 warnings, Management Unit (DMU) and by the Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit
For Training Purposes Only

S GPWS/G/S MODE pushbutton switch which, when pressed (in) (CFDIU) for test causes.
(white OFF legend on), overrides the glide slope mode,
Audio Output
S GPWS/G/S pushbutton switch which, when pressed (in),
The audio output is used by the cockpit loud speakers for aural warning mes-
enables the Enhanced GPWC to perform test,
sages.
S GPWS/TERR pusbutton switch which, when pressed (in)
(white OFF legend on), inhibits TAD and TCF functions, POWER SUPPLY
S TERR ON ND (CAPT or F/O) pushbutton switches allow the crew to select
The Enhanced GPWC power supply circuits receive 115VAC, 400 Hz, single
or deselect terrain display on NDs,
phase (22 W max.) supply from the AC Bus1.
S Weather Radar control unit.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/321
EGPWS
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For Training Purposes Only

Figure 120 EGPWC Inputs and Outputs


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EGPWS
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CONTROL
Pushbutton Switches
1 GPWS/TERR pushbutton switch 4 GPWS/FLAP MODE pushbutton switch
S When this pushbutton switch is pressed (white OFF legend on), the S This pushbutton switch, when pressed in (white OFF legend on), overrides
TAD and TCF functions are inhibited (visual display and audio inhibition). flap abnormal condition input and generates the GPWS FLAP MODE OFF
S provides a FAULT warning indicating that a failure of TAD and / or TCF message (green) in the memo area of the upper ECAM display unit.
functions has been detected by the Enhanced GPWC.
When the FAULT legend comes on, the following messages are displayed: 5 GPWS/LDG FLAP 3 pushbutton switch
- on the upper ECAM display unit if they are not inhibited by the FWC: S To avoid nuisance warnings during approach, the Enhanced GPWC needs
S NAV - GPWS TERR DET FAULT (amber) to know at which flap position the crew intends to land.
S GPWS TERR.............OFF (cyan) S When pressed in (white ON legend on), indicates to the Enhanced GPWC
- on the STATUS page (INOP SYS) of the lower ECAM display unit: that the pilot intends to land in flap 3position.
When released out, the pushbutton switch indicates to the Enhanced
S GPWS TERR (amber) GPWC that the pilot intends to land in flap FULL position.
The GPWS FLAP message is permanently displayed in green on the
2 GPWS/SYS pushbutton switch MEMO of the ECAM display unit if no warning is in progress.
S When this pushbutton switch is pressed (white OFF legend on),
all ground proximity alerts (Mode 1 to 5) are inhibited (visual and audio) and 6 CAPT and F/O TERR ON ND pushbutton switches
no Enhanced GPWC self-test is possible. S These pushbutton switches allow the crew to select or deselect
S provides a FAULT warning indicating that a failure in Modes 1 to 5 has been terrain display on ND.
detected by the Enhanced GPWC.When the FAULT legend comes on, S The ON legends indicate that terrain data is displayed on ND
the following messages are displayed: (following manual or automatic pop up selection).
- on the upper ECAM display unit if they are not inhibited by the FWC:
S NAV - GPWS FAULT (amber) 7 CAPT and F/O GPWS/G/S pushbutton switches
S GPWS ........OFF (cyan) S These pushbutton switches, located on panels 301VU and 500VU,
(associated with action requested)
For Training Purposes Only

have two functions when pressed in:


- on the STATUS page (INOP SYS) of the lower ECAM display unit: - they cancel the glide slope alert, or
S GPWS (amber) - they initiate the self-test sequence if the aircraft is on ground or
above 2000 ft Above Ground Level (AGL)
3 GPWS/G/S MODE pushbutton switch
S This pushbutton switch, when pressed in (white OFF legend on),
inhibits the glide slope mode.

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NAVIGATION A319/320/320
EGPWS
34-48

7
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 121 EGPWS Control and Indication


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NAVIGATION A319/320/320
EGPWS
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ALERTS AND INHIBITITIONS


Aural alert messages Inhibitions
Each mode computes and compares aircraft behaviour with a corresponding Alerts may be cancelled by:
alert envelope. If the alert envelope is penetrated, visual and aural alerts are S Pressing the EMER CANC key on the ECAM control panel (aural alert only).
generated. The aural message is broadcast through the cockpit loud speakers.
S Pressing the GPWS/G/S pushbutton switch on the main instrument panel
The messages are as follows:
for Mode 5 (glide slope) visual and aural alert. This inhibition is temporary
and the mode is automatically reactivated for a new envelope penetration.
MODE AURAL ALERTS VISUAL ALERTS
S Pressing the G/S MODE pushbutton switch on the overhead panel for
1 SINK RATE GPWS Mode 5 (glide slope) visual and aural alert (permanent inhibition).
1 PULL UP GPWS S Pressing the SYS pushbutton switch on the overhead panel for inhibition of
2 TERRAIN GPWS GPWS Modes 1 to 5 (visual and aural alerts).
2 TERRAIN TERRAIN GPWS S Pressing the TERR pushbutton switch on the overhead panel for inhibition
of TAD and TCF functions (visual and aural alerts).
2 PULL UP GPWS
NOTE: ALL AURAL MESSAGES ARE INHIBITED IF A STALL OR
3 DONT SINK GPWS A WINDSHEAR (IF WR/PWS IS INSTALLED) IS IN PROGRESS.
4 TOO LOW TERRAIN GPWS
ECAM WARNING
4 TOO LOW GEAR GPWS
4 TOO LOW FLAPS GPWS Failure in Mode 1 to 5
5 GLIDE SLOPE G/S upper ECAM display unit:
S NAV - GPWS FAULT (amber)
TAD TERRAIN AHEAD GPWS
S GPWS ........OFF (cyan)
TAD TERRAIN AHEAD PULL UP GPWS
lower ECAM display unit (INOP SYS):
TCF TOO LOW TERRAIN GPWS
S GPWS (amber)
Each of these alerts inhibits the automatic call out.
Failure of TAD and / or TCF functions
For Training Purposes Only

upper ECAM display:


S NAV - GPWS TERR DET FAULT (amber)
S GPWS TERR.............OFF (cyan)
lower ECAM display unit (INOP SYS):
S GPWS TERR (amber)

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Lufthansa Technical Training
NAVIGATION A319/320/320
EGPWS
34-48
For Training Purposes Only

Figure 122 EGPWS Messages on upper and lower ECAM-DU


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