0 Votos favoráveis0 Votos desfavoráveis

0 visualizações6 páginaspaper on inverter

Jul 01, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou leia online no Scribd

paper on inverter

© All Rights Reserved

0 visualizações

paper on inverter

© All Rights Reserved

- s 35102109
- Inverter Finaldoc
- EPE-03-synopsis
- SINGLE PHASE THREE LEG AC/AC CONVERTER
- Systematic Design of Hybrid Cascaded Multilevel Inverters with Simplified DC Power Supply and low Switching Losses
- AliIbrahimIsmaail-Thesis
- Design of a Microcontroller-based
- power quality
- Saha Nguyen Ieee
- pwm
- Paper 5
- IETEJRes544297-73583_202623
- Unsafe Inverters
- INV04503992
- 06836965
- 48 Pulse PWM
- 4-5
- 00136258
- 00785624.pdf
- Space Vector Control

Você está na página 1de 6

4

International Symposium on Intelligent Control

Munich, Germany, October 4-6, 2006

PWM inverters using Genetic Algorithms

A. Sayyah, Student Member, IEEE, M. Aflaki, and A.R.Rezazade

Abstract In this paper the aim is to minimize the total These transcendental equations are solved using iterative

harmonic distortion (THD) in PWM inverters while numerical techniques, where the initially provided

suppressing chosen harmonics concurrently and maintaining approximate solutions must be sufficiently close to the exact

the fundamental component of the output voltage at a required solutions to ensure the convergence of the solutions, and this

level. This is reformed as an optimization task and the optimal is the most difficult task associated with these methods [6].

pulse patterns are accomplished using genetic algorithm (GA) Some attempts have been made to simplify harmonic

optimization technique to minimize a predefined fitness

elimination equations by applying Walsh functions [7]-[9].

function. The complete solutions that suppress the 5th and 7th

harmonics and optimize the THD are given. A practical It was believed that the system of transcendental nonlinear

limitation on the determination of sequential switching angles harmonic elimination equations resulting from Fourier

has been considered as a set of constraints in derivation of the analysis of PWM waveform could be replaced by a system

results. of linear algebraic equations when Walsh analysis is

applied. However, it has been illustrated that Walsh

I. INTRODUCTION functions approach is neither theoretically nor practically

applicable [6]. In some other studies [12], the complete

solutions to the harmonic elimination problem have been

width modulated(PWM) have the most widespread

presented using the theory of resultants from elimination

applications such as: uninterruptible power supply (UPS),

theory [10], [11]. These expressions are difficult and time

phase controlled rectifier, and adjustable speed servo drives.

consuming to derive. An increase in the number of

The main features that have made them candidates in many switching angles can exacerbate the problem due to its call

industrial applications are: their capabilities of controlling for exorbitant calculations. This paper has a three-fold

the output voltage and frequency simultaneously, and objective. First, minimization of the THD in the case of

generating output waveform with low harmonic distortion. three switching angles, second, elimination of the 5th and 7th

The output voltage of an ideal inverter is sinusoidal. harmonics and presenting complete solutions as in [12] but

However, the waveforms of practical inverters are non- this time considering a practical limitation on choosing the

sinusoidal and contain certain harmonics. In low- and sequential switching angles, that makes the utilization of

medium-power applications, square-wave or quasi-square- switching instants possible in low modulation indices, and

wave voltages may be acceptable, but in high-power third, optimization of an objective function formed by

applications, sinusoidal waveforms are desired to be less combining the first and second terms discussed above. All

distorted [18]. In this case, direct optimization of the the steps enumerated above, have been carried out using

waveform based on specification of an optimal value for GA. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a randomized parallel

each switching instant seems indispensable [6]. search method modeled on natural selection. GA can be

This optimization can be achieved via various approaches. applied to a variety of problems and is becoming a

Elimination of the lower frequency dominant harmonics and significant tool in machine learning and function

Minimization of the total harmonic distortion are the two optimization [13]-[16].

widely-used methods in choosing the switching instants. The

more studied of the two techniques is the harmonic II. THREE-PHASE INVERTERS AND PWM WAVEFORM

elimination method in which the switching angles are chosen Three-phase inverters are normally used for high-power

(programmed) so as to eliminate specific harmonics. These applications. Three single-phase half (or full)-bridge

switching patterns can be determined by solving some inverters can be connected in parallel as shown in Fig. 1 to

systems of nonlinear and transcendental equations [1]-[5]. form the configuration of three-phase inverters.

University, Tehran, 19839-63113 (phone: +98-21-44080421; e-mail: VS

arash.sayyah@gmail.com).

a

M. Aflaki, has graduated from Shahid Beheshti University in Electrical b

Engineering, Tehran, 19839-63113. She is now doing her graduate studies c

in Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, 11365-8639 Iran (e-mail: Q4 D4 Q6 D6 Q2 D2

mitra.aflaki@gmail.com). VS

A. R. Rezazade is the faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Department, Shahid Beheshti University , Tehran ,19839-63113 (e-mail:

alireza.rezazade@gmail.com). Fig. 1. Three-phase voltage source inverter (GTOs as power switches).

In this study, the switching angles B1, B2 and B3 shown functions. Each switching angle is called a gene, which can

in Fig. 2, are chosen in a way to minimize certain defined be coded as a binary or floating-point string of length. In this

functions. study, a binary string is used. A chromosome consists of all

f (R) B1 genes.

1 Some brief comparisons between the performance of GA

and other approaches applied to harmonic elimination

Q Q 3Q 2Q Xt problem (for instance) and also advantages of GA over

2 2 conventional optimization methods are considered to be:

1 1) An initial estimate of the solution is not required. This is

B2 B3 in contrast with iterative numerical techniques where

Fig. 2. A symmetrical two-level normalized PWM waveform. the initially provided approximate solution has a pivotal

Quarter-wave symmetry (i.e. f ( Q2 R) f ( Q2 R)) and role for the convergence of the algorithm. On the other

half-wave inverse symmetry (i.e. f (Q R) f (Q R)) hand, due to the stochastic nature of the search

considered in the Fig. 2, ensure the elimination of even- mechanism in GA's, they have the capability to explore

order harmonics in the output of the inverter. the entire search space with more likelihood of finding

One important point to be considered in selection of all solutions (as in the harmonic elimination problem

switching instances is that there must be a minimum delay where in the case of 3 switching angles a totally new,

between the moment a thyristor goes out and the moment the and not previously reported [1], [3], [4], set of solutions

next thyristor fires. Otherwise, the two thyristors would was found).

form a short-circuit. To avoid this condition, we assume a 2) Computational complexity is reduced in this approach

minimum difference of 100Ns between the two adjacent in comparison with other applied approaches. Derived

switching instances. The corresponding angle would be analytical expressions that use the mathematical

0.0314 rad (the fundamental frequency is assumed 50 Hz ). Resultants theory to compute the optimum switching

Hence in 3-switch case we have: angles for the harmonic elimination problem can be

(i) B1 R (ii) B2 B1 R considered for comparison [12]. The expressions are

(iii) B3 B2 R (iv) Q/2 B3 R/2 (1) polynomials of 22nd degree, which are difficult and

Satisfaction of these constraints turns optimization, from a time-consuming to derive [27].

pure mathematical procedure into a more practical one. The 3) Probability of getting trapped in locally optimal

calculated switching angles are stored in a read-only solutions is significantly decreased. Industrial

memory (ROM) and are served as a look-up table. During engineering problems usually contain nonlinearities and

real-time operation, the required fundamental amplitude is complex interactions among problem variables.

used for addressing the corresponding switching angles in Application of classical point-to-point algorithms (direct

the look-up table which are read out for controlling the or gradient-based) may result in suboptimal solutions.

inverter. To avoid the use of large memory components and The possibility of this occurrence is greatly reduced due

to improve the flexibility and maintenance of the system, a to the random process blended with GA.

real-time generation of switching instants can be performed 4) Particularly apt for addressing constrained optimization

from simple functions that approximate off-line calculated problems. A vast majority of industrial engineering

solution trajectories [19]. The accuracy of the on-line optimization problems are constrained problems. The

generated switching instants has a great reliance on the presence of constraints significantly affects the

proximity of functions and could be increased, at least performance of every optimization algorithm [21].

theoretically, to any extent by using high-order polynomials. Classic linear programming and nonlinear programming

methods are often either unsuitable or empirical when

III. GENETIC ALGORITHM applied to some constrained problems [22]. Difficulties

arise because either the amount of computation required

Genetic algorithms are defined as stochastic optimization

quickly becomes unmanageable as the size of the

techniques relying on the genetic natural evolution

problem increases, or the constraints violate the

mechanisms of creative beings [13], [20] .These algorithms required assumptions, such as differentiability or

encode a potential solution to a specific problem on a simple convexity.

chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination Several methods have been developed to handle

operators to these structures so as to preserve critical constraints in evolutionary computation techniques,

information. Although genetic algorithms are often viewed which can be classified into categories such as: methods

as function optimizers, the range of problems to which based on penalty functions (which is the most common

genetic algorithms can be applied is quite broad. approach in genetic algorithms community) [23], [24],

In the problem discussed in this paper, the solution is to the assumption of superiority of feasible solutions over

choose 3 switching instants (angles) in an electrical cycle infeasible ones [25], and repair algorithms [26].

(Fig. 2) for turning the switches on and off in a full bridge In this study, we have used the method of rejection of

inverter (Fig. 1) so as to produce a desired fundamental infeasible individuals. This is a popular option in many

amplitude while optimizing the predefined objective evolutionary techniques. Rejection of infeasible

875

individuals offers a few simplifications of the algorithm; It should be stated that to increase the precision of the

there is no need to evaluate infeasible solutions and to optimal solution accomplished by the algorithm, we used a

compare them with feasible ones. Details of applying local search function.

this procedure are given in the sequel.

GA procedure that is used herein is as follows: IV. PROBLEM FORMULATION AND TOTAL HARMONIC

Step 1: Initialization of population: An initial population DISTORTION MINIMIZATION

of individuals is chosen. An n q 2 random matrix is As mentioned earlier, the PWM waveform illustrated in

generated. The first and second dimensions of this matrix Fig. 2 does not contain even-order harmonics due to its

represent the number of individuals and the number of symmetrical structure. Thus it can be expanded using

independent variables that lie in [0, Q/2] , respectively. An Fourier series as:

increase in number of individuals can enhance the d

performance and result in faster convergence of the f (R) V2k 1 sin[(2k 1)R ] (2)

k 0

algorithm significantly. The value of n is considered 100 . th

In which V2k 1 is the amplitude of the 2k 1

harmonic

It has been shown in section IV that the third switching

voltage k 0,1,2, !

which can be calculated as:

angle is dependent on the first and second switching angles Q/2

and the modulation index (m ) . The rows of the matrix are V2k 1 (4/Q) f (R) sin[(2k 1)R ]

0

sorted in ascending order. The feasibility of solutions, based (3)

3

on satisfaction of constraints stated in previous section, can (4/Q 2k 1

) 1 2 1

cos[(2k 1)Bi ]

i

the next steps of the algorithm. A practical situation can be considered that the inverter is

Step 2: Evaluation: The fitness of each individual is used to supply ac power of constant frequency to a general

evaluated. In the sequel, objective functions for optimization three-phase ac load, where a filter is typically installed in the

are defined in proper positions. output terminal. In this case high-order harmonics are

Step 3: Selection: After the fitness of each individual is attenuated by the filter. The cut-off frequency of the filter is

computed and evaluated, parent chromosomes are selected considered as 1 kHz . Hence, elimination of harmonics larger

for reproduction. This process imitates the survival of the than 20th is assumed to be done (fundamental frequency is

fittest mechanism in nature. Roulette wheel selection [14] is assumed 50 Hz ). It is intuitively obvious that an increase in

the most common and easy-to-implement selection the cut-off frequency of the filter, leads to a significant

mechanism and is used in this studys approach. reduction of filter size. Also, system efficiency tends to

Step 4: Mating and Crossover: This is a crucial step to the increase. Based on this discussion, in this section, the aim is

formation of the next generation. The individual to minimize the THD while maintaining the fundamental

corresponding to an angle that is generated randomly in component (V1 ) at a constant level. That is:

Roulette wheel selection undergoes crossover and mutation 1

to produce offspring for the next generation. In this work, THD

V1

h Sh Vh2 subject to V1 m (4)

multipoint crossover is adopted for increasing efficiency.

Step 5: Mutation: The genes of the offspring are randomly In which S h {5, 7,11,13,17,19} .

Hereafter in this article THD refers to the specifications

perturbed, usually with a small probability ( 0.01 in this

mentioned in (4). The reason of nonappearance of triple

study). This step avoids the algorithm from getting stuck in

harmonics in S h , is that as a three phase system is of interest,

local minima.

it can be shown [6] that, the triple harmonics cancel each

Step 6: Elitism: In order to preserve and use the previous

other in line-to-line voltages and thus can be ignored when

best solutions in subsequent generation, an elite-preserving

defining the optimal waveforms. Also noticing the constraint

operator is often recommended. In a simple implementation,

V1 m (that has occasionally appeared in sections of this

the best F% of the population from the current population is study), we observe that one decision variable B3

, can be

directly copied to the next generation. Number of elite count eliminated using this equality:

considered here is 2 . V1 m

Step 7: Termination criteria: The algorithm is repeated (5)

until a predetermined number of generations is reached. In (4/Q)(1 2 cos B1 2 cos B2 2 cos B3 )

this study the termination criteria is reaching 500th Equation (5) can be rewritten as:

generation.

The values of the parameters of the algorithm greatly

B3 cos1 (1/2) m Q/4 1 2 cos B1 2 cos B2

(6)

determine whether the algorithm will find a near-optimum This way, the equality constraint is automatically satisfied

solution and whether it will find such a solution efficiently. in every step of the optimization process. The optimal

Choosing right parameter values, however, is a time- switching angles and corresponding THD are shown in Figs.

consuming task and considerable effort has gone into 3 (a, b).

developing good heuristics for it. This is due to the fact that As Fig. 3 (a) shows, step changes occur in the trajectory

parameters often interact in a complex way. of switching angles in m 0.1 and m 0.365 .

876

S Considering the handling of V1 m

in previous

section, we can define the objective function here as the

Optimal Switching Angles (in radians)

summation of these two harmonics normalized to the

D fundamental:

V V

D

w B1, B2

5 7 . (8)

D

V1 V1

Genetic Algorithm program has been run for several times

and for specified values of modulation index. Two sets of

solutions have been accomplished. These two sets are shown

in Fig. 5.

S

Modulation Index (m)

(a)

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Modulation Index (m)

Fig. 5. Two sets of switching angles in harmonic elimination problem.

Modulation Index (m) In m [0, 0.08] subinterval, B1 and B2 of set1 are constant

(b) at 0.4415 rad and 0.4729 rad , respectively. In m [0, 0.1] ,

Fig. 3. (a) Optimal switching angles and (b) corresponding THD. the third switch of set2 is constant at 1.555 rad and keeps its

The frequency content of the waveform resulted from the distance from Q/2 at R/2 0.0157 rad . This is due to the

minimized THD is illustrated in Fig. 4 versus m and constraints applied to the algorithm. The corresponding

harmonic number. THD's of set1 and set2 are plotted versus m

in Fig. 6.

Harmonic Content Magnitude

Total Harmonic Distortion (%)

set 1

set 2

Harmonic Number Modulation Index (m)

Fig. 4. Harmonic content magnitude vs. m and harmonic number.

Modulation Index (m)

V. HARMONIC ELIMINATION Fig. 6. Comparison of THD of two sets of switching angles.

Harmonic elimination aims to completely remove N 1

low-order harmonics ( N is the number of switches in the It is observed in Fig. 6 that the THD value is smaller in

first-quarter period) from a PWM waveform and, at the set2 in comparison with set1 in the considered interval of

same time, to regulate the fundamental amplitude V1 at a modulation index. The great deviation is seen at

pre-specified level (i.e. m ). m 0.99 with the error percentage of 38.8% . Thus in

In this case, we intend to eliminate the 5th and 7th applying the set of solutions, set2 is preferable. Normalized

harmonics. That is: FFT of the two sets of solutions at m 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8

i)V1 m, ii)V5 0, iii)V7 0. (7) are brought in Fig. 6 for comparison.

877

Multi-Objective Estimate a

set 1 Optimization Problem relative

Minimize f1

Normalized FFT (V h /V1)

Higher-level importance

Minimize f2 Information

! vector

Minimize fm

Subject to constraints M1, M2,!, Mm

set 2

Single-Objective

One Optimum Single-Objective Optimization Problem

m=0.8 Solution Optimizer F M1 f1 M2 f2 ! Mm fm

m=0.6 a composite function

m=0.4

Fig. 7. A schematic diagram of converting multi-objective optimization to

m=0.2

Harmonic Number Modulation Index (m) single-objective optimization.

GA was run for the minimization of (11), for different

Fig. 6. Normalized FFT Vk /V1

for m 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 .

values of M M 0.1, 0.2, 0.8, 2, 5,10

. It is important to

realize that the solution achieved by using the preference-

VI. THD OPTIMIZATION AND SUPPRESSING CERTAIN based strategy is greatly dependent on the relative

ORDER HARMONICS preference vector used in forming the composite function.

Here, the definition of the problem is: Besides, it is intuitive to realize that finding a relative

1 preference vector itself is highly subjective, and requires an

Minimize w1 (B1, B2 )

V1

h Sh Vh2 analysis of the qualitative and experience-driven information

to find a quantitative relative preference vector. The results

V shown in the sequel, elaborate this decision-making.

w2 (B1, B2 ) 5 (9) The optimal switching angles for the two cases of

V1

M 0.1 and M 10 are shown in Fig. 8.

V S

w 3 (B1, B2 ) 7 subject to V1 m

V1

Optimal Switching Angles (in radians)

optimization problem deals with more than one objective

function. Hence, it is called a multi-objective optimization

O

problem (MOOP) [17]. In fact there exist a number of

fundamental differences between the working principles of

single and multi-objective optimization algorithms. But in

this study to reduce the complexity, we have transformed O

multiple objectives into a single objective function by using

some predefined parameters. In other words, a composite

objective function is formed as the weighted sum of the

objectives, where a weight for an objective is proportional to Modulation Index (m)

the preference factor assigned to that particular objective. Fig. 8. Optimization results for M 0.1 and M 10 .

This procedure is called preference-based multi-objective In the case of M 10 , the switching scheme changes at

optimization. A schematic of this procedure is shown in Fig. m 0.31 due to the change in the value of global optimal

1-3 in [17] (or Fig. 7). solution from (B1, B2 ) (0.7657, 0.8485) at m 0.31 to

Based on discussion above, the definition of the problem (B1, B2 ) (0.05278,1.1257) at m 0.315 . Also, changes in

can be considered as: the trajectory of switching angles in the case of M 10

1 M M occur at m 0.04 and m 0.15 .

F (B1, B2 )

V1

h Sh h

V1

V 2 12 V52 22 V72

V1 (10)

We can define Harmonic Elimination (HE) parameter as:

V V

subject to V1 m HE 5 7 . (12)

If an equal importance is assumed for suppressing the 5th V1 V1

and 7th harmonics (i.e. M1 M2 M ), then: This parameter has been shown in Fig. 9 versus m and the

1 M values of M . As Fig. 9 shows, the value of HE, as we were

F (B1, B2 ) 2 h S Vh2 2 V52 V72

V1 h V1

(11)

expecting, falls with increase of M . Indeed, increase of M is

assigning a larger weight to the harmonic elimination term

subject to V1 m in (11).

878

[3] H. S. Patel and R. G. Hoft, Generalized harmonic elimination and

voltage control in thryristor inverters: part Iharmonic elimination,

IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 9, pp. 310317, May/June 1973.

[4] _____, Generalized harmonic elimination and voltage control in

Harmonic Elimination (HE)

Ind. Applicat., vol. 10, pp. 666673, Sept./Oct. 1974.

[5] J. Sun and I. Grotstollen, Pulse width modulation based on real-time

solution of algebraic harmonic elimination equations, in Proc. 20th

Int.Conf. Ind. Electron., Contr. Instrum. IECON, vol. 1, 1994, pp. 79

84.

[6] J. Sun, Optimal Pulse width modulation Techniques for High-Power

Voltage-Source Inverters, VDI VERLAG, 1995.

[7] J. A. Asumadu, and R. G. Hoft, Microprocessor-based sinusoidal

waveform synthesis using Walsh and related orthogonal functions,

O IEEE Trans.Power Electron., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 234-241, 1989.

Modulation Index (m)

[8] M. H. Park, D. S. Ahn, C. Y. Won, H. K. Lee, T. H. Kim,

Fig. 9. Harmonic Elimination parameter vs. m and M . Microprocessor-based new harmonic elimination method using

Walsh-Fourier transformation, in Proc. Int. Power Electron. Conf.

The corresponding THD's of different values of M have (IPEC90), pp. 799-808, 1990.

been plotted in Fig. 10. [9] M. H. Park, D. S. Ahn, C. Y. Won, H. K. Lee, T. H. Kim, A study on

It should be reemphasized that selection of M depends on harmonic elimination method of PWM inverter fed induction motor

higher-level information that originates from practical system using Walsh series, IFAC Symposia Series, no. 8, pp.417

423, 1990.

applications. One may find THD at an accepted level and [10] T. Kailath, Linear Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,

want to increase the weight of harmonic elimination portion 1980.

of (11), to suppress the harmful harmonics further. While in [11] C. Chen, Linear Systems Theory and Design. 3rd ed. London, U.K.:

Oxford University Press, 1999.

another application, to specify a low weight to harmonic

[12] J. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. McKenzie, and Z. Du, A complete

elimination is desired and its tried to minimize the THD. solution to the harmonic elimination problem, IEEE Trans. Power

M Electron. vol. 19, no. 2, Mar. 2004.

M [13] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and

M machine learning. 1st ed. Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Total Harmonic Distortion (%)

M Hall, India, 1996.

M

[15] D. B. Fogel, What is evolutionary computation?, IEEE Spectr., no.

37, pp. 2632, 2000.

[16] K. F. Man, K. S. Tang, and S. Kwong, Genetic algorithms: concepts

and design, IEEE Ind. Electron. News letter, vol. 45, no. 4, 1998.

[17] K. Deb, Multi-Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary

Algorithms., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 2001.

[18] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and

Applications, Prentice Hall, 2nd ed., 1993.

[19] J. Sun, S. Beineke, and, H. Grotstollen, Optimal PWM Based on

Real-Time Solution of Harmonic Elimination Equations, IEEE

Modulation Index (m) Modulation Index (m)

Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 11, no. 4, July 1996, pp. 612-621.

Fig. 10. Total Harmonic Distortion for different values of M vs. m . [20] L. Davis, Ed., Handbook of Genetic Algorithms. New York: Van

Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.

VII. CONCLUSION [21] Z. Michalewicz, D. Dasgupta, R.G. Le Riche, and M. Schoenauer,

Evolutionary algorithms for constrained engineering problems,

Minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is Computers & Industrial Engineering J., vol.30, no.2, pp. 851-870,

done first. Then 5th and 7th harmonics are eliminated from Sep. 1996.

[22] J. H. Kim and H. Myung, Evolutionary programming techniques for

the inverter output and the complete solutions are presented. constrained optimization problems, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol.

In the sequel, a composite function has been defined and 1, no. 2, pp. 129140, July 1997.

optimized to suppress 5th and 7th harmonics and to minimize [23] A. S. Homaifar, H.-Y. Lai, and X. Qi, Constrained optimization via

the THD concurrently. The fundamental component is genetic algorithms, Simulation, vol. 62, pp. 242254, 1994.

[24] J. A. Joines and C. R. Houck, On the use of nonstationary penalty

maintained at a constant level (i.e. modulation index) functions to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems with

throughout the procedure, and a practical limitation has been gas, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Evolutionary Computation, June 1994, pp.

considered on determination of adjacent switching angles. 579584.

Optimal pulse patterns are accomplished using genetic [25] D. Powell and M. M. Skolnick, Using genetic algorithms in

engineering design optimization with nonlinear constraints, in Proc.

algorithm (GA) optimization method.

5th Int. Conf. Genetic Algorithms S. Forrest, Ed. Los Altos, CA:

Morgan Kaufmann, 1993, pp. 424430.

REFERENCES [26] Z. Michalewicz and G. Nazhiyath, Genocop III: A co-evolutionary

algorithm for numerical optimization problems with nonlinear

[1] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics:

constraints, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Evolutionary Computation.

Converters, Applications, and Design. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley,

Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1995, pp. 647651.

1995.

[27] B. Ozpineci, L. M. Tolbert, and J. N. Chiasson, Harmonic

[2] P. N. Enjeti, P. D. Ziogas, and J. F. Lindsay, Programmed PWM

optimization of multilevel converters using genetic algorithms, in

techniques to eliminate harmonics: a critical evaluation, IEEE Trans.

Proc. 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., Aachen,

Ind. Applicat., vol. 26, pp. 302316, Mar./Apr. 1990.

Germany, 2004.

879

- s 35102109Enviado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Inverter FinaldocEnviado porLaurena Silvestre
- EPE-03-synopsisEnviado pormarlapas
- SINGLE PHASE THREE LEG AC/AC CONVERTEREnviado pormycatalysts
- Systematic Design of Hybrid Cascaded Multilevel Inverters with Simplified DC Power Supply and low Switching LossesEnviado porInternational Journal of Engineering Inventions (IJEI)
- AliIbrahimIsmaail-ThesisEnviado porjgp_reddy
- Design of a Microcontroller-basedEnviado pormuralimallika
- power qualityEnviado porg.jayakrishna
- Saha Nguyen IeeeEnviado porLN Parasuram
- pwmEnviado porEmailsuman Exbii
- Paper 5Enviado porRama Krishna
- IETEJRes544297-73583_202623Enviado porPradyumn Chaturvedi
- Unsafe InvertersEnviado porjohan.duraan9540
- INV04503992Enviado porDeepu Chinna
- 06836965Enviado porMateo Jimenez Castaño
- 48 Pulse PWMEnviado porWilliam Javier
- 4-5Enviado porGanesh Challa
- 00136258Enviado porjithukk
- 00785624.pdfEnviado porStefania Oliveira
- Space Vector ControlEnviado porPoras Khetarpal
- Total Harmonic Distortion Analysis of Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter with Resistive and Inductive LoadEnviado porInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Voltage Balancing Control of Diode-clamped Multilevel Rectifier_i - CopyEnviado porNagaraja Rao
- energies-08-02295Enviado porChetan Kotwal
- Batch2017 PresentationEnviado portreax
- 4Enviado porchetan
- VFD mythsEnviado porpaniya
- 3Enviado porGnanaseharan Arunachalam
- 3_PH_INVERTER.docxEnviado porGnanaseharan Arunachalam
- Lab 8 PWM rev1Enviado pors.sudesh
- Technical Information SC2750-EVEnviado porJorge

- Tutorials #1 FB Cover Pic MonkeyEnviado porBethSoriao-Urbano
- HGB10R-02-User manualEnviado porthiagocabral88
- Focus Group Discussion GuideEnviado porWicaksono Dwijaya
- (Schaum's Outline Series) Milton Gussow-Schaum's Outline of Basic Electricity, Second Edition (Schaum's Outline Series) -McGraw-Hill (2009)Enviado poraruriza
- ECS2100-Series_QSG_R01_20151229_fEnviado porraoultrifan7560
- B2.26_BR_J_BatistaEnviado porABRAHAM
- MProgEnviado porHaris Apriyanto
- Source Tactical Gear 2016 CatalogEnviado porFubin Lam
- SST3603 Lecture 1 IntroEnviado porMia Suraya
- Pin manuEnviado porPins BTS
- centrifugal slurry pump standardEnviado porLuis Enrique Yactayo Suller
- Ccna Icnd1 Study NotesEnviado porRohitSingh
- PRCI 1Enviado porVarun Lalwani
- Manual Asus X541UEnviado porJack Duff
- Nine Elements of Digital CitizenshipEnviado porrachaelmcgaha
- Soict 2017 - Dga BotnetEnviado porThảo Mai
- CRG Logics - Vacuum ReceiversEnviado porTony Cresicbene
- LzmaEnviado porJoko Tole
- kubernetes commandsEnviado porOvigz Hero
- 91192686-Turbo-Decoding-Using-SOVA.pdfEnviado porAbhishek Jaju
- Pavia MedicinaEnviado porCuriousMinddd
- GIS ReportEnviado porKhushboo Khushi Meena
- 'Compendium M1 3.PDF'Enviado porMatej Majtan
- Resume MeghaEnviado porAnkur Rana
- RMM CSF Report 2017-18Enviado porprojectwork185
- Hacking RoombaEnviado porbcboy1
- How to Test Aggregate for Bulk Density and VoidsEnviado porDeven Patle
- Session 2_mr Syed Fauzi_ministry of Public Utilities Sarawak MalaysiaEnviado porAfwan Irfan
- DVDit Pro 6 User GuideEnviado porrnxgoo
- 085663SteelDetentionWindows-HotRolledFramingEnviado porjack.simpson.chang

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.