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Contents

CC TRANG WEB CN NGHIN CU THM .............................................................................................. 2


RESUMPTIVE MODIFIER........................................................................................................................... 2
Examples and Observations: ................................................................................................... 2
SUMMATIVE MODIFIER ........................................................................................................................... 3
Examples and Observations: ................................................................................................... 3
Building Sentences with Absolute Phrases ........................................................................................ 4
IDENTIFYING ABSOLUTE PHRASES ....................................................................................... 4
BUILDING AND ARRANGING ABSOLUTE PHRASES ............................................................ 4
Revising Sentences With Absolute Phrases ...................................................................................... 5
INSTRUCTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 5
Absolute Phrases: Introduction .................................................................................................... 8
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 8
Absolute Phrases: Part 2 ................................................................................................................ 9
2. NOUN + PARTICIPLE............................................................................................................... 9
3. NOUN + ADJECTIVE .............................................................................................................. 10
Using Absolute Phrases .............................................................................................................. 12
CU TRC TUYT I (ABSOLUTE PHRASE/CLAUSE) .......................................................... 15
Mi ngi i, cho mnh hi: .................................................................................................................. 18
ABSOLUTE PHRASE ................................................................................................................. 23
ABSOLUTE PHRASE (GRAMMAR) ........................................................................................................... 24
DEFINITION ................................................................................................................................ 24
EXAMPLES AND OBSERVATIONS ......................................................................................... 25
MORE EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE PHRASES ...................................................................... 26
The Perfect Participle (active) ......................................................................................................... 27

absolute phrase, absolute construction, absolute clause ..................................................... 28


CC TRANG WEB CN NGHIN CU
THM
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index2.htm tm hiu thm y l danh mc thut ng cho chu nghin

cu nh

3 mc trong trang thoughco.com cn c

Sentence structure: participle[ past, present, perfect], absolute phrase


Glossary term
Q&A

Commented [a1]: 1.
RESUMPTIVE MODIFIER that summarizes:
a resumptive statement.
2.
Definition: that tends to resume or repeat:
a speech so resumptive that its point was lost.
A modifier that repeats a key word at the end of a sentence and then adds informative
or descriptive details related to that word.

Examples and Observations:

"Edith looked out on the morning, the soft bright morning that struck her dazzled
dazzling eyes."
"Everything about a cheetah is designed for speed--pure, raw, explosive speed."
"For there we loved, and where we love is home,
Home that our feet may leave, but not our hearts . . .."
"Hollywood has always been a cage--a cage to catch our dreams."
"The practice of spiritual exercise must begin with desire, the desire that the
phenomenal world may become diaphanous and that true Being may shine
through."

"The resumptive modifier often includes a that-clause, as these examples . . .


illustrate:
Remember that well-chosen verbs send a message to the reader, the message
that the writer has crafted the sentence with care.
That kind of agentless prose should send up a red flag, a signal that here's a
candidate for revision.
The reader assumes from such messages that the writer has certain
doubts, doubts that perhaps others may have, thus connecting, as possible
fellow doubters, the writer and the reader.
In the following sentence from a book review about the work of Edith Wharton, the
reviewer uses a dash instead of a comma to set off a resumptive modifier:

Wharton depicted women caught between constraint and the possibilities of a new
sexual freedom--a freedom that she herself enjoyed, though at a high cost.

. . . Coming at the end of the sentence, in the position of end focus, these modifiers are
going to command the reader's attention. And, clearly, they offer the writer a way of
adding information, information that might otherwise require a sentence of its own."
(Martha Kolln, Rhetorical Grammar. Pearson, 2007)

"To create a resumptive modifier find a key word, usually a noun, then pause after it
with a comma, . . . then repeat it, . . . [and then] add a relative clause:

Since mature writers often use resumptive modifiers to extend a sentence, we


need a word to name what I am about to do in this sentence, a sentence that I
could have ended at that comma, but extended to show how resumptive
modifiers work."

SUMMATIVE MODIFIER
A modifier (usually a noun phrase) that appears at the end of a sentence and serves to
summarize the idea of the main clause.

Examples and Observations:

"The headstone stood above seventeen layers of unrecorded East Londoners: cats,
rabbits, pigeons, pebbles and rings, all impacted in the heavy clay."

"Here are two sentences that contrast relative clauses and summative modifiers.
Notice how the which in the first one feels 'tacked on':
Economic changes have reduced Russian population growth to less than zero which
will have serious social implications.

Economic changes have reduced Russian population growth to less than zero, a
demographic event that will have serious social implications.
To create a summative modifier, end a grammatically complete segment of a sentence
with a comma, . . . find a noun that sums up the substance of the sentence, . . . [and
then] continue with a relative clause."
(Joseph M. Williams, Style: The Basics of Clarity and Grace. Longman, 2003)

"In example 47 [below], the second unit . . . in this kind of apposition, termed
a summative modifier by Williams (1979:609), first summarizes the ideas expressed in
the first unit and then attributes some characteristic to them. In example 47, the first
part of the second unit, a process, provides a very general summary of the activity of
decomposition discussed in the first unit; the relative clause following this noun
phrase characterizes this process as one that occurs more rapidly in a specific
environment.
(47) c (SEU w.9.6.18)"

(Charles F. Meyer, Apposition in Contemporary English. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992)

Building Sentences with Absolute


Phrases
Among the modifiers that are used to add information to sentences, the absolute
phrase may be the least common but one of the most useful.

IDENTIFYING ABSOLUTE PHRASES

An absolute phrase is a word group that modifies an entire sentence. It consists of


a noun plus at least one other word, as shown here:

The hunters rested for a moment in front of the shack, their breaths white in
the frosty air.

The noun (breaths) that begins this absolute phrase is followed by


an adjective (white) and a prepositional phrase (in the frosty air).

In addition to adjectives and prepositional phrases, adverbs and participles can


also follow the noun in an absolute phrase. As the sentence above shows, an
absolute phrase lets us move from a description of a whole person, place, or thing
to just one or more parts: from hunters, for instance, to their breaths.

BUILDING AND ARRANGING ABSOLUTE PHRASES

Consider how the sentence might be broken down into two sentences:

The hunters rested for a moment in front of the shack.


Their breaths were white in the frosty air.
The second sentence can be turned into an absolute phrase simply by omitting
the linking verb were. As we have seen, the absolute phrase may appear at the
end of a sentence:

The hunters rested for a moment in front of the shack, their breaths white in
the frosty air.

The absolute phrase may also appear at the beginning of the sentence:

Their breaths white in the frosty air, the hunters rested for a moment in
front of the shack.

And occasionally an absolute phrase is positioned between the subject and verb:

The hunters, their breaths white in the frosty air, rested for a moment in
front of the shack.

Notice that an absolute phrase, like a participle phrase, is usually set off from the
rest of the sentence by a pair of commas.

Revising Sentences With Absolute


Phrases
As discussed in the article Building Sentences With Absolute Phrases, absolutes
are useful constructions for adding details to an entire sentence--details that
often describe one aspect of someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the
sentence. Here we'll practice revising sentences with absolute phrases.

INSTRUCTIONS

Rewrite each sentence or set of sentences below according to the guidelines in


parentheses.

When you're done, compare your revised sentences with those on page two. Keep
in mind that more than one correct response is possible.

1. (Combine the two sentences below: turn the second sentence into an
absolute phrase and place it in front of the first sentence.)

a. The storks circled above us.


b. Their slender bodies were sleek and black against the orange sky.
2. (Combine the two sentences below: turn the second sentence into an
absolute phrase and place it after the first sentence.)

a. On the tops of the hills, the grass stands at its tallest and greenest.
b. Its new seed plumes rise through a dead crop of last year's withered
spears.
3. (Create two absolute phrases by eliminating the words in bold.)

a. Odysseus comes to shore, and the skin is torn from his


hands, and the sea water is gushing from his mouth and nostrils.
4. (Combine the three sentences below: turn the second and third sentences
into absolute phrases, and position them at the start of the sentence to
establish a clear cause-effect relationship.)

a. Norton vowed never to marry again.


b. His first marriage ended in divorce.
c. His second marriage ended in despair.
5. (Omit when, and turn the main clause--in bold--into an absolute phrase.)

a. When the double giant Ferris wheel circles, the swaying seats are
more frightening than a jet plane flying through a
monsoon.
6. (Combine the following four sentences into a single sentence with a
present participial phrase and two absolute phrases.)

a. All afternoon the caravan passed by.


b. The caravan shimmered in the winter light.
c. Its numberless facets were gleaming.
d. The hundreds of wagon wheels were turning in the dust in slow and
endless motion.
7. (Combine the following five sentences into a single sentence with a
present participial phrase and three absolute phrases.)

a. Six boys came over the hill.


b. The boys were running hard.
c. Their heads were down.
d. Their forearms were working.
e. Their breaths were whistling.
8. (Begin your new sentence with "The buildings sit empty," and turn the
rest of the sentence into an absolute phrase.)

a. Jagged pieces of glass stick out of the frames of the hundreds of


broken windows in the buildings that sit empty.
9. (Combine these sentences by replacing the period with a comma and
eliminating the word in bold.)

a. Proud of my freedom and bumhood, I stood in the doorway of the


boxcar, rocking with the motion of the train.
b. My ears were full of the rushing wind and the clattering wheels.
10. (Combine these three sentences by turning the first sentence into an
absolute phrase and the third into a subordinate clause beginning with
"where.")

a. His hair was wet from the showers.


b. He walked in the icy air to Luke's Luncheonette.
c. There he ate three hamburgers in a booth with three juniors.

Compare your revised sentences with the sample combinations on page two.

NEXT:
Exercise: Sentence Building with Absolutes

Here are the sentences that served as models for the exercises on page one:
Revising Sentences With Absolute Phrases. Keep in mind that more than one
correct response is possible.

1. Their slender bodies sleek and black against the orange sky, the storks
circled above us.
2. On the tops of the hills, the grass stands at its tallest and greenest, its
new seed plumes rising through a dead crop of last year's withered
spears.
3. Odysseus comes to shore, the skin torn from his hands, the sea water
gushing from his mouth and nostrils.
4. His first marriage having ended in divorce and his second in despair,
Norton vowed never to marry again.
5. The double giant Ferris wheel circles, the swaying seats more
frightening than a jet plane flying through a monsoon.
6. All afternoon the caravan passed by, shimmering in the winter light, its
numberless facets gleaming and the hundreds of wagon wheels turning
in the dust in slow and endless motion.
7. Six boys came over the hill, running hard, their heads down, their
forearms working, their breaths whistling.
8. The buildings sit empty, jagged pieces of glass sticking out of the frames
of the hundreds of broken windows.
9. Proud of my freedom and bumhood, I stood in the doorway of the
boxcar, rocking with the motion of the train, my ears full of the rushing
wind and the clattering wheels.
10. His hair wet from the showers, he walked in the icy air to Luke's
Luncheonette, where he ate three hamburgers in a booth with three
juniors.

Absolute Phrases: Introduction

1. Introduction
Definition and rules. An ABSOLUTE PHRASE is a MODIFIER (quite often a PARTICIPLE),
or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a SENTENCE or a NOUN,
with no CONJUNCTION. An absolute phrase cannot contain a FINITE VERB.

Absolute phrases usually consist of a noun and a modifier that modifies this noun, NOT
another noun in the sentence.

Absolute phrases are optional in sentences, i.e., they can be removed without damaging
the grammatical integrity of the sentence. Since absolute phrases are optional in the
sentence, they are often set off from the sentence with commas or, less often, with dashes.
We normally explain absolute phrases by saying that they modify entire sentences, rather
than one word. This is an important concept, since many similar phrases that we work with
modify other words. For example, adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs can modify verbs,
adjectives, and other adverbs. That said, however, in some cases, it seems to make more
sense to say that absolute phrases modify nouns. We will look at some of these examples a
bit later.

First, let's look at some examples of absolute phrases:

Examples of Absolute Phrases:

The absolute phrases look like this:

Her determination stronger than ever, Nexisa resolved not to give up until she
had achieved her dreams.
The sun shining bright and the pale blue sky forming a backdrop of the
Sacre Coeur, Carl stepped into his future as a traveler and observer.
Still young boys, Matt and Erin Billy awoke early one Christmas morning with sleepy
eyes, completely unaware that they were sleeping not in the beds they had
gone to sleep in, but in one of their presents that year -- a new set of bunk
beds. Commented [a2]: New and really long, cha bit l dng no
We finished the hearty meal quickly, our appetites satisfied, our minds at peace. y
All things being equal, the active voice tends to be correct more often than the
passive on standardized tests.

Please notice that in every case the absolute phrase provides some sort of information that
works to put the whole sentence or idea in context. Please also notice that the absolute
phrases themselves do NOT contain verbs, nor are they connected to the main sentence
with a conjunction. Finally, please notice that the primary components of most (but not all)
of these absolute phrases are a NOUN + a MODIFIER, although it is possible to use only a
modifier. Commented [a3]: ???????

If that's confusing, don't worry -- we'll look at these patterns in a bit more detail on the
next page.

Absolute Phrases: Part 2


Go back to the Introduction.

Here is the next pattern we should know:

2. NOUN + PARTICIPLE

This is one of the most common ways to form an absolute phrase. It might be helpful for
some people to imagine this pattern with a verb between the noun and the participle. For
example, if you say The question was still unanswered, you have a complete sentence; if,
on the other hand, you say The question unanswered and you then attach that phrase to a
main sentence, then you have an absolute phrase.

Here are some examples. The absolute phrases look like this.

The question still unanswered, the teacher decided to address the confusion of
her students more closely.
The train running late, we decided to get off at the next stop and take a taxi
home.
There are many industries in California vital to its economy, with technology being
one of the most important. Commented [a4]: I got it that time

Compare these sentences with the VERBS and CONJUNCTIONS in them:

The question was still unanswered, and the teacher decided to address the
confusion of her students more closely.
The train was running late, so we decided to get off at the next stop and take a
taxi home.
There are many industries in California vital to its economy, and technology is one
of the most important.

Important! Although many of these absolute phrases could be written with the

more formal English (and ETS!)


word being in them,

tends not to use being when being is


optional. If you've studied GMAT Sentence Correction for a while, then you know
that the word being raises a big red flag on the test!

Here are some examples:

The movie being over, we left the theater.


This sentence could be rewritten like this:

The movie over, we left the theater.

Similarly, having + PAST PARTICIPLE is often so semantically similar to the sentence


without it that many sentences are written without having + PAST PARTICIPLE.

An example would be very good here:

Having been chosen to head the committee, Angus Ng thought about how he
could help raise money for his chess club at Harvard.

This sentence could look like this:

Chosen to head the committee, Angus Ng thought about how he could help raise
money for his chess club at Harvard.

This concept is important for the Sentence Correction section of the GMAT, so if you're
preparing for that test, pay attention to this!

Wait, wait, there's more!

3. NOUN + ADJECTIVE

Another pattern is to use an adjective after the noun it modifies.

Look at these examples:

Their meal still not ready after 45 minutes, the hungry and angry customers left the
restaurant.
His hat in hand and pride in check, Horace asked his former boss for his job back.
The previews still showing, Kelly and Chris decided to leave the theater and enjoy
the sunny day

4. ABSOLUTE PHRASE at the end of a sentence

An absolute phrase is sometimes added to the end of sentence to add a bit more
information, often to make the sentence more interesting or descriptive, sometimes to add
an important (and related) point.

Here are some examples:

Julie crossed the finish line far ahead of the next runner, aware only that she'd
broken her personal record, not that she'd broken a world record. Commented [a5]: ???? y l thuc dng no
Budi finished his test confidently, his right hand sore from having written so Adj+that clause
much, but his mind relieved that it was finally over.
Erin Billy enjoys talking to his grandmother because she seems to know that life
could change at any moment -- unpredictably. Commented [a6]: Loi g y
"Please photocopy this set of exercises for me -- the sooner, the better." Commented [a7]: ??? loi g y
Although absolute phrases are optional in sentences (meaning they can be removed and the
sentence will still be grammatically correct), the are sometimes used to provide the most
important information of the sentence:

Our substitute teacher entered the room, her eyes stern, her stance aggressive,
and her demeanor intimating that she would not take any flak from her
students that day.
Their dreams shattered and lives destroyed, the family stared in disbelief at the
pile of wood, glass, and metal that was once their house.

In these sentences, you will notice that the information in the absolute phrases is actually
more important than that in the main sentences.

GMAT Sentence Correction: Problems with the Absolute Phrase


The absolute phrase is a certain type of modifier that is composed of both a noun and a modifier of that
noun. Unlike straight modifiers, which must always modify the noun that comes after them, absolute
phrases do not follow such stringent modification rules.

Sentence using an absolute phrase:

Researchers have found alarming levels of radioactivity in certain species of ferns, findings that suggest
the detrimental effects of nuclear power plants in nearby areas.

Though this kind of construction may seem a little unusual, it is in fact a correct use of the absolute
phrase. Notice in particular that findings does not modify the last word of the first clause, ferns.
Rather, findings modifies alarming levels of radioactivity, and such a relationship is understandable
in the sentence without the proximity wed require from a straight modifier.

Now that you know how the absolute phrase works, lets check out some common pitfalls. First, it is
common to see which used to attach an absolute phrasethis is an absolute no-no.

Incorrect: Researchers have found alarming levels of radioactivity in certain species of ferns, WHICH
suggests the detrimental effects of nuclear power plants in nearby areas.
So, why is using which incorrect? When used to attach a relative clause to a main clause, which must
always refer to the noun that directly precedes it. Because ferns is the noun that directly precedes the
attached clause, does it make sense to say that ferns suggest the detrimental effects of nuclear power
plants in nearby areas? Not quite. Remember, it is the alarming levels of radioactivity that suggest such
detrimental effects.

Heres another example of a no-no:


Incorrect: Researchers have found alarming levels of radioactivity in certain species of ferns AND THIS
suggests the detrimental effects of nuclear power plants in nearby areas.

Though this type of construction is common in speech, the GMAT tends to look down upon the use of
the pronoun this because its antecedents are generally ambiguous. To improve the clarity of the
sentence, we might write and these results suggest the. This way, we do not have the problem of
an ambiguous pronoun (though this is a relatively inelegant choice).
There is one way way we can fix this problem, and lucky for us, its a pretty easy fix. Use the -ing form
after the comma.

Correct: Researchers have found alarming levels of radioactivity in certain species of ferns, SUGGESTING
the detrimental effects of nuclear power plants in nearby areas.

Generally, you can use either an absolute phrase or an -ing clause at the end of a sentence, often to
show a result of the preceding clause.

Using Absolute Phrases


An absolute phrase -- is a modifier generally made from a noun or noun phrase and a participle. It can
modify a noun or pronoun or the whole of the base sentence to which it is attached.

e.g - Teeth chattering, we waited for hours in the bitter cold.


Sails flapping, the boat tugged at its mooring.

The participle may be expanded into a participle phrase --

Sails flapping in the brisk morning breeze, the boat tugged at its mooring.

An absolute phrase with other combinations

1). Noun and adverb phrase - Ram sat back comfortable, feet up on the desk. Commented [a8]: ???

2). Noun and adjective - Muscles taut, he hefted the barbells to his chest.

3). Noun and adjective phrase - She waved to the crowd, her face radiant with triumph.

Commented [a9]: ??????


4). Noun and adverb - Shoulders hunched, Ronaldo zigzagged past the linebacker.

We can use various absolute phrases in succession - Hair golden, eyes blue, body slender and tanned, he
personified the California look.

Note - We can put an absolute phrase at the beginning of a sentence or at the end, setting it off with a comma.

We can also put an absolute phrase in the middle.


e.g - The speaker, his voice trembling with rage, denounced the hecklers. (note the pair of commas)

See the sentence number 14 at the link below

gmatsentencecorrection

Q:Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving
example of example of a built boatin other words, a boat constructed out of planks
fitted togetherand that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over
the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage.
A. togetherand that thus represents
B. togetherand this has represented
C. together, and it represents
D. together that was representing
E. together to represent

OA A

QUESTION: A late 19th century newspaper article targeted at readers desiring to increase their musical

knowledge recommended reading books that were written not for musicians who have been trained

professionally, which was the case with many of the publications in circulation during the early part of the

century, but music lovers who are not familiar with the technical terminology used in those publications.

(A) written not for musicians who have been trained professionally, which was the case with many of the
publications in circulation during the early part of the century, but
(B) written not for professionally-trained musicians, the case with many of the publications in circulation
during the early part of the century, but
(C) written not for professionally-trained musicians, as was the case with many of the
publications in circulation during the early part of the century, but for(CORRECT ANSWER)
(D) not written for professionally-trained musicians, which was the case with many of the publications in
circulation during the early part of the century, but were written for
(E) not written for musicians who have been trained professionally, the case with many of the
publications in circulation during the early part of the century, but for
Q: Discovered by astronomers in July 2010, R136a1 is the most massive star ever cataloged, 60 percent
more massive than the theoretical limit at the time it was discovered, and the most luminous star known to
humankind.
(A)Discovered by astronomers in July 2010, R136a1 is the most massive star ever cataloged, 60
percent more massive than the theoretical limit at the time it was discovered, and the most luminous star
known to humankind.
(B)Discovered by astronomers in July 2010, R136a1, the most massive star ever cataloged, it was 60
percent more massive than the theoretical limit at the time it was discovered and was the most luminous
star known to humankind.
(C)When it was discovered by astronomers in July 2010, R136a1, the most luminous star known
to humankind, was the most massive star ever cataloged, its mass exceeding the theoretical limit
at the time by 60 percent. (CORRECT ANSWER)

(D)The most massive star ever cataloged in July 2010, when it was discovered by astronomers, R136a1
exceeded the theoretical limit by 60 percent and was the most luminous star known to humankind.
(E) R136a1, the most massive star ever cataloged and the most luminous star known to humankind,
was 60 percent more massive than the theoretical limit was at the time of discovery by astronomers in
July 2010.
CU TRC TUYT I (ABSOLUTE PHRASE/CLAUSE)
August 15, 2014 at 1:14am

Lu : "L thuyt ny ko dnh cho ngi u tim, ngi ko chu ng no hoc c nh c qua loa n"
Ta hc cch rt gn n gin th ny. Khi 2 cu cng ch ng, ta c th rt gn bt mt ch ng nh sau

1. I saw Mr Tam. I ran away


--> Seeing Mr Tam, I ran away.
2. His novel was written in 2000. It was the best-seller at that time
--> Written in 2000, his novel was the best-seller at that time.

Vy chuyn g s xy ra nu nh 2 hoc nhiu cu khc ch ng nhng ta vn mun rt gn?


Ta buc phi dng cu trc gi l cu trc tuyct i (absolute phrase/sentence) hay cn gi l cu c lp
Cu trc ny thng dc dng trong vn chng v th
N c th ng trc, sau hoc chen vo gia cu m ko nh hng ti cu trc tng th ca cu
A. Cu to ca cu c lp - n khng dng ng t m dng phn t (participle)/tnh t/cm gii t...
1.N + V-ing =>active (mang ngha ch ng)
a. The girl stood all by herself. Her hair fluttered in the wind. (khc ch ng)
=> The girl stood all by herself, her hair FLUTTERING in the wind. (CH NG)
b. There was nothing else to do. we went home
=> There BEING nothing else to do, we went home.
c. It was a fine day yesterday. I took my son fishing.
=> It BEING a fine day yesterday, I took my son fishing.
2. N + PP => passive (mang ngha b ng)
He sat all by by himself in the room. His back was turned to the window. (khc ch ng)
=>He sat all by by himself in the room, his back TURNED to the window. (B NG)
3.Danh t (i t+ cm gii t/tnh t
A girl came in, book in hand.
He was waiting, his eyes on her back.
Her determination stronger than ever, Nexisa resolved not to give up until she had achieved her dreams
Ch 1.Trc cu trc c lp c th c gii t with
Dont sleep WITH the windows open. Commented [a10]: ?????

With my mother being ill, I wont be able to go on holiday

2. Vi cu trc ny thng th 2 v phi khc ch ng v c du phy chng ta nhn bit. Nh nguyn


tc: 2 cu n s ko ni vi nhau bng du phy.

----BI TP P DNG---
1. We have already discovered that there are many kinds of metals, ................... its special properties.

A) each having
B) having
C) which has
D) every one has

2. ...................... rapid spread of railways, long-distance travelling became more common.

A) Having a
B) It was
C) With the
D) There was

3. This .............., we went out to play in the sports ground.

A) was done
B) did
C) was being done
D) done

4. I have 3 sisters, two of___ are very beautiful


a. whom
b. them
c. they
d. who

5. I wrote three novels , all of...............translated into English


A which
B that
C them
D whom

6. Ni cu dng cu trc c lp kt hp vi rt gn cng ch ng.


Six boys came over the hill. The boys were running hard. Their heads were down. Their forearms were
working. Their breaths were whistling.
=>

7. Dng cu c lp vi cu 1, mnh quan h vi cu 2 v 3 ni thnh mt cu hon chnh


His hair was wet from the showers. He walked in the icy air to Luke's Luncheonette. There he ate three
hamburgers in a booth with three juniors.
=>

Hi no qu. Bay t 2 t cm vi n roi tri i.


BI CHA CU TRC TUYT I
L Thuyt: (post qua note cho d c cc em - nhng e ko click vo link dc c th v trc tip fb ca
th v tm mc notes)
https://www.facebook.com/notes/1670433829847560/
----BI TP P DNG---
1. We have already discovered that there are many kinds of metals, ................... its special
properties.
A) each having
B) having
C) which has
D) every one has
P N A. Cu c du phy v...khc ch ng. => cu c lp.
2. ...................... rapid spread of railways, long-distance travelling became more common.
A) Having a
B) It was
C) With the
D) There was
P N C - cu c du phy nn loi phng n B v D.
Nu chn A th v trc cng ch ng vi v sau (dch ra thy sai ngha)

3. This .............., we went out to play in the sports ground.


A) was done
B) did
C) was being done
D) done
P N D - cu c du phy v khc ch ng. => cu c lp dng b ng
4. I have 3 sisters, two of___ are very beautiful
a. whom
b. them
c. they
d. who
P N A - whom thay th cho sister. V c du phy nn phi dng whom. Du chm th dng
them.
5. I wrote three novels , all of...............translated into English
A which
B that
C them
D whom
P N C. - CU NY KH NHIU E B LA
V c du phy nn d dng loi B v D.
Nu chn A. th sai cu trc vi t translated. Tiu thuyt ko th t dch c, phi dng b ng. =>
ngh ti cu c lp dng N + PP
Cu ny nu dng which th translated phi chuyn thnh were translated.
BT BUC PHI DNG "THEM"
6. Ni cu dng cu trc c lp kt hp vi rt gn cng ch ng.
Six boys came over the hill. The boys were running hard. Their heads were down. Their forearms
were working. Their breaths were whistling.
=> Six boys came over the hill, running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, their breaths Commented [a11]: Rt gn cng ch ng
whistling.
Hoc Coming over the hill, Six boys were running hard, their heads down, their forearms working,
their breaths whistling.
7. Dng cu c lp vi cu 1, mnh quan h vi cu 2 v 3 ni thnh mt cu hon chnh
His hair was wet from the showers. He walked in the icy air to Luke's Luncheonette. There he ate
three hamburgers in a booth with three juniors.
=> His hair wet from the showers, he walked in the icy air to Luke's Luncheonette, where he ate
three hamburgers in a booth with three juniors.
Hoc His hair was wet from the showers, he walking in the icy air to Luke's Luncheonette, where he
ate three hamburgers in a booth with three juniors.
Hi no qu. Bay t 2 t cm (n thm m khuya) vi n roi tri i.

Mi ngi i, cho mnh hi:


C cu

"We will go if weather permits"

chuyn thnh

"We will go weather permitting"

y l dng Ving c s dng ni 2 cu khc ch ng dng trong cu trc c lp

Mnh khng hiu cu trc c lp ngha l g? Du hiu th no v cch s dng ra sao.

Trc khi vo y, mnh ln GOOGLE SEARCH thy c bi vit th ny

"Cc mu Cu trc c lp thng gp

(Absolute Phrases - Absolute Clause)

Definition and rules


An absolute phrase is a modifier (quite often a participle), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a
sentence or a noun, with no conjunction. An absolute phrase cannot contain a finite verb.

Absolute phrases usually consist of a noun and a modifier that modifies this noun, NOT another noun in the
sentence.

Absolute phrases are optional in sentences, i.e., they can be removed without damaging the grammatical integrity
of the sentence. Since absolute phrases are optional in the sentence, they are often set off from the sentence with
commas or, less often, with dashes. We normally explain absolute phrases by saying that they modify entire
sentences, rather than one word. This is an important concept, since many similar phrases that we work with
modify other words. For example, adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs. That said, however, in some cases, it seems to make more sense to say that absolute phrases modify
nouns. We will look at some of these examples .

Mu 1Danh t (i t+ phn t hin ti

The question being settled[was settled/settled], we went home.

We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting.

The monitor being ill, wed better put the meeting off.

Mu 2Danh t (i t+ Phn t qu kh

The job finished, we went home.

The last bus having gone[has gone], we had to walk home.

More time given, we should have done the job much better.

Mu 3Danh t (i t+ ng t nguyn dng

Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week.

So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed.

Mu 4Danh t (i t+ kt cu gii t
A girl came in, book in hand.

He was waiting, his eyes on her back.

Mu 5Danh t (i t+ tnh t hoc ph t

He sat in the front row, his mouth half open.

She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter.

Mu 6There being +Danh t (i t

There being nothing else to do, we went home.

There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.

Mu 7It being +Danh t (i t

It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.

It being a holiday, all the shops were shut.

Ch

1.Trc cu trc c lp c th c gii t with

Dont sleep with the windows open.

He stood before his teacher with his head down.

He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on.

She came in with aMi ngi i, cho mnh hi:


C cu
"We will go if weather permits"
chuyn thnh
"We will go weather permitting"
y l dng Ving c s dng ni 2 cu khc ch ng dng trong cu trc c lp
Mnh khng hiu cu trc c lp ngha l g? Du hiu th no v cch s dng ra sao.
Trc khi vo y, mnh ln GOOGLE SEARCH thy c bi vit th ny

"Cc mu Cu trc c lp thng gp


(Absolute Phrases - Absolute Clause)

Definition and rules

An absolute phrase is a modifier (quite often a participle), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a
sentence or a noun, with no conjunction. An absolute phrase cannot contain a finite verb.
Absolute phrases usually consist of a noun and a modifier that modifies this noun, NOT another noun in the
sentence.

Absolute phrases are optional in sentences, i.e., they can be removed without damaging the grammatical integrity
of the sentence. Since absolute phrases are optional in the sentence, they are often set off from the sentence with
commas or, less often, with dashes. We normally explain absolute phrases by saying that they modify entire
sentences, rather than one word. This is an important concept, since many similar phrases that we work with
modify other words. For example, adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs. That said, however, in some cases, it seems to make more sense to say that absolute phrases modify
nouns. We will look at some of these examples .

Mu 1Danh t (i t+ phn t hin ti


The question being settled, we went home.
We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting.
The monitor being ill, wed better put the meeting off.

Mu 2Danh t (i t+ Phn t qu kh
The job finished, we went home.
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.
More time given, we should have done the job much better.

Mu 3Danh t (i t+ ng t nguyn dng


Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week.
So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed.

Mu 4Danh t (i t+ kt cu gii t
A girl came in, book in hand.
He was waiting, his eyes on her back.

Mu 5Danh t (i t+ tnh t hoc ph t


He sat in the front row, his mouth half open.
She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter.

Mu 6There being +Danh t (i t


There being nothing else to do, we went home.
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.

Mu 7It being +Danh t (i t


It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut.

Ch

1.Trc cu trc c lp c th c gii t with

Dont sleep with the windows open.


He stood before his teacher with his head down.
He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on.
She came in with a book in her hand.
He fell asleep with the lamp burning.
I wont be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.
He sat there with his eyes closed.
All the afternoon he worked with the door locked.
I cant go out with all these clothes to wash.

2.L mt loi mnh rt gn ." book in her hand.

He fell asleep with the lamp burning.

I wont be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.

He sat there with his eyes closed.

All the afternoon he worked with the door locked.

I cant go out with all these clothes to wash.

2.L mt loi mnh rt gn ."


ABSOLUTE PHRASE
Usually (but not always, as we shall see), an absolute phrase (also called a nominative
absolute) is a group of words consisting of a noun or pronoun and a participle as
well as any related modifiers. Absolute phrases do not directly connect to or modify
any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire sentence,
adding information. They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off
from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash
or pair of dashes). Notice that absolute phrases contain a subject (which is often
modified by a participle), but not a true finite verb.

Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the New York Liberty charged into the
semifinals.
The season nearly finished, Rebecca Lobo and Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true
leaders.
The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces beaming happily.

When the participle of an absolute phrase is a form of to be, such as being or having
been, the participle is often left out but understood.

The season [being] over, they were mobbed by fans in Times Square.
[Having been] Stars all their adult lives, they seemed used to the attention.

Another kind of absolute phrase is found after a modified noun; it adds a focusing
detail or point of focus to the idea of the main clause. This kind of absolute phrase can
take the form of a prepositional phrase, an adjective phrase, or a noun phrase.

The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to any sign of another
flare-up.
His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash, leaned heavily
against the firetruck.
They knew all too well how all their hard work could be undone in an instant.
It is not unusual for the information supplied in the absolute phrase to be the most
important element in the sentence. In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will Commented [a12]: showing the true character or nature of
someone or something, often without being intended
often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase: telling comment/example/detail etc

Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle
clenched between her teeth.
The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their
faces betraying their anxiety.

A noun phrase can also exist as an absolute phrase:

Your best friends, where are they now, when you need them?
And then there was my best friend Sally the dear girl who has certainly fallen on
hard times.

ABSOLUTE PHRASE (GRAMMAR)

DEFINITION

An absolute phrase is a group of words that modifies an independent clause as a whole.

An absolute is made up of a noun and its modifiers (which frequently, but not always, include
a participle or participial phrase). An absolute may precede, follow, or interrupt the main clause:

Their slender bodies sleek and black against the orange sky, the storks circled high above us.
The storks circled high above us, their slender bodies sleek and black against the orange sky.

The storks, their slender bodies sleek and black against the orange sky, circled high above us.

An absolute allows us to move from a description of a whole person, place, or thing to one aspect or part. (See Martha
J. Kolln's "Two Styles of Absolute Phrases" in Examples and Observations below.)

Note that in traditional grammar, absolutes (or nominative absolutes) are often more narrowly defined as "noun
phrases . . . combined with participles" (Macmillan Teach Yourself Grammar and Style in Twenty Four Hours,
2000). The term absolute (borrowed from Latin grammar) is rarely used by contemporary linguists.

See Examples and Observations below. Also see:

Building Sentences with Absolutes


Absolutes and Appositives in Conroy's "Midair"
Absolutes and Participial Phrases in Shaw's "The Eighty-Yard Run"
Exercise: Sentence Building With Absolutes
Expanding Sentences With Absolute Phrases
Revising Sentences With Absolutes

Sentence Combining Exercise: Ernie Munger's Run

Etymology
From the Latin, "free, loosen, unrestricted"

EXAMPLES AND OBSERVATIONS

Two Styles of Absolute Phrases


"The absolute phrase that adds a focusing detail is especially common in fiction writing, much more common
than in expository writing . . .. In the following passages, all from works of fiction, some have a participle as the post-
noun modifier .

. .; however, you'll also see some with noun phrases, others with prepositional phrases.

There was no bus in sight and Julian, his hands still jammed in his pockets and his head thrust forward, scowled Commented [a13]: ??? l ra phi l thrusting ch nh
down the empty street.
(Flannery O'Connor, "Everything That Rises Must Converge")

Silently they ambled down Tenth Street until they reached a stone bench that jutted from the sidewalk near the
curb. They stopped there and sat down, their backs to the eyes of the two men in white smocks who were watching
them.
(Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon)

The man stood laughing, his weapons at his hips.


(Stephen Crane, "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky")

To his right the valley continued in its sleepy beauty, mute and understated, its wildest autumn colors blunted by
the distance, placid as water color by an artist who mixed all his colors with brown.
(Joyce Carol Oates, "The Secret Marriage")

"A second style of absolute phrase, rather than focusing on a detail, explains a cause or condition:

Our car having developed[has developed] engine trouble, we stopped for the night at a roadside rest area.

We decided to have our picnic, the weather being[was] warm and clear.

The first example could be rewritten as a because- or when- clause:

When our car developed engine trouble, we stopped . . .

or

Because our car developed engine trouble, we stopped . . .

The absolute allows the writer to include the information without the explicitness of the complete
clause; the absolute, then, can be thought of as containing both meanings, both when and because.
The absolute about the weather in the second example suggests an attendant condition rather than a cause."
(Martha Kolln, Rhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects, 5th ed. Pearson, 2007)
Nominative Absolutes
"Nominative absolutes are related to the nonfinite verb phrases . . .. They consist of a subject noun phrase
followed by some part of the predicate: either a participle form of the main verb or a complement or modifier of the
main verb. . . . [C]omplements and modifiers may take almost any form.

...

"Absolutes have traditionally been called nominative because the absolute construction begins with a noun phrase as
its headword. Nevertheless, they function adverbially as sentence modifiers. Some [absolutes] explain reasons or
conditions for the action described in the main clause; others . . . describe the manner in which the action of the main
clause is performed."
(Thomas P. Klammer, Muriel R. Schulz, and Angela Della Volpe, Analyzing English Grammar, 5th ed. Longman,
2007)

MORE EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE PHRASES

1. "Roy circles the bases like a Mississippi steamboat, lights lit, flags fluttering, whistle banging, coming Commented [a14]: ??
round the bend."
(Bernard Malamud, The Natural, 1952)
2. "Harry froze, his cut finger slipping on the jagged edge of the mirror again."
(J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Scholastic, 2007)
3. "Bolenciecwcz was staring at the floor now, trying to think, his great brow furrowed, his huge hands
rubbing together, his face red."
(James Thurber, "University Days")
4. "The spider skins lie on their sides, translucent and ragged, their legs drying in knots."
(Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm, 1977)
5. "His bare legs cooled by sprinklers, his bare feet on the feathery and succulent grass, and his mobile
phone in his hand (he was awaiting Lionel's summons), Des took a turn round the grounds."
(Martin Amis, Lionel Asbo: State of England. Alfred A. Knopf, 2012)

6. "When Johnson Meechum came up the three steps of his purple double-wide trailer and opened the
front door, his wife, Mabel, was waiting for him, her thin hands clenched on her hips, her tinted hair
standing from her scalp in a tiny blue cloud."
(Harry Crews, Celebration. Simon & Schuster, 1998)
7. "Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon, running hard, their heads down, their
forearms working, their breath whistling."
(John Steinbeck, The Red Pony)
8. "Whenever you heard distant music somewhere in the town, maybe so faint you thought you imagined
it, so thin you blamed the whistling of the streetcar wires, then you could track the sound down and find
Caleb straddling his little velocipede, speechless with joy, his appleseed eyes dancing." Commented [a15]: ????
(Anne Tyler, Searching for Caleb. Alfred A. Knopf, 1975)
9. "Still he came on, shoulders hunched, face twisted, wringing his hands, looking more like an old woman Commented [a16]: ???
at a wake than an infantry combat soldier."
(James Jones, The Thin Red Line, 1962) Commented [a17]: Verb-ing modifier
10. "A tall man, his shotgun slung behind his back with a length of plow line, dismounted and dropped his
reins and crossed the little way to the cedar bolt."
(Howard Bahr, The Year of Jubilo: A Novel of the Civil War. Picador, 2001)
11. "The men sit on the edge of the pens, the big white and silver fish between their knees, ripping with
knives and tearing with hands, heaving the disemboweled bodies into a central basket."
(William G. Wing, "Christmas Comes First on the Banks")
12. "Hundreds and hundreds of frogs were sitting down that pipe, and they were all honking, all of them,
not in unison but constantly, their little throats going, their mouths open, their eyes staring up with
curiosity at Karel and Frances and their large human shadows."
(Margaret Drabble, The Realms of Gold, 1975)
13. "The accused man, Kabuo Miyamoto, sat proudly upright with a rigid grace, his palms placed softly on
the defendant's table--the posture of a man who has detached himself insofar as this is possible at his Commented [a18]: Ci ny l resumptive modifier
own trial."
(David Guterson, Snow Falling on Cedars, 1994)
14. "The superintendent, his head on his chest, was slowly poking the ground with his stick."
(George Orwell, "A Hanging," 1931)
15. "You can get a fair sense of the perils of an elevator shaft by watching an elevator rush up and down
one, its counterweight flying by, like the blade on a guillotine." Commented [a19]: ?? sao li c du phy y
(Nick Paumgarten, "Up and Then Down." The New Yorker, April 21, 2008)
16. "Two middle-aged men with jogging disease lumber past me, their faces purple, their bellies slopping,
their running shoes huge and costly."
(Joe Bennett, Mustn't Grumble. Simon & Schuster, 2006)
17. "At a right angle to the school was the back of the church, its bricks painted the color of dried blood."
(Pete Hamill, A Drinking Life, 1994)
18. "Ross sat on the edge of a chair several feet away from the table, leaning forward, the fingers of his left Commented [a20]: Verb-ing modifier, y l 2 hnh ng lin
hand spread upon his chest, his right hand holding a white knitting needle which he used for a tip nhau cng xy ra nh
pointer."
(James Thurber, The Years With Ross, 1958)
19. "One by one, down the hill come the mothers of the neighborhood, their kids running beside them."
(Roger Rosenblatt, "Making Toast." The New Yorker, December 15, 2008)
20. "I could see, even in the mist, Spurn Head stretching out ahead of me in the gloom, its spine covered in
marram grass and furze, its shingle flanks speared with the rotting spars of failed breakwaters."
(Will Self, "A Real Cliff Hanger." The Independent, August. 30, 2008)
21. "Down the long concourse they came unsteadily, Enid favouring her damaged hip, Alfred paddling at
the air with loose-hinged hands and slapping the airport carpeting with poorly controlled feet, both of
them carrying Nordic Pleasurelines shoulder bags and concentrating on the floor in front of them,
measuring out the hazardous distance three paces at a time."
(Jonathan Franzen, The Corrections. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2001)

The Perfect Participle (active)


The perfect participle is a compound verb form consisting of an auxiliary (in the -ing form) and a
verb.
For example:

Having studied for the exam, Mike went to play football.


Using the perfect participle emphasizes that the first action was completed before the second
action started. In the above example, the action of studying was before the action of going to
play football.
It is sometimes correct (and more natural) to use the present participle in such sentences:
So, instead of writing:
Having tied one end of the rope to the wardrobe, Mike threw the other end out of the window.
We would write:

Tying one end of the rope to the wardrobe, Mike threw the other end out of the window.
To avoid confusion, it is often better to use the perfect participle rather than the present
participle.
Reading the instructions, he snatched up the fire extinguisher.
The above sentence might give the impression that the two actions were simultaneous
(happening at the same time). Here, therefore, the perfect participle would be better:
Having read the instructions, he snatched up the fire extinguisher.
The perfect participle is, however, necessary when there is an interval of time between the two
actions:
Having failed twice, he didn't want to try again.
It is also used when the first action covered a period of time:
Having been his own boss for such a long time, he found it hard to accept orders from another.
y l cu trc tuyt i ( absolutely ), cu trc ny ging nh 1 cu nhng ng t khng chia m
thm ing , c th lm ch t m cng c th lm 1 cm c lp

A construction coposed of a participle with its noun or pronoun subject, or both. It is


attached to, though not a part of, an independent clause. When a subject is present, the
construction is sometimes called nominative absolute from the case form of the pronoun.
Without subject expressed:
Taking everything into consideration, the decision was just. Commented [a21]: ???

absolute phrase, absolute construction,


absolute clause