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improved performance

cal!l9[)!)' reading

teach YO'I,ll'$I1!fr

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• improve yOlll' reading ,@f1'iC'i.~'ncy

• aJrl.atyziS' t'ij'_dmOre effectuvely

• m$::imlze your time'

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IllrIJIi'essiGrII nl!lrnber 7 6 5, "" 32 1

Year 20092Q1!1820012tHOO200:52eIH

:2003

02

03

InbaldiYi!ilton 1.

i:i1U(l!:luc~IQI1I til' speed readlingl 1

n(!)w w ~~~ 'ltl~s,tmok 3

'll'eIClllIenllly asked quesltions £)

lililft fl"'!II~IUi;P readlllVI '~tem 7

ialrodl,:II:1&CIfI to 1he:livHrep syslenn8 stal)l 1: prepar,e '9 step :2: pUi:vl:e:w1 0,

stel) ,3: pflSsive r,ead:ino 13

sleiP 4; aclNe reading, '14

slE!P 5: S!el:B~tj,'lie reading 16

r~~.dilllJ ~m 18V61~ ilf moollincg 18

~ea(llnlJ w,1~ a lPiur:p:~e' 21

summiUY 22

spIed I~ta;dlng 24

1'aCl'O:rs cofl:trlbulttn.gl to Si'8llid :2S

where ,are ')I<I'U '1J0Vi'? :'IJ

irl~ril'asilil[l Y(I!ur b~ic nl1lidiniQ ra~e29

hvw to use a paceJ' 30

ski.nlmil1!g 3JlJd ~liInillg 33

speed reading alld ~li:'I1ing tin message 36

b5Ihi1;g'll~11 speetl readers 37

e:xa:roiSleS t® ill@rWlse 'yourspaed=readlngl

ral.ea!l!l1Iexib~lily :38,

speed·r,eadijng g rapltJ 42

summary 43,

II~ cillllni .hewQrds - developlllllGI your

wcatb:tlilal1 4S

wIi'llincreas:lng your IJocab1Jlary sp9f1<1ls up,

YOUIF readillg 46

how to iUlCrtl'ase Y'Ollif voca:brull3iIY 47'

lh<9S(l urea illf it aU - ,roo~s" sidf~,es and

pmi;(es 4B

s,peciaJ~ wcabulary 00

05

Oli

lUi

,a;o !!!:Ei!1tr:a~ III1IXI

U'le Im;p.ol'tance IO~ OOJ1Cerntrali(lill siress and rnemo:ry

tr~s r~(r i:nillUoVin!il V~l!Ir ii)o!'l"CIenlrnlicltl !.p:etitils.es, till il'lc~Jse .slid. ill'f'li,~~Oiliei

c~~e~trralJlo!il SlUlIln!ii3iiJ! mllli!lilllry mCriIllory m,yths

shol1t·1.emll~ ilillernl:lilediarb~, 1I!Iiul r,OIIil:!;I·llliml

merrmry Jio

how Iift~m{l:ry WlJ,I'k5 72

tfGhflICjUI!!Sr<C'Ir rllrn!i!mberriaQ 'wool YIJU' lread r4,

FIlldil-:Se:rusOry real!:lingl82 ~QrglltlililiJ ,63

summilry

31 b.ook is: :81 book ita book

r,eadillg differlif'll tyil8sar matefi'3l (0\1'

drnleilf8lM reaoons 'CriliCaJ lre.a~intl SUI1il!lfI'IiltY

'fOil!\' e,V8!!1 !!'!'!:!Ii'8ffcfJiClilV!! re!!di~t speied.readllliij OOSI~&

~,eadll~g f,Ciii' ufll!:ielSlatr!d~ilg e~rcl~rng y~ur ~~

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e)'e I'1IUi1riiHCii'l

s!Ummlary

diS1J11titlanlllind Si!llIU~]ifnli i~~k of 'l;loncelil1rntl:~n ~!Jysic.al distr.mtiolils ern'lliirlll1mBnta~ issues

w@rk rli5trac'ti'lrl~

dearililij" your desk '01 ,d~!iitr'lG'ti{l:ns :S!Jmm~ry

IrRll-wutl:dl ,l1Iadingl

lin~om1la:tiiO:Fl ~fiH!IM9~ 1P'~o:ril:izill~ aoml! pla:n1ndngl

87 9S 97·

98: gg

1m 102 109 U1 114 116 117 118: 1HJI 122 123 124 1::15 125

12:.7 128 U9

lCopif"lgwi1h Olee'trn!Q.s 1i~diin,g1 l'nforJlll~rlOr'lfa5t

new lobs, proie!)t$. <ilitl tUenl!

a IPj·anfor reduc1ng y(l~J roodfn.Q1 IlvallJaUng YOIiU progress, wmmary

w'Ollklng iliulllUdVing lor' a WI'Iing bdl!)re ,y~u be.gill

manag.1li!g tim~

sl!Il'nmry

11 I!.l$flu'lInforma110nand ~ed pruticel lHl 'Ihe maikin,gfS of l\lng1l8lll!

'criticalllart~lh1"e 'I!)!" critical rlladiino establish~I'I" your ,curnnvl, readililg i':alte

12: '.hat next'?

IIlJ1i!ilenn,es 101" 'Y'o!J~!\!l-d~y programme tea&hsomei)n~ 'el~1I11i1il basics ofsf)(Id!i1 reading

ttle II to i: 'ell e'ltect!\iIil re.adillilgi t~UnD I. Milner

Index

.lItknowledgem,s'l'u

To MII.rriST~¥1llr and O.lilri~ f@~n

Have . y(l,U ever picked up a book 01'1 speed ,read_ing a.tid th~;n.lghr) <I wane to. learn hcnjf [0 read fast but ~ d,on"f have: the rim~ ro .rea.d! 3 book this sill!! '['0 find out bow ~()!'?R:Je3.d OD, il,nd .rol.llwiU findtll:a,t is not 3 prob~~!tI.,

Iintroduction to speed reading This book has three levels of ilil,fonT.!;:I.doiil.:

1 Wha.t you. ~uu!d to know abotlif s:peed n~adil.1g tD i:I1iCn~3S;e yom reading eHiciclfi,cy.

2 What wo·u~.d 'be l~e:ry useful for you '[0 know about speed read.imiB and mcmOIFY, b~.~ is nO[ \fi'~3'1 Ul' wnc:reasc' your e:ifccrJvcllessat fhis stage,

3 What wouM be nioe Jor you [0 know, but is ~eO:1I:inl}'

no·! vital, _

What yOU] win ,achif9we' lin less 'ithan 60 Im:inutes

U you. read afil:~. ave.rag.c ~.:!d.ing .(,3.m of 250 WO[[1h per m:mmc' you will be able ['0 Jearn dIe basics of speed rC.1Id.i:ng in less than. an hom.

After tlle·flirst halif' h01ll1t'

Once you ~.av,e spent 3.0 rninu~!:~ with the book rOo" wiU kinOW the basks o.f speed read.iog" You will be :<iJ:hle ro practise yOI.1T lilC.w skills when :read:i~ tb!e rest ofth~ Mot" fjIlj:sbing it ina :fractiol'! of the time you would have mken pf!evioudy.

Finrl things filrsl'

One 0;( the main. reasons people read s,lowly is a lack of purpose and focus.. Here al'-e some! qu~rions, you should. as:k bef'Ore you star~ reading any boolk. Ta:kfl So little rime to an~wer ,them. YOt'l ma~ have som.e quest~ons to add re [he foUQw.in,g list;

.. Why are yOD rea,ding this OOQk~

• What makes you think you ne~d th.isbOQkr

.. Is mi.s bookrhe best: p~aa to find what you are ]ooklng. folt? .' How long do you intend to spend Oil. the book?

ii ~[I. 3!rC' }'QllI g:omg, to ~ tha imOl'lIl!a!tiol:l. yOUl find in this book? .WhaJU do yon alil'ea;dy know .aboDf speed :readlin:g?

iI Wh.'i'~ do you expect fl<om fhis .boo.k~

.. How wiJrn )'OU know whtlR you. ha.\le achiesed yo,urgoaH

Tb~s book win Iak~ y.Q.U th_jig,ugna syuem of [\eadii:i8 d:1~t will give you the reels yQ~ llilled to be' :!Jible 'to lneraase ),,{lliU readillllg mt.e :itltw.t). impO'rtanr wa:ys;

·YOIl wil~ read faste!'!: a~d re~mem.btl[ wbat you read,

.. You 'win find what yO'lll n~\d to read wi.thout always havLng,

to read ,aR endre book. -

Speed r,eading i~ labour R1U.ch more (!han [(!:3.di.ng fa:st.; ir is: abo~f :readi:ng 'SIDiUf',. SIlI.art l!'tad:in.g ]5,:

.. De1W:flllillmg w~at:'it is; r.b3:~· you. wsm from .. n.y [lcadi.ng

material.

.. Readi:ng 35 dficitndy. as possible.

.. k~ abJe to :roca.n LllfofmatiOI1 when you need iI' ..

The aim .of this book. is to' hl\lp you IDa-stec teciLni.'qti(!s that· "",nl en a blle you to read. and absor.l,. moi'1i i~o.fmadon ~D less time dl,an bdm·~. ¥ou. should find ,that you :spend. less time I!t3,ding becau~e yoo mal'llllg'c .h1fuUtl3.rlOD molfC qllkk~y. The "I"lJg~ arQund to it' pile w,m be Jess 'th:re:aremng a:nd C!l:aJsier ~o ge.t· armuld (iQ. Also. when y'Ou ~a'Y(i learnt bow to. read nOfil-:{i.c,timi OOl!rerial taste'l 3Jlld W:l!OlI'C effidel'ldy~ Y,Q1,Jiw:ill il1!l.d that YOij. namraUy apply e:ffici~pj[ rending t,oclm:iqoes. ee y'Our Jcisu[le read~ngwilh.ou,t losi_ng me eflj0'Y:m.ent ot a &1000 S!IiOZY.

M w.i1!:b ,anyd'ti.ng new. speed reading rakes pracri~ - bll!t not ii':be type that req)uires 'you to put aside hOlIU$. e:achday. 'Yollraim shouM !he 'to in.cltide s:peed~;readin.g, te(;hniqufs in your' daily £(ludlle and in $lO doing ~ome mQr(! aware' ·of what ),0'11 read and how y{liiJ .rcad it. -

IHow te use this boo,k;

Thi~$ib~okis dJesiped to be it workbcekaad a re:OOrelll,coe book dlaJ~ will b.:dp you develop yom spe~d,·[g .. .d~ng ~lkiUs as you learn.

Eaclil cbap!i'.er, nlaiY hel'effr:,l)ed 'to i[laepc!'!a.e4idy. Thii wiH :m1ik(i it easy for you to I.QC<I~c 1!:hllinformado]iJ you 1:iI.t1!fd. Bccomi .• ,s: ,acc!1~io!lT!Qd [() m.o"".i~g f~'edy3:rolmda. book i.llStJe",d ofooading i,~ fmm f:rant [0 b.1Clk ~ al'l' tmpoftant habit to dc.¥c;=i,op;. m ... ny :ilu~h(j;rs do [lot put lllile lnformafion i[Jjpn~~~(lly [he right 'Order to :suit YU!U .•

I ~,at' b~~g$ ~usw~. ~Q~timpor~nt !I:~lc of d('eCUliv~ reaC;i~: _. ,~ke yUWl' own .rf:.ll,du:'Ig rules,

A quh:k g:u:idieto readii:H(g tm~. bo.ok fa:s:1; :a!ldi 'efflii~v~ly 1 n.d:: ~hmlJgh ~he book to get OJ feel for its :5:t:n.l.~~,,,e.

2; Read d1,e t;<i!bll;:loi ~onmm~, thli!.n highlight: ;the chapters ylYlli wai:'itr ro read snd m~jl',k in Wll;.tt o:rd!e.r YO'ltW'a!!:t ~o Jle.ad drem.

3 !tead ,,!lIthe: Sllrnmar..g:(>-s.

4 Co.niri:lThueto read thjg inltrodllcticm;~t w~]I tell fOU wffillai:t

yau wili aclJJie'Vc br reaJdi~g eaeh ,.haprer,. <

.5 finaUy. sn:l.dy 'du,: fble·'Stcp Sl/'ll:tclDilnd use M en the r~s:t ·of [h.e book,

]1. you. want omy' ~:bCMS:lCS of speed read!i~g. Read rhe IDUcfwillgdl;ap~c.r:s;

1 The Fi\1l,h~OO:p R¢adi~g S~~sr.e:1i'n :2 SpceaRead:irlg

I~ r,glLt W,<Ut[ .imhlll' slciills ~o d~vctop yom s,peedi and iImlproVll Y01lir-mem.ory

~R(;ad rhe fallowbl!,; cbapteJ5: .3 MmM.o.ry

'7 Your!E;yes find Efn:ctive R"¢adillig

As <you p'rQg:~ t(h:r(itlg;n: the book le;a(l'nin:s new spe«i.':e",din,g :!OIciUs~ rernembc.r' top.factiise ehem o!llhis book. It proviid6 you w.ith the op'p.omuni~lI' to p~,acli...~~ y"Qll!t new s;kiUs.!>o cl~3.[: you wil!l bem,::!i't nom wh<lr )"Qij.learn much more .qlllicMy~

3

Chapter 1: 'The five~step N,adiingsysteim

- -

This chapter co,y,I,ii.'·S, (line: 'of the core ~.ecllil:iqlJleS' of [he book, Readi.ng it will gi'lfi! you the .skins rhat wlU hdiP YO-u;,

.. Empty ymu i!l-'~rayq1..lickl.y.

Ii Son 'th.rcHIgb piles of' pa~rwork thoH have buil~ up over the rear-s ..

.. Read beoks that yO'u,tv-e been wanting ~.(), read roryears.

• Oetth.rolllgh your u;ading at work i.n l:l qllJ!n·t~:r of the time it currt:rlidy ta!k_:c'$ you.

Chap.'f 2: ,$peedl readring

In this chapleT you wi}! ~eal'll. bow to t",k,e a ft.e.:db]e :aPPii'm'ic:h eo YOIJI' reading, 1tow toO frod lnformatiQl'i. fast and how' t:o eXh:"ac;t the message .&om d~,c dOCllmcll.t 'widlOllt wasting, t.ime.

Chapmr' 3: lit's aU in 1he words ... developin.g yourvooaibul811Y

'The bette!::' yoUr' l'QC::lbllil~:ry ]s:. the fatS,tiCJ: you will be ;~bl~ '~O read. This Ch. a pt¢,f is ,especially useful if }"Duare il'e3!ding a second 1l1ing~~,e or Hthe' nl.;ii!i~fhd you <!!~covermg i:i r:ecb!nicaJ] Oct spcc]a.bz.cd.

Chap,ter4:: Concen,traliorll

'Without com::entrnriO".f) t:h:ere willi he. no melT.lO:ry. Tbfu~ is a prac:rical cbapf:~r with exe:rcisC!s to h,e;lp you illc:reaSI!' your eencenrrarion, wherever you have [0 work,

Chapter 5: M,om.ory

If you do not r.emember v.dlc3t: you readl, YOl:lDWI}' as we:il not begin reading. This dlapfeli will] give you. a:nins]g]umtol how ')'Oum:' memory works 31m.d what may be happening wben it does not. A selecnoo. 'o,f appma'ches mremembcriog whatyoy are reading is .includOOI in 'tms chapre.r. Look ~f r'ilem.a]l anti cheese lihc!!! whic!h, you ,co:uld ~ ;f."Qili di'e differ'i:.ot ty~ of rea dins you do"

Chapter 6,: A book, is a book hi ,il boo1k Or is, it:?

Eve:ty Il'pe of rC;l!I1iing should k a,PPooiliChed d:iffell't!lIldy" In this ,~h.apter you wiU .fl.nd d'i£ierent st.ategt.es [hAlt will :maiker,eadillg

II newspaper in ten minutes a cinch and .r:ead~ng fO'I work a. doddle.

'ChaF,ll'l:er 7: Your eyes ,and eiffec;tire treadingt

Y01iIr ~y~ are YOUE' mOSE Jmpertant readiiil,g root The dJ.llJpte:r win help you tab care (If yout 1,o/e5. prevent eyestrain and improve your .ftlildillg mre by wncreas~Dg what: you can per,ceiV"e within your vlsua] span, Thls chapter has .ex"'():rcis~oS andpra,er:icaJ ideas ro make }'0m' eyeswerk hetli'l);t -fur you.,

'Cha:p,ter& D,is.tractions B'nd solutions

Wher,e!i'et y,ou, 31:1:, whatl,)'1,,{~r yOIl aee doing. there wUI be oom,ething to di~tra(:r YOll,. Thisch-apter: Linksd,oseh' with -Ch'l:pte~r 4 ,(Conccnn:':ati.onJ and CI:J:i.'1ptcr 5 (MemoFJ{).,Th,e :fewer the disuactiolls:; the fast:C~ and more producthl"f' your readi~g will be. Sohn~oiJIts ~Qa number of diffe:rCllt disHa,ctio!itS <lire d{tS(;riOOd.,

Cha,p1ter 9:: Rea~-wQr\ldI read~ng

MO~f re:;l!dill;g is, done under plreSlSU[C' - in one way Ol: 301,lo';!ler,. time is rhe c[iticOl] fa.(;W[; U people 'ever glve you. documents to' read aad then srand wai.ti,ng. w:hile you fitlish thefij". {his is the chap-ref ro read. It win also h'el:p yOIl prierlslze your reading ,and :lJ.r,eV'en.'t YOlEll:'se~f frolm b~comjng an i:nrormat10n ~ut:!:le.neck,

Chaipter' 110~: Woi'1king and sbldying for a I'i~irtg

If )IOU do any kind ,of smdyiElg. and also have a fun-time job or 'look door ,3 .fa.nrLUy you w,m find this cihapt~.r'!le'ry meful. In ~t yO'liJ, wlU filind ways eo simplify and orgamae YO'1IU n:ad:lllg aad redlllc·e ehe risk of pOlnkking ;:t week Oeror,e an exam ... U" hOWI,l\'i):fj you have "(Hl~Y a week to go umiJ the eX;;i!m there lS a strni1egy' in this ehapeer that win help you make tbe: bes[ use of ma,t ti_rne.

Chapter 11: Useful iti!dormation and speed ·-ra. c'lIce test

p. __ C .

This is, a support and fder~:(II::11l chapter with addirio!laJ.1 information that will help YoOu increase your v.oc:abula.ry ;,lind make readi:.ng easier. You. may wan'!: 'E'O record :in a :oo'mebook any ~oc~mimJorm3tioOm YO'lJ come ~~[QSS E!:tat: b,e.lps you, extend your vocabulary;.

Flr:eq;uently asked qjuestions Spetd nllld~f!g raises q,u:eslI"ioIls:

~ What :is, the fash;:s,t possib~e I::ill,b:lin{j: sp~ed? ., h ~i~d ~1'!:d~~~ euy lQ le<!!rnf'

.. How do I mai]lJuti.n, CU(u::CJilLtEatlJon wh±l,{j; ,readillg dry (lil;

tlechn]ta,1 D1.OItieli"l?

.. How' do 1 remember w!llaii:1 m;illdwih~n] :n:f,'1~d iI:¢~

YOl!Wm di!:i(:UVlilf tbeanSWf'fs 'to so.m;e of t]wese by il"ci'lod,1ngth:is book. n~ answer lj(j, [he~]f$t f*, tl1~twe' do not kgow wha:tlllil.e limit is to [lite rat:e' :31& which ]lQo:,leca:n read, The cCutren~ttc;ofd holde!J:' can read a book ehe si~ of Wur and .:Pec:Jc~ la 20 IIllll.UreS ::'tHd acclu·;::)It~ly ;'i:i:'i~~r qu~:;dQ~s ,~~ .it, Ability to ~~t quest:~ons, is t:ne ,impoI:t3n[ riling. Why spel1d pu;'Ciolls rime rea dint if you do [lot llave ,a, way of fcm,cHlherilng w~SJ~ ,you W<li~t. ro distil, fr,om, the i!W!aJterja~? Itememoo.r,· the j.r!IQ:!:m<!rio~h r.ai:tolr f~crion~kJIil;g afl:~r fall ihave Jt~ .. die ',~, -, be exp~o~~d. In Cb~p:t>erS,

Speed r~:Siditlg ~s easy: only Q:[le=fi:fth of' ehe re3d~llg strnr,egy ]('resented ~n the ne~tcupter requires p,r:act'icc. the rcst efthe .sysr.efml. will Woo-d.:: j;uS't by m<!Jk:irlg: l!$cof b.

Chapmir' 12: What: next?

How wm )'1)'lJ! <lVP]:!' what yO!IiJi ha,ve ]e3:rlYed~This cffilapter wi]~ I:Jc]~yOY ,de~gn <!! ll·d<lJy pwgrarnme :tbatwiU .assist rUliin i:nt1~gnlti:llg wha,[ 'you. Iilm/e: fMl'fillldinu) Y(I'l!JJf daY·!l:o·d.ry acitiv:it1es. Also; dte,re are ideas on .how' !r,O reac~ some()o.e else ..

I: H .• ~.,er. ,e" is.' :1InQ[~ef im.po:rnU'l.t ml~. _ Ha,V(l fU[I.,

J:nlh!i8,chag~r you wllilleam: ~ about Ole fll!',e ·1rt'eJf,lS: IPr.ep.am, pre,'vi~. p~ivfi'. active, selKtiV~

~ h(ilw ,to read for ~e""Dls o~' meanlngl

• about readrngl wlUlI Si pu~

IlnlJroduQtilon to, the five ... step sys1e.m:

By the rime yo~ complete the five steps in the system yo,1.1 will

nave: ~

.. ExpJo.f'ed the material itt t~nsr three times. '.' Read what' you need to he. ve read.

to IO'ljeg;rat!cd the new knowledge buo what you 9i~ready .Know. " Gainllid. an. aeeurate recall of the iDf·Oli'matiofl.

• Found the lnron.narion you require,

Mosr impolit'i111dY"rou will ha.vc'.:spem a fm·ctktu uf the time. 'yOll. mi,glu p~heJ:Wise have spent l~il.r.r)~llg these skills,

To avoid sJ:ippms: bsck into old :reOlding habits, cl.ose[y inl.low' the fiVle-S:lifp system o1!ldine;d in £Ms book, • Once you are familial." witlh it you ean ~daJpri,t to any type of :reading - articles, newspapers, memos; books, magazj8e~, and SO on ~ by

comb~lljn:g and omin:illg stoep!!!'. -

I The flve-:s~ep s:yst'em ~as. .. one (.JVer-.t::iding rule: .. A[waysknow ,wIry yOUi are reading oometFi:in,g.

It doesn't matter what: you.1 l'ei!~oni$,f(l(r r~:;uUllg .so:meEih:ingw;hcthe.r· it is because semeene receanaesded ~t:(lr s;imply

because you wane to - SiS long iIS you hQye' a mason. -

Th.e fi!'\I''e steps in ithe sysfiCm are ;;'IS follow!H

J Prepsre,

2: Preview,

3 Passive ;reading. 'ii, ActiV!eread1l'lg.

S Se~ective l'~'i!diQg,

Th.i$. $y.uem. is based on 3. process lbaf ~im:l?l!f asks you fa. highlight ~n;d eliminate' .. As Y()fl.:! u~~ the ~'Y,Sjt¢ill., YOIll,r: il,inais, to higbl~ght ~reas to,!, .fmt:h~r sm.dl' and elimi.natie those that you are certaia you do DOlt need.

Dependiing (In how much 'you "",atntfrom the book; StepS 1 to 4 couWc! take between S and 40 mimnes fOJ:!l b.ook ,Q·f 300 pages, Th,e dine thilt Y(HI spead on S[ep .s will depend on .how much. detailed imQtmatio:n }I,On Wil.il.t from the materia],

Steps 1 itO :5v.riU now be QUdira~d .. Readl [:M:ollgh [h.is section once, then l!$~ng ;) :n:o~.~fiai.on book on a subjie<:1 you are ~nn:resrod in trY' the' :SY.ste.lllI out, foil" the mOl!t1Cl1jl1~, fO:.;ge1; ;aoout r-.ry1.llg ['0 ~'e8d f;a:s!t. We s~a[Jget to. matl;i:t"cr.

Step 1:: PIFlelpare

O[l~ of the .r'C!lSQn:5 why .reading c:.1:rl be fnasrmting lis alack of cm1cemra.d@.~. This has as mueh to do with your rhol\!lgbts as }'iOUl." ,s!!n:rg\l:nd.i.ngs. One' of the serious dis[r;),ct~ons is tension .. 'Wh.en you are app.l'~ch_inga largli vnlume oJ ,[,eading"e'S~ci:lJly :if the'subi,ect is n~w [0 you, tension may rise. Oli'll(l Wily W diminish i.nidal tel:'.lSlOn is: t@ c-!if,abljs;h -dlaf you already' knQW WHJctbi:ng <'ibout the subjc.:;ct. AfiQt:hl;r~ to use :ill fQiU know rba,[ '~10n do not know very much •. is ee fQnnuhne q,;!(~~do!il:s[hat 'wil,1 h,dp 1'0'1.4 im.pmve Y{)Ii.u· kuow.I.ci!gc' aJ!Jd ach~ew: 'your objective.

The main purpose ('If the pr,ep.uation SI(tCP i$ wi) build the f[,a~ew(lI:k earo wmch 1'01l will fit e!l,~r~'1l:ting yQU learn as you. r~d. The !:r,iull.ewOlik (an be: mad!e up of .fact~. O.l[ qu(!~m:iQ['I$.

Though1; experiment

Gompa~e' the exP&iie:i1,090f pmparfng to, R!latl a t~t to, seeing something YOLI have nmer seen befo~. When you see· SDmethirig ne-w yot:! may'!lit 'first take $OiIll8 'Iiime to ,es,ta'blish what y,QUi llm looknng at. During thlat 'WOrkingrout' tim,e yw CQIl'Ipare wtnal you am :seel:ng 'Nith wh~t you alread¥ know ymil you '~rnd something lnm is,si!ll~lalr; whlcl'l will help, you ma~ sense Oit wIiiIat }tOiJ ai'e, looking ,at Ilf you find .oo'lhlngl that 'comes close you willi begin, to u'k qUI8$~ioO$ nSilmally ..

IPrepa:liing to read 11$ dOi'ng Iha 6aJT1e,. Wln.~n you 100111: at the 1m.e or the, s.ubjed Of wha.t yoo :are iI!Jout to road, a"low your:seff a !Ktle, ~imer'l;Q think at 'wha1; you a'im.ady '~11CIW ~hat: cernes ck)s.e to what you are looking M~ il1 il"!:o,thl'rngdoas,ask q;i.limons Tn a structu~ool way.

QlUestwl.1(9 .... re iJn.porta:nt;wiibollit dlfm j'lOlJl. willi, find .]iliO <IDSiW'(if$;. for ,eve'ry piece of informatien youpiace on yauf' fr,;ullcwork ask qeesdons ~ who. what" whtJC, when. wh,:)1~ how. Th,erc is 111.'0 stlch ddllg, .aI!,! a s;iUy ,question. Qu'estiQ:llI$ d:!:a,~ a:re labelled as such are g.e!ij¢ra;Uy the ones that a:i:¢ d~tfi.ctllit to. a:nswe:r for somc' r~~i)IiiI .. Think :back to whem. you were a ehild and you ,.,sk:~d :3 perfect~y good qucstiQ:n. If your parents could l!(lf-., Olf di.d Il.O['W'8im:t to, ariSWI!~ i['~ drud they !!lQf~ '~n~t ;,uk such $i]ly questions', lleaving you. .feeling bew~lde!l'i::d and-ignorant? Ai:ways ask questions. It is benet' nee 1'10 find the ilI!5W~r than !:lever toask 'tIll.e q,u,esrion. Themere raukn'Qw ~nd tll.e .m01te qlles,tionsyou a.dt!, rhe moll'e roll. wil 00 abJe to make' seme ,(lif the' subje<:i_

Q

',-6,

, I

T.It¢pt(lpal'<liil'.ion S[3ge helps, you focus Q~ the 1i<lsk:

.' WriH~: down, Wlla( you iii.hi'eady know about the s.ubiect; key words are s:u.Hident:~

.. Decide what you walU from the book. is it genel."a.1 informatiof:l, enough to wd.te a fl:epofit: on 'Of ;si:rnply the answer 00';l specific 'qlilesrion?'

• Alwall'lI,~ youne~f ·[hc:sa three qUCSriOillS;

D, Why. am ~. J¢'~di.ng dl.is i.t1 rile &'S:~ plaICe? 1 Wb3.f dol a.lresd,y :know?

3 What do I need rokl!low:

Geu:irlS yotu'self ineo a learning .StaiW is important, This, wi.11 help Rlaximum eoneeatrarlon. Chapter 4. which. deals with eoneenrrarion, providesa numbee of methodlst!har wi]rn hel.p y'OlI rocus on whar you. bave to do, whether YO'!l! arc surrounded by distrnctions at home or in lh~ midst of :nt3yllenl <It: dl,e ofn"Je.

,St:ep ,2:: [PiIVview

The 'p1IJ!rpose of previewiri:g <'i book is ro become fam-iblll' with hti ,Sl;fI,1.Ct!.l1te.

• Wh;:!,t d)Q!}!j·it I.QQ·k l.i.1k!tl:~'

• Are there summaries orcQm.:lu~jQru~?'

• Is it all t'ext:~'

, Me there any picm:res! -What size bl, me pdnt?

• D()~s the font selecred make :it e-iiSY It)O read.?

• Is tlli~e t.ext bro:k!en 'Up :inlQ $&.~[iO'M?

• ]8 it a ,~e:rie~; o~ pa:I,'.~~phs?

for a lOO-page boo!l:l dl~ Q\i'eZYlew should talke a'bout~O minutes,

• R,e.a,d the fronrand back covers, the inside flaps. and tile: table (lif YOltll~n:fs; and ha,vea Ilooka,t the ind~x~glQ.ssil,l)' and bibliography.

• Det'e.~ thestructure of the 'book: chapter headings, stili, .. headings, p[cwl',es •. graphs, l;;!llWOOS· apd images,.

• E!Iiminarfe the I?a~$ of the book that you 8in: 5U['e YOy, d.Qn.'t n.eed.

u!~' ... ~· IL ':i..' ~'. ~I ~_ cI

• "~IJI&mJg!l~t a.ln::a~, you u~I:r!l!li: you. ~o., n~;,

• Re·;af&m your decision .. ~bgut what you wan.t nom rhe boot.

• If it ·beoorne~. cle;a1: thalli: the book does ri·ot: ·CQnra~i1 what :yon n~, put: i,t aW\'liy. You wil bi.lV~ $aVtd l"olliiisdf hour'S of wOIlIl.::.

ThC'J:¢ ;is a vast amOUlli:: of information you ~atlgl~1il. from each of tilitc nages of Y01lllprewiew. Here are $Onrl.e: idctlsa'bolil whilt ym,!! should be lQokingfur during thisstagel

The clOver

The I!:over ill die frrsf !;;aU lura book ... Any picture on the front ~$ M~ign{.-d eo artraca yOlI.lll' aU~nti6n; ~t is tlliC'tefQ:r'~ im'pOI:'MlI'lt to ~M!k beY'Oitld the picture to f~rtd our wlu'ldler tilite bo@lIt win be' usefulto you.

IBac!k"page· blurb

This sbouLd giv,e a good lmdicaitiotl of what rhe book contains, If' ,ohen coll~,a;ins pramlses, such as~![f you t,~d. dtis book you. willi] .ger •• , ,. You may also be able to gauge ~h~ book's .r·~dabl:l.ity; if the ~,k-pag,e .blurb IS written in c.omp~ex ~l1lill.gJllSiSle.,. ~hc rest o.f the ooo:kmay be thc ~m.c· .. If on the otne[ band it is d.eiit., st:r<l'l~gbtJ:D\fWal'd aDd easy to understand; there ~:; .0'1 ~etter chance of the book being ,eas)\" reading.

lin side fta:J)J

M@st hard-back boob, and. even so;tn~ s,oft~·back.s halve inJomiadol1i on the' :insid!e of tmte liOV«S" This usually consists {If sllmma:r.ies:, biog~O!pbi\~i!.l jil:f".rm,atiof.l and a phowgraph {jf the .a~dlo:r. Readi.ng. this wJn giv'e: y'ou irlfofn'll;a,'tion :tbouli: ll'he· autbo.r <'I!1!d what pomt of viewthe:y migbr be taking.

Foreword

m fo['ew'Ord~, hardly ev'cr ,n~Old, .is probaMy' the most i.mpormll)t seedon to coves at die prev~ew st':aGe. Another cxp~tr ~Il. rhe field U!iuaJUy w.l'h~$; it. ~t win almose always .Cowta:lll :informa,rion .about the a1lJit~o:r aJrild th~ir experience in the fieldfhey are WrLtu~g in •.

l"aib!e o:f eDDled,t:&:

The C:OI!teJllfS [~ble is mnlle.ll.die,d! to help you .Und. yOUf'Wi1Jy thtougba. book and is Uke]y to be tbe section to w.hich you ref!!!' IThQ:!lt: o.ften. When you ma:k¢ .01. first· pass ar d1.e ta:ble g,f eonrenss, make notes' aJ~ yot:! gOo. If you know l.ha.t you do ~t needthe

,contents of a ehaprer, make a no'tJe about why you think y.g~ dg, net need: Ir, Forih~ il,;haptcfs iha:t YOll do want" 1l0['C wh,a,tit Is you expect to find Oil qlll.esrniC}J111, YO;1iID wanrr'aJ1J$Wef,S to.

Glraphii,cs" pilc1:ures and cartoons

These In;ay be exce[len'[ SOU(';trul of i:nformat:io!:! •. They eont.ain information. abeuethe topic in a pictorial format., S;ince; most of us remember plcturesbetter dlan words; they will. helpyou r'~m~mber Wh.3t you are reading. Do no,tiu~,1t glance at gt''IlIphs :and pkriiU~;, ,~rudy thcRl; reed t'Re rides :tI:11ld an.y exp]a:!lat~OiIJiS provided and work out h,o",.. tJney wiU fit into the framework you ~n to build :in Step 1.

Tables

Th¢5e ,are wdul :~U~ can so.mttimt.s be conlusmg wkbout background knowled,ge ;about wha.f they cenrain . Look briefly at the 'tables without .anempting: to memorize or fully undersraad wIllit t'hey cOl:llta:in. If 3. hri.e.f ~xplalfl,OItiJQn is attacfled 00 the table d.1.e'El li'ead. that •. but:w~t]~our s;pellding .m.ilCEi. lime on h. The io.fo:rm~Hio·m. wilm b~omc clc.uer ,at Step 4\ ~ Acriv,~ reading.

Index

Nexc tQ therable -of mDtents,lliais ~!> rhe mesr valuable !i~c;ttiQ[I in the book. Th~ii:1.de~ win ,give you demUea ill.fDlfm,artiQfi in a different forma.t from d.1~ centenes table:

.. If Y?IJ an mooldng.forinfo!:'mO!ri.?~ on a, s,pedffc aspecr ~f the !l.Ubl~ctO,. an O'lIf.lswe:r to a s;p~cli[c ql]mil;.lt)Il.)I''O(I may finda

.f'Cfle.r.ellce ~,o itt w~[h~li.1It :furtbe:r ,[.eadiJ:I,g. .

.. The wndex wiU give you a V.ef}' clear indication of the derall l'h .. 1'!' bOOK has 011 },0I1[' subjecr.

Glliossary

Th:i$ ~¢(ti,Qn ~!i useful to skim d'IJ.ri:ng :r.11,1$' ·s~p ,~nd you wm ceil'taiD:ly ~.iRd ~[m.O!!it useful :iQ Step 3- Passive reading, when you are srudying the :langu3.ge oJ d,,~ text. While you are readil'l8 th(;: S~iOIi8 YOll! have sf:lected the' glo.ss;u:y will be invaluable - p~ac:e a 1ll3.rk.e:r at the start of me section so rha:1:' when YIl:iu, need ~o determiee the ,me4'lning n[a, word )'Oil]. win be able to find i.t qu:ickl.}'. If y-oy are ~ttldfiDg fmm 'tIu: boolk", eheck whellne.r you may phamcop,y rhe g~,o~ry 00 that you can add. norestQi~

ea!liliy as you worJ::. .

B'lbliography

Th,e' bib'JiQgraphy may 11lJ.d!k<:ntie some of the' boo;b [~e a~t.hor !lIg~ ~S' refe.rence durHig dlt: aevdopment of dIe book, It will also ~iW! an .[dea of w.l1at ~eve:1 the book Is p.i.t.ched ,at. If the lilOOll:sliiSlCd jfi! the hibl:iogmpby are 3in fum:iHar to you, the "book may notbe S-I!llffidendy advanced for yOW' needs, If they are new ro ~'1.11 t!flfill, :it wi]] be a good g!U:id.e for further $lilldy.

O!n the, basis oft-he ]nfol!.'m:!ltkn1. gaw'reiI during this S'~~.P" ')1'011 "WiJl be able to think I.tiOi',e deady ,a'bout wha~ the nnct cosers. At d!iI.s stage, review yO'ulr' puepose. ~8 it still the same as 'YOU stated befoll!'! )loupr-cviewed the book. ()f has, it ch.anged! be,au~ of' whaJ[ you have meal'Pl:t

At th_~ st\1:ge' ,YOIl ,sholJldaJw ~giin [0 be able 10 strereh yOUi' know]ll'.d,geand Ulld1il;(',Uan-di.ng of whae dle a!l!.rlilQr 'is tryillg to $ay. If~ oow-e,¥leJ~ dite author'is pomt is SAJiUrI.or. 'c::Jear. 'u:y 'to decid.lt;: "",halt ;flJ5$i[.lmpdoni'i the author is making,

AI. '~OO often,. spe(J~alists 'Will w:rit:C" Oil [:heir p.artIDcldar su bjeCi[ fo:rg.eUiingr:hat: m,any of tbe people who will be .reading, ir win not b3:ve'bad rhe years. ,of training. res~an:h anA exposere to the sl,lbfll!:d t~at l~ey have hn,d. As, 8. C:Qn!le-qu~!:'ice:. dle :la.l'IgPi!<:!Ige m .. .y be c:omplex and basic exp~a.padQns may be: lac:kiDig. If 1M 1S the ;c'a:$~~ rons<~der what qliit'"SlioiiLcS YoOU might need to aJMwer bero!l''e you, coo CQmi:f}iti,t with rhetext, \viili rhose questions inm.i:od" earO' on to Step 3.

Step 3: Passive reading

Now that Y'01.l. are prepared and ~now the slrn>;;tIi.!:fe of th.t: book. [his step will iamma.dzc },O'1.Ii wj,rb dle' language:: and the ,orgmizatiQn. of the ooo:k. Is it fun of jar,goOn? Is the author a ''1inguafa:il'? How is: rhe inl'Q_rrna.~i{ln org:amzed~Ar~ there a. ~Ot ,of ~x3mples.? Does dre book rake you d!tough a sre:p·by"ste'p p:l:'oce:ss?r

]{no,w:illg how <!J 00<* is oO,rg~:niZled wi1l he]p 'y"OU to identify key ideas and S(\lit,f!:t'lCil5 ~I:l Step 4 - Acti\i\!l reading, TIle inronnario:ll may ~ arranged .in a lI.IiJ!mber o.f W.9i.y!l~

• Qro:mological ,.., First. sooond~ third or by date,

~ ExaIm,les - ]f there seem to be S[lOneS in the text" the-Ji! perhaps the Sforiiies aJIt: tine e!i'idli<llc~ fOf:a;rgumel1~ that the 3lnll!Q"i states elsewhere.

, Ad;vantaFS and disa:d,v;m~aGe5 - TI'J' uncover th:issttucruare leek for wor-deS !.ike 'but'~ '00 rhl: orher hand' and'how.ev'cr·,.

·rij'ore.ss _ A~tivity A leads l:03criv~ty B and O'D t03C1i.v~tY' C. ... MO$:t ~mFi!ln:am.tlilc:~tilil!pgrtWll~ _. Does ~[he' .;:iUdi{lfpnacc· the cor.e of ibe information arrhe start or at the end? Most newspaper :stolt.u~*wiH have the I:nos[im:ponam: lnformi1lti.o.f.1 ~t"th-e stan of rJl:f: SOCII'Y" f:c][owed by thcde,r,ii:j] nece~ary to say mOte abollt, the 3.ct~~.l inc~del'n and perhaps finally eonlm,ent' from. those ~nvol:!,I'~d. cu' the opinion of ~hit f(lilll.[[l~Ust.

The pass.ivc: readi.ng srep works best if you. thorough.I, compJeted Step 1 - .Pf~p.1ll''C·,

lrsheuld rake o.:d" between 10 and 1.5 minutes 'EO. read 3. 300· p~g,e boo:!:- pas,si;vd.y~

~ Scan the pa,g.e;s at a t"3!tco.f about ;l page: ,evc:ry one to two seconds s

.. Highlight 'W1r.Ids tharstand ou~. They mil}' be namts,.long Qr tedmical werdsoe wOlrds in bo!Jd 01:" italic .

• ' Decidlt if 'the [an,gua:ge is [~cb.1)li~], :noll1l·-tecb.fl.tca.1 cu' Merfriif'ndly. Are you familiar with :ii:?

• Look (ll!ll!l' fo.r W'Ofds that wil] give' you. ::3. ~ltJ;e w ~.Qwthe i:nro[jn~ritm ~s s,ttlllctU:redi. St~r[ ]ook~l1g for kiey id.eas.

~ .Ma,ke 3, note o~, where the key 3~mCillC$ $e.em to' be',

An ,@xpmment and an Impgrtam: note

~fy'Ou ~f,;nO'w Wli'iiBt you we rooking for, you 'will'f,lru:! it If you know why YOll: ale readinsl the ,bQo.k 'you wFl! kno:w 'w,hst: you·are ilooking for.: You wiiU notloe words relating to VOw a~ili of interest. '

lilY this. look aroond ,and notio(l ~\i'etYlhmg, tad:. On~y Ired. Ni)~ioe, Iilo,w .1llila:J'lyslh~dQS of ~d ttlme me'. Now, ciooe' your eyes; and remember EI\i',erythlng bllu$ in ~h~ 100m "."Vlilhat did yoo ,no~ic~?'

Step 4: Acti!ve readiln.g

The maillpuffOSco:f aJCtti'lcrcadi.f.Ig ls ~o idcrnify the main ideas '0'£ a text. These aile tworeasons why ~th:is m~y be a ,cba:~lenge~:

• Youm.ighc n,1}1; ItnO'wcllolligb about [he [ext -or tile alllJ:tlii.oC' ~Q' :r,ecognlze' wbat theid~aJs (!if arguments are. Dis ~ m~e bdog :asked wil...etbeI you bave .~ny qUi~-srions about il sUlbj,oc;r you know Illorhing abo'l!lt _, you do nor know enough tiC 'know ""bat q~i!:sri:ons w ask. The more thoro~hly you can:}' out

Sreps 1 (,0 3 and the clearer your purpose is, [he easier it will "be to .find main ideas ..

9 Theseeend chali.eng,e- is that you rna)' not kno-w where in the text the ma inidees are iikei.y ro be explained, Mt:holligh ehe m:ain idea of [!l·osr well-writren material is in (he first sentence or tlite paragraph, it may be i.n~ht': middle or ar the end lmtead.

Finding the main idea

Knowing the rvpe of marerial yo,!;! are reading will help you detennine where the main idea is .likely to be, A [cxt wrirren to inform w.ill ·plob;'lbly have the keysemenee at tht' srast of the paragra:ph. If the-purpose is to entertain then the key miUIfm.::Ui:Om. will morethanlikely be at rhe (:nd (like the punchline in a joke). U the [ext is there to persuade you, you may find key lnformarion at rhe start or in the middle, During Steps 1 and 3!ook fo·]'" the [ccarion oJ key ·inform:Hion;. this wiU help you [0

deleon.inc the rianite of the text·. -

Fo·r more detail

Thi!l is the Firsl rime yOUI "",(II be doinS anything resembling reading!

• Detc·rmillCl the type of material yOti are reading.

• Read the firse paeagraphefe ... cry chap[et and the f.il:"st and last sentence nfevtty paragrn:ph •

•. As you progress through the' text, beg,in to idemi.fy whercrile main i.dea isllkdy [0 be and focus mere attention on those St:CfIOf!Sc,

• Avoid reading entire p-aragraphs. This wil.l slow you down.

The keyquestion to .. sk during this srep is;

.. Whar point is the 3ud1ior [tyillS: to make?

CrQ$5 om, highlight. uncie'l"llnt,.ci..rde and fake notes as you read. Later in f:hi~ book you will Learn how re mind-map (see p. 75}. The more thoroughh' you do thi$~ the easier ~clf(:ting. w har you reaUy need to read WiH be.

Ana1yse your readingl

BefQfl! you laun("h into· Step 5 ~ Selective reading, take a lnrle time to rhinkabaur what y01.l have read 50 far.;

Q

......

~Did yQ'llW hOlVCOl:rlr di.if.iCi;l!,lry with. the cot!$~;,::[!vQl::ab~l~ry or cOlltmllt ,olf tlh,Cl: book?

,~ Did lilil,e; maoo:r:ial r()~ read eyoke any tboQght"s Of feeii:flp thar W~[~ out (If the (lrdiri:<ilry?

• What '\!t:aS y.()~tra,ui,tud,e befor.e yon stareed ~'Cadli:l1:g? Has ~~' cina!l!~oo now:'

• As rail wen~ through S~!.'ipS 1 [,04 dfdyou become less

:interrest"-oo in ~bc mater.ia~, or mere :i~~ercswd?

,~ Hewmuch timl~ did yOll! ~perld? CouM you bal;reredu:ooo it? .. Did you. ~iI: d:l''aiw:u:i: inm 3i:1Ypairtkllil,;,'Ir socti!(iliil?

~, nid j'>O[J ,find, wl:l;O'!I;~'OU wClig ~,ookjQg for?

.. Are yOIil1' notes (Jea,f,?

Thethisd ques:~iml.~, 'O\il atl:hilllde~ ]!!ve:q im,po.rr::u:I,t. If YOIlJ ftld negadve a,bollJt [he task. ymlr motti,varionand. conoenrraiti,on w,iU di:m.i!1Jl~h and $~Iecri~:g WhOll you need ~!a !)e"d l"c~'I;.!f, .. ,~ely may ~ !!:HOle d]ffilcldt~o accOfll"p]isll.

iIleror,eyou be~in the !1!e,x~ step, w.u;jw down quesrio~s 1ihat YOiJll. wOIl~d lUte [l(l b8ive answered by wha[ YOll ~n:mrldtQ rei!ld.fOir l;'l'\':amp!c. yOy might ask:

'" Wh<!J~ W!e!"e~h¢ main PQi~ts the :a~tlo:r was trying to p~t ~cross?

Step 5: Selle,etivereadiing'

ThQI.!9hrt fiCperiment (dQn't acm:ally d'o this '1.:mIElH }!'Q~ W<illi1lt to, W~1'!! ,Ilj greMde!!'ll1 offfmil'iandi ~~~

Ilmag'ine yOI!.!I·;;g to take a 1ilrlp hm Lond!Cn to, EdhlOl!Jrgh. ¥oll.lwim use oQli,Jrntrry road~ :asrarr ~~ P<l~ibla, Im~gr!1l€l you have !I!~!1Ir takellli s!!Jelt'la Mp bmera, butstllIl you d'ooide l!1ot to t:akflaJ Ima;p. ~, yourarri'va!11 in Edi~'bilJrgh. meek yourl!!TIe" inch,r,dlnglhe Ime taikro by d~t'QfUrs, a:Jiildi by !;l:;;lidng d~fOO'~IQn$. M!ak:(l ~~~ ~rip~ $~Qnd time ~sing a map, and th,en compa~ethe ditfeml'iiCEl in Um.e belW8'e!1lI th!j tw.oioumey$.

The :same applies to !r9EI.d'ling. The first fotllr S1i9p5.~mm pmparMion to aCltNe readirIigl,r;lTWie a map f'orr }'IOU to,ftJUow. When you klInow whe~ you are g:o~ngarnd how yoo are golrlJ91 to get: 1ihe~e. the task is mu:ch easier to aCQo.rnplf:stn.

Tile purpose .1);( the fl~st f(["!.!if Sll.'1"S is ro aUow you to slldec!: w:ha[ you need or want' to' reada.n.d h!dp 'You. read. it mt~Updy.

DuriJ.lg th~fi:fS[ four steps you have decided what i:r is you o;lt.:lIn'[ to re;l,d~ W'hl3t answers )l'f)!,1 are Iookillil; for' <'InC! w.l:ia~ yOIl:ll' inrel."csl1l in the !lubi'f'Ct is.Yo,lIl. have seudied the' 5truCiE!U'e of the book, you ,a:re f<lnlil.i~r with its languag:e~ }'(lll have ·[,ead ,,"ome of ~he(iOlllreilt~ gi.Vltlg. YUill! all1 c,:!!ce1rueilt lI:I.nderstnl1dblg OIf wh3Ji; r:hti book contains. You can now select die' :secdo:!1;s ym!l seaU)' need ·~o read "WithO~f worryiiltlg aboutwhet.h~:1f !fOil have missed SJnjrthiJ.ilil~

"InteLligently' l'eb:!rs to you:r i:ni.ria.lpu[I?QStl. ReadimginteUig,endy win he]~' you distingllish, 'belCiV:e-en what YO;llI: need t'Q know, Whill:f you would llke toknQw and W:113t: it would be fut! lO .know.

To select wh~t you need to read 00 .fulm dale purpose yOY S(':I! for

V(i'1!l.rs~1f druiDS; your. plicp.arnrion:: .

~ :RLe-view' the seres 'yo,'. made 'in Si~P.' l.

.. Add any·r.e]evan[' lllfo·r:m:atiol'l yo'u gained as yut!. we~' read:ing;. -

~ Answer the question. ':00 I aJr,ell,dy h,i),Ye w'b~t I WlIS. l.oo:kil"l,g for?'

;; If you do. :stop .

.. U you don'it, Rvi,cw chc k.ey· words highlighoo:d dlU:il;'lg S!tI€lP 3 - P~~ive Il'~adilng. and :rcpt.a1t rhe: ,q,uesrion: '00 Iha!l~ what I w3.nr?·'

.. YOlJl millcle ~i,'I)U-~ dilring, Step -4 _. Activ,e J¢~di.iJ:g. R.ecy~ew them .!tnd a,gain ask whe'tiler yuu ha.v.e wbat YoOU want .

.. U'roo. decide m"~li'nill need more mfoml!ario:ll~ go. 'Ehrol!Jlgh the boo! and r~d thepieces cf wxt you identiflled as re;]eva.nt:' doong the :6 [st' four steps_ .

• ' ]f you decide you needto readthe enrire book. :),uuwi]l be a Me to rca . dkmeeh faster beca!l$~, n;;l\iing, complewd rhe firs!: four ~,teps, of the oV(:i-sl!1ep sY'ster.i11YouW;~U k:n()w what ~he book oo~t~:ilts and what to' c'XPCC[d

By now '1ot1 w.m be fami.Ua.r with the :laY(I!,lIt'~ la.ngu3l~e and ceatem of the book. Y.ou will have spent .:lJppl:'m::ima:le~,r ,4()"'S'O minutes w:ir:hlffil.e book aad you w.il!l ha,vc'I! good idea of what' it (;();lJ.lai:flI:S,.

nu[!k c<iitefu][y' a;gain a.bouf what 'ro(.act1y you w'I.nr from the m;are:r.ial. The ~'ength 'o,f time you spend ,or!. Step, 5 depends Of! how much }'\OU decide YOIl need. Whedii@f rouw:ant~o readit all or j1l.l;5t QnCl paragmph OIl o~epagii in enechaptee; that' wiiil.1 be .~n !:I'lro.rmed decision and YOU wi][ Dot hsve W;(l.sJ[oo }loll.r time.

UI, Think aboUlt 1ihe' fwe'"'$l'eP ~mI ,and app-~y i~ 1'0' ~t:le rest of U,!s

~ ;' bo<lk,

~i.' ~--~~------------------~~'

illi

i One of the biggest comp:lain_ts PQ()plc :mak!fl ilbou:t s:peed~.I',eadin,g

"CI boob is that th~ are toe big and tale 000 Imlg to read, Use

I whar you Jearn 3IS, you learn it to increase the ,HUe at which y.c.u !f,e.ad this Ibook.

bid )!'.ou kng,w?

o

......

Ilif you know' oottlingi abOut a 5ub]ect befO!'li! yo1i1 stJ1ilit ilt is almost. im;POMlble ;,(l' f$membel' what you mad. llIe fl\!lE!;-step system helps you ooitd a framework 0' kinowt&d'g:e, JiIfi~kmg IfEitentl:on and recalll easter.

Readinigl for levelsot meaning

The p!l:rp~ of tfie five-step sys'!:,e.m :is, ro eflla,'b~!e yOl1l1 eo gather as H'!,!,:J)cb i:lliOIl'!lnat.ioI13s fClss;iblc' before yOl! select whal),,'Ou W;lll~ or have ro read, Depending on yo!!.!:!:' malerial, ,"'0- ["eason\'l and, !he.~mount o,f tI»ie: you have: ;l,wilable. yo.u can use the s,yst£'m m d~H~fC[U: WI.1iys.,

The more yOI]J u~d~f$,~a.nd the COIiI:teIU of what yon are readiing, tb~ hn~r yOIH' I;omprehension will. be wben you read in moie depth. TIle nanire ·of the meani.ng r'OU gam~r from the five~step process will depend Ori wl:iac you. are lookmg for.

YOou ean gee d.lffe[:ent le'lels ,of n1e::11ning froma tt!'Xt •. Each level requif(!s .11. diJf~::n:;:llii: type om :reading:

• Uteral ~-amng - This is the ,e,X:<1ICi: meam.:im:g: ef the text+ Et: ma:i~I.y consists of.' mm. ngtU:'fs,. dates and names, This ililrartna,non ma,)" hSiv,e tc be m.em,Qriz~d and tfc~.t'inOr be changed 0[' !:'e1nteI!'PI~[ed.

.• :lmpliedl mcming - This irum.ma.tion ~5 not staredl dit,tl:Ct~y. It :may require , .. nal"!ii~s. If the author ~y$, "It was a .bot and beautiful day', they imply that: the SWll was shining lor some of dl;aJ!I: ,d3!;~.

• lnifern:d me-aming - This lakes a little more ar.ud'ysis. ]t reqaires yot! ~.!I) ,qU:t'$[~Olil [he 8I11.uil.or and e-xa:m.m:e mere d~p~r wh;a[[lliley m~a~l.

Take this ,sWemoent; 1lIhe human mind is [like a OQmputet;" the nooble, is, thil!t. a. oompUilerr' OOmBS WJ~h a ~il'umual. cur mi'ru:ls, doni't

'.' Tile Uteral memLll.!g of tills semence is tha~ compore:rs ,com.e with manuals.

• The im.pliedmea:.ll!in:g is til:at:lh.cl'c is SD:I11.e: similarity between me' way a ;compllref s~rsre:m works and dlilt: wa.y ,our minds 5~m~o f-~.nic:tiO\llJ .

• ' The,mf.c~d meaInmg is rhar we know hgw !i], !;9"mpu(~r works because '1\'1; h"ve a manual ,3S a guide bl!lt\ye will n.lil.'Ver know how our minds work becau~ W(i don't Mve 3, ,S'lliLde ito ta:ke as t~:roug'h 'the int!i~<!c~~s of its filJoctkms. ~f ~h~re wen,! 21. m3:I:1iUa~, we wouldn't havea problem at aU.

lnf~~[ed :~~~i~g ~an b~ as ~Ivc~~s }i'(nl~,i~'al~inarion. Hrend lind u'l1pliM metif.liLl:'lg. are I} bnl.le more :!.'f'slncred.

To d!ell1o'llst:rate howyourreliid.ing differs whC:I1 you look for d:iffenmt levllls of meaning,read the £g]lQw:i[lgf~xt ehreetnnea, F:int, 11:1o:k o:nI'y :for :Iit:cni meaning; then fo.t implied l.tieai1.~fig,. Finally l<e.adl~· Wi:1iI1 y,eul' .mi:mi wide OPCl:l1, for' ink-rlled meaniag, giving the' text <'IS I:iI:<'lR}" different inrerpeerations :tl; YOI!llC3n.

,j'A ma:nager' needs to undlershn,d "at: ,aU people' are diiffemnt~ by Monis Taylor (pirin,led with the author"s pelimission)

ThQse Wiho,ta!ks' psycho:i'ogy aft degroo level wm nonnally sludy (or ,at feast: [00, in Uiesam~, room as) 'wha~ little iis Ikn;()'M'l, 8I\d taught ,about Ule topic of Indwlcrual Dfrf:fere:rnoSis ... a hopefully s~f~ ,expl:ana'lory term.

Th~ will also explJore y,ariatio;n'S. on the theme ,of clM$i~1 oomltloli1~ng (a la P,av!{nr"s (1095), aI"Id~hey 'win co:ntin1JlEii '~Ii!l'Oug'l'I! to _, ~Q naITlea 'fEiW- Mhavkmrism. SOO~.a1 l~mTng, ,and ollBf importantlt!eortes, about :oowand why humans bella",€! ln particular ways.. AM pemaps they will learn ,a: lilUe about personality theo:ryand ~.hen about how ~ (fnls)ibeha:ve flill' groups,

lhose who study fI.l1t1uopdl:Ogy' _ iln par:tiIOl,llar, cli.I~lllJ!rall imthroPQ~IQg¥ - willi mad abo-ut 'Human Unliv·ersails;: those observable, (:and non-observable) Ibehavio!iJJS that cam !be [pro-ven (c:al'l we, Q'!;I'.ar'?) as, ooolll7ing inl any and every hY!I1lla:fil, bef:l1Ig or. at ~he very I~~, in! broadl Ctlll:tJral: !JJiOUipS< ..

Could It be that', be<:ruJise of IndiV\ldua11 [)if!I':!'ininCfi ('and, '['Or that ms,n,er;, ,eutb.ilral diffemnces). there a:re not as many Human, Unlw~s as we might at tl'r$t think?

Im«wu.rel Karn~ (Who, I hOpei. 'will pardon ,flTY tong;Ule·in·cl'Iee'k: parnphi'oo!r-g) sa~ tioo!t doling 'good' was only 'good' if iii: was dO-rig, f'Cr llhe sakE!! of doing 'good',

,Anton formandiscussoo H'aywood: ·, •• 1rue lintrfnsic m:o,tiVatiotl is, g@I'IEn'MOO Iby' the p;s~hol'Ogi~~ am inl:ema!lls&J1!sa1Jlon o1d'eallng wi~i'I iii ~k '''fur Irts, awn sake ... "' "'.

Joh~ :S~ddon said' ' ... 1he biS! ~htngl t,t\a1i wornes me, is llhat wh,en y,oUJr 'lltla.cher gives you lEI gold $tali. whire you' mTght t:B$11 good, ~he Qlhar children In the C'lass might feel that they Ilost aut,'",

It used to be the, case tlhat 'when psychologists 'talkedalOOut kld:epend:ent V;ar,:iabl8S !rill th.eir E!'JCpeiim~m$ t~ey would ,dbcuss ,ar!'!lOng o~her 1hin(Qs '!;itrmiIJlu$ materials,'" Now we hear more ot 'sttmu'lus..:ro~(:l(lnte~·,.

Shak!f!I~pElar8 said '~hingl Is good or bad except tlri:!nkirli91 m~es, it so:

So oould it be tha~ any' one out 0'81891: ,ofsUcky (7) gold $i~m-s on a sheet has IJilJtIe:or rilOmeantlfilQI ,excap1thlat 'o'Itih::h we as aJ group ~and tlhY$ 'culhiirallY> chQose ~o import to' ;[t.? And wDtdd that allOW me til' ~et1!: s8MftllythaUlhe, !ili!e.anmgl o,f'.a Qtlld star has as. much to do wiHiI cuirWml ~nfi!uences. as It has to do wilt'll any' otlmr ~heQ'Y (l~ human bena .... k>IJr?And d'oeswha:tev,er m9:a:1i1ing we Ilm,poJ!'!: to a, gord star apply lmiversa'lly to ~ryon!l' who war 'gets. ooe even If 1I1Ie conte:ds, ,an;! net 5limilar?

all" - as l!lemlng said - iis every:o!iOEil diifklAilm1

.And!oou!d 'beIng difemnt' Ilts~l~ be· a bel'ilavrou~aI'IYrliversali?

And that makes, I'I"!itii wood'elf - is; ~here r:eaJly an.y ,diffefenc:e betwoo:t1Ia1 gold star and a ,!'ad bead a a a

II real!y" do wish II knew ... but ~ OOI'i't

(Souro:e: Moms ii8(y.I'Or (19137), from dlrsc~ons Oflli1~' iDemTng !:leQtronlc NE!tWa'k: dan.list@d'&mi:fll9'·cea.clem!SOfI,9du)

BefQfl;! YOll carry Oil, what was [he key id!eiJ. in the text? Was the authOiltrying to in.mrm; pC:l'siladc 'Of' en,~~rrnitll },QlIIfWhcl:c' WiIi" the key sen~eflc:e? Did the key se~fellcednljl:i:gc dependrlig on whar rn~iln,illg, y~l'1I"! wcr.'c ,]ook~l1,g for?

Thls exeecise emphasizes that y,ou -.val find 'Whalt yall, wan!; ro f.ind. ~It is ~sy to !place y,our own l",lle:rpr:etation on what you are readiing ~nd thenp.r~ ... ent: tl:u'U geittingin the way of wi'iyYolU. are Irea.ding ~Il d!'i.~ .lmfsit p]ai;i~~ .. ~~ is importk'i!1U' to male S:lllre yOUT purpose iscleae,

Reading with a. purpose

The m'Dr'C defiJ1loo you!!' pmpo.seis,[he eaSt'cryanr read:illg w~'" become. He:l"care,~ fmw [Ililll~s (0 keep in mimd as you road. dun will help, l'ol!l.ma:ill:ta,illl and cons:t,andy f(in~e yQ~H purpose,

<I' AppUc:a:dioll! - 'Mile ym] .rca,d, r:hink of why you are N;t3dinS the te;;:t. Whi"!:fl are YOll ,going, to <!!Jppl.)' it. whOJt wi.]!, applying 'the: I!lE"W informadoill feellike, what will diin.gso I,ook 1:i~ af[el" you h.ave ,app]itd it? How mllcill of yout own knowledge will be :indudied i 1:1. what you are [eBlfJiiitig:?

'" PNdiedonJ - I\Js yoriJj re'ad~'J?redh:t lO~":lurt you '[irI:im'k the' ;~Jlu'h(ll:r is going to Sill}'. As a !:ine i)f a:rguRlent begins; predict wbat l'h,(l outoomemipt be. You do. this lllat:tlmUy W]}til you read a good e:etectiv'e novel, Yuu can do j,t .iusrt,l1S effec'Ei.lI'e]y 'w!ilen YOIl read :iiOifi·flction. P.redicr wh.n iLhe ant;_hor is s3.ying arid check yOillr' :predict~(l,n.

OJ !hirt~rnctiO!Gi - R~~di.f]g is,a twO"'Wa!y activi.fY. The ifllu":ho:r bas a mcss:l'!!S'C that you ,conld SiJlIpb' accept, butthae would !lOl:: necessarily mean, YOIl ]earllcd :1nydling n,ew.~,'l:era!l;:ting lwitih the 3.11t'ilO:r ~5 the best way it:,O ensuee youl,eaJfD and are Siib,le to ;appl,y wha,t you read. Be c:r.it:ica~ but o,pen-minded, ahout wh:ilIt 'yQU rn3d.

~ Soillrion- Many no[!-fi·~rio·n 'ooo..b arc wr:iUe!l as a. solut:jo:n. to a problem. This .. parueular book is aboar speed read,iIlg. Thill problem is, ~How 'C;Ul ~op]e leaJrn bow w read any malc:ria[ they come aictoS!! eas:i~y, qu~ddy and 'e:ffidellt:ly?' As: you read" try to <L1'I5we:r rile qUI:',sriOill without waitiQg. for the' i!imw~r to 'be m'v~a.led 11;0' yQ~,.'allse for a. mOnlent .• l.OW and

ask yotll:'self; -

_, Based Oill what I ha.v'C leamr SiD fa,r~ whilf~;lnl do. !lOW m read faster, more ,efficiently a.ud [J}OI)e ,easily tnat I didn't do oefo['C:hand?

What. c~n ~. cna1l!g¢;:'I.boILit ~be wa,}, I think and read ~har. wiU 1ll1lb readi!l,g an. ,el1jQ}'l:lb[,~ ~xpe[iencc?

21

...What is good llibou~ the way I read now!' - Wib,a~ is in~if~ctill'le?

- Wh.at chaUe~ses do j {acd

.~ Ho,lIi' 'cal'! I solve [Iu~s~ p[Qb~ems based 01:1 what I have learnt so far?

!OEV.~JiU,;li1:i(ln -T~ke' So :~frW mam~IIl!'S to stop ~u~d s:ummar~ what: you Ilav,!:; J1ea:mt from eseh C:h:lpc~.f. As you read the bookthink how Wh,H you lcanl1tin each c~ptcr firs in with the cbap,ti~t you ba,ve ,jns,t road .• The more I;in'b YOIl C01.~~teate berwe.en Cb"'P~fS and id,e.as fhe betir,cr yO'ur"lIilde.tstal~dbl!S and recall wiD be"

SlIm1n1ary' - 'Tlhe five-s1epsyslteim

Step'

"I - Plt'e,pare

• DCfeJ:mmc' why ron ate re3.d~llg and exactly what' you w.iinr from dle book . • ' Wh.n is: your purpos;i'!~

• When willi. you use the lnlonuSlition?

2- Preview

~ ,F'a;miJ:ia.rl2!e 'fOI:lI'Se:1J wiltb the: st:n~Cl'W'e of the book .

• ' Go, ihrOiwghtih,¢ 'book q]il!ickly; tool.stirs ,St1'llcrutf,I):J' p.a:r.o!gra:phs, chapters, rort(JQIIS" _ g!'aphi,cs aad general ,13:?Qiif.

,3, - Passive, l18ading

• SkrulI!. (.0 find ~ey words and famiHa~ yourse.lf with the language.

YOIlir' £ami1~lUity w~th the Jangusge .ISa fii;~r dletcrminiJl(g the :speed ;111: which youwiU be s,ble to read,

Time "or aoo-page

000[1( .'

This step should take 0.0 m.or:a !than :S minute-s.

A" nmr ................ I..1iIO.,.,., 1.~ "",l"",,[eS .~r"''U.A'UW,I.~ ~.,. ~,. ,'JWl .}.' 1.IJjJ;..ljIl!IiI_ ' .•

4 - Active readilng.

.. To .familisfi:re yourself with tile contents ,of tihe book t¢;<'Id [:hIe first patagr.il:ph of each c;na.p.l"Cf and, the first sentence ·(!1·f each palaJilra.ph (it n~S$a:ry).

5 ... Selective IreadEng

• Read only what }'Otl. need to read.

.•. AI.Wil)'S <1Is.k:.

- Wh.l" am [ r~.ading dris?

- WiI(l'1l aml going Iti) use

the infolrfl1ation?

- Dg· 1 ha.ve what I need?

I'llii tihls; chaptelf yol:.!lwll! leam:

• how to irlcmas&yar basic ~~

• Mst a. pacer .Iis ud how to

usa it

• h~w KI :sklirn;i'i;Ji1!di ~

• hOW' to ,get Ute· lm&,9.'9;Bge

• what slows d01lYn w'td speeds.

up yo~r!ftldinlg .

leanli['gg ~Q ~~d f"$f~;ln 'be ch~.I~el:lgfung •. W!i:li]e YO'll,lc'am this imp;.rovoo V~[:'!i;iOiI1i of s~ed: Iead:ing. aJlifc,ti:!:I1ie of habit 'wi]] COIlu-:aI,t[!i" :intc!!'Je:re with ll1,e 1i!l~I.':Il:ing Pl'OOtSS.'iOIl will be deve~opmg a tid $~~Il1ti~.g; OQ;W h:ab~[' p!lli['~erfJs. ,AlrhoUigh dris wHi require pr:acricc if will be eil:sy and enjoy.able.

Speed re-<!di~ j$. no,t jULSr aOOii,I~ readi.ng words fa:srer~Il<'llfti yo~J. did. IbeJ!)~e. If's:abou[' being ~,b~e t)o read at ;), speed <!P'P:!'1!Jp:fiate for the materi:lI] you. alEe .reading. ]f YO'lU road roo s~owly your [fI'lilld.wi.l]wal:l.dJl':1', you may become bored and you. won't re.n'Iember .311}'rhil:lg,. U' yml,r:e.fld. too £asl YOIl will :r-.eduC"i".: the chances 0;( :r~'mC'.mberil1g, wh<l.t ]'oQi\.!. W<l!l:1l~(} 1i~~rU,'lmber~ you wil.1 l:i~(;Ot!·~~ fri.ll~;t'r!'i'~~d <'i:i!J(f $lii'~d snd thus even 'less ~,ikielll'to

IU~'I:'iCI:noo:r~ .

The mQt¢fl¢;lL'iM~ y()l~ .1'1:00: with yonrrellldi:~g! [he [n:ner yml w:iU me :aib,.lc ro read and rile mQreooQl!JJi~'~~(ln yml w.iUI'~ta]n ..

If yOlli! WaJ~J ~Qi]lJc.r~<l&'I'l your r.c3ldfllg :ra~e and rnCI'CiUC yuur (ofttlpreh.eJn:Sion, then it is illl~Q!:'rant I,",t) rcad (,.fteD. The mOire YOit! !!'ead'j the bener you will kcomc at n~cogt1Liz.:iilllg whe~: }!OU ean ~, .. ,d f<lisl:' and whenro 51.ow down.

:Fac1orsCointrilbuting to speed

.. elmty (lIf pllU:PQse - Sf~p 1 of ~hg fi¥e"$~gp $Y~~l;tm is p!l:"e,paratio!l.. AiW:fits kDOw why you ~rere.\'ldillig SO\l11If'~h:il,g;. The d~:ilre.r y'Ollrpl1rpos.e'~. die fast-e,[ you will bc' a:bl~ to mad.

.. Mood! _, Ifyuuare £eeJi!l1il tir~CI~ re;sd~.$$~~mp,aidenf 0:1:' i.r.rrumhlc you are u:ni:ih:ly Hl' b~ abl~ toread as quickly 3iS when you are ;]Ier~. lres.h. h'!,truppy and I:c']a:x:ed.. Hl)w"C;ye~ you mil.)!' not al.waY!i ~c alc'n~ frf,sr.,. hacPVY and nda:x,ed. whea yDlllj have: [1(1 re .. d, L:aJ~fl:il1g ~.ow 00 recQgni,u; and ml.'liIJa,~e ro~u' fee~inp $'I) th;'l'~ }~()i1lJ can con.ce:llit:rntefcgaldi~ss of htYw YOi:lmi~[' be feenlliS; at the. ti~ei~ not ;O'!]W.1liy.s e~sy; The!!!' 3[1e some gt!id~~i[l~\'s in Ch:lLp,.~r4 d.1:atm.~y ih.elp.

.F3m~Liar~ty lV:Hbme 51i! I~l..,too tll.Hliliimo.to.gy =U YOIl.l, are

<l1:ready f-amm a r wJthr~ ~. you will bil,ve a flame;w{l:!:"l

on whkb tn blliHd.Youwill I!ort hf!YC ~Q $rop 00 r.h~Il" about whatt rrhe words m~tlit m~O!~a[ld you ;3iJre:Mo.~~Iti.k.c]y to be able toread q~i~~q'Ui,:ld.y;

• D~m . .cul)ty Ol[ fhe l.co« _ SOIn:te books ~rc' diffic~k to ['COld even i.f }'o~ .. noe famiH1i:rw~[h tFi,fiWi'm1i1olosy' and cOll:tent.

.. UrgcID'lq' and s:uess:l.e,,¥,el:s ._ DQ },'I;)U !1l1.ltio~ thti[' wht:l'!ii )!Olbl absoh.liteIy :have to feO!d som~~h~ngi.lil'lmooh~tel)'~ youcall't

25

:read quk:~l:y? Stress wiU slow yOl~ d,own.Th,e chaprers Din '~C:Hl~!):nt!; .. dort1l a:od !TICIT!OT]i' (Chapte[s,.o4 <'!['!d 5) wiU~oQk <!J~ stress more dO:5c]Yllnd of.:lie:r ways for you ~Q' redl:lc~ YQiU:r

stress ]Cll'ds. .

ReHil peop$e

In the middle of an nerof!5e dUJilng ill speed~.l!Jeadlngolassi one of Iih~ i$trUdel1~$ $!1.lid:d~n~y pt;rI: down his book;, sat back aJriId ~Cltdied hi'S arms, .annoyoo., II asked him ~att 'Was w.l'a.rng. He: $ht1!Jgg~d. llooked at ~he indfrvidualll next to lli'l~l'I1Iand said, 'He"s re.adil!lgfaster th~1 ~ ~Ii!l,' For tha r&S,~ of the S~iOfl hesat at the, iba.ck of the room :and! rea.d ,9: neW'SiPaper,

Spood ro.adirng i~ a lV~ per:ooiJ~1 p~~lti()~.E\I~oOQ mads· wi~h dijtl'wel!'l!t Ileve!s of knowledgE! and expe.rience. ,~~e.n if you are lewnill":lg wl:th SQffi!3o!'!e ,else yo~ wil.l plldbab!y' ~eaJI'n at different rates. Avoid! oompanng ~1JIrskHI wijlilaJtYQnEll 'EllIS~~,

P<l!ctOlrnilffc;c:ti:_lJig learni.ns to read qtlkldy:

• A gpo!:! ;}[ltimde wlW.illrds r~adi:n!!l. A dftsi~ relaarn how y'Oll can imp.!'"O'I;'e yO'I,U r'C",dmg il,ndmnsidc~ W~UI~ i,t' is r.hat 'yot! wHl g¢~frum. :Sl?c~d r~ .. ding.

i F~~J;ni.a:~ity '~~t'b the' :I~,ngu;)~e l:~]13'~ed [0 f:~e snbj:,ocu,' and a ~ood 'i'ocall"']~,<I:r~r.

~ Good backg!l''Ol:Il11,d howledige of' rile subj!ocr 0.':, i.f }IOlil. do not have that yet:,.3 S<t[a:tegy .fo'.r buHCling, the hadkgwund .ktll!owleclig:e qnidl}';

~ Practice - If YO'1!Ii C'an :set aside 15 mi,llllJties .111 day .for 30 dil.Ys )tOi.:! wiUfir'id that the speed atwhi",i'! yOu cOin r,e a d!, the ,I)~]~;I oomprch.ens;iQn <lifildfh,e flllxibi Ii~y . of' Yf):Uf ~'eaditag wml quickly ~miPro"ll'e.

There ;,'Itc many wa.}'s w p~.ck:Ol.!lrinf'O[I:n a ~i(lXl, at '1t<lrytng $P,,~,J.$. Rieadl!1g ~,.~:<~ wmd i~ a book O!: article is onJ}~ ucce.sstuy "

have a Sptdf.l(,;f:C:!l5(lnfo,t r(,ading .frum. ~tjtt~Q fil'1ii!Sh. ~ ymlli decidewbether ron need. ro do this, YOll needm .know wba~ ioi@'I'nli!t!on ~here.<ldi!J!g miltCI:'];:d CQf!~:<!]Il:!l. Aher.you bave gOllie rirul'(Jugh Sc!'l:PS 1: 00 <4 of G!n,11I[JrcI' 1. (p.Nlpa.ra.t:ioFJ.~ p:re-v~r!1w~ p.1I:s~i"'e [c3Id~l:Ig <liind active leading)'. you 'w~U be :re<i:C;ytO sel.ecr[wha1i: YOIlli want to read h~ mOIre depdl. Now is ~he time' t'o speed :l:Caid .•

Whe,re are YO·IU no'w?

BeIolfc you ("c.''Ill .hu:pl:Ovc so.m,etb:ing you need fO know yg,ut' srarring point, That wi:!] help, 1'0111 'to establish wh,n W'i]i be I'equin:d to' f,,,k~ YOLl where you want ro go. One wa')' to do this is 10 <'!!lk yourself rEl.,ese t]wfjeq'ii.l.c:sr~o\l1s:

• Where am I now?

• W1ie:fll! do. I WSill't to get'm?

.' How win I know when I have gOt [here:?

To pilr: these' questions another way:

'.' How {astt do yo~. ctll:'nm:[~y re.ad?' e

,. How fast do yoa want: [0 [ie",d~' N

..How wiU ~u, .!mow when }1Q1.1 h.ne reached your g:oa:l?

h:is not easy ttl defe:llnine aooua.tely hm!li' fiasr yo:u rcead;~e-l'yt.hing you read ·is. di:fferen,t. ucll pi(.'(;c of (:b:l9l1e<,r:1;E11 i'l w-ri~ji:1l with If.nymg le\ll,*k 'of COR1pl.exiW .md Y.Ol'l will bereadiiog each oncwitil, a differmlt p~. To d!etem;wm:' an aJ'iI'ill';ll!g'C reading :fa~. yo.u. aeed '~Q read mor,c than <me type oJ rexr.

For the' purpofle of ['his e'.1!ie[1ci$~" g3,tthc'E" togefh,~~r $i!x: d:i:f[cw.'c:I1It types of marer:hd )'iOIU might read, The exampl .• es should vary in com.p~f'xi;~1!' but yo~ should be fumiliar wi.~h the subjects of each, 11 )IOU do nm have .ilPPiIDP,.iatc .ma.rel'iial to band and, roo would Si~iU ]lke an estiiJnalC of )'ourread.ing 8p~ed, neee rhil'~ a piece of sl~i:[3Me text hai been ilFl.duded ili'.l Chapter nasa speed practice tese, Theexu<].c[ is fmrn The .Emrgy Adva,nta:ge hJl Dr 'Chris tenl!1i (see pp. H2-n

Measurin,gl"0ut reading rate

R~d ~hmush this procedure' :beJwe: s:ttarting to measure Y01.!a![ own nne:

1. Gether all yg,ur re<tilillg mat:c'lials(li[ go to CDlI<lpte't 1 t,

2: Set ,a timer fu,r 2. miQu.~ (;:cdtho:up you are wor.king out your t.¢ad:i.lil8 rate in ~~~m!l of w'o.rds pe'.l' mil'l.1.!a![l':'. you will nesd rime to W<lm! u:p; lmi:nuted!Qf,s, 110£' ,gi.ve you. th~ time but 2 m;inuoos wUn.

3, Then, I:"'ea:dll'lg M yO'll normally read, wlthoue doing <li.nytmng ditffe:r'e<Jld), at -3.1]. reed for good ,eomlp'llehc!!l.$io.n. for 2: Ilrim.:!tes. 4 When t:be timer S:~i)p.;;; you:

'CO'~llt t$l~ numnbe:.1' of WOlds: on tbree full. liaes ,oJ t~Xt; - dh'idic, the' total Hlumbe:r by J;

;2,7

001l1U: the ~:nmb~[' Qif UIn!~ Y01lirMd;

- [,[,lul!tiply the num:ber o:f lines by the average 1lIrn:tl,Der ·of words ~Iil:l:t;;.

m;m,pl!e: Nu,mbcr o.f wordls Oil 3 filiI!] UllCS = 30

lDivi&d by ;3 fm ar.\I',etage""mld~l]ille -- 10

.~:f rOg. read SO lines (SO X 1. 0), ~ soo

5: Oi\l'rudc that fi;"Jruie by 2 (re:m,enribeJ' ;'OU ""re :Iookiing for yo:!u w{)ools pil:rrl'Jillll!lOO readitag raro; Y(lU ma!d for 2: minulf~ so' y(li~ need to ,druv:ide the: l:1uluber y'o~ ca:~b.l~:l!In:<l: .abo¥e by 2).

EX:'jlit'iplc::[)~''''ide .fii:'la~ .figiitt 'by 2 (SOO ... 2) ·",,250 6Th:,:.,! ~:ig!lmi$r(u:l!!r <l!V,~[1Ig;c readi!:'!g fOl!rte for tEl_.€' lext you

read, - - - - -

'7 If you have C}ru05C]1,l!'OUr O'WD materiial, doth.e' same wi.th all si:x: ie.Xts you ~in:heudl so~h:1l:~r(lu h,:.yc a w(I!'ds; Pliil" m~llll!te

(WfM) :ratoe for all sixtexts, - ~

S Thenadd .. U i!:hc final WPM!> together and divide the result by 6. 'This will gi.ve yQili.lia.[\e,f]~tiCJ(l'JJof }I'OIl1l' CIIJIfl'eltlt It'ead~l.lg rate across a ll:!!l1rnbe:r of d~ffe,[\ell:t texts,.

9iP~o~ YQ~w!)¢~diilJlg t<i,t(lg~ rhe gn!,p~ <If the ¢!'ld ·of this chapl1er.

10 ' eek yo~r oompr,ebemi,on. lfyou read dlie extl',lIelt

fr El,tetg}' Adr;umt4ge <!~wcr tnt! ([l!e~tiQrl~ pw'itided.

If you used your OlW:1li text5~ rake a few 1:Ililfilitlif!tS - to :r«8iU whar you. ciln fmm C'<lcllil. ~e;xt. CheckY'O!J;lri:n.fQrlTJ!~~i(l·1:! a,gainlsttthe stcrioru; you . read,

R.ememh~r to fill in the date and, more j~pow;ta:rlt~ the ,tLl]lJe of day you :~.\lid .. AIL Qerr<'l~[I times of day YOIJi read beuer rhan at other rimJes. When you have d'JIII,fWd 'your s;peed·',llea.dillg pr(lS~~ ({If ... w,ook y'QY. mi;ghit begi!l! to notice ;,l! p ... tt~w.. If ~ssib.lc:" read m:at'f:ri8i~ '~ih<1~r,c.qll:iRlS mi1l:!f.imum CloJiii~:iru[l'at.ioi:l3t ene of ~hc rimes you :idelliti:!'y as. bei:lliiJ: .most lP'rod'll!ctii\l'e.

PIQln:i~\Il: your r~d:ilil;gra.~~ will gi,l'~: yOy Oi!Ill i:!'IId:i~"fruO']lj_ of your spee:d!·'K4!d!!1!g p~ogrress. If YOYI n~ad:ing :[a~ ~egim: to drop at any p01!i:'Il~ yOIJi[PitQgf~S5 graph w~n 001[ yO!ilI aC wha:tt'~~mt~ >of th~

day you :arf'[leading InOI!>~ e:f.fecti'i'iel.y:. .

S'I!Op reading IrJds boot m:ow and d~f(lEmi!l1~ ),Q'Urf ~rr~I:11iI.'~ding ulte. ~lSi;ng eiti:le[' t~ iSU:: rexts O!f rOiUI[' choJice or. the texrjn C11Japtc'.r 1 [.

Co:mpanSQn: ilI)(e~i!le

U YOLI read U"Ei,e.x1_fflC,t '~j'()m'ffle energr Ad.,.a~ you '~a~ do a, ccimpaosone}lillrclse.Whe:n yQ\i h~v@,'f!!iilistledllrreadlng and haw BnSwer,ed as many qU8-stiol'ls as you can, ~read the, ,ql.lesUO:M you dlren't or COIll!d.,'t a:r>swer; then go, thr;O'ugh the te.xt again. ltnis 1ime ttle purpose ot rea,ding is to fi!f1d the aJiI~w-ers; te 1h:e q-Ue-stiOifilS. IRemembw 10 tim€l )'(lume'JI.,

A1tsr Y,Oli..!1 have dlonethat. ,oo!l~ider '(h,e foltowing qu-es1iions; ~ \iV1nat strategy d1d you use-?

" Were yotIl looking for :Ii!sy 'Words?

~ [lid you read mo,re ~ha.n 'W~ !'eql:lir,edl 'tor eru:::lhI answer'?

;; Werf!you saiis:fl'ed tha:t y<lu fOllJnd We' ~1;i!! ~!l$wer betcne mov,lng on?

.~ How mych,f.ast,~r did you move tlhrough the le\id ~he second 1im€! (lompered to the· first 'time you !"Qadi it?

~ Was 1ihe Ireadii'ng Msl:er when you had a ,eINrlYd&.fi!'i~d pu~ o:r dldl you 'lind you wsre stil! tem,ptadl tD lread mom

than was fel:l,Ulili'ad? _

Illncrea:singl youlr basle 'readi,ng rate

Two of the' main :!:'e'<i!SOl:iS WI.! rend eo read slow]), are llha~:

• We read with. om ea:rsiml:,~ad 'of wilh oue q'es (more on dris, in Chaprer 7) .

. ~ 'we are easily distWOlcted by w.bar is on tbe' page' and by what is going Oil afQUIii.d ,i;i$.

'The Ipaoer

As:imple tool th,~~ wHI help rOll e.l:itnlnate mau}' oJ your' speedread:ing p.ro'bl,ruii'ls is 3. paeer, A paeer an be: YOUI: finge:r, OJ c:n.QP,$[i.C:k.3 pencil or ~n ~ ;lll.ydruing YOIl, ean _e to h~l.p, you WClIS your artention 011 the words OJI the p~ boy iii1:oving it' ,9S

you read, .

It p.acer helps '(0 d.im:11J<iit:c: most distl,"iI,eliQ:i1s~ ,;lmlilt ~flvoh!,e5i ain e:xlTai sense .11:'1 the I:eadmg, pf'OCe$$. Usi1~g a paar add~ a .Id.na.esthetic" physic.a] d,tm:tlll:nsiotl t:o your J:ieadi_[Ig. You are actual1y doing ,sQ'medring as well as simply reading. "lou are i.l!lV'OI.v~llg ymJ:r hands as we]!,

29

Ain mlperlman~

H~ IS,M e)(per1lmerl~:f(lr 'youl te try. find $gm~~ 'willing to take = part .Asklha1: person to draw ti c'~fCle In the, a£r 1IJS1ng th'9iil' 'eyes.

N Notice, the >8)18 liriovemem.ts. Are~hey smoo1:ti1, Of ierky? DQ tM)I' create arufl cilmle, or does. it IOdlillikJ!1 they ~ (:1i,iU1ngcunves,? N'ext, ask: tnem to draw a Ciirel@ in 1he air wlthltu;!ifr own fil1gerand 1lhis time to f:(III(1w their finger wi~h~heir 'C1W1i1' eye$, WoMChr~hel'r 'eyes. This time, do you notrce that~elr e'y@$ ~ moving ,smoothly,

quicklly and denberatelfl .

Using ,<11 p<l~.r helps },otlrre<'ldmg in several ways:

• lt encourages your eyes, to foclIs_ on more tllan (IIi.€: wordsra r.ime- this lmrned iatdy increases you.! I:ead~ng rare,

• The' pacer focuse.$ you 011 wila,t rou a!:'ereadiDg insHmd of aUowi:1l1!; }'lQlJf eyes to jurnp !uol.lfld 'the pagl! at all}'tni:I1:S; thae il'rtraC(S your attention.

A. pacerwill also help yOIJJ:

• M.ove, '~O new' ~~IlCS :smo>ot:hJy and I.'.tl;sily..

• Prevear you Il)s,io,g }fUilir' place.

• Prevent sue-vccalisarion rlt!h,e\fOiu i:r.J:5ide }'O'UlI:' headcau!5cd by :reading w:ith yiJ'UiC ears] hy s:peedi.llg, up th!.:p<lc;e, at wlil.ich you read and 3i~lowiil:lg: you to seemore r.ha:1li one 'word at a rime.

Haw to use a pacer'

J)lace yOIilli' pacer on ebe firslU wQr.a en rhe 1incand mo'Velt: smooir.b»y .1CiI'OSS tEre :pag:e to the end of the line, then rerarn it (:0 r:he next ] inc.

Use y·Qtu" p-lilccr eo read the boxed ]pIaJrngra.ph. Place the' pacer CHI the dotted litH~ ati.d mO\l'e it s:l1I:1ooth]y .dong the I:i.fi~ across [hie p,ag~. Re-resd this paragrcaph ·sevr:r,dtiim~s, until you fed that y.oU have the rhr~hm ,smooth and filis:t - also; move the paarjust a. little bi!: q~.iclk:er than }'OU think you can read ..

Wha.t was diifferent abol1!tr,eadi:ng wirh :iii pacer? How did you fee]? How much fa~re.r did 'YOll feei you f'eailJ How do you feel

about oomprehe:mu:skm,:' -

Practise tile ",lXl've :::iit lmn ron rimes eo get used to therhythsn, Ar'~YOIl still f'cadin:g with },oU!rp<!(l;:r.:

US'e a pa~cr to read rh,eremainder of d:ris baok, ,8y the time you h;lliVlC finished the book ~:SLng ir will have beceeae 3, babjt and yo~,wm 1dle we11 ollriliig lO'.!"a)' .. 0 becolmirlg an expen spccd. n~d,e:r.,

IDifferent: types of: pa,cing

T!hepa,dng you are us~ng now is ene hafik!l1letlhod forglllidins: }!CJ1U 'c~'C act:0S5 t~e :I(agc'. Tbere an: d:iff~t'eli1.t met'hodls. of pacing fOIi di.ffi:lCD't rtypes of material and r.cade:r needs.

Technreall ma~elrial wiili whEchyou are unfamrliar

Place the pacer under ,eve:l")' line and move itsf(..o;;1dUy Kross the p<'!g,(l if,om the beg1tl'l1lllg to rh'e ,e:!ld ,of tl'flCn Line. This met_hod ensures IffilSlt: you, m:i~llm.h.illg.,

'Jechnrca~ Imale:rialiUiiid you are laMmar wiIh

PI,30e your pacer under every second Iine, This methnd CllC(lI;l:rag,t;5 YoOU to read more dl~n 'QIti.,(l l:m.e :at 8. time ..

Look OiIt ehe space Itn front of you. Notice rh~u your view is ,qu1te w.ide. W~le:lli yow learned how ~«;I' read you, 'Weil''f: til.u:gh[oo [0(:1;1$ on oml)" one thing a t <l. time instead of being cnc::o{!!;!:rag~d. to see what. you are capable of seeing in 3 ~iDgl.: glanc:~" Re.adling, more dIan. one line: :at a time' comes willI practice' .. In Chaptf!I!" 7 w,e eXI?~ore the eye~ and how 'they work. You will fin,d an exerelse :imt d1!i1!~ dl~p'[cr 'pp. 1110-1:!li) that wi!] help :roo read mOire th~Hl ene line at: ill: !tim,le.

i

:tilJ ill Si' 'ii:I

32

Very famliliar 'raarterial

If .yt)1,I are ve.ry :fanlilia.:r w~th the .fMdi:ng ma.re'!"ial! i1:nd if you on]y need [0 have OJ g,en.¢.l'a] ~dea a,bollt' whait~'(Ip Oli!l'"e reading. you can run the paeer' down euhee tliJe sid:~ or the middle' 'Of ~he :page.

'U]rimat'dj',~be' mo,re 'YO~I, ,experim~rJit1 1i1:!~ MQre Aexib'le yout r~,<!Jding win become aml! ],oll1wiH d.e'VLikiP ril,e ability to ch<'!:rig~ Crom one 'tedLQi,ql:u~c lOilnother :3S you read.

:Hi'!i!ts IQ i'iil.'crease ~'Our s~eedi

.I\i:SiIi YO'ti!l'SeU - [t lSI easy to srt:<!!y in ,~ (:omfof[' zone of reading dowly. Onee you break thr{l~ rn,e ibauie:r of beI~~wng th<it' 'you, csn on~!i' remember wha.t you read wh~:n. YCfIl.hear 'e~'ry WQ[d~ your ,enjoyment 'Of reading and )"01ilJf paee will increas-c.

• Pir.actisle oileD - U~ everythi:llig you read ~ a practice medium. Spt>ed read rhe hnonnattion Oil bortle labels 'Or dre blu.rh ,o,n the back ,of a c.e're<!] p\i,Cke[:. :~S'tc.i]ld o·:f ~ust· :f'~'<lidling as YOI1!1 have pre'viQudy, read. wi.t:h, (ae pl!i!:pQ.$~ ci:f pr.actisilJiS reading as t.lst as you can for good (Qi1!rprehe:nsion. Use a p.ac~t..

• Builld. thc' ~Jite'.l(t M:s:t ~ 'The' first fo~.r Sif.c'p$ of [he £:'ive-ste:p !i:y!itcm (s:ee Clita,pmer' 2) wil~ makeie easier' to. speedread allyrhing 'y'OU read, and to do that severa'i 'tim...es fa~ref dliilnif you wcr'c fcadi:ng .it for the f1!1's!trime.

• The faster you g,o the less )'Ou wilmvocaHze - [~ lffii.e: next section, on si:+;:im.ming and scanr:dllg~ we shall discuss bunding speed and ma.illta:i[l,ing ~t.flilyw:ifh dl~ exercises d.:a:il)' unti1 yon kel that ~,Ileyare aI na!tm".a~ fi<iliI'C .of your' readi!.1g. stl"'Q:re.gy •

• ' .E1imioillte (If d!~eaSle distr.acrloos- 11] Chapter .9 we' mal] discuss distl"il'crions:and S.lilgg~t some solutions to dle:m r:ha.t wi.1l all,ow 'yo!.! tQconC!l:lurate more easily. The more you are able' to COOCe:IiJ.(JI":;u:e" the f3ls:~er' YOIJil w~n he able tn read ..

'. R~d acti.vely - Thetechniques you use diull':ing: Step 4 ('.aa:ive r,eading) should be: used. while 'you speed read in. S'tep 5 (&e':lc(:tiv,e maid.i.tn;gJI. Take acres, .marka:l'aid hi;gW ight :re1~v~nr S~!::riOIliS. make C'Q!JIITIen.ts as you read, bui:ld ornind.-ma.ps, (e:xp~ained or'! p. 75~' aad ibi:rdl:: abeut th~arg1!l!rnentc!ias you read. If you must do ,a:ny [a[ki.og, inside ,rour head whileY'Q!;I n:l'~ •. ell. ~o'Os~ l1o., 'm,rQ:ke it 11. d.@h3~~." o.r 4ia~og,ue: '~:m a:spetts ~ the' repsc wIth ~he auebor, Th,e more ou::tlvdy YOil! read, rhe better Y'Ol!ll( u.lldcIS'randin,g: and Wong~~nn oompre:bension wil[ be.

Impll)rta.ll1l1 :ItIlngs to, lremember aoout speed mBdJIil{J

S.peool readung ~ Ili!otjul$il reajjing fast aU tllletime. ;fue te,chnicai oon1en.1 ,O'r RIEl maleriaJ,tIi1e Ifl~r!1t !llijZeI" yoyr~:~IT!iUruity WJ~h ~hQi suibje<:t ,and, pmieufarly, your p:IJII'pQs.aln, reading! ,~nlafl"ect 'the SpeM ~t "whll::h you lread!. The ke:y t:o.speec! ,readllng is 11<11'1,111'1,91 the, ~hO\loo to rea.d as fast or as slow as you wilsh.

Now fN"-e a d the inst~io!1's f(!(!; mC<Jsulfning yQO~ lfCa~Hng r~ne f:pp. 27-8} <l1!i!d fo~lm!i! rhem m rake 3:1llodler s,peed·:readlllg lIu·a:Su.relmfVi[. Use the pacing tC"c~iquc.

Skimming ,and scannirngl

Inthis SCCr.I!J!ll we cons;ud.c:r: sk:imming ant scantli!lgt

~ Whar are they iIiInJ what ~s dJie d];ffefCtlc.c ben¥¢,en them? • When should weuse theIT!!~

Th~ dU£~:oonoc lbel[Wccn sk:illllrn[lg and scamling ,is tln;<I1tt wh~n you, :'lcaD . fOfinfor!Ilatj:orty~u are looking £'Or :somtrt:hlllg v~ry spocifi.(~ jiQr eX"!liIpill~ <J. ~~(lIP,1Jlo]i)e n;1:u.lllbe:l1 o. an .i}JISW.<:"[, tiD a pllnict.aJlaf queselon, Y9U1 ~!1!emlly ~tolf Q;!'.I!(J~li'O~1 ~"lYC it, SkuiltumJiIlg is used' w~ct! r"'ij<i.f~ s[\f.',ldilg more ·of a, general ifftpressl,{l11. of what l1!w~~UX;[ ls 3IooU't YO:Ulooldd sk~m .. who.le ~,c"t it YQ1;i ~~~ed H):, 'bt~l:~OflljWQIl~dp!!:ob<!:b,]y nor skim a whole iC]cphone d~rectnry 'to fiod 'li''Ql;lf t'lllOll.bcc.

iIiIy this ~erillm,_t

:1!ri!U:n@ fe')llowingl piece of text there af~SrlX J~se·words - you l'iu:~ve 45 seconds ~. find 1hem;

TIl!\! history o,f speed: readingl date$ Iba¢'k~1;I ~h$. b~;lnli'lilng af the oen!ury ne:n the ~l.!mili·of Pl1lnt.ed rna,teria:ll eliCploded. 'Thi~ rKUlted ailk~ In .thea.baJn,d',onm.eI'l!1 of the 1r1.<l.tio:mof IrdJe ,r.eOOfng. IMIOiI'e In~mma~iclll ,eogL!1f~d ~@~ of~h.e 'Ume faw taster than mel!{ could! read Ut

Th.elifstdeYeIDpmant In, speed re a ~i~1 earns t1romitle, F!O:l!w: .AIr Foroec, 1W3liQ'I,!'~ ~~ er nQt~ P:i1O'f.$ '!'I~oo:ad to be traf;rned to spotefle:rny pl~ before tli'i;W well'ill fnto batlle, training tookp~a~'E!c on III

21

barcos devtce 'called a tachistoscope;. TIl~ ma.c!hlnet flashed: bug,eD I a1JiI, ~l'I1Jage of ~hi1l' p:lal'le <lit the p~lot f,O'ra ~I'a.ctlon O'f a second all'ld tha' tim-€! all~wedb&Crun.'Ei' SlmaUer and SITialil€)r;~h,ey ~~l!JIl'ld that ~f:ter a while the pil:ots w.ere ab!Ie to rfK:ogniz.e enemy p!a:nes lro:rll t!U' '9~atef distances, alfar gweatt6rspoods than they. dl'CI bef'Of'e .. The Wchnology 'rItIaS tranS'r~ll'edto lIt:te :sttidy Q~ lreadlng. First a, a.ingll€l 'WOfll was 11l_hed on U:ie taJ;:hi~Qpe" thel1 '!wo ~h&n three and fQYr' ~mar words were~l:ashed ,e~ a ,lime. Rei1!diing rates ~!i~d ,to. ,!!.boot ,400'woms a m[lI'1Iute,wilhi the a[t! of the", mach[ne. The great 'dr,awbac.'k of tile, taehistoscOJl(!' was h)rui'lJg 1J1::iat it WOiSIfl,(l1 [po!rt.abla" Once people stopped pracUos:ing dasu, Or! ~; tooir readJng rates dropped mp~dly~,

l~; wa~ b€t~ieved fer a k)1I1,9 :Biliqulil!er tfme si!'i~' tll::lose first EtX-Pift,nmenm that 4i(liI) iN.p.m. was thetas~BSt Iliiek!lJ:1"!\:I [possible madil'l,Q SJp6d, But w'!!: have come to i'&iIlJilil9 thQt~ we af@cspaJbJle of~'ar rlfI1lffl than we' eVe( thooght po,sslb!e, _, ilflf,act we ha.ve no idea Wru.t ~he fas18$t [poo$ibJe madirlg, wale lis bOOal.ll5S we stl'll OOI'i1J'~: IiJnde~tand tih,e zukl infinite c~~ty of ,our mi~,

" Did Y'QU f~ild. [he six. Japu:nese wor.ds [11 4S sl;conds,?

.' Did yon find any Sp;1nish words as well?' (There are' thf~ iIi. the pa SSIllge.)

• Did. )lOU frna 01, word end rea,lIize ir wasn'rEnglish bl][ .~f W35iU't Jap.an,~s~ eit.beJ: and niQ,;~c,n wi[~:out (;lQUflitlllg ir, ,or did YOll j:lJSf leok folf' six {ufei.gn words?'

.. .Diid yon pick up any meani.Dg, ffOm. (lie t~xr? ..D~d'tac;hislnscope· get yOUl' iatreli1!tllOllJf

.. n.idi)"lOu :notioelhe .factual errol!' in i!:hc :f.irst p.a'ragmph?

IFor your inki'.rmati:On

Jalll!m'!~ Wgrc!ls In the ,wt ,~~ blJ¢J; h}itmg;. dasu, nelnJRJ, ZJJkj' ,S,panIsh, words in ttl .. kud: baroos. nilmw. afquiler

!$ ~~.(\eady expla.in¢d~ '~h~:!l, t~dmique ,ts used when yot! are 'g fer specifie :!nfo.rmao,olt silch as ali ;a:liI$wer tiO a part.ic:ular questio..nor a teJepb:one f11ii1m1OO1' in a direC'~(l'ry. You have to km!.O'Wil':K;lCr.]y w'flat you are [r;o:kiiug !for. If you doo't know japanese or Spaoish ir would hOI;"'"\: been very difIicuh for you to derermise which laDg~~;e! rhe

fo,reig.n words bc[ong to, - .

SkimmiQg is a:eadiii!g '!N::ith a differe~t purpo~e. l'his tl,tm~, SiPGttd 45 seconds ()(1lI thetezt to find Olllt what it is; ~:l1:eraUr aboet, Don~~ read it wo.rd ~or wuro. jlJllSt ·skiLn' OV('l du: rexr, n:~!ding !):ltough fO get die m~$~age"

How' did yOl! dor

.. Did '"oil aoelce all nh~e Wreig;l'l, 'WQ,[I!ils?

~ Huw much ofthe text d~d yOIl! read and hu~'II' much didl!'oU

d:riir ocV'er? - ,

.' 8!'1e you sOltisf]ed that: YOll hnv!!!, :lI gCLle:ri;1J:~ ldea or what Ehc' teMt

~~lIbou:t?

~ Whillt: else did i'ma, pick up?

~ D~d 'racll:i~to!iic(:lpl.l· g:etyum: ,00tlCIltnon?

Skimn'l.im.gis used during Step ,3 (If the f,i'f,e·st-ep &ystem (passive ~eOlding).. You use skimming when, you k.now whitt .rfH1 j,I'B ~ookil1~ for and wan. 3J genc'l'alim,:!"r,nssmQ:n of w.ha~ d~c 'rexit (10011"<111118.

Th,f:;r,e are diif~;lrellf types of skiml'l:li.llg !~,O use d.e-pendi1;g 01'11 wil,tlt: 'YQur purpQ~e' !Sl

• Sldnlm~tlg.[O overview - TIle' pmpoliic of tb:is 111.e,tbo.iI is '~l) ,~ct an outline; of whirl! thematerial is a bout. lou wi]] be ]oQking mOJJ~ at stnl!crUf{: th1i1li C(Ultenf" nilS mcrlhrod. is tlJS!:d. m()'S'~l:y i.n Step .2. (pl:cvicw) of d~e £~,~·.sme:p syste.m.

~, Skim:mi,ng to· PfitV~;(~:v - Thisis used ""hem yonkllow 1lOti are 'g:.oJ:ng re re-read Jnce marerial, You;," purpose :hs to ga~hc:r as mucn bia,ckground infmmatian as 'yUU.Ctlfl on the sybiOC!: w~rhC:M!.u' s.r~nd:t!l1:g' t!oomtlcb ti:meon .It.

• S:kil~mi:ng to rev.iew - ¥ouWlotild. use t~:is :method when you have :aJ~e;j!dy .:ead the lit!~t,(l:riaJa!:ld}'·Y;.Hl[ PU[pQiS~ I;!> 1',0 refnmlliariztl )"'Oulrsc]f with ~he connu'lJf..

Suco,ssful 5i~dmml~ng

Skimmlng fQril'llmriTI;'jltuFlis el'i,i;4~r wl!!,en you know wh.e;re.ttiu~ infoil:'mall'ion is IIl.cely ED bewtdll.i:1lI the' Qve,ral] scheme oft'ne pie(;c you are ~'Cadi!]g .. While' yQiUl aee ~,pl;\~d te-adi~loolk fo..r ~h~ core irnt]'Ot:ll1Jado:ll. Onee OY01l.l. hoa.V8 da,rHiC'd yonr pllu:po;se: fOor s.ki:mmirng ~nd }lut) lialiow what you al)e[(lo.ki~g fOI;You wi!] b~' a!b]e I;.Q identify t.rigg¢l words tlh~t hold rE1¢.r~I¢v"'i:I~infurmari(m,

~, who

, WhiH

~, where

,~ wh,y '" wh,en ~ how,

The foUQ'!\'in,g word~ pre-empt a cO!lt[',adkrion o:ra:rsulneot il.i,nS'~ the ,case:

;; burt

.. Hone the I~ss ;; how{:ve:r

• yClt

'" 'Q~ the ,(liber band.

IPnlCiI'C:8 oo'x:

Plraclise uSir1!g 'lJ;iesB, w,olds by '901n9 through news:paper or Iirlaga_z[ne at1i!cl'es wUhthe, PlJfpo!i!E!' of id€!nt~ng the' 5Ws and how, Md ;m,y co:ntradli:ctlons, .as qut'Ckty as you can.

Speed reading and ,g;ettin91 U1e message

Wh~Jl you read yQu consert dIe ;jnfo:tma.ti!on, embcdd~d in .groups at w,oltds lneo ideas, images" tholJ,ghrs" f~liili1SIl' and iI/ctmon'i!l. One pur:pose 0\£ re-adilmg is: tJO get the- mess:ll~.e from the \voiid:s. This does Mtnecessadly .m;c;all! )'011. hav,e to read an the words. Wh~1l }i'OlUs;peed :read ~. es,peciaily when }'oustart teread more than ,O!ll:e line <lit a r.illle - yOIl. Al.ayi:l1i:ti~]ly beeome confused because the words arc presented to you in 3D olrde~" diJkJ:~nt from. t'ha'l: :iIl:re[Jdied. When YOIll read. wlEn YOM eyes)I'oil. will find th.at this docs, not presene a problem beeaese )'QI,lf brain works 01.ilil wl'iaf t:ilIC sentence means, regald1m. ,of w:h,at\ order the w(i;[\ds are in.

Your b.rain is alliwl'l,Ys il:rying~Q make sense ·af ~n:Fm:mat.ion it n:cl;i\1~-$. When the inlo:rma.don you are .rcadi:ng is nOlI: complete )"oM brain 'wiU lliarurnUy fill til! dr..@: b'lanb and (I!!'ganiU' rhe in:folrm:a1ioifi so [:aat you 'C<'I.D make sense of it. Plrat, read the ic]l.()wlng !>ellli':e:I1ICCS, mn loud and work 'i;l'U[ what tbey m~an:

'. Wi:·U tw~n[y minutes :in b~ there,

.. lef'S din.ne:r for mniigh'i: SO out.

• Rieading viStll3.1 a,ctivity done s.lowl.')' is on.l~· the',.

Now look at [he next batch ot sentences aad get the meaning from rhem asqu Dck Iy as y~m can by looking mrhe whole sentence and idenlit-ying the key wOi'ds:

• Speed- n:ading have if you a puepose is easy.

• Have' )r,er holida.y you been on rhis ye.u?

• The improve is to best 'way to practise.

Which was quicker, reading with }'OIa C .. irs or reading with your cycs?

You don't havero nave rile words un the ,i.gnl mder ro get the message,

lMalklingsure you get the light message

Wha.r if rot! speed read a text using all rhe skimming and scanning methods you know ami get [he message, only to find that you have missed out one crucial werd that changes the enli re mea IlGng I) f rhe passage?

In tharQ~nowlrn9 senL'eifice:

An effective speed nt,ad~r nellM mads withQutI. so-mathlrlQ to ..... rit.e with, allways, reads with a purpose and flU3lVer' reads every 'Word.

If you miss, out the wOIrd 'never"., you get:

An effet::tiv~sPBed ~adel' rea.ds without something to write wi~h. a.lways reads with a purpose and mads '!\!v@ry w·o:rd.

TI1C sentence makes St'l]SC!' but the':' message is conrrary to ehat i.ntendll~d. Practice, a dta', purpose andu.sing the fivc-,s;u:p system will help yon understand the meaning, .

Bilingual speed readers

One challenge for bihrag!,l,;I!1 readers 'is wanting ro develop speedreading skil'l!; in their tI.e-w langiLiage before ther are rorallv flw.:nt. Alse rhe reading they might be required ro do may be f:ai.r! y complex.

] have hadforeign srudems in I'n}' d,Ol!s~:~ who could. speak their second lan;g.uag,e fluently but had becom.e· highly frlJlstr<Ji'ted with

themselves because they were mla'M,e' to read their second language as. ~ilM as their f:irs:r language. Spcak~l:lg. a second language is di(JeH:nt from reading. Yuu can choose thr: words you use when }l'OU speak, butnut rhe words 'yo~ f'l1'ad in. a new passage,

S,pccd reading a second languOl.gt: is f~dl of challenges. The firs~ is vocabulary, t\.I'IOnhrf UP("(:[ oJ re~ldli!lig a secend language th,H will slow you down is u:aflsllU"illg into your firs[ language <I.S you go. A~ ] engas you do this you will not be able to reach high speeds,

There :J re 3. few 'th il'lg!l you can do to begin incn:as:lI'Dg your rCad~"i'lg rate for ,1 fnr(:"~gUiJ lrmgllJa;g,e;

• Learn rhe roots"suffix!es and prefixes ·of thenew Ianguage. '. Practise speed-reading i:~dl!r~~p.H:s on vtry simple book: ...

- Selecr a. f,cw children's boo·ks and! speed readthem using tools and techniques )'em are presendy dcvdoping.,

l~l\roid moving [0 another 1,t:"Vcl undl you. arcccmfcrtable with the spe'Cd n t whic.1':! you are reading and sure that )'011 unclerst::'Il:a.(l whar you a'r,e ["t':idill£; without havi:n!; re rrenslare it in['o),oll!" first l:iiflguage.Whcn you can do that you are rcad}' to move on to more complex marerial.

• For practice, use the (ivc-s(e-p system with. every book, even novels, This win give you .'In clve'1'a.11 picture of WP<l[ yon are :reading and will make ~{)mprcht"ns~olli much easier;

• Read as many novels as rem can, The story wi.1I ofEcn distract you f!"om tile complcxity of lilelaligl.iage.

.. SCI: our wirh the iIn~'m of cnjoy1ng the I,~.i1:nlh~g process.

Frustration causes stress {mel! S]O,V5 YOll down,

Exercises 1'0 iincrelase your speedreadin'9 rate and fl!e,xi bi lily

f'or .aU the jollo""~itlg exercises, usebooks you arc looking forward [0 reading. Even if the book5 an: on sub~f:lC~Sc you are unfamiliar with, make sure you are interested in dln$~ surbrjeers.

When you are eom fonah]e wiilnthc diffm'cm exercises, begin using m"~~TiElI tha[' you enioy reading, less. This m.at include some material you have ro read for work: or sru.dy rhar YOll are tim particulaelviruereseed ;11l. While :luactlsing on snchm.at·~~ial make 50.C thar Y'ot:l set very fi.rffi time ]i,mils. If ymI don't' 'you win become bored ,and w.anr to move on to smncthi.ng else'.

Trea,! these exercises as gam~$ <),ndchaUenges., .Don' do ehem for ,UIY more than 1. (I minu-r,es at a 'tilme lJl'll.esspon I'ea.l]ywant eo,

'harm-up ,stretching

This is ii shorr S-minuff: W,3:r:rn-up exe:rcise':

• Read fOf good 'f)roP[~tli:[1$iml fer 1 .m~nUite. ~, 'lilt 3. mark ia,t the pOlflt you ,re,ached.

• .Ackl hOi If .. pag~ !,iOwli:u:: vou .b::nre al1"e~d:y read amd ms.dk: that pollm.

• No'w go back to the bcgll!l!l'i.i.tl:g and. read (for good eornprehension] rothe second Inaikim, "l! minute,

• Make sure you make your mark,

• Once you. are ('omfonabl.eru-aJching the second maJ]':k ... d!d anorher haU page and read fmm the bcgirmi.ng to the rhird mark in! mi»ute.

~ Add ,anomer i1<l!]f p.ag~. Read to d:le 'fo'l_grth mark in 1 wntne. • .Add another half p~ge~ Read eo the :fi.&h mark in 1 minute.

~ .If at ,t1tis ,point YOul :fi.nd, d13t 'you are not 'reading' ~ ke'Cp hi mind Itil3t'tb<lif is In.e ~int or d.i5 't~erds~. M~k{t sure rb:.u' you Si:C ,eV'!;n" wo:r-d jusr si;lfiici.C1ldy to N!'OO,gll~Zie tbat .it is. an E1liglis1l1wofcl ntis. exercise wiU he~I?' y'Oug.et used [0 seejng/recol.'llflis![lg mere than one word ata time,

StretchIng speed! and comprehellS!ilon

This ,quick exercise will hdp ~mpmve '}'(lUf mIlIDQ!,Y and increase },o'lusp-ecd: .

1 Using. a pacer, read Qne p;1g~ as fas'[ 3S yOl.'~ can,

2. Stop. and wr.i.'~e dowl1eve.rrthing: yuu reme'~b~r foom wllHlt

you [use read, -

3· Read five pages Uke: this ,eve'ry d.a,y~ g,mdually inCI!~a,$~ng dliC nnm btu of page!i you read b1::JQte ),'0'1(1. St'QP ro re~~1 whae yO'lll, read.

4 Stan: with a su:bject £amUiar to you, t Iii,ell! - ;i1IS, yOIJil: noticethee your ,ability; confidence ,iifid. ,co,mfort'i'i:r,e :imp.rovtng - take on !roOf'1! ,thal.lensing trulrer.ial

The next: srageis asfollow,s;

.) R,e,ad for 1 mrnut:e and! OOlun bow many lines you have :read. 6 Cma.tlnU!1ll readi!:'!g !for ~~Ci~:be.f' :mi:llilne·t read~l1gtwo' .IID~ mOG

~baD you did the £i:rst ti:r.IlJe.. -

39

i

:& :;

,III CI. ;S"

'!til

i

:1

:~ iCI

"l ]n [he inext m:iHuM read lour Iines more lh<li'iJl you did in (~e firsr n1:uruJitc, then si:ll':,w,l)i['i ei:gbt. thea ean,

8, Mwa:ys read for gotJdi co.mp![~h'm:lsion :and Jioc;aU .. As soon as you think you don't !JIl:'idersta:llId er Ii~meilllboe[ the' text. cUlJoolid!;:ue !air. rha'~ lc\'li:11 until you ilt,c 'C{)mfofta.M,~~rh.€'n speed up graduaUy~

Read:it1g quicl!:lY[\ll\Iquires ,co~c,entIat~Qn .. If rOtl don!iE j,ltltdcIsEa,:nd or remember whi'lt your,ead! Y1lJU ma.Y'find y(J!lJJ.t c:o:nCCI;lt[al~(M'I drifting, bec<!lli~C you are booOm.illg disappointed and ;perhaps bored.

As ,your Ic:olllo~nr.r;lti!oni:mp.oves. sreerch yoursdfby ¢xiteflld;ln,g the l~min~lc :rrip to 2. :m.iliilUt'ies. then flO 4" and. 6" ,;'I.nd :8 , ..... nd 8'0 en .. ,

F1i'ndin,g Ikey sentences

This, teChl;[ique is. good for the parts of I;:he rexi: that yOu. ate al:ready l ... itl)f :familia!: wirh when you i list w.llnt" to be sure you b~ve n1.fssed nothingo,uu::

.. !Read the Drslt SeD$eoe@' of tile p;a!ta!?;rnph.

.. Skim 'rue ~I:'est of t~e pa'[<!!~caph f,or key_ wo:rd$.and if nec~"Ssar:r read the l:ul Senfeoce of the paragl'rII.pl'i.

1~I1I,creasin,9 speed fl:e;xibiUty 1'0 .im.prQve }'OtU' :flexi.biJity~

.. ~Ject ,a t'C"'!; on:i subject tamiU:u,toO you.

.. StaJ't .rea.dingslowly· oar first, atmo:Sll word foil' word ..

.. As you .fLnjs.h th~ £:irsr p<ln'lgrtapl" speed up raDii:' rea!d:iRg rase until 'you are reading as fa!st as YOIl cen fo,.r good compreheaslon,

.. Once you ihilil:k 'you aJre bcgil)ni~g to read J3ste:r than YQIll can oonlp[·ebend, slow down .3. bit.

• Then begin 10 practise rJexi'ble re:a,d:lng:. To do dlb,r'¢arl the r:i.rs't sentence of the p.arafljj'ap.h ,relativel.y slowly andspeedup as }fOU g.o throughdllC' p31',agRph. onJy sl.owifl~ down when ,YOU come to secdoru you a:r~ no'tt' fa!!ti:ilia-r wHh •

.. ' When you ba,'~e.: ~ea!d a book ona familb.1r" su.b,ieee fOir a while, chnng,c to a book on an unhu:nibar subject and st!.uiI: ,again.

10 Colnp;l!~ rhc: two eXpil'ri~nces. What did 'you ~lQr..iC"ii? Did you fimd mi31f reading tirl.e f~uuillal" book was !ItluCb easier than reading the uIlJ3:miJia:r book? Did the speed lilt: which you read

du: uufamiliar book increase as you began to nonce wh,]! wm .. easier or more ch~k~lcnsln:.g ro rc~dr

'Practice box - noltel ,exer.c;!lse

Nove~s are a good SOI.WI:;:(! of pracl!ioB to d,~\,Ie:lop, flexiliJilirly in IPI<lcin9, At tha~tart of ti'1iI11 rnovel y,QU m~g,htrind1 th,[lt you pase unc:lare·verylil!1!G; as you g:et familliar willh thee plo,t yol:,l' m.ight paoe ul'l!der every t.WQ liinEll>, When ~~];e story ~"Ity gI~t$ gQirl9 ;lina ~u tin!! I:Dti!king lor ths 6>;:criti,r'I9 bits In be~ween the dlese:rlp,tion }'Io'll rnl~ht fInd th,at you mn the pace'! do'W!ll the midd~a of this pa;gI~ I until ylO\':! cemsto the sec:tuons of ~hll[l booik tMt realily carry the ~tony" Your eJljoyme:nt o,t the bMk: is nol I'essened ln anry way at all; in, 1act you m.ay find thlOlt you actYOlJlty 1i!ilIl:5h more iI1ovei:s th2f!!r'I yOY I,J!SOO to,

Metronome pa,c~JlIg

You Can. bnY<I small dcctrOllk merroaome nde~dly one with II 'tick' ~hat IS not: too loud.} at .. ny music stnr~ qJu.uted:u~aply - .it will be ;l good ill"'!:'snn~[IIt.

Do d~is exercise for ,2 minuees, then relax for 5 minutes:

1 St'trhc mt~l'Oi'iome ar irs slowest speed and read oue line per "tick'.

2 E"'ety p:l;g,c or h~df page increase (he pace' ofthe metrcaome by one rid, ormote if you arc carnfo(f;!hte "bout it,

3 Tnl;![1 relax,

4 Repear rh]s ~lfI:rj~ you reach the fastest speed on the

metronome.

The metronome win reach (1. s.peed ,l~wilu~h yQ~ win nfH be able to ;'C"Jd e¥~ry wo.rd. This (~x.e[eist 'pushes' rour e'yc!1lud b.ra~l1 to st'Il;'lilid abserbmore rhan one word ar " rime,and ilr.ilduiIUy stretches your }~bi]it)'.

]J you. drive on a. m.OWi"'l'!'fI}' ·[:IIf 85 miles per hopr "n;d .. s YUill approach a town you suddenly have to n::ducll yOm speed to 30 l'I1J.pJl •• Y(HI [night thi:nk ycm are rrjJveJ1ing,~u 30 lmtil dl}C' po!ice soop you and inform you [hat rou were 1iravel.ling at ':l0 Or 50 - much faster [han youth(li~lght. The s:~mi.b.[ity ~n¥('ti'l drilt'I!il;g and speed reading dots[I'r st:Oprhcrc:.Whctl u:n\l'dling ar 90 m.p.h, you have to concentrare and don't have t:imc to look at the soenery; Wh~Fl sJiced reading YOtJ are re.ading sobst tha~)'ol!l[ m~nd doesn't want to wander a:!> much as lE cnn.n '30 rn.-p.h.'.

41

R(!'~dil1g ,
speed I
,

I I
I
I I
I
i
I
I I
I
lW:I-11GO, I
I I I
mOI-l roo
,
9Dl-lOOO
I ! I I
1301-900 I I
-
I ,
7(H-SOO'
60]-700 I
I I
I 1 I I
50:1-600
401-500
, I
3$1-400 I !
,
3Q1-350 I
I I
Hi.-300
-_ I I
:Wl-250 I
lS()-lOO I
I
Dlltc/(im.e
....
I ru well 8S providirl,g you with information on your speedreading p.rog(es;s~ "lilil spe.ed"read:ing. graph win h-rlp you [Q remain morivated. Put as. mach informario» into ir as YOIl need. Measure your readingrate for rhe duration of your 21""dar programme (see Chapter 12, What Next?; pp, 160-J)

II ,In the bottom :row enter the dale and time when mea:lijj~n~-ing your re.<lding,

• Each rime you measure bow many words per mi.nute you arc readingplace a markin the- appropria.re box. Add any thoughts or ideOl:S aOuiJryoo.l progress ~n a notebook s]Xcifi.cally kept for'

yom rc~lding. development. .

• When your reading rare surpasses 1200, write your own numbers :Iri1.rne b!ank spaces above ] lOl~1200 to record ir,

• Take speed-reading measeremenrs ee differem times of the day and under d:ifrerem conditions (tbese inclllJd~ meod, rime pressure and so on).

Summalry

What sl!ows 'you down?

The following arc examples of 'speed stoppers', with suggested ways of preventing them from slowing yOllr reading .

• S,'~b-v~(;dzing [reading with. YOUf ears] is u.s,im.g the voice inside your bead. The faster you make yourself read, the less yQU will !lub··vocalire.

• VocaIiizUig - ]f your lips move as you read you are vOCSIJiz.in,g your text,. literally speaking silently te yourself Thi;s slows you down even more than SIl~voc8Iizingi' you arc limirea not only by the pace at which you can $~ak" bur a lso by how f.ut you can move your tip.;; and keep s.ilent.

• Habit - M(l-$t habits ale below the level of your coascicus awareaess (you are not aware that: YOil have them)" They are ,easier ee :rcctify when 'YOti become awa te of them, To extinguish vocalizarton, read with a spoon between your teeth and you will soon srop trying to move your lip!; while you read, Don't allow children to do thls as it could be dangerous.

What speeds you up?

t Increase concentration by bl(]c .. idng our noise or intt?rfercnce (:for more about'~his, ~ Chapter 8. Dislnu:nO[is and Solunons),

43

'l~

. '

i

ac

i

44

i I

" focw 00 the task, !Using more than one sense by .re:ading, a<;cively ,~for more abQiut tb~~ ~ec Cbapter S, Me-matt).

., Push yourrea.ding speed 'ED f8SR:ll" than you [hink ycu can

;readi (use a pacer), .

• Don't: worry about m.:issihg oue tQO' many wot'lfi (:Maid wirh your eyes ~!1$tt!1d o,f yrl<1:lr ears or-yout Hps~.,

• Have ~ dictionary handy to look. up words you, are unfamiliar with before you~an sp~ reading .(for uchruques ro increase yonI' vocabulary. see Chapw.r 3~ It"s: AU :in the Wb-rods).

You don't bave to read words in ,the right orderro "get rhe message' but yOu do have (0 m_ake sure YOll cau:h the words that

O1lrtytbe n1eSsage. _

leami,[l~ ho-w to, speed read a second language I,S eas,y" it just rakes a little longee,

Now that you have iln,p.roved y;OiIlI.I:' base speed-readingraee, it is rim!;! roc;oO!itder aaorheraspeca ofincreasing your reading rare. The advice in the: next chapter is es:peciaUy useful If Engliish :is yQu:r secend lallgua,ge Q,[ if yQU w(lu]d like to "Ilatase yoill'" vQf\;abulary.

< c.:e ..... O(Dout

(')<"'m p)CDc.-

C-Ocn= 5.:C I ::::s

'" _. II .

"'::::J

~(Q

'< o

C

...

In this ch!apter 'you W1Jili ie~;

• tn.e dm'elVl'1t typ§ Q' vocabulary

• how kl irnc:r:ease yoor vooabulaJry

• how· words are made up

• how toj:!e;al Withl 5peciat~ed ~~

Why increasing your vocabulary speeds up your reading

The bigger )tcur veeabularj, the faster youwill be able [0 read. Hl!'sitadng, at un famili .. r words stops you and makes you tty to work out the l1le.aning of the whole passag~., not iust lhe word. Thi.sw;JS1C:S rime. ~era]q!.le.scionsl'itighr arise when you rome Olcrossa word you do tim understand, What does [his word mean? Doe$it: change t.be conle.xt? hi i.t impornnn to my undersrandiag of the tc·xt? These qU.f:'S1ions go through your mind very quickly~ The trouble isthat when you haveanswered them you may have forgotten what YOIl have been n:a.din.g., TIu .. 1' become reel [hue wasters if you. have to rerum to rhe b(;,ginn.ing, of

a passage <l!nd starr aga.in. .

You have three dd~rent levels or vocabula:ry knowledge available to YOUl, your spoken vocabularr (g.mcrally the most limired of [he rhree), your wri.tt:cn. vocabulary and your r~gnb:ed. vQi;abul<'!ry (the largess of the three], Most peeple use between 2,000 O'i.nd 12,000' words in speech. Writtel1 vocabulary is bigger than spoken VOC.1l hul.af)l' because you have mu,te' rime [0 ehink about whar 'YOIl want to ~ay and can go over what you have wrirrenand edit your text until you are happy wirh jc. MOSf people use between .2,000 and 2J~OO{l diJre:renr words 1n their I ife-rime (or writing, By fOlf" the: largest set of vocabulary yOu ha ve at your d.ispos.al is i'our recognized vocabularj; This is ehe words you recognize within a C()IlU~X[ but do not ordinarily use, Words you recOgn.izc are sometimes di:ffku.lt to dcfi.ne dearly. You have a senserhar ;'01.1 ,know wha/I[ the wo,rd means in the eentext that you read or heard it, but cannor define itd.~aJ."I);.

Your recognized vocabulary is a!50 known as "passive' vocabulary - yuu know the words. but" don't use them.Wrilte"n and spoken ¥oca.bulary is your ':a«ive' vecabulary,

The aim of this cihapUl!!'is [0 con'ven your passive vocabulary inro active vocabulary, The purpose of the exercise sboul.d not be ro learn the most obscure words In the language so that you 'bafflcol' bore your friends and ever·d((:·re.1lsing autdi'Cnc~ of lillt:encrg instead, it should be [0 learn the language r.ha.'I: wiI.I help, you express your i.dc3S and understand others dea:rly and precise ly.

How to increase your yo,cabulary

There are several ways ro increase your vocabuia.ry. You should approach them gradually rather rba n deciding that you wantt to .JeaIn 1,nOO new words in one (3)' and .locking yourself In a room until YOIl have, Unless you happen to ]ea:rn ben thet wa}' '(and n.m:: the time and genui,ne inclinanon to do iT)lh.e.re are other, more useful strategies.

A better way of ,rnending your vocabulary may be to break (he cX)I;rcise up lnii:O 30-miuute chunks. Pi.;ki:ng n",e words a day front the dictionary rnigJu OO[ work for everyone. The foUowtng are a few differenr ways of increesiag your vocabulary. Your cholec wm be determined by how you like to garber information;

• If yon like reading a lot (and you have the rime), then read books with eomplieated language, Use a diroWlary as YOIl go but before you k!Qk an unf ... miliar word up [ry to .f~guil'e out whar it .Il1e'.UlS yourself. This w~l" you 'Will learn the language as you go. Make rime of the new words you learn as you do

this, .

~ If reading is not rOl.l.[ faveurlte activity hut oomm.Wl.ica[~llg and speaking ro people is, then aimto meer people who you know have a good vocabulary and r.a.lk ro them, You. can pick op a. ]o-t 'ill ccnversation, [f you hear a wnrd you do nor understand bu. don't want to ask the person who says it what ir means, then make a menral nore ro look ie up later. 111: is worth remernberiag thar :many 'people use a word because rhf:Y know ir fits: the context 'but do om re-aUy know what the word means. U you bear a particularly obscure word think twice about asking for a definition; the speaker .might feel ;iwkward if they ar-e not entirely sure about its meaning.

• If.. third W.;3iY of inc:I't!'.1sing your. vocablLl.lary is to, use new language .. Pick 3. word a day and use ir whenever it is appropriare, Try not to make it obvious that you are trying out a new word by lli;§;in.g ir in every sentence unless you are in an environment where you can relax and pla,ywith language,

• A good way [Q increase your active awareness of language is ro C;;'I,rry a. vocahulary notebook wieh you. WhrneV'eTYo!.) hear Dr read a word that you do nor understand at mall is tmfumil.i.!.I:. wrire down the word, YOl1r understanding of it and ehe context you heard Or read it ill. Then, when you have the c:n~nct\ look the word. lip to check whether your guess

i· .

,-

~t

11.'J1 ..

1 rr ...

~' '

i

...

was accurate, This is an ~~danr good exercise fo,r turning passive vocabulary info active voca bul,a,ry; it: encourages YOIl ((I think about the definltion of a wi)rd you think you know [be meaning, of.

• Relax while YOIl learn. If yO'll get a, wo:rdWl'ong~ don·lI: WQ,rry about lr, The more youpractiiic~ read and use new language in conver,sationtl:be: berrer your vocabulary will booQm~ .

~ Use yout imagination while you learn new language, Imagine y,ourself us.in,ga new word and thjnk ahoue the response y?U m~ght expect If you used ~r ~IlapprQlpriatel;y: Imagine wh:1.t[)'tit~ word might mean. basing that 'Of! year knowledge of other words, Imagine what tbe W(I,rd would mean if you could give it' 8r1y definition you like, Take time to pl,ay wit.h langua,ge.

The source of it all - roots, suffixes aind prefixes

Or.,e of the easiest W,3YS of learning more language and of becuming able te recognize new words and 'work out thei:r meani.ilg -is hylearr.l:in:g how words are made up.

Dkiyou know?

A quart. 01 the wwds It1I the iEng11sh 'lang:uage come d!~ from o1tier langllElgM. This· acco1Unt&forilhe diversespe'llir.l9 of many words WG 1,j!ii8. iHowever. much otthe .Engllsh lang1uage originates irl, Latlm, or Greek. ~ mots,sufflX95 and pl'efhc,es 1hat form the baSIs: of our language are almost all Latln and Greek. /HoW' much, ,easier :It ;15 to learn a new word :11 you know the mots ot the word. Here Is a fact you might not. ooawar:e of: 22 roots ,and 13 pr:af!xes arE! found rn 100,.000 words in Wi ub'l$bridged dictionary: That: mean!!. that If yeu know 22 1'1)01$ and 13 prefi)[es you may be ablE!; to work cut the rneanlog Qr too,,ooo words ..

To get you started, in the table opposite there are twc~\I't' toor words, their d(lfi.l'I~tions and some words made from the root words with their definitions. Yc,u will noriee that a particular rom, prefix or suffix may be used in several words. U you know the ,[,oots, working out the rest of the meaning can be easy. In Chapter 11. there is a larger collection of roots, suffixes and prefi:xcs, (pp. 14,8-S0h

a-OUi!

to<: - talk

drcum!oquacloos circum - around loc-talk

Root D.eflnltion VQeabUlaW
ob agaf.nst obloquy
e~ 9:.1 'OLl1' eoctmdlte
arch ru~elchref ~
anti 8Q31rl$t a1"!tipathy
pa1t1 teeling pathology
,E\, an ooInQt .apathy
greg flock egregbu$
ptlon sound etJptnQoI(;lYS
et:.I welJlgood eulogy
caco not ,P:IOOSar1.t cacophony leq, toe, leg talk

etocuUon

elreum

around

O"fiildtlon ob-agaln8t loq ~ language'

'ex- out

,an - nolnot

arch - rule.

anti - agarnst :path-t~~ng

path-feeiing ology - $tudy Q:f

a - no/hot

P~1h: = foollng

e-out

greg - fIook

eu - welt/good phon - soond

eu - we1Vgood log-talk

.caQ)-noI; ~ pho:l'l ~ sound

Car.l)' the p.rdb::W$uffi:«s and roors llst around with you: fen' a few weeks - make a copy of tf if your prefl;r, lnsread of lOQk~ng up an unfamiliar word :in. the dictionary,. uy [0 lise your knowl.M~ of pre.fixes. suffixes and roots to week our Hle meaning of the word.

Oi,.Enng Slep3 (passive reaclin.g)and Stop 4.(active reading) of too fWe-,step system jo¢k fO( ynfaml~J{l.r W«d's as'IPillit: of the skimming exerciSe, then lock them up be10re you beglti St.ap 5 {selective roodir19~+

50

1.1:'

, ,&:,' ... ,

,<

1

o w

Specialized 'vocabu:lary'

De'll!"]oping an unde:rstanding.·o.fspccialmd voca bullary nctdi!; to be dealt wiith ~n ,away dWeE'¢Jl[ from. uom;iall voca,'blllary. ~~~ta~I¥) words you, do not understand in the text make senSe W'lftti_iI; i!ibe oonk:Xt of the sentence.. Usually you can read on without knowing ~c;tly wMta WG~ :n:iC!lS; you, w:U1, still undie[St:SIud what the sentence or par,apiapn, m.e,ADS, Not undelTSmnding 5peciali~, 1a:nguage, can make j,t im~i.ble to understand SIny o.ftbc text, especiany if ibeelltU:e picce rev<i!ves.

around that OIlC' word. .

The more ,familiar you ;are wilh t~ specialized; «xr~ the &;stet youwiU be able toread.lkGo,mlng" fa.miJ.ial' with rhetext miig~.t take some tim~ dcptmd:ing OiR ,the ·,level Q.f knowledge: yOU a~ready ha'le.[f. you foUl)wa few simp]!} steps, the leatnin.g process can become much, easiee

• During Srep 3 (passi,\'e r,ea,diogJ, bighJ.ight"aR me: words YQl,l do, not undC"l'stand especiaHy :if th,ey look as ·if they OOa'y be

part of a sp~~ist vQ(';Jlhuia:ry. .

.. l£.you art: anowed~ ('GPY tm:glossary nom 'me book Ul there is one). If (heEt isn·f~ use Ii good 5J*iia1!ist d.i:tti.oDary (most' sl;Ib,iectl han Qn~}.lftihe dimonary belongs to yQU~ ycu'oouJd

higlilighr ~~ch~rd y~u.h. 3d. di!.~.· ~'uh:Y" W.jth •• cAI~ce.ma .. 'liv.el.Y~ whenwod:.ing hont a dlcu-ona:ry you ,could wnte the word ill.

a 5:ep.ilJalJe oook 'o:r p]ace OO;l.rlrersoo. the pages: so' that· you. can go back and :findthe. dc.Bnitinn ·qui(:lc:1.,)" a,gain (you should. a:nalnly do this: ~f tic dictiumu:y is. DOlt YClluproptllrty).

.. Once you 2.fC familiat Wirh the vo¢abut.uy; 'taIc,e' a bit of tinti!! to tbiDk bow ea-ch word fit5 ·in with. any ideas: you have an. the sll:bject. Think about h.'?W else y"QU could, \lISe· the' vocabll!laF)'~ Coosider how the wotd .is made up. noe:s the reet, ~uffix or p,refUl:: give: yQlU <'in idea of what the. meailing: eo~ be? 'bli what Othet C(illltext mi,gh~ you COJll'C: aClO" the word?

• Ifyoii. ha,,~. the; time" ].ook'l1.p tbe specialinoorocabwacyw'u ordinm:y di.aionary" You. may be surpriSed ,by differences m. RI~jn8 and mte:rp,mariQl!JI fromth-o;t; in tbe speri . .;llJjst did.ioil1:=ilry. Do this' especially ,if you do not. understa.n.d .the definition in. the speci:alisr. dictiona:ry. Vezy ,oft,eo. :3, I.cvd of kllowl~dg:e' is assumed in the s~ist' dictionary' and definirioillS may not be ootliplm; .Ari m:din"ilZY dktipnary assumesa bare knowledge Qfth~ SUbjecti so if the word ism :OH(:t me definItion may be' mm:c' b.e'pfuJ. Enq-clopaedic.

dictiol1ar1CS :lire good because they very otten have pictures tiAOxf ee the defill:ition •. YOIl can explore :and hase ,fun With these,

.. Can you :fi:nd a picture rM,t illustrares the word? If 00, remembeeing the ddiniti.QQ wiD be easier;

.. The more you readen the s:u,bi,ecl, duo; more tiil:mili<1f YOIl. wi][ become with the I'anguage' of ehe subj:t:Cf.

tl'1bat doea"' wotk •.. ,

•• ' and If YOLI stilll ha.ve problems withspooiallst language. att'end as many talks and leclufa$ Qf'I the 5'Ubfect asyolJ can, SPMk to, experts on the $ub~C'! and, fnmead of asking them onty what a 'woi'd meiilt.s, (you will more 1h3Jfll IIk.elY gat a dtctIonary d.ellnl1ion). ask them how the word fits: Intoth9 subject as,a: whole.

Summary

1 Pay attention HI new words.

2. Kec~ ;lsm,aU }1?"t::book in, which ro wrlre down flew ~(:rm~nology (with lts m~amtlg) r:har you come acress in readingand conversation.

3 USC!' YOllr new vocabulary,

4 Become familiar w~rh the roots of words. If J(I!;i. understand the I'oor. you wil1 be able to work ourthe meaning of many words. Many' good dictionaries s.ho.w d,e roots"

() o :::s o (I)

:::s r+ '-I

m ...

-.

o

:::s

lin, ~!s chaptel'you wftlleam; ,the ir.np(li"lllVlC8 of COOOQIllniltio:rnl

• 1J1e dltfel'mt: ~s of concenb'ation

• ~·fQr ifl'llF,ln'J'Yl:ng }I<I1l1r ,ooncentliltion ._en::~ to Inc~ co~;tration,

The imlportance of concentration

• The .6n~ rule of acqu:iring. know~.e<lge: Pay attention.

WirhoUl'OOOe4:'!tr.atiol'!: dlueis no mitQ1l~O'ty. Some ~dea!l on how to oonee:ntrnte :alldavpjd the dlstmcrion~ that break up YOM[ coru:ent'ra[tioDwlU be presen.ted in. Chapte'l 8. D.1S'tnlCrlO:DS' nltd Soh:u;:iqns.

Concentration does .not come easily to Ina:ny, fOir two rea:sOD~: 1Weciu:I be very e3si.I,1'· distracted.

1 There can bem.l!ch to distract us.

rmp:rovin,s: concenl'mtiOllisn't ea;5~. Wle certainl.), do n.ora.I.w.ays have either the ~irneor des:i!re to med1~tea:ndp:ractiseab5Q.lllte cO:llcentra:riion . .fo.r ~~'veral hOlJJr~ each day. F(HUl:ruaidy~ th(lt:CafC olher ways to ac:nine better' cQ[lcenttl1rionskUis.

focused attention

Attenlioo bas (;ertain definite pmperties:

• Iii: is dynamic_ Try foclJsing on on.e tMng o:n.ly and aoelee how long it is bef9re your mind wander..:,-, The aim 'Of m.edlitaticin ls to ,~nab]e ¥O1.'l! tQ fucl,1$l}n ojH1:~l¢m~i1t .pf ~g~ing without losing. atJbention •. People train and practise .£'O.r yeusto achieve

this, .

'II AtteOlti.on. is uI'I.dlvid,ed. If you tned. to listen '[0 more than. one' conversati,on at a time 0\1" '10 .read a book and drive a ear !iimultaneoU!Sly' you would find .I'lhat.fairly challenging.

• Attention foUows In.terest. Boredom will emngui:dl attenrion in a m,omeot, AWwa.y-$ keep In :mind 'What hi. in i~for me?~

~. Atte'nrion is :m:aii:l.tained bye. seri:es·of djsco·vmcs.Be·a:wa;r¢ ·pi what is new <loou;t w~at you. are l.earning, How oJwn d,Q )'Q~

~e:[ mat <Aha!' .reeJin.g? . .

Sometimes we have to f:QlCC cur,sehres to pay atte'ntlon.This ean be Ilnpt~sa.nt and i.i1'elkdive: ,~lll'lli am~tiQ!R Ja.s:r;s fOfMly a k:w secon~sin these circumstances and has r~ be ,eonSt'.ant]y

t.elnfot\O(id. .

There are several kind~ of aflttentiom

,~ VO~Ullita:ry' attentioR - This is what you display when you are tDtally abso-rbed by wbat you are d.Oi:Qg3Ud dis(tamed by

nothing. When you voluolarily p:1!y :atte.n.tio!l to someth:img you do so. nann;any~ YQu. dOD.·'t' bave to force your~]f to concentrate; you find youm=lf absorbed inthe task.

• AUlOpilo.1 .". This ooc!lf$when you find yUum1f 01.[' '~ou:r destlnation bu~ do nor know how y(!P got there, It also happens wmwn yon reach ebe epA ,of a book and realj~ yeu have not r¢rn:embe:red ,anydtmg <]ihhough you know 'Y0ll read every word,

• llis;pene:d atle:nnOD. - Unfortmlatcly most of us, suffer from tbJ5 more than we would lib. Having toomanry tb~llg5, going all sjmild~Elneousiy causes dispersed artreodQn. as does ,II lack of mterest.. ·When. tIlls happeM you fee~ ss t'hOUigh yoP C<"IM01:

C(IlU;C)nlttate at a]~t everything attracts 'Your.att~Jition. and YOIl can't: focus on anythin,g for longer rhan a few moments.

The aim is tube' able m oontfolm,hmtary amotion so' t~;at even in 5,jtuarioo!ii whe:n~: you would normally find h diffkult ~Q con~lUIf~ yo!.'! 11II:e able to fOcus your ane,ntionwilLingly and. fuUy.

Divided anention - w:hen .. works and whslII1i doesn't

Attention is a linear activity. If YOIl arl.!:llread:y carry!:[18 out a task u~jng one sense olif you. are doin.gso.mething that requires a high level. of attention,~ yon witl be aMe to do only one thhlg, at: a time. for lnsesnee, i£you O!i.rc: dri.,.r;ing in dangecolU conditions you will notice: that },'ow:a,ttenrion tg' driv.mg is, total. If me radie ls QII1, rOll will. probably not heat it .. If. on the .other hand, the {-<lad its deaf' and the conditions are good, you m:ay be able to drive. listen, to the radio, and have a cQ[)ver.satimli at' the' same time, The moment a dO@ :runs into the read rOIlT attention will shift (;m::il'ely £:0 drIving, wi min. a fraction of a 5e~O'nd.

Divided attention does nor a~wi1Ys work while you are reading, Reading uses ml.! 'I".isui1,I, Sind~ fQ:1; many peopJe',ilie ;;!!Mhory sense. It Iimies ooB'Versation" inhibi:ts other auditory actl'(iti':5 like listening to the: radlo and pwrenu f'OOUSing on other visual acriviq because your eye.5 ,Ul~' fCoCused 00 a, pag.c'. One r~~.$on we find c:once.otxahon wh~te reading cballenging is because :i,t is so singly focused. As a resule it c~n become 7 tedi!OIilS fairly quickly, especiaUy if w~a:tt is being. read is: ullllil.teresring.

Reading and carryiing out another acli.vlry at tbe same time Is almostim.pos:si.ble, 1£ only ~o dc.mDnstralte the pOinf, iris 'worth makingan experimei'iJ~

ElpGI1mG1l1t

1 Selec.'l: ,8. falrly Ifght bpol(, ,pula reoo.idtlig tape in a cass&.ttep.I8YtiJ' 50 that you canrooord What: you aA) listefllng, to and make yours.~t oomtOl1abte'.

2. Put iii radlccn fa.lrIy loud, th9l!'11 begiln to reed.

3 Try to mad and listen to the radfo a<tlilhe' same tllifi'l€l,

4 After 5 minutes iS1tQP ~rng. stop the tapa and swl10h aft th& mdio.

5 Write down '~iJ19 you can remember 1'ml'lili the bopk and from 1t1e radlo", keepIng the :two ~.

6 Coun~ the number of Y!ierct!; you re.acI a:nd ch,ecik how {as! you read. Then skim the :boo:!o: to c~ how at.:oor.ately 'YOLI remembered what you' read.

7 R'apl'ay the 'lape and Check how ,accurately you remQm~ed what you Ilheard.

Try this our in :'Wvcnl:l different situadons: rt'l'a:d.ing and ~i$lC[ling ro a cOJl,versaii:ioIlJrcad.ing and wa.tchin,g ~elevis~(}n;, re2ild.ing and haYing aCD:Il:ve:rsati.orl. Srim.e c:ombinati'ilil'iS wi]1 be mare d~ffirulr than o~hr$.

The: purpose of this experiment is [0 nonce wh,a.t distracrs your att't'ririon most. If you discover that YOn.! can read and ,omplc~e anotber taskat the same time, men. you wiH have developed another $kiU that!, if Iloth,illg; else. wi.U aid y(mr: time management,

MOil! in:ip()rlalltly~ C'Jllioy the game'.

,Interest: and. motiva,tion

The: more you are inn~re-$I;(.d in wr._a~ you are doing, the easier f[ ls to concentrate. Remember when you 'were last so' engrossed in what you were doing that' you lese track of time, NOIthillG dt5tractai yonr anenth:m. You were tetaUy intercst<:d and Inotivs'red to reach a goal. There ate diue' wol'ds here eo take partieular note of: interested, mouvatcda.nd goal..

When you know what YOIl areafrer (a goal) and why you are dolng it (morivate), then the desire (.ir:nerest) [0 complere the task suct."'USfuUy malws rori:otal concentration.

~. howe;;e~ t~ task ~ paniculady bo<dng and ~[ ~~ liuud to mod eithes mouWliuon. or :mle.re$,~, men me' pI'0Ce5S 15 the challeage.

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You will need ~o make the d~i$:ion, Wf eumple, rhan .. YO'lilf goali:'). to Enish this task as quickly as possibl\e.

• Your motiv:at:ic;m is tha.! ym;l csn g(l~ hont¢ $QQ:Ql1lr or ~~ ·gn

w.it:h a rrrore inte'restin& task. .

• Your iD~e.r·est is Geve10plfig :I. sYStitm that w~1I .allow yO'u to get through ooriog material fl1srer and nrlOl'C dflX:ri vdyevery rime you arc faoed with .it.

There are; two main ways in which concl:lr.u:.(anon can be ii11~ttiJJPt~d! oyintemal distta..::tio!ls and e:x:temal distractions. In Chapter' .8, Uisn:acrlons and Solu[~oR~~ we sharnl discuss exte.!:nal di&lracciom in detail. Here, we ·wili look a!in[e'l'nald.istrru:;[~on.s and ho!w w redu('e stt~-$S - one of the gre:.:utst contributory fact>@fSrolack of concentration,

Filert't8mbEirttlis

.ACQIl>$S to mass im'Ormmlon can be iStl'MSful; d'ealingwith mass inicrmatTon !by using pawarfulc:tlOosEng and reading st~!IJfegiB$ redt,:u;$$ ~. V&r:y oftlffl til" prob4!m1 wool what we have to dc, but the rneM:9 we MVEi at OUr df$~ to do it' (the how).

One Qif [he biggesf d,esrroli'¢ts ·of ml;lIDQry is snees, When you're snessed you release hig,h ]eveJs of eerrlsol into your bleedsrream .. Corri50lisa herrnone that affects you in a :numOeJ' ofW':a:y.s~depcnding on :l:bc amount .rdea~.d moo your. booy <lit anyone rime. Cortisol destroys glucose, your brain.'ssollfce .of wod.

I! you have ever been in an ,a:cddent or witaessed sometning rrauma:ti.c: Y(HI. may ilal'e: gOt through the eM\peri,ence.~ whoUyor partly aware Df it, but be- ullabJeto .r~me.m~t a:nymmg abQ'llt the, incident atte:..wards. Bio~ogicany spealic:in& fOil WOiUild have experienced. an. enormous amount of stress, and yom body would ha.¥e released large quanr.ir:ies ,of cortlsol 'ti1af'!;V(!!itf 5ilr.t~t ro your hi:ppocampus and destroyed the glucose. With reduc.eCl food your hta:in did net kaye what was nel!e,:sary ~o lay the memo.ry down.correcii'.ly. so although yO!l saw ¢\"eryrhiirtg - and maybe even spoke to peopleand walked around. - rhe mC:IniOlL'ies, w.m~ not laid down in ;lin}' form that Can be zecalled or th-ey were d.istorted or encoded .inwha.t is kn.o,wnaS" 'statedependent memlJry~.

State~de~ndant: m~rno,ry has much to do with thel:aw ·PElt1~CEI ~h!Uf~l~ $Om$! p.eop!e dl.!riI'1g exams, They

s1udy in too CQl'I1fort of their- home; and then wrwte U1e exam in sO blg •. fl.ill. offk;~I-looking hall.The':stErte' they were inlwhetl'l the:y ..., $'Iudied is differen1; from tM o.nEl~hey 8iii in dmng the exam.

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State-alepoodMt mamQry OOOllrs When you ~mb.Elr:so~ng inl a particular sta:I:.e. and can mty recall It ·when you am ina sTmm·aJ'· state. :111' yeu dosorndliog wtmilfflY,CU 3J1& drun.1i!, for i~. ylllI.I may haY$' '·klrgot,t:ElO' your Eilm~rfilg behaldOi;:!f by the morning; but tine next tim.e·you are ootm:ld IMiNe orfe. too many. YQU wiil.probably be abtelo rretall the·ewnm oUile prev:tous night out

An(lth~r,. <lind less e'X:Ufme:~ insf<l!IiI~OO(;UrS 'Wl:ien you;:Ire unde-I s: :m.odemte. amount .of· stress. If yon are Oloout to gjJW.3. sp.r;ech~ m.e-e~a laq;~gJ:m~p of people >or introduce . your partne.r itO fUU! bO$$tQ.r the lir$t ti~¢, yQ~ may ~el a $1!i.gb:t £nNli~. ~!1 }'Qur b.ram-you ha.ve aU the dft3:ils that YOU: need for the occas.iQ[I bue youc:an't quilegerthe ideas, names erwords .:stralsht.

Some medIcal upenll beHeve that cortisol can affecr"ymlr brain cITrollicaLlyand .. do ... m.·· O" .•..• ~u~de·dl3ma.· .!l;~. tn~h. c. w ... ns .. term. Becau~ ·o.frhe leve~ of :S:lUSS :In mose (if our liv·~ .~ .. ha.vel' ;it

constant drJp of co.rtisol. into OlU'· bodies -, This corrJsol goes round our sysremalld inw, our brains~ dcsn:oysglucose and turns cakiu:m jn;("Q free radiCals that" d~strQ)l' brain cells &om tho(: lnslde out. This can cause age-reJated memory loss, Peopl:e ber:w«:1l 40 and S01~a'$ old ~ay £«1 that the.y ~ nQ.t thJ;nking as (HI: and dearly as rAe)!' dLd befere, If mLS Sliwa.uon IS lefr unchecked, h: CQu1d have seeious consequences.

No ma:rre.rwn:a"[age you3:re:,. jf YOIl eake care of yOlll hody and rnindby·taklng :rciul:a:r exeecise, eati:ng·h,ealrhily~ exei[C~iDg YOUI: m::ind;tielaxmg andejj]opng life.,. ypur .mern.o.ry will ibeccune more .dear"mole cre.ative~mol'e ac:tive:md more aCCU1'.aIre.

'J'h.osc w.ho a.;ia_pt ·m.en:Uf.esry1ewiU find. veT}" .l'irde will happen tha.1i: they· notia: overnight. but CO".D:5tamt ,and. ~~~ined. aCoo.9 wil!l.berewar.d,ed. ·nere Is no magic pilltha:t can be mel] lOIf instant rn!!!mory - if one were' put on tbe markee youshouJd appmachiir. warily ot.evcn avcid. it, You hay:e the Mtllral capacity to be brilhlant if you chOOse. All ~ttakes Is alit1le dflOrt; "om~O:!1 sen$~ and me hiowledgt andbr.litf thait· you Mlile w.bat I.t rakes,

s

Reac;tingl to stress

Stress arises whenyoli:r situaticn o1ili~jghs your ~'reC'hVOO a,bility to deal with it. Perception of your ablilitt will v.a.ry day to daYt moment to mo-ment. 'Perception' istne operadve word here, You may have no more to do on Tuesday than you had on Monday but becsase yom mood O~ your environment 15 different, what you have to do may seem more than it :really 'is. The perception rhar youcann-C)l: cope wiJU increase, regardless of the realitY gf }!"'!,if Cil~rcnt sllmlu,ndl,ng,s.

Thought. experimant

Imagine two· peop:le' waJlidngl d'own a street Both of ~:em see the same street, lpeople andl events. Boths'*! a bus, narrowly mlssingl a cyclIst, both see, SO«I80oegettE!'l(I1h6Ir bag snatched. boll see a CXM:Jple flghtlng and a child cr:Ylng. WllElfl' they ~ch Itre Md of the !;ltmet, one Is tense and tluStrat-ed and the other slhrugs and sa.ys 'That\; life."

1lhe very next ·day, the ,same two peopJ~ wa1k down the same sheet. notice 1he same ttJings and their reactions are oPfXlstte. b 009 whof~t q.~tte< !'Olaxed ~he day before, liotioe:s the $8IlI'IEI evemsend'reelS upset: by them • .and thi1l (lne who pmviously was agitated remains qolte calm,

S1ress lis GllIet.ad by' tt1.e. way you ~pond to a stiuaUoo ra1hertllan lM&ilua.tlon It&elt ThEi fI'lm In a potentJaJly mressfi!J1 environment i$ totocU$ on tJ(i.W you can deal wllh the situation and Improve it, ·raUlel' than] fOCllsingon how not to get :~ Iby it.

There are 01i numbe,[of '::i·treSS!)';$; that may affect your eoncemreeiom

., En.virooment _, Noise, chaos and pelluelon .

• ' Socia] _ Peopl~~ dlladlncs, financial problems.

• Phys:ioJQgica~ _ Ache~ pains, poor iUIi:cit[o,n.t la.c:k of exercise.

By far ehe OlD-Sf deminant and potenrially damaging srressors are your thou.ghu,. The inte:lp!l'etation. we place on asit.uation incr·eases stress, .As Shates.peare wrote, "There is !1Qd1:ing either

good lar bad, but thinking makes :it so! .

Insome s:iUlSItions. we respond to our na.lUral instinctS and run from streSStU:J ~~ruaJiOflS. Most stress eemes frcm s.iruatlOill.S we C300.or nm. £[.o.m or figbt w1th~ .instead W~ have to sit: mil and smile wbile we lIbooi] it'l$.id:e.This is when dama&= .maY' 0iX"1Ji1' and

this is w~at we ba ve to deal with i.f we are to 'oon«ntralle hd~y

and ef~i:vdy.· .

Tips for improyjiing your oon!centratlon

The following are differ-col ways '0.£ dealin.g wi[hand reinterpredng st.esshd siruariens and improving your concentration.

Break. the, routine

If you were ab'Je: to do only one thing to improve your :2 conoonrrOlti.om, then breaking your routine should be the choice,

Taking a, break wiUimptI)v'C your mem(Jry~ ccncenrraelon, mood

and. abi]~ty and enable you ro ,c:onrin.ue for much ]O'n~,r t,b~1l 1.0U

'cQuld WIthout ODe. A break from what you, are dg~['Ig will give

you the o,ppo.rtunity to reassess yourfMk, think of new ideas

and' ap:prooche$ and will ultimately he~p Y0l!! to be mere producrivt'!and reduce you.r stress levels,

Yow: boor is hormone driven and. works all a cycle ~h:rough,Qut i::bt! day; When YOlliced thae you 'need a cup of tea 01' c()f~ or you, stan' ya,wning O~ making miisrakC$ y.oru- bedy is telling you it is, time to stOp and r~t. Lisien to your body~ but don'~ tab tbe coffee (see Chris Fenn's book The EncTg'j Advant~). The tonger you put a break (liU~ the more difficult tt will be to get back to' work airel' you nnaUy decIde 'to lab one. If you. ~ ... e a rot to d,C) .iii: 1;5 better to take p!lenty of little breaks and have small snacik:s ['ather than wo.rking waugh the whole morning and ,$Wpping fen; -;1 fuU lunch .. :If you do that you m~y have more cGncenrratioll p.rohlcms than you nOfr:QaUy do }!I'II the an,ernoon.

CafT01 or stick.

One way to encomage' you:rseU to iacrease yOUf' oona-ntr.adon is to make sure that: you, l'll!ward yourself well. )f you work iI), a co-nvcnuo,nal environment' you may Dot fee] mat you are fully [ecognizcd O[ rewarded for your e£fom,lns~d of waiting for a reward fot 'YQut wO.r.l te eeme from somewhere eilsc~ take the responsibility of giV*DI!! ),oll!l.rseLf a reward, At the bill.ginn~ng of the day determine what you are goililg to accomplish and what )'o.U1 reward to y()u~e]f wm be. Vary your rewards .. Make rhem .things mar: are goodfo,[' YOIl and rhings that you [liEaUy WOlll.tanydi:im:gZ:.1Ingiing .rlom an e''Ii''ening arthe ehearre or In a steam

room. to a.proper holiday far Jiillisninga. b~ proiect or'! rima . .If Yoll, find reading achon.t this kind of :incentive is ¢speOal.1)' useful, Make sure you have plenty of reasons to treat yourself. 'You wal .. Fed ~apl"iier" your morivation wiU ~Ilcrca~ and YI;I:V stress ~eveb; will l"tdiil.;;-e.

Rid ,ourself of ,clutter

One 'environment y"OU can contrel ~s your de$k. A single pieee of P<1!pe:r Q~ YOllr desk mayattract your atrentian 5¢Veral times a day. U caeh piece of paPC'f has a deadliM3.ltached to ir, you will bave a desk full of alarm. docks goi:ng off ,every .live minutes, alerting you [0 me pressure you are under, interrupting your co,ncentra'rlon. induelng cHronic stress and c3Jl,sing long-teem da.mage to your capacitY ~p J,:(lIli:en.trale •

.H Y,O'llJi hav,e ac'le.ar desk, year e:nvrronmen.twiU look and. _feel under control. You ina.y h:<1iV~3. greae deal to dio, but tOY. win be a.bie 1;0, tackle the: tasks one ,at a time with a clesr mind, The pereeprion that yOW' enVirOfLQ1(.'1lt is QUt Qf.ro:ntto~ w.iU diminish i.f it looJios Olgani~ed.

R$\l! pe.opfe

A del:egale In 009 of my classes had s. nove] me1hod of ~ing effectively with unread ck:l:tter. He WOl!ld place ·everyH1ang that came onto his desk into '01\"$ pile tn. a nay in the comet. If" he ,needed it. he took it out of 'itle p~le and then rep1ac&d !ton h'p If 'he, Iknew he would .need it again. Gnldua!ty all thE! p{i~ iUld dOcuments that he dkj oot need and dldi jI'lot. have to read wOl1<ed 1heir W8¥ to 'the ooUQmiof ,the pile. Every three months· he would take the oottom half of the pile and. withoot gotng tlirollQh ,It, throw It awa.y.

HI$ argum.€lrttwas 1hat If he did not n&€id lit In three months he would not need ,It: at all. and 1tIat if it was fIIaJly· Imponant someone would !have sent Ihlm: another copy. $0 the naw :copy ·would belfn lila· mp hiIH of the pire.

He Is'very w¢¢$S$ful in business. S!nce headop1.$d this strategy he has quartered t.he ~nt of' reading h@ does lbecause people know that ,if they want him to pa.y attootion tosome1hing they. must take Uletime to call ~Im" Asa result. :hi$ desk is ,always; olemr '-sols his mind.

Music as, an aid to concerrb"ation

Sounds rha:ts.urmund you canertner make o.r [break yom working elli'!(JronineEit. HaVe Y(l'll ever been in an office: and found r!tt,t!' sHe.m,~c sn unoomfottnhl,e mat yon felt: you mlJ~ whis'pe:r even althoijgh yQIJ, .knoew' y(ill didn.tt: hlilveto? 0.11 the otbe'l hO;\l'ld, have you eves eaeered iii room SQ' ,fun of music an,d noise that YOIl felr\V:ithin mo,m~~ thin you h .. dte h,~ .... ve? These 3:r!lCxtfcm.es;, thcu: Is agreat d~3J. of va ria tion between them. OUI response varies a:swill; a sOllg might come on the r,adi.{! one dayand without hesitation W~ switch it(lff; OJ) (!!nQthe-r Q«;O)siQU we :fuel the urge to turn it up nil .fun brast and sing a]Qllg.

Muieis O! pbe:!1:omelfl,any po.w,edu[ force - so much $(I that at one l~m(: in 'Cni:I'J:a certain ohortis and .sQunds; w~r.e banned by t~,efUiEerf> of II'he tiHleOOcause tbey reared the effect the ~und had OQllepupuJariOcIl (froro. T1Je &~r:t:t '·ower .of ,Milr$l·c by [)aviid 'fame~ Turnstone Press., 1.984).

FOiL th~ PmpO$cs of·dll.s ~ook we sbaH loo.ko.nly ;I! t ,music mntwill htJPYOllf Le\i'eils of,ooncenU<lDdllJ:. H~ lbelo,w are a few pieces of mnslc tbat have been tested and pro~ to aid com;:el;l~r.itioo and lea.ming.. These panicuhu; ..pi~ win enable y{;l~ 'oore[,,~ p.h)'SicaUy' but [',emam. mel1mUy 3ffie.n'.,

Tile im~QrtaHt thiwg about music is th.u you should enjoy Ol:od ·app.r~iate what ispEayi.ng., If YOIl. play mU5ilc. ynu. d:on'f like w,~ilC'. you try. to Concelltr3t'C, an )'Q!iJ w~U a.;hieve: will be <l;g!tah,Qr.'! <iI!!ild ~netea!\cd $tr'¢'$~.

The m:uskYOilll. S'eIJ!c:t sbould have C'c:fla,ln properties:

• The music should be n~3:ti\l'd,. g,ende but not so gel:u:ie that it

puts you. t:ll: sleep. .

• The- musk should have nQ words;.

.• The volume 1ihould be fa~dy low agcl unGlnl:'1lSive. • 'There should 00 p~em:y (:Ii ·vaner.y;

Some. suggestions

~8ac:h ~ Largo hom. Harp.siChord Concerto in F Minor

• Co:relli - Largo from ·CoI!ccrto Number.? .in DMi[j~ Op.Ll$ 5

• Vi.Vllld~ ~ LargQ .from. Concerw in D·Maior for Guitar and. £,trings

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Bra,in, Mod ... ea,ting tor maximun1 QDncentration Every (en and molecule in. yo,ur body changes and develops nccordlngro what you pu,t into it. This incledes the air YGU breathe, the liquid you drink and cs,pecially the ,food you ;:at,

If you h.a,ve to '(li1Ctl~r:rn.t.e' for an extended period ef time, the ideal earing :partern to follow is linl,e and off~n - of the right' stuff. bru our fast-food :;I(!cietywc rend 00 plek Ill' what WCi call 011 rite: run. Snacks often include h.igh-$Ilga,r foads thar redu,ce

our energy levck, .

Keep 1his. hi mind,

rn Oh!aptefS, Memory. a number of passages to allow you to practise dl:ffarent memory tec:hntQ,.les have ibiwnl 1n.cr:ud'etI, They am ,about f;ood and energy. 'Pay pardoular att·entlon to, them ,and .ma~e :Wr9 that the m~ tachnl.ques yOu U~Ei work on them becaiJ$Q ,they COfiIta:ln us8fullnforrnailon.

Exeroise's to increase, and im:prove co,ncentratian

lhll.re is no o[lething you can. do ItO sl1ddenl}rmakc cooce:ntraciQg in any ImVirommcn.t ,easy. Concot.:.nrrn.rion has 00 00 developed and im,pr,ovedi. Here are: some: exercises you can use to increase c(mCclltmtion!IDd. decrease stre-5S.

Breath~ng

.A1mou,gh m05t: of your brain ce:lI,s would die widlin 3~5 minutes without QXfg,cll~ yOUi ean Ii .... e a wbo:lelifeti:me withm:n breadting properly and not be foUy aware ofdtccorueq:uenccs. YoUr' body uses ymu breathing as a signal 00 tell yuu Whcfisom.ed:dng is wrong. When yon are recii:ng stressed or threatened younotice it first in ,.'yoU! breathing; wilteD you arc ,feellJllg rired Y?lli ya:wn t,O take m more .ur; w:hen yQua.re rn a t()Qm wlth poor ventilation it is not long befor,e }'OU !feel iUneasy. g,et a 'headache or £«J tired, These :5i~]s should nor be iJg;n,ored.

Correct bIt3d:d:ng relteves a number of ()omplaint:s. including stiffne-ss~ tension;' j,rrrrabitity, headachee, fatigu,e and depression, Good brea~hi!l.g h a bits conr:ri,bul'C ,r;Qruidemblyoo 'Yom ability to eencemrare and [0 redneing yo.u' stress: Jeev.els.

There are ~~] ilrc.a.trul:1g exercises that doo'ttalCe loog to .do and dttit, you can do in ,3ny eJl.viJlOnmell~) all of whi~Jh will he1p you. increase and maintain eoncenrration, These exer'dses are quirk to lea:m.Pr.i!cti~ them for a Jew minutes every day.

A. good habit: to de've1o'p is to practisea. bU3rn.in,g exercise :beJore you begin <II ~ding sessimi:

.. Select one of the exercises outlined MJO'W. " Sit for a momenr and relax,

.. Practise the b,'Cat:hiIlG ,ex.ercisc' seleeted,

.. State what yot:! W<'!~f ~() Olch:ieve and what your purpose is. .. Bsgin relldill'l.g.

This, routll1lewiJI rake only a few moments and your body wi" very :soon relax naturnUywnell you settle down to read, irlc[casing, your ceacenetation ~nd decreasing teasien.

DJaereet b:reatblng ~ercl$o

J.f YOUl are in a -.situ,niQi1 wb.-t~e irc;tn.'t' be obviou!ithat you are car.rying out a breathing. ,exercise!

• Take a :sl,cw, d~ breath,

.. Hold i:t' f.or the count of'S and slowny exila]e.

• At each i..Q-br~,ath make SflJlI'rl you are breathing into YOW" abdomen. rather dum your chest. To check this youwollM normallyplace your hands em YOW' abdom.ea and find out whether it is .moving or not .. When you, are ~n too-public' a siruarion to do this. focus your awar'C!leSS ,l}nyOili' w:tilir' - 3;S yeu breathe ),'OU should feel a: ti,ghtening of your clothmg.

• Take thl'e() or ifol1f breaths lfke 'this and thenrcLax.

• Accompany the b.readting with a good s:rutch if you. an.

;Reallpeople

Scmetfmes YOOlteel" as if ooly a stretch Will eo, A ~oUeaglle of m~a isa trainer and ooooh who l"G'Qularly glves talks to large !l1'Qi,iPS olf poopTa. When she feels a little, n&r'V()ij$ 01' e)i:C~9d .she gets an, o.veIWMlmllAg urge to, dretch.II"Ii$Madof deprtvTng' Mr'!.etf of 1hiB pleasure. ~9he gets the whoI'e room tosland liP mdstrelch wJth Iher. 11"te group al'ways feels that thislia part of tt1e courso, and slnce they tand to feel betIalr for il'l 00 ,000 .oompafn5.

1J yot!' can't 'find a qurel: place, get QIIeryone to ,joIn in. Try it at the next a;pproprtate Jneetingl. UgeI ~ 9XC?JS8lil!!:,e 'It's warm li'l hemland we've aU beef! sltting for a while. let'S get someen8lgy by ~mO\dng. standtng up, for ill whiie W1d .sIret.chlllg, I It w~ ~ 'tlme.

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'Qu~ck breathing o,eitclu·

If you have only- a: few m~nutes~ rhis yoga, b[ea:thing exercise is wolllfur.fu.l fOi. re1:iJ)[i~g ;;Jirl.dfocli$i(Jg~~t is especjSJ]I.y good if yO'll have beenrushlng, ;and h;ll.ve a rime Umiil: to stick te:

,~ Close yOil1f'~ .fora. .few.mQ'metu.$"

.. Pla.ce your dghlll'bum,b on your right nostriland block lr.

,~ IBrealihe:in deeply and slowly through Y>Pu.r ,Ie'h nostril (o.r 6

seconds,

.. Block beth no:rtri:lsand hold for .6 seconds,

.. UnM(jCkyour lei:[ nOSiuH on1y and slowly exhale. _. Pawe fOf 6!1leconds,

II Then OOO'l'i:mlC by breathing in thfOUg~ your right llo5tdl.

dosing bot',h~a.nd {J'xhalng through your right nostril.

iO Co:~ui[nre to do dIis for as long as you fee] .cemfcrtable.

Stimulating alel'tQe:ss

If Y(HI are b.!(:I~Qmhtg dred and. you still have nnl~htrO do, du:: .fo;Uow.ing e'.lGe[\d.se wiU b.eJp increase your alertness an(lw;lu you up, You can dothis eeeereise in pub.lie.

.. Srand O[ S;~[ Ill' :str:a~ht.

-Breathe il!!! oomplelely and naturaU,. (iaro YOUf abdo:m.e:~). .. HoM you[' breath for 3. count of 6.

, Purse ~our Ups and blow out short bursts ofsl:ir faIrly fOI«iuUy uatil you bve {(IraUy exhaled.

• Breathe' to. diee.ply as:ainand mpeal! tll.e e:x!er,cise seven] time!!.

tfthat dQ8Ui1't wor:k .•••

n bruthl'ng eUf(:;ls8$ don't work b YCU, don't pUSh at H:Jern. When you 1e€t!. you noodto .relax a bit, just 31tback and OJoiSe )'O'ur QY.eS for ~ moments.

BEI[IOg present ,alildlin perspective

Is. wandefin,g mindis a symptomofl.<IIc:k of a:t1cmdol'l and ~,Q.w coml«ntratioll. B~.ing p.r~~m: doesn't ~]wOlly$,oome ~ a tt!lany., It is easy for ym.u mind :to wander off ttl fo:re:ignland,s snd times, The only way to rearn h9wtO remai.nplI'cflc:nr 1S to become aware of when YQU arenot pr~ef!,~.~{~i$ a~,~eff;i~e yQU. can do :iOl p:ub~i.c or in priV:3,te. :hiis very .re]axtngand 'vcilyefrecti'ft.

., Sit or ,$tmd stU] for a moment,

~, First. close yQur e)"¢$ if you can and notice what you' C3in ooar., How many conversations, can you make· out?Wbat are people S<lying;? Can you heal' <lilly traffid What is, rhefunhest sound you can hear? What is the c]osestround yQU can h~r? Wbat,is:di.e most famiJ.iar er dle masl; fotcign or uRns,u3.1 wund?-What is tn,'!: most Of ~ea&tp}(lOli$i:tnt sound? Id.entify

~very sonnd you can bear. -

OI' Next', notice what you can fed. How dose arc peQpte- tQ' YOIl?

What doe$ tlilt! ADm benes·tll rQUr feet: fcern like?Wl\i3E do your. elethes fed like on YCII.'!,? Is rherea breeze? 1£ SOJ' what direction is it c,om:ins from?

'Ii! With your eyes open now, notice the colours, How ,many cliffe,rent shades ofred Of bh:i~or mange can you sed What ,is tbe moot common colour in your view: What is the least comrrroncelour 'in yoarviewl Now notice the :s;hapes you can see, If Y()luo<wcrve-d yow nuroull.din,gs and had to des(:ri~ them in tennS· o.f slll.apes o!li'l:ly~ and 11.01.' what 'i!h~ obji@!Ctsrealmy are, how would you describe: them?

.Pinally, appred.ate your sur.mnndings.

You m8Y notiee[!ha~:~ 'no matter how noisy Of' chaotic your surroundings mightatfirst seem, when you really pay ~uen'!iQn and beeeme present you are surprisedar 'rhe ~ewd of comfort ;iI.nd re1axation you generate, This could sim,ply be the resuh: (If knowing. yo.ur !iiuu(n:mding$, for what ~hey are' msteadof m<1king intetp[ie[arion~ of them.

[10. this e:x;,er-:cis-e Q&~n, especiaUy -when yo.U are fcel~[jgth.a.t your euvi:r:onmenf ~s to be getting out of ,control.

Delibera.te action

This e~li.e -"viI.! be useful, if y'OU ha.ve only 3, :shon piece to read. and can"t-seem to focus ,your mind on h::

• Carry ,out one of the breathing exercises, gi,vlng},!purseU' time [0 sit still. for a w-Me and·g:arhel',.yclJ.r .thoU!ghts .fi!r,sr.

.. Then, take the material you want ro read and for 5 minutes f~ad as slowly ,liS you call without allowb~g your Itlwd [0 wander. :If yOu, lccl your mln,d is dt,i:fting~ brin~g ~t 'back.

" If ro'uc mind drlift;5 'Very .mud'!" read eur !ou,d f:O·r a sborr. time, After a whiJeyour ,anemion wiJI fOcus. 'Your nateral ·d~ire [0 get throu.gh Ihem;u~rf3:1 and .finish what you started win take (lV~ and yoor rcad:ing speed \!tin mc:;rl!nse.

Mienia,l numbers

YO!!! wj~l be surp.rised bow eas]~rYOl1 CSill be distr~cred w.irilo(Jt: rea:~i:~;i['!g vhatit is ha:ppe[]i~g. Try t_his .~impJc expedmenl:

• C01!l!!lJt from, :1 to 26. Netlcear WMf. :lJiumberaIlio"ber thought

~~s !:r:iW' yOil.!il' h£'Oia.

M,Ul¥ people: wHI ha,!!'e ,t:llThorhe;r tl:lolJg~r ~n tffiteir In'rlds by the time il:hey reach j,. When you are (lOliUlti:rlfg it is ea:sf ee i~h~llk of orilcr: r.hi:ngs ana sr.i]lktll!:p going b~(msec()l1n1:i.ng Jnutl 1 fill 26 iSi ;a simp.I:e: exe~cIDse'.,W1l!ell rOitli are .rc:;'Idi.ns, thJi'tmf!(llra]~Ile:rgy ~ded to foclls yOil.l!f anenrlon inc:re.1lses ~~d d.rifri.ag Ii'hO'tlS;11U can oon.t[i.b~t~ ~C) a tll,ck (:If 'C:;QI)!~t)([lit:r a tio'~.

You Hliglnlih too Uged!!e lQ,UOMng ,experiment to lll'Crease )'Our o!l~mtion;

~ $Lm.ldt;;'ll'loousl,y ,count fmm '1 to .2.6: aad ,!;O thQo~h 't~.e !l,lpll:ah!:I: fro:m.A to Z: 1 .,,; A - ,:2; - B- 3- - C -4- D - s- E !Iud so Gn.

,~ ]:m;ag~.nc "-he mil.!lmhft[s ;1$ C or! the tigbt side of YoOlrlI bRin

3nd~h.e .lelt[cfSOililJ rElic .lcJr si

.~ Tbc~ SfW~ll;:h ~des;~magiIaie ebe numbers on tne: lef1t side of

'lI'Ql;ll' b.rOl!~n. aJ~d the ]~tIV~1;1l Oil the, rjghJ~'

How fast C'a!~ you {lQt .How fa!' ean Y:0I1!l go belo.Ic Y()!l1I .['·eal:ize yOijJ[ :;lin~ntiQI'I ]rua~ dr.n£;Wd? WhIm yQ'll:C~:f1 .~Q ~hrul,llgh IDUi a~pbi8ber {illld up to 2!6)fJUfn:t1y gOiit.l~. forwards, riy. [his o..<IckwanIDs,

When. ~!OI1 feel },ollrcoooentf3[iliJiIllJ dlrUrti~! do one af tffil.e ear]ie'f esereises <\ few t:imes. Th:is: can be qUil[lC mcdita~i\le and l:e]a:xing.

Time olul

The stress J:ieacrnon p.reventsco.llc!,m,tJ'a:don and :inbiliMts HI.emory. Wbef! yO!J! ~e] Y'IIJ'U .!.lie ~e<J,~tir!g ('II) a lltl1~Sllf!l~ $i~,,!~iQn,

'. Sit back m.rn m,omentilJl!d do r!()~'bj~g;. J usr b[Cathe <!l~d

relax,

,~ Take stock of what needs to be done.

,t !Be aWll!re oJ the time you hOlye aV<li~".bw.

"', .I[)Gc~dc W.ha:f C'.ollrsl'!ofac[~on you l.1iI::C' gOling ee t1'lke. >t' :[1IirepilI>e yourself •

.. ' .AC!l:.

WOny~flg, about h!l)w youwiil dQe~;n"'tbh:!g y,()U h<!v1:l~Q dQ ~SOl

disrrnction inits~~f 3.nd~lchiJe\l'l:lsllrtl.~. ~ .

Sumlmary

Tips tQrelieve srress and fa~ilita:t¢ concentration: ] Take breaks.

2, FoJlow the brea[hi:ng ... nd r~l<l:xi:lilg exercises, :3 K.f],OW your goal and purpose,

4i Manage your enyiron!lW!e:nr.

S Be fin~ with pcopl.e w'hQ dema,nd yonr attemi.on unnooes~arHy.

6 Devc:lop 0'1 I(l,ut:ine llliaar ~[lc]lJdifl:l;; rcS[ and recovery in rOllr r,r:.u:liingaod worki:ng.

7 E!'l~oy wh::.tyou do ~ ;r1YW<iu:d yO'uf$df ohell and gen~mu:'lly. 8 Pr:icrisc king present,

11iiI.1s ,~pler ~ou 'will leam: ,. ~'I~pooess

.. the dlffer9nt'~ 01 memOl".\i .. how mem.ory 'WOIb and

whim It does:lr~

... tedhnlqUM;fQr fflmamberillg wMt you read!

• ,how'to in,'oIObie, ~r~ses ,a:syou read

Good concentration is 'rh.e first step to ill good memory. Ar-the end of .. paragraph, chapter O{ entire ~ok. have you ever' had to go back to the begLnl'lin,g because you. could notrernem her what you read? NQ matter hew fan yOiU !reading speed" unless )"'OiL!. ren:u:lt!~ what you read rQ;i~ w~n ha.ve wasted your rime'.

To, remember infnrmarion fur ,a long time you must revise. Revision ~ 10 be fast. If would be&ustrn.nn,g '(0. find. )!onrself spending.as much rimenyipg ro f:eVise a~d recall what YOllread as you did ,reading it in il'he first place,

In this, chapter we 'look at the· memory pr~$S. how it w'Od:$; and how to get ahe best from,' your memory while yo'u read,

Memorym~hs

There is a da.t.lge:r rha,t modern livi:n;g ts ov~doading the human: memory system. With maSS ,communication growing" more being p,ri~ted rha,n ever bcfm::e and the emphasis, of SUCCflSlS moving from physi.cal strength ro menta] ])o,wer, we have to devel:op $kUIs tba:t help US k~ up - 'let: alone get ahead, The main factor co,nrriDllr.in:g to overload is 'oot ne'C'C'SSari.ly the amount of information we sre fa~wi[h. but raehee 'Om attimde wwafds; it.

NOImaily we oruy become a'Ware of our memory when we :FO'rgct something. This iisa. big issue in. readiR$' because most peopJe find that remem.beriog'what dt~ want from what 'they read is e.h<:liUenging. This is ma~n]y boca,usethey' .. roe U()T Ils,lag an appropriate reeeneion and reesll strategy.

There are some basic prindpL~,s abOlltmerno:ry th<lit sflOl.dd be ool1si.dered first:

• M.cmo.ry ~5 not 8i stan.d.a~Il'ne systie,m •. It relies' on perceptioa, alt:ent~on and reasoning.

• Memory 1$00t a system 'fhc''it is based on Isolated facrs, EVleryfhing you remember is intierconneaed to other pieces 01 luforma,ti,ori in yOttr memoQ' •

• MenM)W rettieval relies g:r¢llIdy Q,D assoc~ a non. The mere organized your memory iSl die easier it' will be to r:ecaU inior.mari.on.

... New lilionnadon_ is no,t stored sepal'"uc::ly rJ:om Qid .informadon. Old knowledg,e helps; Plake sense of fleW in~ormiloon <3:lld 'vice ve:rs:a,which is one reason. wby ~f is easiee to read materialy.ou kn.ow' something about,

.. ~,e'mory Is :not mdl" designed to store' ~nforma'l'iorl;, ~t :LS designed for me.

0; WI!!' 5~:di: abour.m,emo.ry' as if ~[' 'Were an objec[. We describe ourselves as haviog 3 goed, bad or average memory!. like having good or bad ]un.~, Your memory is not a lhj~g - at lcast. his; a:.rraillly nor <'I. single thiag, Ir Is .<'1 series of processes rh.at are tl1Ilingpill!::c inyoul' brain, all the dme.

• 'YOUlt memcrrcan betraiaed, It has beensaid that there are no good or bad n'1~m.ori~s~ill!lt trai:ntld crunrralned, Wldl very few ,ex.cep'tioM. and harrins ollanic damagc. cve,rycille Is born with a memo,y (hatean :bt dev-eloped.

The more J'ouuse your memory. the st.ronger it will become, ~ny (,:If IM- :plrQMem ~ople hilv'e with their memories as they age are dtlJe[o lack of: meatal exerd.sfij Jack .Qipl'i:ys:i(:al. e:X¢t(;iSt\ poor mll.trl:ltion.exctssive stress and pom c:op.ing !nrntegfes.

The basic ,guiddme for [mp.mving 'YOllt !It'IcmolY<ind abilitY il!O coacenerate is that what is good £'o.r the ~ody is aJlso good for the mind. $tTessis a major' fa~fOt in memory loss, (You may want [\0 review [he information about stress ill. Ch:1l.pte:r 4~ Concemearlen.]

Did ~UI !(nnw?

Memory seems ~c be trans~erab~. An intellesting'9xpenment has, bean camed outon rats. Sciemtl:Ms made the ratsmght8f1w of the d!8I'k by :swiJ;chfng off the ligli!1s andgMng them a mild e!actrfc 5hack at tiIi1elHmlltUme" AHw s, whme. every trmllJ the lights went out thtirats "'an for cOvet. A smelll amount or protein thought to carry memory was ~hen extl'acted tn::rn the 'frlghtenecl' rats' brajn5 and injected in.to rats witli1 a, normal response to 1ha dark l(Jley didn't romd it ~. all). The normal rM:$ then \l'6f'Y quickbr becemetrl:ghtened of the dark" witham eYer having bee.rIi exposed to theelectrk: shook.al the same tin:1e.

,Short-term, intennediate·and long-term memory

Almose all of us at some point feel thst auit memory i.s .most e.ffective ~n the snort term. SOilIlfti:mes. we go 't!l:trOrulgh phases or rimes of the day wl!efl we seem I:Q be urnablc Htt'elaLn orl'OCQU

anytmng. .

Short .. term memory

TMs pan of t.he memory syssem holds information farooly ,;'i ~ew seconds, U y,o,u did Dot haw this facil:iqr. e.very piec:e of inf.o:rm:ation yOllgained by sight. he.a:ri.ng, smell,; touC'hor tasre would be remembered and accessible, This. woul.d make galh¢ri.ng new in.f,o:rttUItion very diffiC!lilk because of ~l1t'erktence. 11 you want ,w' remember wha.E Is if) your short-term memory ),ou ha:vc ropay au.em:ion to it al'l~ mkeaetien so that you remember it foil' <II ['ongerperiod of rime,

Intennediate m:emory

This. i:nrormadon is retained for a luatte.t of hours, Have }'OU ever d!oneQr noticed semething, been interested ill it and decided th~f ),ou were going m remember ~t bttause it was i:nt:eresli:l:'Ig. only to find a few hours later that yon could nor quire remember what it was: This is:lhc intermedia.1;e memo,ry at work. In:foTm.arlon rhar is necessary f'Or' the time being js s:tQred in. tbis, proCI;$$. As soon as it is no ]OIiF required, it is discarded. This is wh.~u ha.p.pens when 'yOU forger people's names, 'You meet ilienl(l,1lCCl:. theya:re remembered while yau see them, but afrer the event you might' not (blok about. diem. tor' a while arrd when you meet. them again you canacrremember rn.dr name, You mighl;rccaJI. where YQ1;Ji met them and wha:r they were wearIng. beci;lust: your visual m.emory is stmn~r than YOU[' ,md.it:orY .memory (mo[e on [hiis Ia:le.'" but' you may 'WeI.! have forgonen 'their na:me.

L,ong-term memory

This is rhe aim for most' reading. YOUI: shorr-rerm memory will fCtain informacion long enough: .for )"on iI1) .make sense of what 'you, are n';;lding.'ntcnncdi~lte memory win !I"~tain infQrnlaJt.ion lQ~ enQug'h for' yoP. to make sense of the c:haprnj'~ but: your i'OJlg-u:,.:.m luemo.ry win .belp you remember and make 'Sen~~ of ,tho¢: whole book.. L~g-wm m.emory t~uires revision and applialti.on .

Leng-renn m~mory works w:ith sh'Qrt..,rerm and intermedi.uc memory. As you. n:ad you are :relying on. 'ald" lalowl.edge stored in YOW' .Iong-temt memory to enable you [0 make links and associatioos witb new ,1nform:ati.on. AU three systems are Wtal[y jnter]iDk~ and gaps or weaknesses in. ;any ene of them .w:i~l prevent the WIH),Je system from working effectively.

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How imemo,ry works

There are many models of how the memory systemw(lltb. Baskally~ YOUl mem:0f}' is divldedmrc duee parts:

~, Acqllli5~tiDD - Absorbirig infonnation ..

-", .Ret:corioo. -KeepinginfurmariQJ} in yo'ur bead. • B:ecncval- Gettmg ~nformation outagam.

The- .m~m_o.ry may booornc ttllavailable at .<tll}' pomt. The uQub1e is. you 01:.:11 .know if is una vai13blt: when you t.ry toreteieve somtthmg - perhaps wbell you are stand!ing ~n. fro.llt of'a peJ:son whose n~uru.~ Y'O'l1 hav~ (Q'il'lQrren,. try.ing w· introduce them to someone else wbos:enamc youba:ve also forgotten,

There -It[¢some bask me--Lmo'ryr1l1es to fal10w at eachphase to help YOM I.ememkr.

IMen1loJY acq~isition

I "The firs'!: rule, cfa.cql1!sfrio:n is: POl,)' atte:ntion.-Most (lErhe time:' we forget scrne'lhing because we diid not have! [neoppo.rlUlli~' ro remember i.e ~'l we fi!l'stpii1!ce,H;tve you eser been told tile' ride of a book. m11y to ~aHze two seconds later IDa!!: :Y0ij have fotgo'tt-en. it? The cham::e:s:are tha.r _ yuur attention was -5m11,ewheM~@., The same ph~JH)fi'h~,lionOt:Xur$ when you read. If you have inter.osl. talk going on. imide yom head! $lcing yomseLf whether you are like[y 'te :rernemi'6oe:r what you are {eading o.r n()r~ you wiU probab1y not remember much a.lIlB.

1 The sooondr_u]e oJ acquiSition lS; Plan. .Befon .you he~. tl-'l!l1i!koi w.bc~ ycn.nue likdy to' use the :inio:nn3tLon yuu ate reading .. Then:)decid~ wh.ich m!nnorytooJ (dbc~edlaft't in ~be cba~.[) .win he·]p best when. the time: co-me:$" to usc: the:rnfo:rma:hcn In the fufl-llie.

3 The third. rule of acqll~S!iri(}n ~s~ BemterestOO.. Even. if d1il: mareil'ial'1 seems dull, find something in it tb:at:intere!iu YOIl, If you are bo(\~d,[!h.en. p~ru of yoW:' b:r~inwin g.o to sleep and lOde pa.ylD[g atltenti.o.n e:Yell mm:e difficult.

4 The .flt!ai mleof aQ)wsitionis: Be ,attive. Read a·cti¥el.y~ Think about Wh;3~YOIlMi:l.d. Wh~n you. laUow. tile £i.ve-srep system and you pn:panto[ead. speDd so,me time- thi.nking abQilt what Y(lu aJr-eady knQW en the subic:ct. As we saw at rhebeginning. Qj this clIapre-r, your ~e-morydoes not work tn iscrnatiio;n,. The [l')llIe CQnnecrions you .male.1! between new and (1M :i!niQfmaliQ~ me :culer it will be' to understand what you arere:adi:Qg_., Undeil'stand:ing.is the ,key eo ·U::Il'le~~ring ..

!Mem,ory nrte.nition

ICe,epiing imotJI1;atiO.n in yoW' head Jsone tJUn:g; keeping .it mere in sud], iI w.ay war. ·YOIl. can Rtri!):ve :i,t Lakl' is a d:i£fe~1: matteL

Yourmemo.ry thrives; on assoQariOl) and ord~[; The better or,ganize:d your memory ts, ~h~ easier kw:iiI be :1:0 retrieve informafion wben.you, need it. You do not: have to keep ,everything, .in yClllI head. You can be [ust as orgaDlzed. on paper, 50 r:hat you win know where to find .infurmation when YOIl.n.ced it.·The siQ'lplc: memory tools outlined ill the· t!~ section wiD help yoo organize y01U" i/'Ca:din,g so that remeval is easy;

Rebear-sal I1.M revislen ate needed before :inro.rmatioD can be eifecriv¢lYl'ctained in rhe memory, There are several w,a.ys you can aehieve ehis, The least effeqivC! IS. rote rehearsal. Unf~)[tufia.tely~ most of' ll!$ ttSed, this method rh.wugb school when we an,empted to memorize te.Xl :Co:r exams or rests. Thil$. iis 'iindfccri.ve· because' <1S soon. SiS the memo",' is int·enere:d wi!th in any way the information dis;lppoea:rs. ,Fg,r iRSt:3.nce.wher.i someone gins YOIl a ~eI,ephone n.um:ber aJid t~ asks youwh~m you put the key~, you will probab1y forget the telephone number since the faa that you have lOSt dl'e keys, wiU take: your mind in several .different" directions. M~:QtO!Y interference and fotge1:tmg win hoi! discussed later in dU.!l chapWI'.

The mere Dm.t you have to think about,punderstand and work at what you arettyi:ng [.0 remember; mtl better :the dtance you will have of rememberin.g Et.

Memory retrie~1

One .rtUl)nwhy '\VC: have dJ:ffi.cu.lty retrieving infmmatio!l is [hiU :be rerrieval method u$~d i~ inappropriate. Memories ~e:s~C)re:d 10 several pam of our bmw. When we tty to r¢me.mber what our .front door looks liik~, sc:veral,a:re.as of our bmiD will be activated, "We might:

• ~ an mtllmal pi¢t1:iR: of th.e door (visual).

• Hear' the scmnd of it ,d~os:ing ,(auruJt.ory).

• RecalJ the last ,time W~ wa.1ked. through .it ~kj[laes.tberic and pro'priooeptive}.

• Reme:nibet the .feefin,g 0.1 the ]351: rimewt locked oW'seif our. (emGti..onal).

• SmcD 'the' fresh coat of p.nnt· wh~n, we painted it Ian (olfactory) ..

.s:

When we trY to !retrieve :hlform.nic!11 we oft:en use emly one access poinr..lf rOll. carl re'1';teafe the w.hQIC' e'l(perieill~ as }!'Ou reme:m.bcmd.it. ~r wiU be e;l5~cr f'Or YOI1 10 n:call, more illl_fQr,manon.

There are difkrellt types of memQry n~l:rie\pa:!" depend:ing on how tbe iMcrmartion is p.rcSlcnted to, you. The casi,cst ]n.f(lrll'nlliO'D to. ~(lmemb~ris ~nfo:rJUa!l:iQIl y(lucanr.::~~. The muhipJe~hojce ~ecr.ionin. all exam .may be easier rhan~q!lesd:oil1~ where' you have :to provI,de the ,answe:r,.!Recognizing someone"s ra.cc l!i o.ne:n ,easier dl:E!nrettlil,llT:l~fing their flame. You m~Ght notke I!:h:u :s:onlf'times:wheIlVou are lookmg forinfmmaf~o:n, yQU know you havefiead before, fOil might know whereie is~ yDIU can see if on (he page a'!i!dwhcRyoufind ehe page y(l!il, recogni:re thl.1: mKr. a:1.tiln,oIJSb you CiUlIlOI: ue:an the ~ll:form;3dol:l. i.tseJf.

Rccal!l!is: wb£nyCitl :life-given no ']116 :at .1111. If relates, for example, to. a pcrron'~ name rather ~hanllle.ir face. Mosr iniformario.n that you forget .~ thc;i~ocu;m a tion you, :n;ood to recall,

Techniques; for remembe~in9 what you read

ner.e are ma~.y waY,$i wr>l;':menJiJet what you read. Some art': listed !below:. The aim i$ f(J be C:Qmfo~table wIth. aU of them and be able to use the :rigbt one fDr the. :ma~~riiliyou are rcading, EveryOJ1(l is diffcrnnt; SQI1X~ti:m~ii[ wt[lfi aU [h~ ,1lpptoa¢hes.

Linear

Ma.b notes as you Mad OJ' arre,r each S!N:[10n. These should i:ndllde rOOf' ewn thiOllp.ts. :ideas and erose-references, The more you i nelu de YCill![ Q\Vn ideas, the stronger your loug-teem memory will be.

Keywords

HighUght W~ WQ~. thar carry the messa.ge .. If you do make nates SepanIrdy. eIii5u:re~hekey wordsare cerreee -you do not want it li:stoJ wo:n:h that make no ,$CrlSe to you when Y(ll!lteview dtein€onnation in me f!l[U[¢.

, warnlngl

Be ,careful I when youl lilghllght. TI'ie«l is a ,dangerlhal as you go U1rougilthe text YOUI will highllglh,t (Nerythfng. whichl means H'iat aU you will hava is, the same text underlined. ,coloured. dfrdled and theretOire mere difficult to read. Try to $'Iiok to highlighting only a few WOfds p!9f ·S$fi!~OOQll and perhaps only one seliteflee par paragraph.

Margin reading

.Many people are brought Up' 00 believe rbar books are to be kept itt per:fect~ondiriiQn.. Unl~ll book is being presented as a priceless antique, it is .i'i form of communica,tion from We a."l.nhUf to the reader. You. nan W fake. ownership of a book by writing in it or ma:ikIDg it. As '\11CIIJ as undulining., circling :and bighlighting CSSMtial aeeas, )lOll can note your opinions, whelh.er: "you. .~ or disegree with what is written and mark what 'YOU do or don"t understand. Then you. can dosomethi[lg: about that "not ~randing·. This should on[y be done if the boek belongs to YOIl, of eeuese,

Contexl-ma!pp):ng

This technique is based on quesdons and answers .. As you go thrQugh the rext, look for the answers to the when, wbtt wheIie. who~ why and how questions. W:r.ille the allSWeil:$ on an index card. or on tbe text itself. You wiU oft·en. discover that you have all the il)f(lmu.tib:D y,l).u need wben you. :reach the end of it.Wn order to recall the informat~on lak.~ all you ha v,e ro do. is ask the questions again and the answers w.illibe 'triggered.

Mmnd .. :mapping

TMs Jill another W<!!y 00 make .notes:

• Wri:tc' the key Idea in the c.t:iu:te o,f a horizontal (landscape)

page •.

• The' main ideas form thick branches, from.m~ centre. 01 Secondaty ;d\e:a$ flow hom the main. Ideas.

!II Tertiary Ideas ,flow from the. seco.ndaQ ~deas'f

• Continue until you ilieacb me finest relevant derail

!! Use as milny C()~0<1l1'5 as possible (~ith some material you will. need n'lfe at least), and. use:9Ymbo~ or pictllres instead of words as far as P<luibl~.

• Use one word 01' idea per lme.

75

I~

o ~

76 I:ndexing

I This technique lSi good for researchr

~. Drswa Hn.e down. the middle 0.£ alliumber of AS cards . .:i! .~ Write 'QCR'lic:pt' on the 1eh and 'definition' on the rigln.

.. .A.s YOIl read amd you comaacress the: key CQna[JpIS~ wr:ire ill f~w :key WQ.rds; t.bat surnmad~ the eencepts Oir idess and in diQ other column note down any tefmi.no]qgy (with de£lnid.ons) [hafis TIl'll» Hl yUll.

• File the cards under subject neadin,gs.W'hcu }''Ou read i'lllotne.r book on dIe same ~liJibjCCf, use the same cards and add! ~o and Q expand Q\Hi r.he ill:formsf;ioD. you h3:",.e;llrt;ldygarmu~roo.

U'I

Testi!ng memory te,ch'niques

four pieces of' :re:a: follow~Eachis :li:pproXtmale~y 500 words long. Read each as rnst as; you can for good comprehension, using: any of. ih¢ ~~h~iqt!e$ Qudine,d aOOvt'.

·.AvQid u1!~ng a .memary .stnnegy you are already filmi]iiu with; you ll~rca:dy .!mow how W(lU ihu works or othetw.i8~.

.. Apply mlerec~ulique to eaehseeelcn of text.

~. Giv¢ y(!ltJ:r.$~Wf a m<l!~mym ,~.f 1 minute ![:g·read ~~c'h pitte;o:f ·~eXJt.

e, W~en. you hav~:. c!Omp]~~ed~, readi~g .. and. followill~. the g~lIde,hil'l(t$ fnr C2ch. oochnlqu~\~ t01ke SOniC' nme ro wnre .as mUlCh as you can remembee :about each piece of text. 11Ie more dct<!~1:s you. eaareeall, the better. Once yuu are saeisfied, move on to the next one ..

The most i:mportant pan: of any .memory technique is to make sure mar youa:r.ra:llge the kmow1cdge· yonan!: g::1.rheringintO 010 order that suits you; Theaut:!mr wru~1 srnllCl'Ilair,e -i.nronnation in 3i way fb,u; ma~-es!lensc to tbem; you ha yea diffe.r·ern ~eve] of knowJedge and <l:dil[ercm: ba..ckgrollndl .. Mak(l: sure mar: me n~w information is incorporated .into wha~ you already kn.ow and is; <li'_ - iR such a way rharlarer (>:n~wh;e!l yuu want to use if,

. md;(lS sense {O you.

·n.t .followinG sections QfnrXf have been 'Very c3(~ful]y kl~d .. They g.-ive yQ~ an ~m~ight into. the body .rhythms a~.d eyel¢$; tffil;a,t have an im:mell5e ,effect ,OIl. your' aMity to concenerate :at different times of ·the day; ERjoy the exercise. Remember to Rad 3;S fast as you call. f.or good oompr.ehensi(m, and 00 use a pacer ..

Extract ~rom . Th~ Energy Advantage ,!3Y JDr C;hris Fenn (pnn,ted 'with the auihon permISSion)

'Text 1

Syncl1forlj:ae your bio.togrool rhyithms

It's atamilfaJ" pan~e«l<. There.am times during the day When YOOi QI'Q firing on a'l cyUndei's - feeling particularly aJlvEi and {DOUsed, ~oo,pIJl'}lg W$1l With YQur 'work and sh~nlng at b1iJsiness meetings. or oomehow coping withtlie &!m-aiids of $OlaI1 chirdmn that WOiUld otherwise leave you fr:anJM. Yet. ft1ere lUll olher times in, the !l"Mle day - ·whe{l. you find yourself making :simple Inexplicable errors;. and unable to ccncen~me Of ihJnk Glearly: The perl:O<d of faUgl.lo and yawnrr:l.QI that can dEl!S(l:end around mid~aft~, Js ,21 commoo 1)(:Cutii'9nc9. but a. couple ot' ho1:Jr's later we seem tohalra ,pepped up aQE!ln and round! a 9Qooncl. wind. Mosl 'pec;pTe biitli&1J8 '!hat this spaced-out 1.-I[ogl re:stJ1ts 1rcm the h!lrg:e mEial 'they hru:l fur lunch, !his is, true. to sam!,! exteM - a fullstQ~ac:h d''OOs cause 9i di'ilerslon of blood. supply .Q .he fnt·as'Une, whTch ,cuts back on lltie fIIew tattle brtW'R. But tnave you ever notwed that you don't get qui:le the same eff~ :after <Ii I'mge br:eaidast,?' "Jh.e mid-afternoon leth9lgy also occurs if' you omy have asmaa snack fOr lunch. So What's going 'On?' What 'we eal is only partly to 'blame for the cl"lange [n eer mood and ,energy 1911181'5 thl'01lJghoUl; Ule day; cur mind - and body ootMtie6, i!If'e also lrulad b,y Mtural cyd:es and thythm$.

lune In to your b[oiogical Glock

Since the b9g1nnll'!g of Ume, o:MllSatlCns ,have s.ettheir rotItines and pace of life b.y the external cycles of the SUn im.d Moon. Only ~ lI:1ave 'we' realised that we have our own internal crooks whi~ aTso playa. vital role in our ev,eJydayUves. Our'bodias foruQW 8 Pl'&-Pf'OQrarnmed s~nce so tl1at the essentlid fi.motiOM of sl"p,.wakafulness., growlh\ "",parr and rMillb(l11sm occur during U::iEl most apflroprlate times oJ day ,or i:':Ilghl

You may' be,'amllf~lI" 'with the term cin:::adianrhylhm whlchrewrs, to the biolo,glcaJ cycle that ooQ.jf.$ over 34 hoU1&. OriginallY it was, ttlougittltlat our circadian rhythm w,as :slm,ply ,a dallY ~t.nalIoo bEltwMn be[(qg ~ and asleep, but ~ now shows that tt1ai'98f9 other rhytlnrns wiNch haiol'€li a powerful ried on how we 'reel and how emc.ent!y w'e 'perform throughoot the day. So, Ito maximise yoor ~IlY perfcrmance" you shou1a tune In to your in,;ernalolock.l

Q U'I

The ex:aC'l: sUe Of the· !body dou::Jk. In ~umaM Ihasyet to be detanrllnad, but In mtSi and. other mammals it is. located inl two smaJi: gro1.llpscd cells" one oml either s1de aithe brain, cWledthe ~J,Ip~llhasmJl1jc !1Iu~el (SeN), The s~h19 OIf t\h.EI. Q!o~ in 1h!:s area is s!lgnlflcam,t because the ·cell$ are part ot a.large. aJi'OOI known as thehypothalJamus, a region o~ the bm'ln that alSo ,controls lbody lemperallum,.tood and water, int~ke. hormone secretJ.or;iemd .se(JWaI.drtYe. When the SeN were 1mrJ1101Jled, H: wast"O'Uflid thattha l"aits' cycle<s (l·f fQ&C;Iing, drirnk~n.g and s.oaxual activity wer!!!' destroyed.,

Ted 2

Tune h'i! tOy¢lur bioJogical clodk(continued)

Wherwer the ci'eek is IbealEWJ rn cur bodies, there [;s ne d'cubt that It !sa ~I$tl.'¢ated d~cei ''tickfiig' away and (;(lntr'Ollli1g what we feel ~ and Wilh.erl we faGl. lit ih€l $~ ·c:yole is ·OM ·of the body's most iPOWooJJli mylhms 1:tIat makes JJS ~·9i9~,ruert dur,[ng the da!!l .and $.!$~ 1M n!gllt Howe\ll8f:. a Biitishstudy carried oUt at Moo.emster lJIoivenJty· :SiJggestsrJM!8t our cycle. dooo not QXac~Jy cO[lnc[da with the planet's 24-hou.r day. Kept Ina. ruQm with ¢omin~oos artlkiall~ht. and !'lone· oHhe daily e\d~:maIw_ ·as a guide. the bodies or tII'i.e MaJ:'idMstert&!lt group adjusted ma 25- hour cyCl~.

Thrts happens .to mElny of IJsat waekendSi.W.tooutalatm clocks, deadHnes and appOintments, sta.ylng up late ot1l Frfdayor spending hall 01 .~nday In bed,ow rhyIjh!1lS f'ree-rl.!!'l into 1t!.e n9Jtural 2§.tlQur cyCle. POOple- who are' p.Qrt!clJfsl'ly OOI'lsitiWl find themseM!s f:eefilng sluggish wllh the 'Motu:lay morning blue'S' as 1hey ~ tqwoi'k ~ightly' 'i~Hag9edi'" p~rEl $~r'fI:'ag~m blindness caused by retJnaI dlseasi:l ofian ~ose synchrony With t!hefrfamily,. friends and cclieagul5Isa.s theIr dailyrhyti1m fWe-ruli16 on a 25-hour cycle,.

;Research has dilo'Mli1at there are d~sHnct varist!ools. ruled byther (;i~adrao rhythmS, ill ourphysiloaJ and mentaJabmtles.This Is because durl~' ea.c'IlI compr.eta oycl&, body tempemh:lre, urine produdfon, IS\leds of glucose,cholesterol and other· substances aU Me and fa:Il: OlifJillood. mInd amd 00dy :ar&~stam~~lng ~l'uQliJgh(llm the ·da_y ~nd night.

Putting it aU together - a'l:ypic:al day WQyld beg~ ~g7 a.m, Hsvln·g $unkto Its Iowe:stPQ~.nlsom9 time between 4 a.m. and B a.m" our body t'emperature begins tortse, rapidl:y. Th~ affac1s our I

metabolism, which also sums to speed~p because emyroos (controllingl \lario!Jscheml<;:al IProcesses in the body) wotik footer when the temper.arure is higher, 'Th!3$E! in tum kick-start tll1e release of 1he roi.J'$jng hormone' cortlSol,and we il!ea.ch our p.Mk mental. ~rformanC:EI $():me time !between 1 a.m. and 12 noon, This is the bast time fer tackling probl'Elms, - the OOSS ()r an [mportllllt piece o~, work After midday is not B good time for making decisIollS. Our body tern perature starts to coo.1 off again. hweis at adrar.alinta ,and other I\mmc:mes 'decrease, and mental !ilb~itY' gl!lflen;lll.y g,ats put on the, back-burner, This !!:l: Vllhen m05~ people foeel l'etnarg!lc and ootr:(ifl 9J d9finf:te drop in e1'flcler.cy.

P,oopfa, Who warik ill Medi'terr8Jletm (;ountries liav,e the lligl1t idea, when they break, ,off and halr'e a,slesta., It happerlsto CQiru;ide wilth t~ holt,$${ part of the day- but It makes sense to s.yncmmntse wi~ your bodf~eyelesramher thaI'! ftghti:ng agaTnst them. After 3 p.m. oW' mmtal abil~ b$9i'i19, to pIck up agaIn and we 'can wOr:k W$II. From 4 p.rn, to 7 p.m. we are at our physical pMk, thm'iks to a rise in levels of the hormones oo!'adrenaUn and oo!renaJfne {tll1e new names fer theGEI ~ ii"lor.eplne,phrine andeplnephrille}. Th6$EI affoot opUmaB neMlrunrn.ioningand ITIIJscte 00-0 Klinatio n which h&lp:!il, manuall workers to lperform W&'I I, oot. thls, is tll1.e tIme, to ctlaJlmge f·or a game of squash or ~ngage in st1fl1e form 011 ex8f'Oise. From '7' p.m •. onwa:rdis. the body cocls down ,along wftth the metebollC rate and Imls ,of varioos hormones unlffl we we back tcour !0W$S.1 ebb at ,3 am, With. Ut11i knewludge It is 'poS3~bla to oo·hadu!e imporl:al"llt. bus'lness J'li.H.thig:5 (lr conference calt:s to take adVantage of these .peaks. As, well as cIrcadian rhythms, there are01iher cyeloo wl;Uoo lInay ha,VI!lI a ~Of19 immediate eflect on eur mood and overall heatlb.

Text' 3

Forget the fake fats

In between Indulgingi In theso...ca!lled fllrbldceII'I! foods, manY' ch.Js go on the diet trindmill, which. until recent~. meant E!i,Ming asa PEI~EI oordboardrllke' faHroo foods. A few yearo; ago., IRks lowcalorie manna. from heaven; came; th€lfaka hit revoIutlon. These ,t:ake fats are substariOO$ {$i)me aresyn1hesU;ed from sJ.igQi$ or Prot,ajos) that ca.n provide too creamy mouth-feel of fats but without 4th. Cafories, Suddenly tho€! su.permarket she'lves [held no fears and tMI'8 were no 1TI()f'e')o:rb[:dd!!ln ~oods. 'ChOcolate. cream cakes, bisooits,gat.eElux, ice cream. custards and puddings Inow came without the. fat. ThetheolY Is that ihesefOods would replace

0' en

the greasy. OaJorie-liadM :aLlet'MUwaS and we coula IndurQe In all ~js guilt 'ree goodness and keep the bathroom sca!es In cheek. The· l~aJlly Is· ft'lat it hasn't: worked ol!l:t: Illke this. 1iIntl food IMustl)l has been exparnllng 00 the profits fn:lm the liow-fat rev,oiution - but lJf1!fortun~1y $Q have we. .AccQrdmg to UK gOll«nmlm~ :statistilcs, 16 percent cfwomen and 1·3 pei' cent of men am now obese - double the ~ncldElnci9 fiv.e years ago - whirs! almoS'! haM ttie po,pl.t1:Mlon is overwelgtlt.

In 'tM' [I'ast 1We. years;, the average UK dress si.ze f'Or women has i'o~aood fro~ 14 t'o 16. llte, food Industry has; done an elOO&llent J;ob lin braTn~washln:g liS to aeespt jus.t one' me~g€l; fat'is bad. As a result we have ditched QV'8fY arlher hea:lth or il'1l!1triUcmaJ co!lsideraUon in pursuit. of the IbeUeUl'lat i!.I'lythrng 'tow fat' maJ(es U$ thin and. that fake tats, are somehow ·healthy' foodS" ThetO(ld Iindustry feeds this bel~f by spending a fortune ,onttie' l'esemoh and ~el'opment ,0" an ever increasing number ofsyflthetic fats and "at5Ut1s1iltutas 'with which to PrOOu(;9 new foods Md add 'to the ever expand!lng range. of fat-ff&EI d€Jlrghl:;i.

lhela'l.est Mdpolentlaily most dwmlagl.llQI of the fake fsI:es rs called Olestra, It is, I1lad~ 'from. vegetab~ oil .a.nd ~; but~h.e mtllet!:ul'es are too lru'g:e an<J1 tf9htJy' packed tD be absorbed by 'the body. so it ,passes straight thl'OOglil. Whijst other fa'kfli fats Can"! be heated beyond a certain perot befOll'Ei' breal<Ing d'own, Olastfa can be ,used In fryi:lg. ma1':!lng f(l(J(ls as greasy as you like butwilh 1he reassurfng 'I!mowladg!f) that mt w61 pass sUaight through yo .... body. Olasim.ll1as I"eCEIOtly ·beeo. app!"lJiied 10.' YS!EI. Q!l~ in SflaQl< f,oods rn .America (although it may ·soon !be pennitt·e(j for <II range of ol!ti1etfried foods and a cookIng 011 for home USle). This approval ocooil'ed despit.e a blaze, of contn:l\ftIrSY ,WId op(Xlsition tram he8ltih professionals, but ,IS .yet to IOO-sarlot!Qnad b~' 'It:ie UK Minjs1ry of AgriOi.iIbJ~ R'st!:ef1oo and faod. wn,y all the furore, ·YOOI :ma_y ask.

Olestra's uniqU9 sell1ng peNnt Is ~ha!t: .It passas &tralght tlhi"ough your body, but Wlnen eaten in large quamltl8s. I.t: esuses what is channmgly desmbed as 'ana] leakage'. IndiViduals, woo Oa,ve beentryilllg Olestm have complained Ihat It teaks, leading to' stained! underwear ,arndi an oily toffal. Ne¥ertOOl$$$" tI!~ US food and IDIllQ Adminl$tnition has allowed its IJ&I!!J provided that Ol:esl:.ra·oorl.!&lnlng foods carry the governmmt health warning 'OIas1ra may cause abdominal cmrnpir1lgland[ Ioo$e' stools'. What rs more. it takes with it Ule valuable fat~S(:lh.mle vtl:amins A, D. E; ,and K a$ WGII as thoa camt.en.cld5, Io"JIiIiIlch, Iptay sueO a v!1aJl Im1e in protecting the bodyag;a~$t free radloaJ d.aJrnnage.

~4 ~

Forget fake fats (~ontlr:ruedJ 'I

&, tleI'Q we l:1ave a ;:;y(l~h&tic Sl.Jj:lstanoo wl1l()'I1. beca,U$'l' it is not .a

abS(lrb$d itsaH" inhibits the, ~tlon of other nutrients wht:eh

am lIU5hed ow of the, 00dy and down the toilet !lilhat a CI'alY S'liluatioJil~ QIas!ra and otheitake fatsshcM.Jlld ~Clt !oe 'Seen as the

mirade CUIle forthe growil'l;g oOOsity prdbl!emL ,Synthetic fpoos,arsi

(la$pl,y uMulinlUl'IilIg because they sendtheo W~15pi:a 'to the

Ib:raI~li, The messages, to our OlPpet!t:E! C$iI\t!'(!o g$t garbl!ad and! confused wMn ill food WijI ~ia.te witlii,fat doesn't corl!a[nany:

W&IQsetcn,l(:h wJth mBlhunget' becal!JSe1iha5fignals" released after =

eating. 100 longer gukfe and dlreet us tow,ams making tlie best U1

tood choices. We iJoo upeidlng 'mi:lntally', relying on low-fat

label$; to guide IJ$ thmugtitoo 1000 maze.SWdles have shOWll

~haUhe '1Ite"andfat.;fiee l00dsam $I.) d~~ng tt:Jat W~ @:I'l.d up

eatt.ng $(Ii"J'HiIlhing to oompensate, (ID'he same is true otfood's ~faC1.med usrng arI1fi1ci1al swseteIUI's. Sema people becO:n1e

add~lad to theml in an effOrt ~o sat!lsfyl!helr I1!Md for sweetness.

The solution ~i8S rot 'ill another can of diet drill'l~, or :sugar~~ yoghtut,but to ,machrot' mal' foods w!I1icll are ,nawraliy $'w£tet.)

Many of 1fie fiood's eontaining 'fakafats are, h~1y prooassed.

fQCjl:Jilirlgt a oocldall of ,emulsifiers, s,tabllis:ers:,. Umi~nand ~avO'iJ1iI.ngsto il9p1icarlel;l}e mooth·1ool i!Ild UISte· of the lost 1st -

whiCh fs af!,Q'Iher reason filOt. 'to eat them. itrs time to cpt~fo'r a

quamy dl~ amd net dlsph:v;:e real foods. with jXlcrmitdlm of .~~

goouine arilcfe,. .

The be$t way to C()fiItro~ fat intake is to, Imak& tile nawrally IrOII!\H:at (but mJl!ri~t·rich~ foods woo! as, m.:~s and v~bles:. cereal's, bread$. p.uta and rice the comers,tcoo ofyoyr "ling habit" 1'h!m a>(id In and enj.oy smaller,amounts of foodswhk:h ~ h~hl inral but p;rovide as many of those OI'!'il.9ga.,.;3 fatty acids as possible,. Finally. if yoU enJoy f,L'){Ids wIth saturated, ~ats,. there is :00 need to e:limil'l!l1ie ttIam from your diet - Gr worse, 'eEll glll~ty w,h~m you do eat them. SlfI1i.Ply cho-o$.e the best. Wh.y ootHefor" ,11 chemlcaliy sw-eetened lW'uood tat dIilC!CO'Iate; bar whTch taetes ~art!flclal whan ~ (lat1 mUsh f91. top qUality Bel:91&il·ar SWiss cttooolate7 OJ1ewingl onl'1iJbberis&<i. half.:fatchMS9 is an insu1t to yow taste budsoornpan;!d with enJo¥lng a r:eafJyexeelh:rnt bLltsmali pjecEI of yOW' favc:n:.ll'ita ·~and:~heftMSl: - ChEldljar. StiRon, Brie' (l'r Parmesa:n. We mourd bEt:ta!kfng ;en over our focd, Ilks H1e Italians and Fmnch, cooking ,iI; wlith 10'll'a. ap~liating lin; qy,aJi:iy and 'aatilng ~t fer Ills flavour!

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Now answer r:h.e rol1owi:ngqu~stions: • How did you do?

., What diHel''e.noe did you find In. eHeet.iveness of ~II'H:I

technlq1!leS?

., Did you find that you were stipP'lnS back ro old habits? .. Did any of the' teehniques slaw' your reading dC.WOf

When s¢Jecr.ing the best :mcthods for remembering what you read. it is impoiil\~nt to ttm.mnhcr dtat everything ygu read i;$ diffe.rent aQd 'I!acb rype of reading material needs .:.1.diff.ercl'I:t nt¢moty' a.pprDacn - depending on what· yourprupose is. how fami:liar you arewith the' information and how muchdms you have to f(!,ad it,

It is most :im:portant t.h<'l th~ techniques you. select should Iacilitate fjoodr~caUand ffiI.igh reading spceds.Pr;u;:eise :and e'xp~·dmenr w~th different types o.f text. Remember that th,e more involved you au; WirhY'OI1I reading the bener your recall, understanding andeeraprehension wiU be. The way to do this is, to readwith more than just your eyes.

MuHi ... ·sensory readiing

Do you r-¢member your front door? Do you remember wbat it son. n Dds.'. like. wbe~ r. ou c)~.·. " i.r?w. ha.· t d~s .. fres ... h pai;n~ 9.~~.: like.? What docs Il feellike to be loebd out? Wh;1cco]our IS It? MU]h:~

.sensory reading uses, as many of yOUII' senses 3.5, 'Possible to belp you make sense .1)£ and absorb i,morma,t1lon.

Here are some ideas 'On h,ow w, i.nvollve yoOm ot:her senses as you

~~ .

'" S~gbt -[mlligine what you are reading til your m:lrud, create a film ofthe sroryyou are bei~ mid.

~. Hearing~· Speak to people about the' subject, 3skquesriOll;5 as you read .. teach ,some.(l!!l!C' else". make up rbymes and srories,

.. Touch. - Draw p.ictures and .symbols :rep.rcsen'tin_s; the: informat:ioD. U the illfQtrrtlaDOO issometMng you can dO:, do it instead of j'ust tCadiog about It ..

The: more senses you involvciill. Eeamilllg newm£armaril)n~lhe easier ir win be to recall ~r because the information wnt be ae,c'ess,lble v~a mote than one function of YOut brain.

The five-step :sY,Stem. and memery-supporr t<echn:iq.ui,lS work if you. si.m:p~y usc them., Ute more you practise and the more you become 3.warc' of memory" the better you wi]] became at spe-ed readli:ng ..

Vi'sua.1 and auditory memory

Most people remember films far more accurately than books. Vlsual memory' appear.s to be: much stronger than aud~tory m.emory.

To acti.,,~~(! your visual m.emory fOr what you read, U$I'l you:r imaginadon to pictur·e what you altre-ading in as much, detail as p055~ble. This can b~ pan"ic:u:Iarl'y' ,chan~ging with nonfiction Dla~e:fial~ de~i1d:ing 011 wb:at [b.e subiect is. The-more Y()U can p£Grure what you read" the easierit will be to. rec.;-a;U latea:·Clr.I . . Aliso, you winrea]ize' as you deve[op YOllr VlsI,13dmemor)i" that 'tbe 'picture iJecu:me-s clearer as your andersraading of the $UbjliC[ grows.

Forg~Hing

Uli$ul'ptisingly, forgening [5 the most fru$tr,ahog pan oJ reading, Your a,bUity to eencemrare ~nd the memorj' eeehniqae you. cheese will help y(lij~m.(lmbe:i what you read. !But sometimes, fllrg~[tin-g happens in spirt· of them.

OllI diffi~hiesin T,!);tri~ving inJormBtlOn glV<:IlS avery gcod idea of how our memories work. Memuries are gh~!1iiV';lilable (we know we have rc~d soIti.Mhiil3,; or seen it; we esn remember where we were when. we encountered i1 ia the first place" bu[ is!til~ th~y are noraccessible (we [usr canner quite remember i,r :fully·). This phenomenon is $OilH~rime$ called 'on the tip of the tongue'. The lcng-rerm memory is .organiz,ed in caregcries, much like a mind-map; one thing :reminds you. Qf dte lU-X[ and. so on. If the :Iinks between the a."sQciar:ion!l are broken" me information may becomei~l;a~(:ce,~ibli(l or you may :forg,et: it entirely;

Factors, conrtribulh1g 10' forgetting Lack. of attention .(1he pickpooket effect)

.. Problem - If you have been pay:in,g attention as you hayti ~ili reading; y'Ou· will know that aneneion is ehe flrsr rule of acqulsiticn. You are pay.ing fun ,attention. to a task when ycu do not notiee what is gain,s on around you a t all. Paradoxieallj; daydreaming is one of ehe few activities we carry out 'Wiih6uU artension, Next rime you notice yoUII' mind is w.andcrin& norice how muc,h of your surroundings y'ou werre paymg' anCIl'l:ilOD. ee .• Old you' noriee the notmta.llloise. around you or see peop&: m(I"I.[ng about? What' 'Was. :it Hke to be totally unaware of everything except the tbou,gbil:$ ;lJ hand?

• Work 3rOWid- Increase yourcoooeotradon. Chapter 4 p:ro'Vided rOll with 3. number of exercises and ideas on how Y(l1l.!i can do II:his. Chapter .9 will give· YO'll. ideas on how to diminish distractions,

Interfie:renoo

• P1i(lblem ~ buc:rfe.r·ence can be rcuoacdve or Pl:'oilcri.ve.

Retroactive .interferenu oom~ from new information }tOil arc: reading. If you· dunk of telephone numbe.,(.:s. u:ttoacnrvc inrerre.rer.II,;e; is involved when you CIHlnQt rem.cmber. YOlllLlr O:Jd mlepb0 ne DW11.ber becays(: your IiI.¢W one has taken over. ProactivB imerfei'ent:e is whm old in:loimlati.on mrlllderes wiID new informarien. T1Unkin,g ·of your telephone number again, thisjs invonvedi when you ca!1.filo'!: remember your new IllUUbex because your old one keep.llcom.ing jure YOUf mind instead .

., Work around ~The best way to work around. retroactive and proactive ~nterfelence is to - rest between different pieces of work..Thts gives yOUI mind lime eo consolidate new woormation, separate out oM .and ~haps i:ntegTlUe ntW lnfClrma.tioo with ruttCDr know]ed.ge (unless h is yoar ·[e~ephone Hum.ber).. Amr you h:ave taken. a break, revise the text to maka suee that: you. b!lvt no~ .i;onrused. oM and new information.

Lack 01 ilnt:&'fest or .liQotivatlon

-Problem - If you are nelfher im:etesred nor motivated, rememb~riillg what y·ou :readwill be a.lmo5timpoMiblc:. TIredness contributes; to this. Even .if you are working Oil. something fOil are in.te.rest,edin~ tharintlltes[ will soon f.uie ~f yOY arc tiud..

• Wo.rk ;around - It is important to find SDHlCth:ing to motivate you, no P'ia:fli'ii' ho.w 5maU or ~mingJy untebted to the task it is. There mlilSt be K1roeiliiing in it: for you. And rake breaks. Take them as often 3iS you feel you need them, but for at lease 11)..15 minutes every hour to heur and a. half.

Insufflden1: Unks or 8i88OciatioM

., ProbJem- If the subject is particularly new '0 yO'iJ~ maJtiD.g sense .0£ the ideas may be difficu[t. If Y'G'Ucanil\ot: makesense ,of ·th¢: ideas yOIlJ. wml!J find j~ .~ diffjcult to .remembt:J:.

.• Work around - As you foUow me five-step system. you will. be bu:ilding a inuncwol'k of knowledge. Theb,ggel' th·e framework. becomes, dl.e easier it win be to form. links: <ind :associations roc new knaw~edg~. S.pend as much time as you

need. on Step 2, (pr-cv,iew); this $,tt\i.p anoW$. you itlo build II, !>~tlcru!.'c fQr t.he material.

Ensufllcient: revision

~ Prob[cm - Memories are made of mem{H'), traces. They fade i:f fhe-y are not reinforced,

• WQrk al'ound- A basic guideLin(:is to revise. seven times in ten days -o.r develop ;1, very good ft.1ing system. 'To ~emetnbc!t what you read in the :Iong term, use the hlfOirm;lt~(l'n. A:s mentioned under MemQry m,yth~ lilt: memQry process is

designed forr-lum. not jliSt fot storage., '

Summary

1, ,Mos~ of what we beli.eve about how our m,f!inoties work is based on myth.

2In.fo.rm,adon ove.]oo:d Ilas become a SOUfCCO.( ~~ b~'Ulse we have not' learned new cuping. strategies,

3 The fogt rurue.s of memory acqlli:sil~on=

= Pali' a~[clldon

- Plan when Y'O'l;l! have to dio.

Be interested ln 'What you are do:ing

~ Be active - use aU of YQy:r senses wheT! Y:O!l read.

4 Ur!der~tand:ing ]s the k;(fY :1:0 .. ooll'l.e,mbei:iing what fOg aee

readi"n,g. .

S E:;;:pedmem with diffen~r!t way$; Qf rem~:mber~ng what you te<i!d. Eo!!(:n text ty.pc shol1ld be a.pp:roached differently.

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Il!1IiIIlIls chapW you 'Willi IGam:

• how to rood dltfeJWrt .~ of melerial s:

• how to, e\i'atuMe teld: by critical .readlng

Re,ading different types of mate,rjal for diffeirent !reasons

YOIl~\!'e looked ar the f1ve-ste:p re,aai:ng system and consldered speed readiagand memory' dmre]opmcl:u:. Now ii's .. ime ['0 look ~t whar YQ~ n~~d and haw ~ a,ppJy the differ.erlt eeadiag mc.hn.iqucs !riO ensure you s:e~ most: out ,of them,

The way yoo a,p:!'O<'l(;n <l d~menr (book, newspaper, memo or wharevcr) should. be driven by your pur(lQ51e,.W~1' <Ir¢fou readblg it? When wHI yOg 1.1~ lhe ·i~rorm.u~(l,n neXf~

l'oohn ~cal mlaterial

This type ofre,",ding ma y 1:>e r>lid)' easy beta. use !nOS[ [ccn.lllca] writing i~ W~U srrucrured, Alsn, you .rarely hav·e to read <lind rtWIcmber eve.r~thiitlg about r:he text without be~rlg able to refer to it I.<ttero'll win en you need it .. Apply tilii~ nv~~oo~p $ymml Jn lts l;!:I1ti.rery fQit rhi.s~yptl of lltlldil'1gand use <a memory t.ecb'ni(IUC thas l,.o:rks well for you. Try ml.nd·ma:ps, If you don'e ]~kc .mi.nd!maps, try a pf~·marte;r.::plaiped b~IQw. These retll.niques allow you to see bow inft;lIrlTlation. ideas and practices are 1inked and. what: eff~a rn.ey IHI.·",e on each otne'r.

IN fl!n-'fiction for :Iieisure

This is pernaps- tbe easiest .of an. nen-fiction reading S~lnp'1y because yO'll O!f'Calready l'dax{ld and In.mrened .in the subfect {in die Ideal posirive learnlflg slate}. .. Most nen-fieuon, like 'DecbnicaI w:n:'.iting, is faidy well srruerured so the five"iit¢])P['Q¢SS caa be readily applied,

It: is easy (,0 become absorbed in 'work-related' read'irlg and not put time a~ s idc for lef!J.ur'~ mading :a~d. knowle'lge gathering, OncG yOll are oomfun'able with, speed resdingand th,~ five.slep sys[cm you ma.y find that this ~;8 the: ideal rype of m.\'Irerial to practis.e on. Enioy caking rhe rime for r:hris typ.e of reading. If you h"'i.o1lmu~h work to do, you, IDay feel, urla':lwfortable Qr guiJty about ta,kfng timeout for" 'e:isure' [\1l'<'Iding. ::ilbeir non~fii.Cnon. A good wa.y ItO gerarcurrd this i!l ro make iricreasingYOl:.!.r!)eadipg skillpart o:f your purpose, with l~ei:[!tem:iO:rJI ofmlGQmin:g able to read work maeerial more llffero.iv¢ly. I£yoll on~r ever read t,ext that is diffirul..- 01' thaI bores you. }N:mr ~ssion :fofre<ldi.ng wili SlOon be $l)1btl'oed. Maketiitne tor·e-.adwhat: rOil 'want fa read.

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Reading for research

Th~ g{loo dili:lg; abQ!:!~ n~ading; for ~rchis: th;li ),0,1,11' p'!lrPQ$~ Js nO'rm.a]]y very dearly defined and you are looking. for sec· .uiu: speei1ic. Ap,p1]Y the fivc~(!p system :and. follow th.¢gullid¢ . ss :forl;lliad±ng for study ~D. Chaprer 10, W';odci:ng and Srud:yiing fOlIa. Living. If )'Oli:lare .studying and wo.rlimu,g at the

~~~r:l~:r!~ :J~l~:~!: ::iJ:~o!:ds:t~~o~:~:aw;

,Reading fo.r wo.rk

This section is, p.a:rti\~u1ar[y concerned wlim mail and memos. The rule here ts:-Be: $dective. The Rouble with (he. reading you db, "(or work iii that there may be <In Clttivityattached to every

documeor, Before YOIl read anyt'hi:ng - espociaUy if it is Long, and )'(lo1,i think ir may take you a while Or jf it seems ro land on your desk o.ften - ask a few- qU~dOflSi:

.. Who wants you to read it?

• Wby do tht;l"y W!Uli: 11'0.11 eoread It?

.. What are you likd.y to bave to do with- the information as a

result of reading?

O~ ;'OU Ilav,e estahllshed thar there ,Ol~ geod reasons fur rca,ding documents take the foll-owing $[~PS: .

.. Dcdde how m,ucb, tUlle you will de'Vl)l~ U) reading i.n.~ming mail or memos,

~ Pr~view me documents with one thing in mind: can this .go in the b~D.~ Then sort them into two piles, one of which gees straight: ]nto the bill and the other requiwei\i further anenrien,

.. p,usiVII! read or skim. all of the doc~n[S In rhe further attentiQnpil,e and ask caequesdon of' each: can thIs be filled or does it r-equire a.;tion? Pur the pUe fo·r fIJin; aside t~..ady Ito file.

.. Acdvely read the remaining pile. Use 'Post-it acres or: wdw the actions, tbat <'I.E"¢: to he taken dir«il:ly onee the docnmear,

.. Fln311y~ plan the acrimu into your day or WC'Ck. Then put the relevant dQc;um~nf$ into the appropriate file SO 'that y~i!J!can. rudiiive t~ easily when you need them.

Rerni801bw'thE! dear de!Jk policy - OI1~ have PClptlfS on your desk for th9 jnb you am CUrTWltly wci'king on..

Newspapers

Hare tha.t t'hisS(:Crion doo~ not apply' to thecasual, relaxed read of rhe Sunday mQJ;.mns pape[ unless you. want i~ to.

Read~l'Ig 3 .newspaper shou1d beapproa.ched with the same p.re.p;aration as any other reading:. The five-step system works very wen for papers, bowey.e.~ it may not 00 necessary to' use: all five 511:eps, lnorder:. You. can rHd ;;1 pa:pnve,ty qui¢k~y ib-y foJlowing three Y'~l'y simple :steps: .

1 State y,oUfptttpose - Are you .readin.g to gain ian ovemew Qf the wholcrm.pe'.r ,or are you looking fur; api1lrticiular story?

:2 Pre:v:icw and p;l$sivl! read. the mti:re paper by looking: iIi[ t:ht: headlines ad .reading the fint paragra,h ·ofany story' d:Jat I.oots interesting. Cir<;le meanides Y0l:li wou1d like to return to.

3- A.ctivdy read me selected articles .tor the i.uorm'.!'.u:ioll you

want'"

To read neW$p<lpers effectiv.elY::

... Set a· tillle limit and stickro it.

• R¢ad $wry oontlnuoairions. (Qhen OJ) otber p~ges):lS you rome: to them .. This is a good ind:ica.rion Q.f how mU'Ch:attenri:on you paiY to <reading apaper, If you. C(lme to t~seooDd part (If a soory:S¢Vet<!:] p~ 1a;[er byt CaIlIlO[ t¢1l1e.mber the d~fajls ·of thefirsi::part" take .;1 brea.k.

• S:i~ most gof the Jacrs are nmmaUy int!he first few parag,raphs of a. Sj[cry~ smn: u.a:di~ eaeh s~nry you sell!a .fairly th.o.roughlrat the be,ginmf.lg andthen speed up and skim the rest, picking up infoM'latloll you idenrify as; re~evant.

.. Ask l'OIll'.s.clf! <

- Wbat is tbe' position of~be papel with respect wpolitical sland

- Have ycu previ.ollsl.), read artid:es by 5peci:fk joumalis,t:s before? Do you Uke ~he:ir ~t)'le or approoch?

Is.<rhis the best paper to read {'Or your purp~?

UnUk.c most· other forms, of wririn;g~. a .nil'lws.p3pct.r smry -;can be broken lnt'O parlS qu:ite usny .. A. na1.rat~vetsJkcs you from ehe <beginning ofa Slory to 'we end ilnd. ~{ pans <f£Te!TIissed OU[ $(1I;nc of me meanwng g~s with it . .A .newspap<ris not as unified ;15 l,Bat •. A sto.ry can be. read willi sectioas m~sed! out of ie - you ttl""}!' ]~ <~mc detail but me' ~tl)ry wm lifilfi;lln. me S3mL'l •. Vt![j' iinle interpretation can. be ma:deOif moS[ newspaper stories; they :iI~ rea]even_ts involving rea] peop!e- - often gm';en an edli$DI,iai, (flarvi)-ue'J styJe or angle by fhl: paper Olnd the writer.

Magazines

Maga~ne'S ~es~i~lly~iP¢Ci;l.l jn:oor~s'[ or :trade magazines] are slightly different from newspapers .. Anewspape:r ~s 'One of many soutce~ ·of news. If YQU. miss anything frOl1l me Pdper~ you will prQbaibl.y b¢ ~!bl¢ it:<J g~t tb.e ~ory £rOm the ~elevJ5~On~ radio 01 Inrernet. MOl'lt magazines come 'Out nn[y once :a :montihor osce a quarter. A magazin.e· sh.ould be treated Jikea shortrtxtbook. FolJow ;tU the S1~psof th(!fi~swp ~d:ing system to gee tile: best out of it. If there is informadon In the map z lne w.n YOU, are likelyro need apin there ate :SeVetal things YQU can do to m.a!k:e ~feMHy a~iblle;

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• Read the magazine with an adhe5~ve lIotepad to haad, As, you findarricles jnu are interested in, note the page n.umber and dtleand write a. brief SWll:ma:ry (i I;IS1 a senteace or two) on a adhesive note. Slick dl('t .n.ote on. 'the 'front ·of the magaz.inl!' and file the magazine in 3, file dedieatedto 'interesting a:rti.des·.

., If y.ou don't want to keep the: whole ma.gazine~ tear out ~he relcva:nr pa.g~ or photocopy the articles you wanfJ and flle those away with. a brief su_mma.zy ot what tbe article is about.

.. A v,ery useful '(lIOOC 'of iiltfOrn:1:a.tiOD you could put on an ad.hesl"Ve' note Is .wby you r:i1Jm.lg:n,t tile' ani.c.1e'mi,ght be useful JareT ,Olli. When you retur! to arncles at alarer date YOll will find. it easier to'place them ln order of pr'iodty. Going thrQugh the-file to see what you n.o ionge'l' requireand can t]u,(jwaway wil.1 also. beeasier with this cxtta :informatio,n .(i·n each.

• Be p'icky~ Most:maga:zine reading. i$ for inter'e.s,tt. YOU3Ie unlikdy to be tested on :it bllt' 'YOllmay want to talk about" it. Select rhe articles that in:terest you and think about bow wbat 'YOIl read fits: into y·cur existing knowledge,

Novels

The mose y>o~ read, the faSler YO''bli will become. Speed-reading skjlls will give you thil choice to read ass]ow.ly or asquickly as you like.

n YOIl. enjoy Hovels and you want. to l'ca.d more of them, you may find tbis smu:cg,y tlseh:d:

., Preview the book ,thoroughly (excluding 'the actual ~tQry) - loot at the front and back ce .. vent read any aililhor~s. notes, bi,ography or foreword,. tilk,ca. good look at the author's photograph if-there is one. Do you ILke the aut:ho;['s stYle~Do you Liike the 100k of tbeaurnorr :DOC'S the b a c:k pag·e blurb intrigue: you? Wll;at ·you doll atrhi$ p'oint '.ViM shape your aUh:ude to'war'lh the book Your :aH'itud\e win affect Wh.elhcT you. are Uk¢ty to enjoy the book or 1I0~.

• N1ext •. read thefint pag.c. Does it' grab yOW' a:ttention?

• If j;t does and the book passed yOW' preview teSt, then read on and enjoy the book. If no" tfJen skim: thtt book pidcing up key words and reading the fmt few senreaces of each cbapte,t; :11 tiM beok sriU doesn"t ca.tcb you:r imagmation, you. ,an,hoa:sc not 1:0 read .it.

• U YOIl do decide to lead thenovel b1ll1t you. don't have much rime, then pracri~ '-on-line selective reading' (see .~ box