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# MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Example

## From: Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach (2nd

Ed.) by Y.A. engel and M.A. Boles, p. 599

AF?

Solution:

a) Finding AF:

## C2H6 + 1.2a (O2 + 3.76 N2) 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + 0.2a O2

+ (1.2 x 3.76) aN2

a = 3.5

Thus,

+ 15.79 N2

## (4.2mol O2 + 4.2 3.76)mol N2

AF =
1mol of fuel
kmol air
= 19.99
kmol fuel

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Mair
AF = AF
Mfuel
28.97
= (19.99 )
30.07
kg air
= 19.26
kg fuel

## where v refers to the water vapour component of the

products, and pv = partial pressure of H2O

pv = y v ptotal
3mol
= 100kPa
(2 + 3 + 0.7 + 15.79)mol

CO2 H2O O2 N2
3
= (100)
21.94

= 13.96kPa

## This corresponds to Tsat = 52.3 C , i.e. Tdew point = 52.3 C

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Combustion Products

Depend upon:

Temperature

Pressure

Mixing

% Theoretical air

## Depending on these factors, one can find CO, O2 and fuel in

the products.

except H2O given.

Example
Text Problem 13.6

CO: 20% N2: 5%

## Find: a) The balanced reaction equation.

b) AF and AF

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Solution:

## ( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + (O2 + 3.76N2 )

CO2 + H 2O + ( 3.76 + 0.05 ) N2

H: 2.8 = 2 = 1.4

Thus,

## ( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + 1.45 (O2 + 3.76N2 )

0.9CO2 + 1.4H 2O + 5.952N2

## ( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + (1.2 )1.45 (O2 + 3.76N2 )

0.9CO2 + 1.4H2O + O2 + ( (1.74 ) 3.76 + 0.05 ) N2

Balancing Os:

## O: 0.2 + 0.1 + 2(1.74) = 1.8 + 1.4 + 2

= 0.29

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Thus,

## ( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + 1.74 (O2 + 3.76N2 )

0.9CO2 + 1.4H 2O + 0.29O2 + 6.59N2

## b) Air Fuel Ratios

1.74(1 + 3.76)
AF =
1
kmol air
= 8.25
kmol fuel
MCH4 MCO MO2 M N2

## Mfuel = (0.7)(16.04) + 0.2(28.01) + 0.05(32) + 0.05(28.01)

= 19.831kg / kmol

Mair
AF = AF
Mfuel
28.97
= 8.25
19.831
kg air
= 12.05
kg fuel

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

## For reacting systems, we must evaluate h, v, and s in an

unambiguous and consistent manner.

Pref = 1 atm

## Only stable elements are assigned zero h at standard

reference state (chemically stable, ex. H2, O2, N2, and not H,
O, N.)

Enthalpy of Formation hf

## The enthalpy at a standard reference state is referred to as

the enthalpy of formation ( hf ). This is the energy released or
absorbed when a compound is formed from its elements,
with the compound and elements all being at Tref, Pref.

## Calculated by combination of theory and observation, or by

measuring Q associated with compound formation.

## Example: Formation of CO2

C CO2
Tref, Pref Tref, Pref
O2
Qcv

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

## 0 = QCV + mC hC + mO2 hO2 mCO2 hCO2

On a molar basis:

## By Equation 32.1, nC = nO2 = nCO2 Thus,

QCV n nO
hCO2 = + C hC + 2 hO2
nCO2 nCO2 nCO2
QCV
= + hC + hO2
nCO2
0 0
C and O2 are stable elements at the standard
state. Thus, hC = hO2 = 0

Therefore,
-393,520 kJ/kmol of CO2 formed
Q (the value in table A25)
hCO2 = CV
nCO2

## hf is positive for an endothermic reaction

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

## H at a state other than the standard state is found by adding

h between standard state and state of interest to hf

(
h (T , p ) = hf + h (T , p ) h (Tref , pref ) )
OR Table A25

h (T , p ) = hf + h A23 or A2/A3
for example

## h can be based on an arbitrary datum point for the two

individual hs used to calculate h . This is because the
datum will be subtracted out. Thus, we can use the steam
tables or ideal gas tables where appropriate.

## Consider the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel

CaHb with the theoretical amount of air:

CaHb at Tf

Air at Ta Combustion
products at Tf

Wcv

b b b
Ca Hb + a + (O2 + 3.76N2 ) aCO2 + H2O + a + 3.76N2
4 2 4

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

## Mass and Energy Balances yield:

QCV WCV b b
= ahCO2 + hH2O + a + 3.76hN2
nf nf 2 4
b b
hf a+ hO2 + a + 3.76hN2
4 4

i.e.

QCV WCV
= hproducts hreactants
nf nf
= hp hr

## For each component of the products:

h = hf + h (Tp ) h (Tr e f )

an ideal gas.

## Note that for O2, N2 coming in:

h = hf + h (Ta ) h (Tr e f )

## hfuel = hf + h (Tf ) h (Tr e f )

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

QCV WCV b
nf

nf
(
= a hf + h
CO2 2
) hf + h+
H 2O
( )
0
b
+ a+
4
3.76 hf + h
N2
( hf + h ) ( ) f

b 0
a+
4
(
hf + h
O2
)
0
b
+ a+
4
3.76 hf + h
N2
( )
Or more simply:

QCV WCV
nf

nf
=
P
(
ne hf + h ) e

R
(
ni hf + h ) i

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