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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Example

From: Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach (2nd


Ed.) by Y.A. engel and M.A. Boles, p. 599

Example 14.2, page 739

Given: Ethane, C2H6, burned with 20% excess air.

Find: a) Assuming complete combustion, what is the


AF?

b) If P = 100 kPa, what is the Tdew point?

Solution:

a) Finding AF:

C2H6 + 1.2a (O2 + 3.76 N2) 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + 0.2a O2


+ (1.2 x 3.76) aN2

O2: 1.2a = 2 + 1.5 + 0.2a

a = 3.5

Thus,

C2H6 + 4.2 (O2 + 3.76 N2) 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + 0.7 O2


+ 15.79 N2

(4.2mol O2 + 4.2 3.76)mol N2


AF =
1mol of fuel
kmol air
= 19.99
kmol fuel

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Mair = 28.97kg / kmol

Mfuel = 30.07kg / kmol Table A1 (if needed)

Mair
AF = AF
Mfuel
28.97
= (19.99 )
30.07
kg air
= 19.26
kg fuel

* Review Text Example 13.1 for a slightly different approach*

b) Calculating Dew Point Temperature:

Tdp = Tsat for pv

where v refers to the water vapour component of the


products, and pv = partial pressure of H2O

pv = y v ptotal
3mol
= 100kPa
(2 + 3 + 0.7 + 15.79)mol

CO2 H2O O2 N2
3
= (100)
21.94

= 13.96kPa

This corresponds to Tsat = 52.3 C , i.e. Tdew point = 52.3 C

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Combustion Products

Depend upon:

Temperature

Pressure

Mixing

% Theoretical air

Depending on these factors, one can find CO, O2 and fuel in


the products.

Dry Product Analysis mole fractions for all products


except H2O given.

Example
Text Problem 13.6

Given: A fuel mixture with the molar analysis of:

CH4: 70% O2: 5%


CO: 20% N2: 5%

burns completely with 20% excess air.

Find: a) The balanced reaction equation.

b) AF and AF

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Solution:

a) Balanced Reaction Equation

With the theoretical amount of air:

( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + (O2 + 3.76N2 )


CO2 + H 2O + ( 3.76 + 0.05 ) N2

C: 0.7 + 0.2 = = 0.9

O: 0.2 + 0.10 + 2 = 2 + = 1.45

H: 2.8 = 2 = 1.4

Thus,

( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + 1.45 (O2 + 3.76N2 )



0.9CO2 + 1.4H 2O + 5.952N2

With 20% excess air:

( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + (1.2 )1.45 (O2 + 3.76N2 )


0.9CO2 + 1.4H2O + O2 + ( (1.74 ) 3.76 + 0.05 ) N2

1.74 = 1.2 x 1.45

Balancing Os:

O: 0.2 + 0.1 + 2(1.74) = 1.8 + 1.4 + 2


= 0.29

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Thus,

( 0.7CH4 + 0.2CO + 0.05O2 + 0.05N2 ) + 1.74 (O2 + 3.76N2 )



0.9CO2 + 1.4H 2O + 0.29O2 + 6.59N2

b) Air Fuel Ratios

1.74(1 + 3.76)
AF =
1
kmol air
= 8.25
kmol fuel
MCH4 MCO MO2 M N2

Mfuel = (0.7)(16.04) + 0.2(28.01) + 0.05(32) + 0.05(28.01)


= 19.831kg / kmol

Mair
AF = AF
Mfuel
28.97
= 8.25
19.831
kg air
= 12.05
kg fuel

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Conservation of Energy With Reacting Systems

For reacting systems, we must evaluate h, v, and s in an


unambiguous and consistent manner.

This involves the use of a reference state:

Tref = 298.15K (25C)

Pref = 1 atm

Only stable elements are assigned zero h at standard


reference state (chemically stable, ex. H2, O2, N2, and not H,
O, N.)

Enthalpy of Formation hf

The enthalpy at a standard reference state is referred to as


the enthalpy of formation ( hf ). This is the energy released or
absorbed when a compound is formed from its elements,
with the compound and elements all being at Tref, Pref.

Calculated by combination of theory and observation, or by


measuring Q associated with compound formation.

hf values are given in Table A25.

Example: Formation of CO2

C CO2
Tref, Pref Tref, Pref
O2
Qcv

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

C + O2 CO2 {Equation 32.1}

An energy balance yields (assuming Wcv = 0 )

0 = QCV + mC hC + mO2 hO2 mCO2 hCO2

On a molar basis:

0 = QCV + nC hC + nO2 hO2 nCO2 hCO2

By Equation 32.1, nC = nO2 = nCO2 Thus,

QCV n nO
hCO2 = + C hC + 2 hO2
nCO2 nCO2 nCO2
QCV
= + hC + hO2
nCO2
0 0
C and O2 are stable elements at the standard
state. Thus, hC = hO2 = 0

Therefore,
-393,520 kJ/kmol of CO2 formed
Q (the value in table A25)
hCO2 = CV
nCO2

hf is negative for an exothermic reaction

hf is positive for an endothermic reaction

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Evaluating Enthalpy for Compounds

H at a state other than the standard state is found by adding


h between standard state and state of interest to hf

(
h (T , p ) = hf + h (T , p ) h (Tref , pref ) )
OR Table A25

h (T , p ) = hf + h A23 or A2/A3
for example

h can be based on an arbitrary datum point for the two


individual hs used to calculate h . This is because the
datum will be subtracted out. Thus, we can use the steam
tables or ideal gas tables where appropriate.

Energy Balance for a Control Volume at Steady State

Consider the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel


CaHb with the theoretical amount of air:

CaHb at Tf

Air at Ta Combustion
products at Tf

Wcv

b b b
Ca Hb + a + (O2 + 3.76N2 ) aCO2 + H2O + a + 3.76N2
4 2 4

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Mass and Energy Balances yield:

QCV WCV b b
= ahCO2 + hH2O + a + 3.76hN2
nf nf 2 4
b b
hf a+ hO2 + a + 3.76hN2
4 4

i.e.

QCV WCV
= hproducts hreactants
nf nf
= hp hr

For each component of the products:

h = hf + h (Tp ) h (Tr e f )

From Table A25 Use Table 23

Same form of expression for hf if the fuel can be modelled as


an ideal gas.

Note that for O2, N2 coming in:

h = hf + h (Ta ) h (Tr e f )

For fuel, as per earlier comment:

hfuel = hf + h (Tf ) h (Tr e f )

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MECH 330: APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS II LECTURE 32

Thus, our mass and energy balances ultimately yield:

QCV WCV b
nf

nf
(
= a hf + h
CO2 2
) hf + h+
H 2O
( )
0
b
+ a+
4
3.76 hf + h
N2
( hf + h ) ( ) f

b 0
a+
4
(
hf + h
O2
)
0
b
+ a+
4
3.76 hf + h
N2
( )
Or more simply:

QCV WCV
nf

nf
=
P
(
ne hf + h ) e

R
(
ni hf + h ) i

Where: e denotes combustion products at exit

i denotes incoming fuel and air streams

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