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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)

Article Text
For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101
1996 Mitchell International, All Rights Reserved. Page 1 of 208
Wednesday, June 02, 2010 10:42AM

ARTICLE BEGINNING

DIESEL EMISSION CONTROLS


Navistar T444E Diesel Engine Electronic Engine Control System

DESCRIPTION & OPERATION

Navistar T444E diesel engines use an electronic engine


control system to control engine operating conditions. The injection
pump, fuel lines and nozzles used in mechanical engines have been
replaced with an electronic unit injector in each cylinder. An
Electronic Control Module (ECM) sends a signal to each injector for
fuel delivery. The system uses built in diagnostics to help pinpoint
faulty components and engine problems.

Fuel System
The T444E fuel system consists of three major sub-systems:
The Fuel Supply System, the Injection Control Pressure System and the
Fuel Injectors. These sub-systems work together to inject pressurized
fuel into the combustion chambers. The function of the fuel supply
system is to deliver fuel to the injectors. The injection control
pressure system supplies the injectors with high pressure lube oil.
The fuel injectors use the pressure from the lube oil to pressurize
the fuel and inject the fuel into the combustion chambers. The
components of the fuel supply system are the : Fuel Lines, Fuel
Strainer, Transfer Fuel Pump, Fuel Filter/Water Separator and the Fuel
Pressure Regulator valve. See Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: Fuel Supply System Component Locations


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Fuel Supply Pump


The fuel transfer pump is a camshaft-driven, two-stage
diaphragm/piston pump mounted in the engine V. See Fig. 2.
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Fig. 2: Tandem Fuel Supply Pump Component Locations


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Fuel System
The diaphragm stage of the pump draws fuel from the tank and
through the fuel strainer. Pressurized fuel at 4-6 psi is then
supplied to the fuel filter. Air trapped in the filter is vented back
to the tank through an orifice in the regulator block mounted on the
filter. The orifice is protected from plugging by a screen located
inside the filter housing.
Fuel in the filter passes through an element to a standpipe
in the center of the filter assembly. Clean fuel is then routed to the
inlet of the piston stage of the pump. The piston stage of the pump
raises fuel pressure from 4-6 psi to 40 psi to ensure proper filling
of the injectors. Fuel is then divided through the fuel lines to the
back of each cylinder head. The fuel is then supplied to a gallery
drilled in each cylinder head which intersects each injector bore in
the head. See Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3: Fuel Supply Passage To Injectors


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Return fuel from the two fuel galleries is routed through


hoses from the front of each head to the pressure regulator located on
the side of the filter housing. These hoses provide flexibility in the
system by absorbing and smoothing pressure pulses from the piston
stage of the pump. The pressure regulator contains a spring-loaded
valve to control pressure in the fuel galleries to 40 psi. Return fuel
flows through the regulator and is routed to the fuel tanks.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 3)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitche

Fig. 4: Fuel Supply System


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Injection Control System


The T444E uses a hydraulically actuated injector to
pressurize fuel inside the injector. The hydraulic fluid used to
actuate the injector is engine oil. Oil is drawn from the oil pan
through the pickup tube by the oil pump. The oil pump is a gerotor
type, driven by the crankshaft. Oil is fed through passages in the
front cover to an oil reservoir mounted on top of the front cover.
The reservoir makes available a constant supply of oil to a
high pressure hydraulic pump mounted in the engine V. The pump is a
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gear-driven seven plunger swash plate pump. High pressure oil is


delivered by the high pressure pump to oil galleries machined into the
cylinder heads, drilled intersecting passages supply high pressure oil
to the injector.
See Fig. 5.

Fig. 5: Injection Control Oiling System


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Injection Pressure Control


The injection pressure control system is a Closed Loop
operating system. The system consists of an Electronic Control Module
(ECM), Injection Control Pressure Sensor (ICP) and the Injection
Pressure Regulator Valve (IPR). The ECM is programmed with an
injection pressure control strategy which determines the correct
injection control pressure at each engine operating condition.
The ECM receives a 0-5 volt DC analog feedback signal from
the ICP sensor located in the high pressure oil supply gallery on the
left cylinder head that indicates injection control pressure
information. The ECM processes this signal and controls injection
control pressure by controlling the ground to the IPR regulating
valve. See Fig. 6.

Fig. 6: Injection Control System


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
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IPR Valve
In the engine off state, the IPR spool valve is held closed
(to the right) by the return spring and the drain ports are closed.
See Fig. 7.

Fig. 7: IPR Valve With Engine Off


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

In the engine cranking state, the ECM signals the IPR valve
to close which directs all the oil flow into the supply galleries to
build oil pressure as quickly as possible to start the engine. See
Fig. 8.

Fig. 8: IPR Valve With Engine Cranking


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

In the engine running state, the ECM pressure regulating


signal determines the magnetic field strength of the IPR valve
solenoid. The magnetic field pulls the poppet to the left. This allows
the pump outlet pressure on the spool valve to move the spool valve to
the new position. Poppet movement allows a small amount of oil to
enter the spool chamber through the spool valve control orifice and
filter.
Spool chamber oil pressure is regulated by the ECM
controlling the poppet position. The spool responds to pressure
changes in the spool chamber by changing position to maintain a
balance of spool pressure on each side of the spool. Spool valve
position determines the desired injection control pressure by bleeding
of oil from the pump outlet to the drain port.
See Fig. 9.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 5)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitche
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Fig. 9: IPR Valve With Engine Running


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Fuel Injectors
When an injector is energized, the poppet valve is opened by
an electronic solenoid located on the injector. See Fig. 10. Oil
pressure is allowed to flow into the injector and act on the amplifier
piston. When injection is ended the pressure on top of the amplifier
piston is vented by the poppet valve through the top portion of the
injector and directed by the oil troughs on the injector to a push
tube hole for return to the oil sump.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 6)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitche

Fig. 10: Fuel Injector Operation


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Exhaust Back Pressure Device


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The exhaust back pressure device is a mechanism which applies


a restriction to the flow of exhaust gas exiting the turbocharger. See
Fig. 11. The increased restriction created by the closure of the
butterfly valve increases exhaust back pressure and causes the engine
to work harder to force the exhaust gasses out of the turbocharger.
This results in more heat transferred from the engine to the coolant,
which allows the cab to receive more heat in a shorter time.

Fig. 11: Exhaust Back Pressure Device


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

The exhaust back pressure device is located on the


turbocharger pedestal and consists of the following components:
Exhaust Back Pressure Regulator (EPR), Actuator Piston and Butterfly
Valve. The EPR is controlled by the ECM. The ECM senses engine coolant
temperature and intake air temperature to determine when the exhaust
back pressure is required. See Fig. 12. Engine oil pressure is present
on one side of the regulator valve when engine is running. When
coolant and intake air temperatures are low, the ECM signals the valve
to open, which allows oil pressure to push on the actuator piston
closing the butterfly valve. The ECM receives exhaust back pressure
information from the sensor and controls butterfly valve position.
When the engine reaches operating temperature, the ECM will
signal the regulator valve to fully close, cutting off engine oil
pressure to the piston. The piston will retract due to spring
pressure, causing the butterfly valve to open fully and remove the
exhaust restriction.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text


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Fig. 12: Exhaust Back Pressure Device Operation


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Electronic Control Module (ECM)


The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors and controls
engine performance to ensure maximum performance and adherence to
emission standards. See Fig. 13. The ECM is also able to monitor and
control vehicle features such as cruise control, transmission control,
starter engagement, etc. To understand how the ECM functions and how
it can monitor input signals and exert control over the actuators, it
is necessary to understand the four primary functions of the ECM:
Reference Voltage, Signal Conditioner, Microprocessor and Actuator
Control.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 8)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitche

Fig. 13: Electronic Control Module


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Reference Voltage
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The ECM supplies a 5 volt reference signal to many of the


input sensors in the control system. On most circuits, the ECM
compares the regulated 5 volts sent to the sensors by the modified
returned signal and is able to determine temperature, pressure, speed,
position and many other variables that are important to engine and
vehicle functions. This 5 volt signal is current limited by a current
limiting resistor in the event of an external dead short to ground.
For some sensors like Camshaft Position, the 5 volt signal is a power
source that powers up the circuitry in the sensor.

Signal Conditioner
The signal conditioner conditions the input signals for the
internal microprocessor. This enables the microprocessor to interpret
the signals. Signal conditioning usually consists of converting analog
signals to digital signals, squaring up sine wave signals or
amplifying low intensity signals to a level the ECM microprocessor can
process.

Microprocessor
The ECM contains an internal microprocessor. This processor
stores operating instructions (control strategies) and tables of
values (calibration parameters). It compares these stored instructions
and values to sensed input values to determine the correct operating
strategy for any given engine condition. Calculations in the ECM occur
at two different levels, or speeds, referred to as the foreground and
the background calculations. These calculations are performed on a
continuous closed loop basis.
The foreground calculations occur at a much faster rate than
background calculations. These are normally the more critical
calculations. Diagnostic strategies are also programmed into the ECM.
Some instructions cause inputs or outputs to be monitored on a
continuous basis and will flag a code that will be set. Other
strategies will instruct the ECM to perform certain tests upon
operator demand.
The ECM's microprocessor is equipped with three types of
memory: Random Access Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM) and Keep
Alive Memory (KAM). They allow the processor to store necessary
instructions, calibration tables and input values to control the
engine.

Read Only Memory (ROM)


Read only memory is the memory where calibration tables and
operating strategies are stored. Information in the ROM is permanent.
It cannot be changed or lost by turning off the engine or
disconnecting the battery.

Random Access Memory (RAM)


Random access memory is a temporary storage memory for
current events such as engine speed, pedal position, etc. It is the
memory where temporary information can be stored so it can be compared
to information in the read only memory. Random access memory is lost
every time the key is turned off or power is interrupted to the ECM.

Keep Alive Memory (KAM)


Keep alive memory is permanent memory. It is used to store
diagnostic fault codes. Adaptive strategies (temporary operating
instructions) can also be written to it in the event of a system
failure or as a compensation for component wear. Uninterrupted power
must be supplied from the battery to the ECM on a continuous basis to
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keep the memory alive. All information in the memory is lost if the
ECM has a total power loss, such as when the batteries are
disconnected.

Actuator Control
The ECM controls the actuators by applying a low level signal
to the base of the transistor output drivers. These drivers, when
switched on, will complete the ground circuit of each actuator. The
actuators are controlled either through a duty cycle (percent of time
on and off), or controlled through a controlled pulse width, or simply
just switched on or off as determined by the type of actuator being
controlled.

Injection Driver Module Functions


The injection driver module is a device that controls four
major functions: Electronic Distributor For Injectors, Power Source
For Injectors, Output Driver For Injectors and Diagnostic For Itself
and Injectors.

Electronic Distributor For Injectors


The ECM senses the piston position of cylinder No. 1 from the
output signal of the Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP). The sensor is
located on the engine front cover. The CMP is a Hall effect sensor
which looks for a narrow vane on the timing disc. The disc is
precisely mounted and indexed on the camshaft gear in a relationship
that identifies the position of No. 1 piston. The ECM uses this signal
to determine correct injector firing sequence. The Cylinder
Identification circuit carries the information to the Injector Driver
Module. The IDM receives a Fuel Demand Command Signal (FDCS) from the
ECM to control injector timing and quantity of fuel delivered to each
injector. See Fig. 14.

Fig. 14: Injector Driver Module Distributor


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Power Source For Injectors


The IDM supplies a constant 115 volt DC supply to all
injectors. The supply is created in the IDM by making and breaking a
12 volt source across a coil internal to the IDM. The resultant 115
volts created by the collapsed fields is stored in capacitors until
used by the injectors. See Fig. 15.
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Fig. 15: Injector Driver Module Power Source


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Output Driver For Injectors


The IDM controls when the injector is turned on and how long
the injector is turned on by closing the circuit to ground by the use
of output driver transistors. Each injector has an individual output
driver in the IDM. The processor in the IDM selects the correct firing
sequence. The ECM through the FDCS signal, controls the timing of when
the injection starts and the duration of how long the injector is
open. See Fig. 16.

Fig. 16: Injector Driver Module Output Driver


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Diagnostics For Itself & Injectors


The IDM is capable of identifying if an injector is drawing
too much or too little current and sends a fault code to the ECM that
can be accessed by the technician. This code can be used to identify
potential problems in either the wiring harness of injector. The IDM
also performs self diagnostic checks that can set a code to indicate
that the IDM has failed and needs to be replaced.

Input Signals
Engine and vehicle
EMISSIONS - DIESEL sensors
(NAVISTAR transmit
T444E inputCTRL)Article
ELEC ENG signals to the
TextECM
(p. 11)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
by either; controlling a reference voltage to produce an analog or
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digital signal, generating a signal voltage or switching a 12 volt


signal. See Fig. 17. Reference voltage sensors are supplied with a
constant 5 volts regulated supplies by the ECM. A voltage regulator
supplies the reference voltage (VREF) to these sensors. This voltage
is changed by the sensor and the signal is relayed back to the ECM.
The ECM, by comparing the VREF to the returned signal can check its'
internal programmed tables to determine the value of the variable
being measured.

Fig. 17: Types Of Input Signals


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Thermistor
A thermistor is a sensor which changes its' electrical
resistance with temperature. The thermistor, in conjunction with a
current limiting resistor in the ECM, forms a voltage divider network
that provides a voltage signal that indicates temperature. The top
half of the divider is the current limiting resistor internal to the
ECM. The thermistor has a signal return and a ground. The output of
the thermistor is not linear. Examples of thermistors used are; engine
oil temperature sensor, engine coolant temperature sensor and intake
temperature sensor.

Potentiometer
A potentiometer is a variable voltage divider used to sense
the position of a mechanical component. A reference voltage is applied
to one end of the potentiometer. Mechanical motion connected to the
wiper causes it to move along the resistance material in a rotary
fashion. The voltage on the wiper changes at each point along the
resistive material. This voltage is proportional to the amount of
mechanical movement. the Accelerator Position Sensor is a
potentiometer.

Variable Capacitance Sensor


Variable capacitance sensor are used to measure pressure. The
pressure measured is applied to a ceramic material. The pressure
forces the ceramic closer to a metal disc. This causes the capacitance
of the sensor to change which creates a frequency that corresponds to
pressure. The internal circuitry of the sensor convert the frequency
into a linear analog voltage indicating pressure. The thicker the
ceramic, the more pressure that can be measured. These sensors have
three connections; VREF, Signal and Ground. Examples of this are; Oil
Pressure Sensor, Exhaust Back Pressure Sensor and Injection Control
Pressure Sensor.

Hall Effect Sensor EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E


Page 13 of 208

The Hall effect sensor is an electronic device which


generates a voltage signal controlled the presence, absence or
strength of a magnetic field. The Camshaft Position Sensor is a Hall
effect sensor. It contains a transducer, permanent magnet, signal
conditioner and a switching transistor. The permanent magnet applies a
magnetic field around the transducer. The transducer senses the
strength of the magnetic field which is controlled by the vanes and
windows as they pass the sensor. A voltage signal is generated each
time a window passes the device. The signal is filtered and
conditioned by the signal conditioner. This signal is applied to the
switching transistor's base, which causes the transistor to switch ON
and ground the 12 volt line from the ECM. The ECM no longer senses the
12 volt reference signal. When a vane passes the device, no signal is
generated, the transistor shuts of and the ECM sees the 12 volt
reference signal. This quick switching action allows the ECM to
determine crankshaft position and engine speed, and allows the ECM to
control injector timing and injection duration.

Switch Sensors
Switch sensors are used to indicate position, levels or
pressures. The switch signal is a digital signal and is created by
opening or closing a switch. Switch sensors can be either voltage
input or a grounding type switch. A voltage input switch will supply
the ECM with a voltage when closed. A grounding switch is wired in
series with a current limiting resistor in the ECM and will cause a 0
voltage signal when grounded. Examples are; Idle Validation, Brake
Normally Open, Brake Normally Closed, Coolant Level and Driveline
Disengagement.

Magnetic Pickup
A magnetic pickup is a sensor used to generate an alternating
frequency that indicates speed. A two wire connection for signal
return and ground are used. The pickup is constructed with a permanent
magnetic core surrounded by a wire coil. The signal frequency is
generated by the rotation of gear teeth which make and break the
magnetic field. An example is the Vehicle Speed Sensor.

T444E ENGINE STANDARD FEATURES

Electronic Governor
The T444E is fully electronically governed over all operating
ranges.

Cold Idle Advance


This feature provides an increase in cold engine idle speed
of up to 875 RPM for faster warm up to normal operating temperature.
Low idle speed is increased proportionally when engine coolant
temperature is low.

Cold Ambient Temperature Protection (CAP)


This feature is built into the engine control system software
to aid in engine warm up and to maintain engine temperature during
extended idle periods in cold weather. The system will return to
normal when the engine is operated, or the PTO is engaged.

Glow Plug Assisted Start


This increases engine startability in cold weather. The glow
plugs are controlled by the ECM which monitors engine temperature. A
WAIT TO START light is used to inform driver when engine is ready to
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start.

ATA Data Link Provision


An ATA data link connector is provided that allows
communication between the engine control system and the Pro-Link 9000
Electronic Service Tool (EST). The data link provides communication
capabilities for the following:
* Engine Parameter Data Transmission
* Diagnostics & Troubleshooting
* Customer Programming
* Production Line Programming
* Field Programming

Service Diagnostics
The electronic service tool (EST) provides means for
obtaining diagnostic information through the ATA data link. The Pro-
Link 9000 EST can diagnose system faults. The engine control system
also provides service diagnostic information via flash codes emitted
through the engine warning lamp.

Electronic Tachometer/Speedometer Provisions


The engine control system calibrates vehicle speed using
pulses/mile. Dip switches no longer need to be changed when components
affecting speed calibration are changed. The new speed calibration can
be programmed using an EST.

Engine Over Temperature Protection


This system reduces fuel delivery when coolant temperature is
above the design target value. Fueling is reduced proportionally to
the extent the design limit is exceeded. The reduction is calibrated
to a maximum 20 percent before standard engine warning shutdown
systems engage. If system is activated, a fault code is stored to
explain low power complaints. This feature may be omitted on emergency
vehicle that require 100 percent power on demand.

Event Logging System


This system records if the engine was operated beyond maximum
RPM, over heated, low on coolant and/or had low oil pressure. This
information is stored in the ECM memory and can be accessed using an
EST.

Engine Crank Inhibit


This system will not allow the engine to crank unless the
automatic transmission is in Neutral and will not allow the starter to
engage when engine is running. It also facilitates using cruise
control and PTO options with automatic transmissions.

Electronic Accelerator Pedal


This eliminates the mechanical linkage on conventional
systems. An accelerator position sensor within the accelerator pedal
provides the ECM with a signal representing the driver's demand for
power.

T444E ENGINE OPTIONAL FEATURES

Cruise Control
This is an automotive style cruise control system. Speed
control is disabled when rake is applied, clutch pedal is depressed or
automatic transmission is in Neutral. EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
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Throttle Control For PTO Operation


T444E engines are compatible for both stationary and mobile
PTO applications. Remote and in cab throttle control locations are
available. The throttle control can be used as an electronic hand
throttle.

Engine Warning System


This system illuminates the Stop Engine light and actuates a
buzzer when warning thresholds for coolant temperature, coolant level
and/or low oil pressure are exceeded.

Engine Shutdown System


This system shuts down the engine after 30 seconds of
operation beyond critical threshold values. This is used in
conjunction with the engine warning system. The engine may be
restarted after shutdown, if it is mechanical capable of starting.

SELF-TEST OPERATION

Diagnostic Fault Code Detection


The T444E diagnostic system has the capability to detect
fault codes which indicate an operating malfunction. There are two
types of detection systems; Continuous Monitor Self-Tests and Engine
Diagnostic Tests. See Fig. 18.

Fig. 18: Types Of Input Signals


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Continuous Monitor Self-Tests


Diagnostics are performed by the ECM continuously to detect
EMISSIONS
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During (NAVISTAR
the time when the T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text
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key is ON, if an input signal is out of its programmed range, the ECM
will record a Fault. It will also monitor the operation of systems and
will determine if the system is working within a normal range. If the
ECM detects that a system is operating out of range, it will record a
fault code. During normal engine operation, the ECM automatically
performs several tests to detect faults. When it has determined a
fault, the ECM will invoke a fault management strategy to allow
continued, though sometimes degraded, vehicle operation.
A Fault is an indication of a malfunction measured or
monitored electronically. Codes are three digit numbers assigned to
faults to indicate the source of the problem. Most codes will indicate
the Mode of failure. The Failure Mode will indicate the signal reading
is Out-Of-Range High, Out-Of-Range Low, or in Range Fault. When the
engine is running, the Vehicle Personality Module (VPM) memory will
record Event Engine Hours. This is the monitoring of engine operation
exceeding programmed parameters. The standard engine event is
Overspeed, referred to as Over RPM and excess coolant temperature. To
retrieve information on Engine Events, it is necessary to access them
with the Electronic Service Tool. If the engine is equipped with an
optional engine warning/shutdown system, low oil pressure and low
coolant level operation, it will also be monitored and recorded as
Engine Event Hours.

Engine OFF Standard Tests


Engine Off tests are standard tests performed by the ECM.
These tests are commanded by the technician using the Electronic
Service Tool (EST) or using the Self-Test Input (STI) push button
switch. Since injector driver module faults are not stored in the ECM,
it is necessary to perform a self-test to transmit faults to the ECM.
To use the EST, access the Engine menu and select Diagnostic
Tests. Then select Engine Off Tests. Depressing the Enter key will
initiate the test.
To use the STI diagnostic push button switch, depress the
switch and hold, while turning the ignition ON. Release the STI button
after engine is on. Do not start the engine. When the operator signals
the test to begin, the ECM will perform internal tests of its
processing components and memory. It will automatically proceed to
Output Circuit Check. This will operate the ECM output circuits. It
will measure each individual circuit's response. The following
circuits are checked by the ECM during the test.
* Cylinder Identification
* Exhaust Pressure Regulator
* Engine Crank Inhibit Relay
* Glow Plug Control Relay
* Injector Driver Module Relay
* Glow Plug Light
* Fuel Demand Command Signal
* Injection Pressure Regulator
* Engine-To-Transmission Data Line
The ECM will monitor the outputs and test the operation of
the output signals and actuators. If a circuit fails the test, a fault
code will be logged. When the test is complete, the EST will display
any faults that were found. If the STI diagnostic switch was used, the
fault codes will be transmitted a Flash Codes using the Oil Warning
and Engine Warning lights. The fault codes are read by counting the
number of light flashes. The following sequence will occur:
The OIL/WATER light will flash once. This indicates the
beginning of active fault codes. The WARN ENGINE light will flash
repeatedly signaling active fault codes. All codes are three digits.
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The number of flashes should be counted in sequence. At the end of


each digit of the code, there will be a pause. Three flashes and a
pause indicates code 3. Code 232 would be represented as two flashes,
a pause, three flashes, another pause then two final flashes.
If there is more than one code being sent, the OIL/WATER
light will flash once, indicating the start of another code. If code
111 flashes, it indicates there are no faults. If no further fault
codes exist, the OIL/WATER light will flash twice, indicating the
start of Inactive Codes. The WARN ENGINE light will then flash any
inactive codes present. If more than one inactive code is present, the
OIL/WATER light will flash once between each code.
When all stored fault codes have been sent, the OIL/WATER
light will flash 3 times, indicating end of message. If it is
necessary to repeat transmission of the codes, press the STI button
and all codes will be retransmitted.

Injector Buzz Test (Engine OFF)


The injector buzz test diagnoses electrical problems with the
fuel delivery components. This test can only be accessed with the EST
and only after the Engine Off test or Self-Test has been performed.
Before running this test, all fault codes should be noted and erased.
This will allow faults found in this test to appear as Active Codes.
During this test, the ECM will signal the Injector Driver
Module (IDM) to activate the injectors in numerical order, 1 through
8. The IDM will monitor each injector's electrical circuit operation.
The IDM will send feedback signals to the ECM which indicate the
status of injector performance and circuit operation. If an electrical
component in the fuel system fails, an inactive fault code will be
logged and transmitted to the EST at the end of the test. If the fault
codes were not erased before this test, the faults found in this test
will be displayed as Inactive Codes. To read the codes, access the
Diagnostic Codes menu and read both Active and Inactive codes.

Output State Test (Engine OFF)


The Output State Test diagnoses the output signals and
actuators. The EST must be used to perform this test. To run the test,
select Output State Test from the EST Engine Off Menu. The test
operates in two modes; Toggling outputs from high to low and toggling
outputs from low to high.
When in Outputs Are Low mode, the ECM will pull down the
output voltage to their low state. This will activate the output
components that are controlled by the ECM grounding the circuits.
During the test OUTPUTS ARE LOW will de displayed on the screen.
When in Outputs Are High mode, the ECM will pull up the
output voltage to their high state. This will activate the output
components that are controlled by the ECM energizing the control
circuits. During the test OUTPUTS ARE HIGH will de displayed on the
screen.
During this test, the output of the circuit in question can
be monitored using a DVOM. The DVOM will measure a high or low voltage
state as the outputs are toggled. The actual voltage will vary with
the circuit being tested. No faults will be set during this test.

Standard Test (Engine Running)


This test checks the operation of the Injection Pressure
Regulator (IPR) and Exhaust Backpressure Regulator (EPR). During the
test the ECM commands the IPR and EPR actuators through a pre-
programmed testing sequence to determine actuator operation. The ECM
monitors the feedback signal values from the sensors and compares themEMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
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to expected values. At the end of the test, the ECM will return the
engine to normal operating mode and transmit any fault codes that were
found. This test can only be made using the EST. Before performing the
test, coolant must be warm, battery voltage must be at least 12.5
volts and no vehicle speed sensor signal should be present. If active
codes are present they must be repaired and cleared first.
Select Engine Running Test from the Diagnostic Test menu in
the EST. Press ENTER to start test. The ECM will begin to raise the
idle speed to a predetermined value. It will then command the IPR
value to set the injection control pressure to rated speed pressure.
If the IPR performance is acceptable, the ECM will control the IPR to
reduce pressure in stages while monitoring the performance.
At the completion of the test, the ECM will conduct a similar
test on the EPR calve. When testing is completed, the engine will
return to normal operation and any fault codes will transmitted.

Injector Cylinder Test (Engine Running)


The Injector Test detects problems with the injection and
combustion events. During the test the ECM will control fuel delivery
and determine each cylinder's power contribution. If a cylinder is not
performing satisfactorily, a fault code will be set. This test can
only be performed using the EST. The Engine Running Self-Test must be
performed first to gain access to the Injector Running test in the
EST.
Select injector Test from the Engine Running test menu. The
ECM will increase the normal amount of fuel delivery to the
injector/cylinder being tested and monitor the reduction of fuel
required to operate the remaining injectors to maintain engine speed.
If there is no reduction in the fuel delivery to the other cylinders,
the ECM will set a fault code identifying the faulty cylinder. When
the test is complete, normal operation will be restored and any fault
codes will be transmitted.

Wiggle Test
The purpose of the Wiggle Test is to troubleshoot
intermittent connections at sensors and actuators. It can be performed
with the engine off or running. The EST is used to monitor the various
sensors and actuator circuits during the test. Select Wiggle Test from
the Diagnostic Test menu in the EST. Press Enter key to start test.
The technician should wiggle connectors and wires at all suspected
problem points. The EST will beep if any circuit continuity is broken.
It will display all faults found during the test.

TROUBLE SHOOTING

SYMPTOM DIAGNOSIS

Camshaft Timing Incorrect


Possible Causes - Camshaft gear to crankshaft gear is
assembled out of time.
Correction - Bar engine over by hand until pointer on
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) is aligned with the machined timing
slot on the crankshaft damper. remove CMP and view timing disc through
hole in front cover. If engine is on compression stroke for No. 1
cylinder, a narrow sync vane will be seen directly in the middle of
the CMP opening. If camshaft timing is one tooth advanced or retarded,
the narrow vane will appear about 1/8 inch from either the upper or
lower edge of the hole. If no narrow vane is visible, the engine is
probably not on the No. 1 cylinder compression stroke. Rotate engine EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T
Page 19 of 208

over 360 degrees until timing mark and pointer are aligned. Reinspect
location of narrow vane in CMP opening.

Combustion Leaks
Possible Causes - The most likely cause of combustion gas
leaking into the cooling system is past the lower nozzle sleeve in the
cylinder head. A blown head gasket or porous cylinder wall is
possible, but should not be suspected unless vehicle overheated or a
very high mileage engine has not had proper coolant conditioning.
Correction No. 1 - Plug in block heater to warm coolant.
Pressurize cooling system to 14 psi. Remove valve covers and glow
plugs. Observe glow plug holes while turning engine over by hand to
see if coolant is flooding the top of the piston and escaping out of
the glow plug hole. If the leak is slight, pressure may have to be
left on overnight to see coolant leak. When the suspected nozzle
sleeve is located, drain coolant and replace sleeve. Check system
operation to see is problem is corrected.
Correction No. 2 - Plug in block heater to warm coolant.
Remove valve covers and glow plugs. Remove cap from surge tank. Rotate
crankshaft on cylinder to be tested until valves are shut. Install
Compression Adapter (ZTSE-4292) in glow plug hole and adapt gauge end
to accept shop air pressure. Apply 100-160 psi shop pressure and
observe surge tank for escaping air. If nozzle sleeve is leaking air
bubbles will be seen in surge tank. When the suspected nozzle sleeve
is located, drain coolant and replace sleeve. Check system operation
to see is problem is corrected.

Coolant In Lube Oil


Possible Causes - Oil cooler bundle or O-ring failure; front
cover O-ring damage; front cover porosity; cylinder head porosity;
crankcase porosity; nozzle sleeve leakage.
Correction - Plug in block heater to warm coolant. Remove oil
pan plug, oil filter and glow plugs. Pressurize cooling system to 14
psi. Check rear of oil cooler at oil filter mounting for coolant or
air pressure escaping. If leaking is occurring from header at oil
filter mounting header, the oil cooler should be removed and tested.
Correct as necessary.
If coolant is escaping from oil pan drain plug, remove valve
covers and inspect cylinder head area under valve covers and welch
plugs in cylinder head for leakage. Correct as necessary.
If no leaks are found, remove engine and oil pan. Block off
all coolant connections. Pressurize cooling system with 14 psi of
regulated air pressure. Inspect bottom of crankcase for leaks. Repair
as necessary. If no leaks are found, remove front cover and inspect
gasket and sealing surfaces. Repair as necessary. When all corrections
are made, retest system.

Coolant Temperature Too High


Possible Causes - Gauge error; low coolant level; plugged
radiator; incorrect radiator; stuck thermostat; no thermostat;
defective water pump; broken belt; fan clutch slippage; wrong or
damaged fan blade.
Correction - Check for correct coolant level and correct.
Inspect for correct part numbers on fan blade, shroud, belt and
radiator. Monitor coolant temperature with Electronic Service Tool
(EST) and compare to dash reading of temperature. Manually check
temperature in coolant sender opening and confirm high temperature.
Check thermostat for correct opening temperature. Remove radiator and
check radiator flow.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
Page 20 of 208

Coolant In Lube Oil


Possible Causes - Customer Effect: Improper record keeping;
improper tank filling; winter blend or No. 1 fuel, high customer
expectations. Application Effects: Heavy loading; low rear axle ratio;
large frontal area; prolonged idle times; excessive accessory usage;
incorrect tire size. Chassis Effects: Brake drag; fan clutch
engagement; transmission slipping; fuel tank plumbing and venting;
intake or exhaust restriction. Engine Effects: Incorrect or defective
thermostat; faulty exhaust backpressure operation; oil aeration; fuel
system leaks; base engine performance loss.
Correction - Review customer records and fueling procedures.
Measurement errors are common. Accurate fuel consumption must be
measured over time, preferably over four tanks of fuel with a record
of what the vehicle was towing or doing at the time. Loss of fuel
economy is normal if winter fuels, kerosene or No. 1 diesel fuel is
used. Review vehicle specifications to determine is fuel consumption
is normal for type of application and vehicle. Conduct all tests on
Navistar Performance Diagnostic Sheet. This sheet will check all
engine/chassis systems for correct operation. If all tests are
passed, vehicle is operating normally.

Fuel/Oil Dilution
Possible Causes - If a substantial amount of fuel is in the
oil, the most likely cause is a leaking tandem lift pump. A leaking
nozzle sleeve or injector tip could leak fuel into oil, but would
probably be identified as a performance problem.
Possible Corrections - Verify oil contamination. Contaminated
oil will have a strong diesel fuel odor and will cause engine oil
level to rise. If oil has a heavy fuel odor and level rises in
crankcase, it is most likely the tandem lift pump is leaking fuel into
the crankcase.

Fuel In Coolant
Possible Causes - Upper section of injector sleeve to fuel
gallery is leaking.
Correction - Plug in block heater to warm coolant. Remove
fuel return lines at regulator block. Pressurize cooling system to 14
psi. Observe fuel return lines. Injector bank with fuel to coolant
leak will push fuel or air out of its return line. Remove injectors on
suspect bank. With cooling system pressurized, observe upper injector
sleeve to head for leakage. Repair as necessary. After repair, retest
system.

Low Oil Pressure


Possible Causes - Inaccurate gauge reading; low oil level,
fuel in oil; stuck oil pressure regulator, scored/damaged oil pump;
rear main gallery plug; broken or missing piston cooling jets, front
cover O-ring leaks; missing tappet galley plug; missing bearing
shells; porous oil reservoir.
Correction - Check oil level. Check for fuel in oil. Verify
oil pressure using known good mechanical gauge. Measure pressure at
both oil reservoir and main oil galley. Oil pressure should be 10 psi
minimum at idle and 40 psi minimum at wide open throttle at normal
operating temperature. If reading between reservoir and main galley
vary by more than 5 psi, swap gauges and recheck. If reservoir reading
is still lower, replace reservoir. Remove and inspect oil cooler and
regulator assembly. Regulator should be properly staked in oil header
housing and regulatorEMISSIONS
piston should be free
- DIESEL to move when
(NAVISTAR T444Epressure is CTRL)Article Text
ELEC ENG (p. 20)For cyph8r pac
Page 21 of 208

applied.
Remove, inspect and measure clearances in lube oil pump.
Inspect front mating surface for gouging or scratching. Inspect oil
pump for damage or wear. Measure clearance between gerotor and oil
pump housing. Clearance should be .028-.032" (72-81 mm). Measure
clearance between gerotor and housing surface. Clearance should be .
001-.03" (.02-.08 mm). Remove transmission and flywheel. Inspect rear
main plate for oil leaks. Massive oil leaks could indicate missing
main galley plug. Remove rear plate and inspect plugs. Remove oil pan
and inspect for missing piston cooling jets and bearing shells. Remove
front cover and check for cut or damaged O-rings or missing tappet
galley plugs. Correct any incorrect conditions found and recheck
system for proper operation.

No Start Because Of Dry Oil Reservoir


Possible Causes - The failure mode must be identified before
cause can be found. If engine Started, Ran For 15 Seconds And Stalled,
most likely cause is the lack of oil supply by the oil system. If
Engine Did Not Start And Reservoir Was Dry, most likely cause is
reservoir leak down. This can be caused by a leaking check valve in
high pressure oil pump, porous oil reservoir or reservoir pump down
which occurs during cranking and no start conditions caused by an
electronic circuit failure.
Correction - If engine started, ran and then stalled, refill
oil reservoir and verify start and stall condition. If condition still
exists, remove, inspect and measure clearances in oil pump. Inspect
front mating surface for gouging or scratching. Inspect oil pump for
damage or wear. Measure clearance between gerotor and oil pump
housing. Clearance should be .028-.032" (72-81 mm). Measure clearance
between gerotor and housing surface. Clearance should be .001-.03" (.
02-.08 mm).
If engine did not start and reservoir was dry, refill
reservoir and try to start engine. If engine does not start, perform
procedures on Navistar Hard Start/No Start Diagnostic form. This
checks if all essential elements required for starting are okay. If
engine starts, low reservoir problem may be caused by a reservoir leak
down after a long period of not running. Road test vehicle for 10
miles to purge all air from injection control system. Check oil level
to ensure it is full and let vehicle sit overnight.
Inspect oil level in the morning and determine if leak down
has occurred. The only leakage paths are past a check ball internal to
the pump or through a porous front cover. Leakage past a check ball
may be intermittent. The check ball is not serviceable. Replace oil
pump if it is suspect. If porosity through the front cover or oil pump
is suspected, replace reservoir first and check if problem is solved.
Replace front cover only as a last resort.

ECM Reset
ECM reset may result in the glow plug light cycling on, glow
plugs recycle, engine stumbles and/or dies, no acceleration pedal
authority until return to idle position.
The ECM reset occurs when the ECM momentarily reboots, or is
turned on and off while the engine is operating. If condition occurs a
single time, the engine will briefly stumble, and the ECM will go
through a normal key on cycle, including turning the glow plug light
and glow plugs on and will also attempt to validate the accelerator
pedal position. If pedal is not at idle, authority will not be allowed
by ECM until pedal is released and returned to idle.
Possible Causes - Momentary loss of power to the ECM or IDM EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
Page 22 of 208

may be caused by defective power relays, shorted or open harnesses,


intermittent connectors or poor grounds, short to ground in VREF
circuits, short to ground in injector high side voltage.
Correction - Perform test Nos. 3, 4a and 4b on the Navistar
Performance Diagnostic Form. This will determine if the ECM has
detected a fault condition that will cause a ECM reset.

NOTE: If the ECM is unable to perform a KOEO injector electrical


self-test, this will sometimes indicate an injector circuit
high side short to ground. Disconnect pairs of injectors by
removing the connector at the valve cover and attempt to
perform the buzz test. If the buzz test can be performed with
an injector pair disconnected, the high side short to ground
is most likely isolated to the under valve cover harness
corresponding to the disconnected injectors.

Check all power and ground connections for the ECM and IDM.
Monitor VREF and VPOWER circuits with a breakout box installed when
the fault occurs. Inspect the CMP harness connector and harness for a
VREF or signal short to ground condition. Remove and inspect the CMP
position sensor for possible timing disk to CMP sensor contact.
If the ECM reset condition is repeatable, disconnect sensors
one at a time and operate the engine to see if the condition will
reoccur. Inspect each harness and connector upon removal. Remove the
valve covers and inspect the under valve cover connectors for possible
pinching under the valve cover gasket or rub through against the push
tubes. Correct as necessary.

Rough Idle
Possible Causes - Engine oil problem, defective injectors,
injector short to ground, power cylinder problems, valve train
problems, low fuel pressure, aerated fuel, exhaust system problem,
engine mounts, loose/worn, electronic control system problem, poor
fuel quality, injection control pressure system problems.
Correction - Verify complaint. Operate vehicle under
complaint conditions and verify that rough idle is not present with
any other condition. Inspect exhaust system for contact with cab or
bed. Engine vibrations may be transmitted to the cab through the
exhaust system, which can be misinterpreted as a rough idle condition.
Check that engine oil is the correct grade and is full. Check ECM for
any fault codes that affect engine operation. Check that injectors are
operating properly. Check that fuel transfer pump has correct pressure
and pump inlet is not restricted. Check fuel return line for air
present in fuel. Check Injection Control Pressure and Exhaust
Backpressure system for proper function. Check individual cylinders
for a low power cylinder.
Check Injection Control Pressure (ICP) system. Monitor ICP
voltage signal using a DVOM with key on and engine off. Value should
be .15-.25 volts. If ICP is reading correct, check for air in engine
oil and that the oil has the correct quality. Check for low oil
pressure suction leaks.
Disconnect engine harness connector at ICP sensor with engine
at idle. If rough idle smoothes out, replace ICP sensor. If engine
still runs rough, check IPR and ICP system diagnostics. Check
crankcase pressure. Check ICP pressure between right and left cylinder
heads. Difference between cylinders should not exceed .2 volts. If
pressure differences are found, leakage is occurring in lower pressure
head. This may be caused by lose or cross threaded oil gallery drains,
injector O-rings or a bad injector. Check engine compression on each EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
Page 23 of 208

cylinder to verify base engine condition. If no faults are found in


any of the possible corrections, replace injectors.

Black Smoke
Possible Causes - Air intake or exhaust restriction, exhaust
backpressure device closing, turbocharger failure, loose injector,
operation at high altitude, (very slight Black smoke on hard
acceleration is normal).
Correction - If engine has a fuel knock or there is evidence
of fuel in exhaust manifolds, remove exhaust manifolds and check for
fuel. Check for loose injectors, missing or damaged O-rings and Copper
gasket on bottom. Check air inlet system and exhaust system for
restrictions and leaks. Check if exhaust backpressure device (EPD) is
closing at wide open throttle. Monitor EPD signal with EST while
operating engine to see if backpressure is high.

White Smoke
Possible Causes - No glow plug operation, loose injectors,
cold engine, bent connecting rods, low compression, worn rings,
coolant leaking into combustion chambers past injector sleeves.
Correction - In cold temperatures some White smoke is normal
until engine reaches normal operating temperatures. If engine cannot
reach normal operating temperature, check thermostat. On a cold engine
the glow plug system may remain on for up to 2 minutes after engine
starts to aid in cold smoke clean-up. Verify proper glow plug
operation. If engine had a fuel knock, or fuel in exhaust, remove
exhaust manifolds and check for fuel in exhaust ports. Check for loose
injectors, missing or damaged O-rings and Copper gasket on bottom. If
air induction system shows evidence of water injection that can cause
hydraulic static lock and bend connecting rods, perform a compression
test on cylinders.

Blue Smoke/Fuel Odor


Possible Causes - Excessive oil consumption and/or loose
injectors.
Correction - If engine had a fuel knock, or fuel in exhaust,
remove exhaust manifolds and check for fuel in exhaust ports. Check
for loose injectors, missing or damaged O-rings and Copper gasket on
bottom.

TESTING

DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS

Testing Equipment
Specific testing equipment is required to fully diagnose the
T444E Electronic Control System. These tools will provide the most
accurate specifications needed to determine if the system is operating
properly. All manufacturers instructions contained in the tools should
be read and thoroughly understood before operating the tool. In the
diagnostic tests for specific codes used in the T444E control system,
references will be made to using these tools. It is assumed that the
technician understands how these tools operate and what they will
display when the test is run. Specific connections to harnesses,
terminal numbers, wire colors, etc., will be included in the test
charts. The following is a brief description of the tools required to
properly diagnose this system.

Pressure Test Kit EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44


Page 24 of 208

The Beyers Model 200 Pressure Test Kit (part no. ZTSE-2239)
is used to measure intake manifold boost pressure, fuel pressure, air
cleaner restriction, fuel restriction, exhaust backpressure and
crankcase pressure.

Manometer
The manometer is used to measure low pressure or vacuum.

Orificed Restrictor & Adapter


The Orificed Restrictor (part no. ZTSE-4146A) and Adapter
(part no. ZTSE-4284) are used to measure combustion gas flow out of
the engine. It is also used to perform a crankcase pressure test.

Glow Plug/Injector Breakout


The Glow Plug/Injector Breakout (part no. ZTSE-4345) is used
to check injector solenoid continuity and glow plug resistance to
ground.

ICP/EBP Breakout "T"


The Injection Control Pressure (ICP)/Exhaust Backpressure
Sensor (EBP) Breakout "T" (part no. ZTSE-4347) is used to gain access
to injection control pressure and exhaust backpressure signal
voltages. The "T" enables the technician to quickly connect a
voltmeter to read voltage signals at each of the sensors.

Injection Control Pressure/Adapter Plug Kit


The injection control pressure/adapter plug kit (part no.
ZTSE-4359) is used in performing high pressure leakage tests on the
injection control pressure system. The adapter allows the ICP sensor
to be installed in either of the high pressure oil hoses during
testing.

Fluke 88 Digital Multimeter


The Fluke 88 Digital Multimeter (DVOM) (part no. ZTSE-4357)
is used to trouble shoot all electrical components. It can also
measure engine RPM when the EST is not available or is unable to
receive ATA data link information.

Breakout Box
The Breakout Box (part no. ZTSE-4346) is designed to allow
for testing of the electronic control system components without
disturbing connections or piercing wire insulation. See Fig. 19.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 24)For cy
Page 25 of 208

Fig. 19: T444E Breakout Box


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Pro-Link 9000 Electronic Service Tool


The Pro-Link 9000 Electronic Service Tool (EST) (part no.
ZTSE-43661) is the key to performing diagnostics on the T444E control
system. See Fig. 20. This tool will be referred to in the diagnostic
code tests many times. The EST is used to access stored fault codes by
plugging it into the ATA data link connector located in the vehicle
cab. Fault codes can be detected and stored in three components; The
Injector Driver Module (IDM), the Electronic Control Module (ECM) and
the Vehicle Personality Module (VPM). When the Pro-Link is connected
to the ATA data link, the tool will communicate with the VPM to
collect fault codes from the IDM and ECM.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 25)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 20: Pro-Link 9000 Electronic Service Tool


Page 26 of 208

Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

To retrieve diagnostic codes, turn all accessories and the


engine off. Connect the EST to the ATA data link at the lower left
kick panel inside the vehicle cab. When the tool is plugged in, the
Pro-Link screen will light up. Turn the ignition key ON, but do not
start the engine. The EST will receive data from the electronic
control components on the vehicle. The information received will be
the data as to the current status of the engine. For complete
operating instructions, refer to the manufacturers instructions, along
with the instructions described in the diagnostic code charts.

TESTING

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES

DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE CHART

Code No. & Circuit Name Fault Description


111 ECM ................................ No Fault, Flash Code Only
112 ECM PWR ..................... B Plus Voltage Out-of-range High
113 ECM PWR ...................... B Plus Voltage Out-of-range Low
114 ECT .............................. ECT Signal Out-of-range Low
115 ECT ............................. ECT Signal Out-of-range High
121 MAP ............................... MAP Frequency Out-of-range
122 MAP ................................... MAP Signal Is Inactive
123 MAP .............................. MAP Above Level At Low Idle
124 ICP .............................. ICP Signal Out-of-range Low
125 ICP ............................. ICP Signal Out-of-range High
131 APS/IVS .......................... APS Signal Out-of-range Low
132 APS/IVS ......................... APS Signal Out-of-range High
133 APS/IVS ............................ APS Signal In-Range Fault
134 APS/IVS ................................... APS & IVS Disagree
135 APS/IVS .................................... IVS Circuit Fault
141 VSS .............................. VSS Signal Out-of-range Low
142 VSS ............................. VSS Signal Out-of-range High
143 CMP ... Wrong No. Of CMP Signal Transitions Per Cam Revolution
144 CMP ................................ CMP Signal Noise Detected
145 CMP .............. CMP Signal Inactive While ICP Has Increased
151 BARO .................. BARO Pressure Signal Out-of-range High
152 BARO ................... BARO Pressure Signal Out-of-range Low
154 IAT .............................. IAT Signal Out-of-range Low
155 IAT ............................. IAT Signal Out-of-range High
211 EOP .............................. EOP Signal Out-of-range Low
212 EOP ............................. EOP Signal Out-of-range High
213 SCCS ................. Remote Throttle Signal Out-of-range Low
214 SCCS ................ Remote Throttle Signal Out-of-range High
221 SCCS ............................ SCCS Switch Or Circuit Fault
222 BRAKE ............................. Brake Switch Circuit Fault
223 DCL/ATA ....................... VPM Not Communicating With ECM
224 KAM PWR .......................................... KAM Corrupt
231 DCL/ATA ..................................... ATA Common Fault
232 DCL/ATA ................. Can't Forward ECM Message To ATA DCL
233 TACH ........................... Tachometer Buffer Is Inactive
234 DCL/ATA ..................... Can't Forward ATA Message To ECM
235 DCL/ATA .................................... VPM/ECM DCL Fault
241 IPR ....................... IPR Regulator OCC Self-Test Failed
242 ECM/IDM ............. FDCS Circuit To IDM OCC Self-Test Failed
243 IDM PWR ................. IDM Power Relay OCC Self-Test -Failed
EMISSIONS DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)A
Page 27 of 208

244 EDL ....................... Eng.-To-Trans. Data Line OCC Fault


245 EPR ....................... EPR Regulator OCC Self-Test Failed
251 GPC ................ Glow Plug Controller OCC Self-Test Failed
252 GPC ...................... Glow Plug Lamp OCC Self-Test Failed
253 ECM/IDM .......... Fuel Inj. Sync Circuit OCC Self-Test Failed
254 ECM .............. OCC Self-Test ECM Circuit Out-of-range High
255 ECM ............... OCC Self-Test ECM Circuit Out-of-range Low
311 EOT .............................. EOT Signal Out-of-range Low
312 EOT ............................. EOT Signal Out-of-range High
313 EOP .................. Engine Oil Pressure Below Warning Level
314 EOP ................. Engine Oil Pressure Below Critical Level
315 ....................... Engine Speed (Tach RPM) Limit Exceeded
316 ECT .................. ECT Unable To Reach Commanded Set Point
321 ECT .................................. ECT Above Warning Level
322 ECT ................................. ECT Above Critical Level
323 ECL ......................... ECL Below Warning/Critical Level
324 .................. Idle Shutdown Timer Enabled Engine Shutdown
325 ECT ..... Power Reduced, Matched To Cooling System Performance
331 IPR .................. IPR Pressure Above System Working Range
332 IPR ................. IPR Pressure Above Spec. With Engine Off
333 IPR ................... IPR Pressure Above/Below Desired Level
334 IPR .......................... ICP Unable To Achieve Set Point
335 IPR ............. ICP Unable To Build Pressure During Cranking
341 EBP .............................. EBP Signal Out-of-range Low
342 EBP ............................. EBP Signal Out-of-range High
343 EBR ........................... Excessive Exhaust Backpressure
344 EBP .......................... EBP Above Spec. With Engine Off
351 EPR ............ EBP Below Expected Level At High Engine Speed
352 EPR ......................... EBP Above Or Below Desired Level
421 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 1
422 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 2
423 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 3
424 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 4
425 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 5
426 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 6
427 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 7
428 INJ ........................ Low To High Side Open - Cyl No. 8
431 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 1
432 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 2
433 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 3
434 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 4
435 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 5
436 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 6
437 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 7
438 INJ ....................... Low To High Side Short - Cyl No. 8
441 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 1
442 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 2
443 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 3
444 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 4
445 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 5
446 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 6
447 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 7
448 INJ ....................... Low Side Short To VBAT - Cyl No. 8
451 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 1
452 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 2
453 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 3
454 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 4
455 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 5
456 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 6
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
Page 28 of 208

457 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 7


458 INJ ..................... Low Side Short To Ground - Cyl No. 8
461 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 1
462 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 2
463 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 3
464 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 4
465 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 5
466 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 6
467 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 7
468 Perf. Diag. ...... Cyl. Contribution Test Failure - Cyl. No. 8
511 INJ ........................... Bank No. 1 Has Multiple Faults
512 INJ ........................... Bank No. 2 Has Multiple Faults
513 INJ ............................. High Side To Bank No. 1 Open
514 INJ ............................. High Side To Bank No. 2 Open
515 INJ ............. Bank No. 1 High Side Short To Ground Or VABT
521 INJ ............. Bank No. 2 High Side Short To Ground Or VABT
522 IDM PWR ................................. IDM Internal Failure
523 IDM PWR ............................. IDM Power Voltage Is Low
524 INJ ................. Both High Side Switches Shorted Together
531 ECM/IDM ................... Cylinder Identification Signal Low
532 ECM/IDM .................. Cylinder Identification Signal High
541 ECM/IDM ..................... IDM Feedback TOGGLE Not Detected
543 ECM/IDM .............................. IDM Faults Not Received
544 INJ ............................. Injector Fault In Bank No. 2
545 INJ ............................. Injector Fault In Bank No. 1
612 CMP ............. Incorrect ECM Installed For CMP Timing Wheel
613 VPM ............. Installed ECM Incompatible With VPM Software
614 VPM ............. Installed VPM Incompatible With ECM Software
615 ECM ................. Programmable Parameter KAM Corrupt Fault
621 VPM .......... Engine Using MFG. Default Rating Program Engine
622 VPM ........................ Engine Using Field Default Rating
623 VPM .......... Invalid Eng. Rating Code, Check VPM Programming
625 ECM .............. Module Software Background Process Inactive
631 ECM ...................................... ROM Self-Test Fault
632 ECM ........................... RAM Memory/CPU Self-Test Fault
633 DCL/ATA ............... VPM Communicating Incorrectly With ECM
634 VPM ................ Internal Fuel Meter Memory Location Error
635 VPM ................. Internal Hourmeter Memory Location Error
641 VPM .................. Internal Odometer Memory Location Error
642 VPM ................................. Internal Fuelmeter Fault
643 VPM ................................. Internal Hourmeter Fault
644 VPM .................................. Internal Odometer Fault
645 VPM .................... Internal EEPROM Memory Location Error
651 VPM .................. Feature Memory Data Content Interrupted
652 VPM ................ Engine/Fuel Memory Data Content Corrupted
653 VPM .............. Engine/Rating Memory Data Content Corrupted
654 VPM ......................................... Watchdog Timeout

SENSOR & ACTUATOR DIAGNOSIS

Inspection
The basic diagnostic procedure for sensor and actuator
circuits is to disconnect the harness at the connector and check for
corrosion, bent pins, spread pins or any condition that would cause a
loose or intermittent condition.

Connector Checks To Ground (B+)


Measure resistance of all wiring harness connectors to EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
Page 29 of 208

ground, preferably the negative battery cable, to determine if a short


to ground is present. During these tests, turn off all accessories,
including the dome light. Current in the system will affect resistance
readings. If a reading is fluctuating greatly, disconnect the battery
and measure to the negative battery cable. The signal ground on all
sensor harness connectors should measure less than 5 ohms. The VREF
and signal lines with the processor connected will normally measure
more than 100k ohms. The power ground on an actuator circuit should
measure less than 5 ohms. The control side of an actuator circuit
should measure more than 1000 ohms.

Connector Voltage Checks


Turn ignition key to the ON position and measure if the
expected voltages are present at the connector. On circuits with
expected voltages, this test will verify the integrity of the circuit.
On circuits without an expected voltage, this test will determine if
the circuit is shorted or miswired to a voltage source. The signal
ground on all connectors should measure less than .25 volts. VREF
circuits should measure 4.5-5.5 volts. If voltage is higher or lower
than expected, disconnect sensors one at a time to determine if a
sensor is biasing the circuit.
Sensor signal lines will measure 0-.25 volts. If the circuit
is designed to pull down when disconnected, or a higher voltage (4.6-5
or 12 volts), it is designed as a pull up circuit. A pull up signal
circuit that measures the expected value normally indicates a god
circuit.
Actuator circuits may either be On/Off type circuits (12
volts), or pulse width modulated circuit (12 volts controlled by a %
duty cycle).
Communication circuits between the ECM and Injector Driver
Module (IDM) are designed to pull up or down. This means that one end
of the communication circuit is normally at a high, or 12 volt level
and the signal is created by the low side toggling or switching the
high side to ground. Communication lines are best diagnosed with the
breakout box installed and measuring the expected voltage with the key
ON and engine off.

Harness Resistance Tests


Harness resistance checks are performed when a circuit is
suspected of being open or having high resistance. These tests are
performed with the breakout box installed and by measuring resistance
from the sensor connector end to the processor connector. If an open
circuit or high resistance is encountered, the problem is most easily
isolated by separating the circuit at the intermittent connectors and
measuring resistance through both halves of the circuit.

Operational Signal Checks


These checks are made with the breakout box installed and are
normally measuring a signal voltage or frequency. They are useful for
determining an in-range type fault or intermittent condition. In cases
of intermittent faults, monitoring a suspected circuit and recreating
the environmental or physical conditions that caused the complaint
will help verify if a problem is in a particular circuit. It is
critical when measuring the signal level of a circuit to understand
its function and whether it is a analog voltage, digital frequency,
sine wave or digital communication signal. A DVOM has certain
limitations in measuring any circuit that has a frequency.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E E


Page 30 of 208

Fig. 21: Sensor & Actuator Locations


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 30)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 31 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 31)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 22: Engine Control Component Locations


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR &


IDLE VALIDATION SWITCH DIAGNOSIS

Signal Functions
The accelerator pedal position sensor (APS) is a
potentiometer type sensor which receives a 5-volt reference signal
from the ECM. The APS then provides a linear analog voltage signal
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that indicates the driver demand for power. The idle validation switch
(IVS) is 0-12 volt signal that provides the ECM with a redundant
signal to verify the pedal is in the idle position.

Fault Detection Management


Any detected malfunction of the APS or IVS will illuminate
the WARN ENGINE light. An APS signal that is detected out-of-range
high or low by the ECM will cause the engine to ignore the signal and
only allow the engine to operate at low idle. If a disagreement in the
state of IVS and APS is detected by the ECM and the ECM determines
that it is an IVS fault, the ECM will only a maximum of 50 percent APS
to be commanded. If a disagreement in the state of IVS and APS is
detected by the ECM and the ECM cannot determine if it is an IVS or
APS fault, or if it is an APS fault, the engine will operate at low
idle only.

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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 33)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 23: APS/IVS Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
When the key is ON, the ECM continuously monitors the APS/IVS
circuits for expected voltages. It also compares the APS and IVS
signals for conflict. If the signals are not what the ECM expects to
Page 34 of 208

see, a fault code is set. APS/IVS fault codes are as follows:


CODE 131 - ATA CODE PID 91 FMI 4; APS OUT-OF-RANGE LOW -
Perform Testing APS Circuits. See Fig. 26.
CODE 132 - ATA CODE PID 91 FMI 3; APS OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH -
Perform Testing APS Circuits. See Figs. 26 and 27.
CODE 133 - ATA CODE PID 91 FMI 2; APS IN RANGE FAULT -
Perform Testing IVS Circuits and Testing APS Circuits. See Figs. 25,
26 and 27.
CODE 134 - ATA CODE PID 91 FMI 7; APS/IVS DISAGREE - Perform
Testing IVS Circuits and Testing APS Circuits. See Figs. 25, 26 and
27.
CODE 135 - ATA CODE SID 230 FMI 11; IVS CIRCUIT FAULT -
Perform Testing IVS Circuits and Testing APS Circuits. See Figs. 25,
26 and 27.

Fig. 24: APS/IVS Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44
Page 35 of 208

Fig. 25: Testing IVS Circuits


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article T


Page 36 of 208

Fig. 26: Testing APS Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 36)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 37 of 208

Fig. 27: Testing APS Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

BAROMETRIC PRESSURE SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Barometric Pressure Sensor (BARO) is a variable
capacitance sensor that when supplied with a 5-volt reference signal
from the ECM produces a linear analog signal that indicates pressure.
The BARO signal is used to determine altitude to adjust timing and
fuel quantity to optimize engine operating and control smoke
throughout all
EMISSIONS altitudes.
- DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 37)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Fault Detection Management
A BARO signal that is detected out-of-range high or low by
the ECM will cause the ECM to ignore the BARO signal and use the
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) signal generated at low idle as an
indication of atmospheric pressure. If a MAP fault is detected, the
BARO will default to 29.6 Hg of barometric pressure.
Page 38 of 208

Fig. 28: BARO Sensor Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously monitors the signal from the BARO sensor
the ECM terminal No. 5. If the signal is out of the expected range, a
fault is logged (warning light does not come on) and the ECM uses the
MAP signal to determine barometric pressure. BARO sensor fault codes
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CT
Page 39 of 208

are as follows:
CODE 151 - ATA CODE PID 108 FMI 3; BARO SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
HIGH - Perform Testing BARO Circuit. See Figs. 30 and 31.
CODE 152 - ATA CODE PID 108 FMI 4; BARO SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
LOW - Perform Testing BARO Circuit. See Figs. 30 and 31.

Fig. 29: BARO Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44


Page 40 of 208

Fig. 30: Testing BARO Sensor Circuit (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 40)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 41 of 208

Fig. 31: Testing BARO Sensor Circuit (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

BRAKE SWITCH/RELAY CIRCUIT

Signal Functions
The service brake switch circuit function is to communicate
to the ECM when the service brakes are applied or not applied. This
information is used with cruise control and PTO operation, which are
controlled by the ECM.

Fault Detection Management


The ECM continuously monitors ECM terminal Nos. 23 and 43.
The ECM expects to see a 12V signal at one terminal and 0V signal at
the other. If the signals disagree, then fault code 222 is set as an
active fault. If code 222 is set, cruise control an PTO operation are
disabled. If the fault is intermittent, the system does not reset
until the vehicle has been shut off and restarted. The Engine Warning
Light will not come on.

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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 42)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 32: Brake Switch/Relay Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously monitors ECM terminal Nos. 23 and 43.
The ECM expects to see a 12V signal at one terminal and 0V signal at
the other. If the signals disagree, then fault code 222 is set as an
active fault. If code 222 is set, cruise control an PTO operation are
disabled. If the fault is intermittent, the system does not reset
Page 43 of 208

until the vehicle has been shut off and restarted. the Engine Warning
Light will not come on. Brake switch/relay fault code is as follows:
CODE 222 - ATA CODE SID 247 FMI 2; BRAKE SWITCH CIRCUIT FAULT
- Perform Air Brake Switch and Hydraulic Brake Switch Circuit tests
before performing Brake Switch Relay Circuit Test. See Figs. 35
through 39.

Fig. 33: Brake Switch/Relay Wiring Diagram (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E


Page 44 of 208

Fig. 34: Brake Switch/Relay Wiring Diagram (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 44)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 45 of 208

Fig. 35: Air Brake Switch Circuit Test


Courtesy of -Navistar
EMISSIONS DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
International ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text
Corp. (p. 45)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 46 of 208

Fig. 36: Hydraulic Brake Switch Circuit Test


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 46)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 47 of 208

Fig. 37: Brake Switch/Relay Circuit Test (1 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 47)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 48 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL
Fig. 38: Brake (NAVISTAR
Switch/Relay T444ETest
Circuit ELEC
(2 ENG
Of 3)CTRL)Article Text (p. 48)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 49 of 208

Fig. 39: Brake Switch/Relay Circuit Test (3 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Testing Hella Relay


The Brake Switch/Relay circuit also uses a Hella relay. Use
the following test to check the relay.
1) Remove relay from connector. Using a DVOM, measure
resistance between terminals No. 30 and 87A. See Fig. 40. If
resistance is less than 2 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is more
than 2 ohms, replace relay.

Fig. 40: Testing Hella Relay


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 49)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
2) Measure resistance between terminals No. 30 and 87. If
resistance is more than 100k ohms, go to next step. If resistance is
less than 100K ohms, replace relay.
Page 50 of 208

3) Connect positive battery lead to terminal No. 85 and


negative lead to terminal No. 86. Relay should energize with an
audible click. If relay energizes, go to next step. If relay does not
energize, replace relay.
4) With relay energized, measure resistance between terminals
No. 30 and 87A. If resistance is more than 100k ohms, go to next step.
If resistance is less than 100K ohms, replace relay.
5) With relay energized, measure resistance between terminals
No. 30 and 87. If resistance is less than 2 ohms, relay is good. If
resistance is more than 2 ohms, replace relay.

CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR CIRCUIT

Signal Functions
The Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) is a Hall effect type
sensor that generates a digital frequency as windows on the timing
disc pass through its magnetic field. The frequency of the windows
passing by the sensor as well as the width of the selected window
allows the ECM to detect engine speed and position.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p


Page 51 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 51)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 41: Camshaft Position Sensor Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Fault Detection Management


An inactive CMP signal during cranking is detectable by the
ECM. An inactive signal will cause a no-start condition. Electrical
noise can also be detected by the ECM. If the level is sufficient to
Page 52 of 208

effect engine operation a corresponding fault code will be set. The


engine will not operate without a functioning CMP signal.

ECM Diagnostics
Once the ECM has recognized the narrow vane it will
synchronize the engine firing order to the timing of the CMP signal.
Every 2 crankshaft revolutions it will verify that synchronization. If
the ECM receives too many or too few pulses for the number of engine
revolutions, it will set a fault code. CMP codes that are set will
become inactive codes if the key is turned off. These cods can be
retrieved using the Self-Test Input switch on the dashboard, or the
Electronic Service Tool. The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 143 - ATA CODE SID 21 FMI 2; WRONG NUMBER OF CMP SIGNAL
TRANSITIONS PER CAM REVOLUTION - Possible causes for code 143 are
intermittent CMP signal caused by an intermittent circuit, defective
CMP sensor, or incorrect CMP sensor to timing disc clearance. Perform
CMP Sensor Circuit Test. See Fig. 43.
CODE 144 - ATA CODE SID 21 FMI 2; CMP SIGNAL NOISE DETECTED -
Possible causes for code 144 are poor ground connections, wire harness
shielding missing or incorrectly installed or outside components that
could induce voltage signals. Perform CMP Sensor Circuit Test. See
Fig. 43.
CODE 145 - ATA CODE SID 21 FMI 12; CMP SIGNAL INACTIVE WHILE
ICP HAS INCREASED - Possible causes for code 145 are defective sensor,
faulty circuitry or improper air gap between sensor and timing disc.
Perform CMP Sensor Circuit Test. See Fig. 43.
CODE 612 - ATA CODE SID 21 FMI 7; INCORRECT ECM INSTALLED FOR
CMP TIMING DISC - Possible causes for code 612 are ECM accidentally
replaced with incorrect ECM, incorrect signal due to defective CMP
sensor or incorrect CMP sensor to timing disc air gap. Perform CMP
Sensor Circuit Test. See Fig. 43.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44


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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 53)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 42: Camshaft Position Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 54 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 54)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Fig. 43: Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Test
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

DATA COMMUNICATIONS LINKS

Signal Functions
The Data Communication Link (DCL) signal is 0-5 volt variable
width wave form signal that enables communication between the Vehicle
Page 55 of 208

Personality Module (VPM) and the ECM. It is used to communicate


diagnostic and calibration data.
The ATA Diagnostic Programming Link signal is 0-5 volt width
wave form signal that enables communication between the Vehicle
Personality Module (VPM) and the Electronic Service Tool (EST). It is
used to communicate diagnostic, programming and calibration data.
The Tachometer signal is when the ECM provides the VPM with a
0-12 volt tachometer signal. The frequency of the signal is one-fifth
the RPM.

Fault Detection Management


The VPM and ECM can detect on a continuous basis an open,
short or intermittent connection on the DCL and ATA lines.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 56)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 44: Data Link Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
Fault codes can be caused by defects in the ATA or DCL
circuits. There are also flash codes related to or caused by faulty
communication between the ECM and VPM. The engine control does not
detect faults in the power or ground circuits to the EST connector. If
Page 57 of 208

the service tool does not power up when connected, try the tool on
another vehicle to check the tool operation. If the tool is okay,
perform Testing EST Connector. See Fig. 46. If the service tool
displays NO DATA, the ATA data link circuit from the EST connector on
the VPM may be disrupted. Verify that the key in ON and then perform
Testing ATA Data Link Circuits. See Fig. 47. Data Link fault codes are
as follows:
CODE 223 - ATA CODE SID 252 FMI 7; VPM NOT COMMUNICATING WITH
ECM - Perform Testing DCL Circuits. See Fig. 50.
CODE 231 - ATA CODE SID 250 FMI 2; ATA COMMON FAULT - Perform
Testing ATA Data Links. See Fig. 47.
CODE 232 - ATA CODE SID 250 FMI 9; UNABLE TO FORWARD ECM
MESSAGE TO ATA DCL - Perform Testing ATA Data Links. See Fig. 47.
CODE 234 - ATA CODE SID 248 FMI 9; UNABLE TO FORWARD ATA
MESSAGE TO ECM - Perform Testing DCL Circuits. See Fig. 50.
CODE 235 - ATA CODE SID 248 FMI 2; VPM/ECM DCL FAULT -
Perform Testing DCL Circuits. See Fig. 50.
CODE 633 - ATA CODE SID 252 FMI 7; ECM/VPM COMMON FAULT -
Perform Testing DCL Circuits. See Fig. 50.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 58)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 45: Data Link Connector Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 59 of 208

Fig. 46: Testing EST Connector Circuits


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 59)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 60 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 60)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 47: Testing ATA Data Link Circuits (1 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 61 of 208

Fig. 48: Testing ATA Data Link Circuits (2 Of 3)


Courtesy of -Navistar
EMISSIONS International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 61)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 62 of 208

Fig. 49: Testing ATA Data Link Circuits (3 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 62)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 63 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 63)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 50: Testing DCL Data Link Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 64 of 208

Fig. 51: Testing DCL Data Link Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Exhaust Backpressure Sensor (EBP) is variable capacitance
sensor that when supplied with a 5-volt reference signal from the ECM
produces a linear analog voltage signal that indicates pressure. The
main purpose of the sensor is to measure pressure so the ECM can
control the exhaust backpressure regulator when needed.

Fault Detection Management


An EBP signal that is detected out-of-range high or low by
the ECM will cause the engine to ignore the EBP signal and disable
exhaust backpressure operation.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 64)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 65 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 65)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Fig. 52: Exhaust Backpressure Sensor Connector Check Values
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously monitors the signal from the EBP sensor
to ensure the signal is within the correct operating range. If the
signal is lower or higher than required, the ECM will set a fault
code. If the key is turned off, the code will be stored as an inactive
code. EBP fault codes are as follows:
Page 66 of 208

CODE 341 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 20: EBP SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
LOW - Possible causes for code 341 are an open VREF signal circuit or
a defective EBP sensor.
CODE 342 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 19: EBP SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
HIGH - Possible causes for code 342 are an open signal return circuit,
a short to a voltage source or a defective EBP sensor.
CODE 344 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 29: EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE BELOW
WARNING LEVEL - Code 344 may be caused by a defective or plugged EBP
sensor or a restriction in the tube leading to the sensor. To confirm
this, remove the sensor and/or tube and inspect for carbon deposits.

ENGINE CRANK INHIBIT SYSTEM

Signal Functions
The ECM uses the enable circuit to control engine cranking.
The ECM prevents cranking motor operation whenever the engine is
running or whenever a vehicle with an automatic transmission is not in
Neutral.

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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 67)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 53: Engine Crank Inhibit Connector Check Values


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
ECM terminals Nos. 10 and 35 are directly involved with
enabling the crank inhibit relay. The ECM and VPM are programmed
differently for automatic and manual transmissions.
Page 68 of 208

ECM terminal No. 10 receives input (0 or 12 volts) from


either the clutch switch (man. trans.) or neutral position switch
(auto. trans.). The ECM uses the input to determine the voltage signal
on terminal No. 35.
ECM terminal No. 35 is connected by a circuit to crank
inhibit relay terminal No. 5. Based on inputs to terminal No. 10 and
engine operating conditions, the ECM either applies 0.1-0.6 volts or
12 volts to terminal No. 35. If lower voltage is applied, the inhibit
relay is enabled. If higher voltage is applied, the relay is not
enabled.
There are no fault codes or ECM diagnostics for this system.
When troubleshooting make sure battery is fully charged. Ensure all
connections are clean and tight. Inspect all harness connectors for
corrosion, damage, etc. Testing is divided into test charts shown in
the following illustrations.

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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 69)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 54: Engine Crank Inhibit Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Engine Does Not Crank


The testing for Engine Does Not Crank are divided into 2
parts: Part 1, Engine Does Not Crank. See Figs. 55 through 57. Part 2,
Engine Does Not Crank With Manual XMSM & Clutch Switch. See Figs. 58
through 69.
Page 70 of 208

Fig. 55: Engine Does Not Crank Part 1, Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 70)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 71 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 71)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 56: Engine Does Not Crank Part 1 Troubleshooting (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 72 of 208

Fig. 57: Engine Does Not Crank Part 1 Troubleshooting (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 72)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 73 of 208

Fig. 58: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2A, Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 73)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 74 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 74)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 59: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2A Troubleshooting (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 75 of 208

Fig. 60: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2A Troubleshooting (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 75)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 76 of 208

Fig. 61: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2B, Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 76)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 77 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 77)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 62: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2B Troubleshooting (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 78 of 208

Fig. 63: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2B Troubleshooting (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 78)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 79 of 208

Fig. 64: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2C, Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 79)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 80 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 80)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 65: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2C Troubleshooting (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 81 of 208

Fig. 66: Engine Does Not Crank Part 2C Troubleshooting (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 81)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 82 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 82)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 67: Clutch Switch Circuit Test


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 83 of 208

Fig. 68: Neutral Position Circuit Test W/Allison Trans. (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 83)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 84 of 208

Fig. 69: Neutral Position Circuit Test W/Allison Trans. (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 84)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 85 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 85)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 70: Engine Crank Inhibit Relay Test


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ENGINE COOLANT LEVEL SYSTEM

Signal Functions
With the optional engine protection system, the ECM monitors
inputs from the Engine Oil Pressure sensor, Engine Coolant Temperature
sensor and Low Coolant switch. If any of these sensors detect out-of-
range conditions beyond the warning level, ECM OWL terminal No. 59
goes Low causing the alarm to sound and the oil/water warning light to
Page 86 of 208

turn ON. If the engine shutdown feature has been selected and the out-
of-range condition go beyond the critical level, the ECM will initiate
the shutdown process.

Fault Detection Management


There are no ECM Diagnostics for this system. Flash Code 323
will be active when a low coolant condition is present and the PRO-
LINK will indicate COOLANT LOW. After the coolant has been refilled,
code 323 will remain as an inactive code and the ECM will log the
engine hours of the occurrence. If the PRO-LINK indicates COOLANT LOW,
perform Testing For False Low Coolant Signal. See Figs. 74 and 75. If
the PRO-LINK indicates COOLANT FULL, perform Testing For False Full
Coolant Signal. See Figs. 76 and 77.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 87 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 87)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 71: Engine Coolant Level Connector Check W/Metal Tank


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 88 of 208

Fig. 72: Engine Coolant Level Connector Check W/Plastic Tank


Courtesy of -Navistar
EMISSIONS DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
International ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text
Corp. (p. 88)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 89 of 208

Fig. 73: Engine Coolant Level System Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 89)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 90 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 90)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 74: Testing For False Low Coolant Signal (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 91 of 208

Fig. 75: Testing For False Low Coolant Signal (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 91)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 92 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 92)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 76: Testing For False Full Coolant Signal (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 93 of 208

Fig. 77: Testing For False Full Coolant Signal (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Signal Functions
The ECM monitors and controls engine operation and
performance, vehicle features such a PTO and cruise control,
communicates information to the VPM and Injector Driver Module (IDM).

Fault Detection Management


The ECM is capable of internal fault detection and depending
upon the severity of the problem, can provide fault management
strategies to allow limited engine/vehicle operation.

ECM Diagnostics
During normal engine operation, the ECM automatically
performs several tests to detect faults. During normal operation the
ECM performs Start-Up KAM test and Continuous Diagnostics. The Start-
Up KAM test is used to validate the ECM keep alive memory once each
time the ECM resets. If an error is detected, codes 224 or 615 can be
set.
CODE 615 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 13: PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETER
EMISSIONS
KAM CORRUPT -FAULT
DIESEL (NAVISTAR
- Code 615 can T444E
be setELEC
when ENG
code CTRL)Article Text
224 is set. If (p. 93)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
224
is set, see KEEP ALIVE MEMORY POWER . If code 224 is not set, the ECM
RAM is effective. Replace ECM.
Continuous diagnostics are made by the ECM during vehicle
operation. Codes 112 and 113 may be set during this procedure. If
codes 112 and/or 113 are present, see ECM POWER SUPPLY .
Use the PRO-LINK EST to perform ECM internal self-tests. This
test may set the following codes:
Page 94 of 208

CODE 111 - ATA CODE PID 194 FMI 0: NO ERRORS DETECTED - Code
111 indicates the ECM has not found any errors.
CODE 625 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 9: ECM INACTIVE BACKGROUND -
Code 625 indicates the ECM software is faulty. Replace the ECM.
CODE 631 - ATA CODE SID 240 FMI 2: ROM TEST FAULT - If code
631 is present, replace the ECM.
CODE 632 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 12: RAM/CPU TEST FAULT - If
code 632 is present, replace the ECM.
During the ECM Output Circuit Check the following codes may
appear:
CODE 254 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 3: OCC ORH - If code 254 is
present, replace the ECM.
CODE 255 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 4: OCC ORL - If code 255 is
present, replace the ECM.

TESTING

ECM/IDM COMMUNICATIONS

Signal Functions
The Cylinder Identification (CI) signal is a 0 to 12 volt
wave form signal that communicates from the ECM to the Injector Driver
Module (IDM) the position of cylinder No. 1. The IDM uses this signal
to synchronize injector firing sequence.
The Fuel Demand Command (FDCS) signal is a 0 to 12 volt wave
form signal that communicates from the ECM to the Injector Driver
Module (IDM) the required engine timing and duration of injector
firing.
The IDM feedback signal is a 0 to 12 volt wave form signal
that communicates from the IDM to the ECM a mirror image of the FDCS
signal. Extensions of this signal can indicate to the ECM possible
problems with the injectors by the IDM as the engine is running.

Fault Detection Management


An intermittent or open or short to ground in the CI circuit
can be detected by the IDM through IDM Stuck High or Low Codes (531 &
532). Active faults can be detected by an on demand output circuit
check during Engine Off tests. The engine will not operate without an
active cylinder identification circuit.
Active faults in the fuel demand command circuit can be
detected by an on demand output circuit check during Engine Off tests.
The engine will not operate without an active fuel demand command
circuit.
Active faults in the IDM feedback circuit can be detected by
toggle sequence that the ECM looks for on start up. The WARN light
will be on if this is detected. IDM diagnostic fault codes will not be
transmitted if the EF line is not functioning. The engine will operate
normally.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 9


Page 95 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 95)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 78: ECM/IDM Communication Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM monitors the timing of the EF signal while the engine
Page 96 of 208

is running. When it detects a fault sent from the IDM, it will log the
transfer. It will be necessary to perform an Engine Off Standard test
to determine most fault codes stored in the IDM. The ECM continually
measures the communication signal voltage levels. If levels are lower
or higher than expected, a fault code will be set to identify the
circuit or component. The fault will automatically recorded as an
active code. If the key is turned off, the code will be stored as
inactive. The following codes may be set by the ECM/IDM:
CODE 242 - ATA CODE SID 154 FMI 11: FDCS CIRCUIT TO IDM OCC
SELF-TEST FAILED - Code 242 may be caused by a shorted high or low or
open FDCS circuit. If accompanied by other communication codes could
indicate the IDM is not powered up. The fault must be repaired for the
engine to operate.
CODE 253 - ATA CODE SID 153 FMI 11: FUEL INJ SYNC CIRCUIT OCC
SELF-TEST FAILED - Code 253 may be caused by a shorted high or low or
open CI circuit. If accompanied by other communication codes could
indicate the IDM is not powered up. The fault must be repaired for the
engine to operate.
CODE 531 - ATA CODE SID 153 FMI 4: FUEL INJ SYNC SIGNAL LOW -
Code 531 may be caused by a short to ground in the CI circuit. The
fault must be repaired for the engine to operate.
CODE 532 - ATA CODE SID 153 FMI 3: FUEL INJ SYNC SIGNAL HIGH
- Code 532 may be caused by a short to voltage or an open in the CI
circuit. The fault must be repaired for the engine to operate.
CODE 541 - ATA CODE SID 155 FMI 11: IDM FEEDBACK TOGGLE NOT
DETECTED BY ECM - Code 541 may be caused by a short or open EF circuit
if this is the only code present. If other IDM codes are present the
IDM may not be powered or operational. If displayed during an Engine
Off Standard test it will be accompanied by code 543. This code may
set due to other faults in the ECM due to a reset condition. If other
codes are present, repair them first in the order of importance for
engine operation. This code will not prevent the engine from
operating.
CODE 543 - ATA CODE SID 155 FMI 7: IDM FAULTS NOT RECEIVED -
Code 543 may be caused by a shorts or opens in the IDM/ECM
communications circuits or an IDM not powered. If other codes are
present, repair them first in the order of importance for engine
operation. This code will not prevent the engine from operating.
Also see Figs. 80 and 81 for further diagnostic information.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 97 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 97)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc

Fig. 79: Injector Driver Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 98 of 208

Fig. 80: ECM/IDM Communication Check (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of -Navistar
EMISSIONS International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 98)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Page 99 of 208

Fig. 81: ECM/IDM Communication Check (2 Of 2)


EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 99)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mitc
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM POWER SUPPLY

Signal Functions
Page 100 of 208

The ECM receives 12 volt operating power with the key ON from
the ECM power relay. The ECM also receives 12 volt battery power at
all times for the Keep Alive Memory Function.

Fault Detection Management


The ECM monitors voltages at terminal Nos. 37 and 57. If the
ECM continuously receives less than 6.5 volts or more than 18 volts, a
fault code will be set. The fault codes do cause the Warning light to
come on. If the condition is intermittent, the code will be logged as
an inactive code.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 100)For cy
Page 101 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 101)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 82: ECM Power Supply Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
If the ECM continuously receives less than 6.5 volts or more
than 18 volts at terminals Nos. 37 and 57, fault code 112 or 113 will
Page 102 of 208

be set.
CODE 112 - ATA CODE PID 168 FMI 3: ECM INTERNAL VOLTAGE POWER
OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH - Code 112 can be caused by either of two
conditions: 1) Vehicle voltage supply to the ECM is continuously more
than 18 volts. Excessive voltage can be caused by a defective
alternator. 2) The ECM has an internal fault.
CODE 113 - ATA CODE PID 168 FMI 4: ECM INTERNAL VOLTAGE POWER
OUT-OF-RANGE LOW - Code 113 can be caused by vehicle voltage supply to
the ECM is continuously less than 6.5 volts. This can be caused by a
defective alternator, low batteries, and/or increased resistance in
the battery feed circuits. If code 113 is active or no voltage is
present to the ECM, perform Testing ECM Power Supply Circuits. See
Figs. 84 and 85.

Fig. 83: ECM Power Supply Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 103 of 208

Fig. 84: Testing ECM Power Supply Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy
EMISSIONSof -Navistar International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 103)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 104 of 208

Fig. 85: Testing ECM Power Supply Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS
ENGINE -COOLANT
DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
TEMPERATURE ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 104)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECT) is a thermistor
type that has a variable resistance that changes when exposed to
Page 105 of 208

different temperatures. When interfaced with the ECM it produces a 0


to 5 volt analog signal that measure temperature. At coolant
temperatures more than 214 F (101C), fuel quantity is reduced 6
percent for each degree of temperature until temperature reaches 218 F
(103C). At coolant temperatures below 158 F (70C), low idle speed is
incrementally increased to a maximum of 875 RPM. Glow plug relay and
lamp on times are directly affected by the engine coolant temperature.

Fault Detection Management


An ECT signal that is detected out-of-range high or low by
the ECM will cause the ECM to ignore the ECT signal and assume an
engine coolant temperature of -29 F (-20C). for starting and 180 F
(82C) for engine running conditions. The WARN lamp will also be lit
as long as the fault condition exists.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E E


Page 106 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 106)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 86: Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
With the key ON, the ECM continuously monitors the ECT
circuit for expected voltages. If the signal voltage is less than or
more than expected, the ECM will set a fault code. The following fault
codes may be set:
Page 107 of 208

CODE 114 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 4: ECT OUT-OF-RANGE LOW -
Code 114 will be set if the ECM sees a voltage less than .127 volts
for more than .10 seconds. This may be caused by a short to ground or
a shorted or biased sensor.
CODE 115 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 3: ECT OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH -
Code 115 will be set if the ECM sees a voltage more than 4.6 volts
for more than .10 seconds. This may be caused by an open circuit, an
open sensor, or a short to another voltage source.
CODE 316 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 1: ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE
UNABLE TO REACH SET COMMANDED POINT - Code 316 will only be set with
engines that have the Cold Ambient Temperature (CAP) system enabled.
This code only indicates that the engine has not been able to reach
operating temperature. It DOES NOT indicate an electrical fault. This
code may be set because of cold temperatures, extended idle time,
thermostat stuck open, cooling system plumbing problem or auxiliary
heater cores cooling off engine.
CODE 321 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 0: ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE
ABOVE WARNING LEVEL - Code 321 will be set if the ECM detects coolant
temperatures above 225 F (107C). When this occurs, the ECM lights the
OIL/WATER warning light and sounds the alarm. If the temperature drops
below the limit, the code becomes inactive and the ECM returns to
normal operation.
CODE 322 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 7: ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE
ABOVE CRITICAL LEVEL - Code 321 will be set if the ECM detects coolant
temperatures above 235 F (112C). When this occurs, the ECM lights the
OIL/WATER warning light and sounds the alarm. With code 322 active,
the engine will shut down. If the temperature drops below the limit,
the code becomes inactive and the ECM returns to normal operation. If
the engine shuts down, it can be restarted to move the vehicle to a
safe place.
CODE 325 - ATA CODE PID 110 FMI 14: POWER REDUCED, MATCHED TO
COOLING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE - Code 325 will be set if the ECM detects
coolant temperatures above 214 F (101C). When this occurs, the ECM
reduces the fuel amount being delivered, to reduce the amount of heat
being generated by the engine.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 107)For cyph8r pacifi
Page 108 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 108)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 87: ECT Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 109 of 208

Fig. 88: Testing ECT Sensor Diagnostic Chart


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 109)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
ENGINE DATA LINE WITH ALLISON TRANSMISSIONS

Signal Functions
The ECM is programmed with 2 shift schedules: Closed Throttle
Mode and Wide Open Throttle Mode. Closed throttle is used for moderate
engine loads. ECM terminal No. 32 will be 0 volts. This energizes the
relay, turning off power to the solenoid, causing the transmission to
shift at about 65 percent of engine load. The wide open throttle mode
is for heavy load conditions. ECM terminal No. 32 will be at 12 volts.
Page 110 of 208

This de-energizes the relay causing 12 volts to be applied to the


solenoid. The ECM has a shift schedule that occurs at 80 percent of
engine load.

Fault Detection
The PRO-LINK EST is used to initiate the KOEO Output Circuit
Test. This will test the enabling circuit between the key switch,
through the relay coil and circuit to terminal No. 32. If an open or
short is found, code 244 will be set.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 111 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 111)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 89: Data Link With Allison Transmission Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM does not continuously monitor the EDL circuits. To
check these circuits use the PRO-LINK EST to perform the checks. The
following fault code may be set:
CODE 244 - ATA CODE SID 248 FMI 11: EDL OCC FAULT - The
Output Circuit Check (OCC) test checks the relay control circuits and
the relay control for opens or shorts. If a defect is found, code 244
Page 112 of 208

will be set. The Engine Warning Light does not come on. It is possible
that the modulator shift solenoid will not function without setting a
fault code. Use Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid (403) Circuits to
check solenoid. See Figs. 91 through 94. If code 244 is active or the
shift modulator does not operate use Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid
(404) Circuits to check solenoid. See Fig. 91.

Fig. 90: Modulator Shift Solenoid W/Allison Trans. Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 113 of 208

Fig. 91: Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid (404) Circuits


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 113)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 114 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 114)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 92: Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid (403) Circuits (1 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 115 of 208

Fig. 93: Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid (403) Circuits (2 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 115)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 116 of 208

Fig. 94: Testing Modulator Shift Solenoid (403) Circuits (3 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ENGINE OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor is a variable
capacitance sensor, that when supplied with a 5 volt reference signal
from the ECM, produces a linear analog voltage signal indicating oil
pressure.

Fault Detection Management


EMISSIONS
An -EOP
DIESEL (NAVISTAR
signal T444E ELEC
that is detected ENG CTRL)Article
out-of-range Text
high or low by(p. 116)
For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
the ECM will cause the ECM to ignore the EOP signal and disable engine
warning and protection systems.
Page 117 of 208

Fig. 95: Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Connector Check


Courtesy of -Navistar
EMISSIONS International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 117)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously monitors the signal from the EOP sensor.
If the signal is higher or lower than expected, a fault code will be
set. The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 211 - ATA CODE PID 100 FMI 4: ENGINE OIL PRESS SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE LOW - Code 211 may be set if the ECM detects a voltage
Page 118 of 208

less than .039 volts for more than .10 seconds. The engine will
continue to operate normally. If the fault is active the ECM will turn
on the Engine Warning Light. Code 212 may be caused by an open signal
circuit, VREF feed or a defective sensor.
CODE 212 - ATA CODE PID 100 FMI 3: ENGINE OIL PRESS SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH - Code 212 may be set if the ECM detects a voltage
less than 4.5 volts for more than .10 seconds. The engine will
continue to operate normally. If the fault is active the ECM will turn
on the Engine Warning Light. Code 212 may be caused by an open signal
return circuit, a short to voltage or a defective sensor.
CODE 313 - ATA CODE PID 100 FMI 1: ENGINE OIL PRESSURE BELOW
WARNING LEVEL - Code 313 indicates oil pressure has dropped below the
warning level. Code 313 may be caused by a defective sensor sending an
incorrect signal. Check actual oil pressure to confirm this. The code
may be set at start-up, or by an oil system that is not primed.
CODE 314 - ATA CODE PID 100 FMI 7: ENGINE OIL PRESSURE BELOW
CRITICAL LEVEL - Code 314 indicates oil pressure has dropped below the
critical level. Code 313 may be caused by a defective sensor sending
an incorrect signal. Check actual oil pressure to confirm this. The
oil pressure may be caused by defective mechanical components.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444


Page 119 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 119)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 96: Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 120 of 208

Fig. 97: Testing Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 120)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 121 of 208

Fig. 98: Testing Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ENGINE OIL TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor is a thermistor type
sensor that has a variable resistance which changes with temperature.
When interfaced with the ECM, it produces a 0 to 5 volt analog signal
that indicates temperature.

Fault Detection Management


An EOT signal that is detected out-of-range high or low by
the ECM will cause the ECM to ignore the EOT signal and default to the
ECT sensor. -The
EMISSIONS WARN (NAVISTAR
DIESEL light will be on as
T444E longENG
ELEC as the condition Text
CTRL)Article exists.
(p. 121)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
If both the EOT and ECT sensors are not working, the ECM will assume a
temperature of 212 F (100C) value for engine temperature.
Page 122 of 208

Fig. 99: Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTARmonitors the signal
T444E ELEC from the EOT Text
ENG CTRL)Article sensor.
(p. 122)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
If the signal is higher or lower than expected, a fault code will be
set. The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 311 - ATA CODE PID 175 FMI 4: ENGINE OIL TEMP SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE LOW - Code 311 may be set if the ECM detects a voltage
less than 0.20 volts for more than .10 seconds. The ECM will default
to a fixed value for engine operation. The ECM will turn on the Engine
Page 123 of 208

Warning Light. Code 311 may be caused by a short to ground in the


signal or a defective sensor.
CODE 312 - ATA CODE PID 175 FMI 3: ENGINE OIL TEMP SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH - Code 312 may be set if the ECM detects a voltage
more than 4.8 volts for more than .10 seconds. The ECM will default to
a fixed value for engine operation. The ECM will turn on the Engine
Warning Light. Code 312 may be caused by an open signal circuit
between the ECM and the sensor, a short to voltage or a defective
sensor.

Fig. 100: Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp. EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T
Page 124 of 208

Fig. 101: Testing Engine Oil Temperature Sensor


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE REGULATOR

Signal Functions
The Exhaust Backpressure Regulator (EPR) is a variable
position valve that controls exhaust backpressure during cold ambient
temperatures to increase cab heat and decrease windshield defrosting
time. The ECM uses the measured exhaust backpressure, intake air
temperature, engine coolant temperature and engine load to determine
EMISSIONS
the desired exhaust backpressure. Valve position - DIESEL (NAVISTAR
is controlled by T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article T
Page 125 of 208

switching the output signal circuit to 12 volts inside the ECM. On/off
time is modulated from 0 to 99 percent dependent upon the exhaust
backpressure desired.

Fault Detection Management


An open or shorted to ground control circuit can be detected
by an on demand output circuit check performed during the engine off
test. Problems with either the exhaust backpressure device or the tube
between the sensor and exhaust manifold can be detected during the
exhaust backpressure step test, in which the ECM commands and then
measures a specific pre-programmed pressure then measures the time for
pressure decay during the engine running test. If the ECM detects and
EBP or IAT sensor fault it will disable the EBP.

Fig. 102: Exhaust Backpressure Regulator Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM monitors the exhaust backpressure while the engine is
in operation. If actual pressure is higher or lower than expected, a
fault code will be set. The ECM will discontinue regulator operation
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
Page 126 of 208

leaving the backpressure valve open, creating no exhaust restriction


to aid in warm-up of the engine. The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 245 - ATA CODE SID 35 FMI 11: EPR: OCC SELF-TEST FAILED
- Code 245 is set only during the Engine Off Standard Output Circuit
Check. If the fault is present the EBP will be disabled. Possible
causes are an open feed circuit, open EBP solenoid or an open or
shorted EPR signal circuit.
CODE 343 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 0: EPR: EXCESSIVE EXHAUST
BACKPRESSURE - Code 343 is set when the ECM detects that exhaust
backpressure is greater than 77 in. Hg., which is more than the
maximum allowable. Possible causes are an incorrect EBP signal due to
faulty circuits or sensor, grounded EPR signal circuit, a collapsed
exhaust pipe or stuck regulator valve.
CODE 352 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 10: EPR: EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE
ABOVE OR BELOW DESIRED VALUE - Code 352 may set during normal engine
operation through the continuous monitor function or during the engine
running standard test. It indicates the measured pressure does not
meet the expected value. Possible causes are an incorrect EBP signal
due to circuit or sensor malfunctions, EBP signal circuit may be
shorted, grounded or contain excessive resistance. The EPR valve may
be sticking or blocked.
CODE 351 - ATA CODE SID 34 FMI 7: EPR: EXHAUST BACKPRESSURE
BELOW EXPECTED LEVEL AT HIGH ENGINE SPEEDS - Code 351 may set during
normal engine operation through the continuous monitor function by the
ECM. It indicates the ECM did not see a minimum of pressure data from
low idle operation to 2300 RPM. Possible causes are an incorrect EBP
signal due to faulty circuits or sensor, plugged exhaust backpressure
tube or exhaust pressure valve stuck.

GLOW PLUG CONTROLLER

Output Functions
The Glow Plug Relay controls the current flow to the glow
plugs. Relay on time is controlled by the ECM and is a function of
engine coolant temperature, barometric pressure and battery voltage.
On time normally varies between 10 to 120 seconds. The glow plugs are
self limiting and do not require to be cycled on and off.
The glow plug WAIT lamp indicates to the operator that the
glow plugs have been on long enough to start the engine. It is
controlled by the ECM. Wait time is a function of engine coolant
temperature, barometric pressure and battery voltage.

Fault Detection Management


An open or shorted to ground glow plug relay or wait lamp
circuit can be detected by an on demand output circuit check performed
during the engine off tests. Glow plug and glow plug harness problems
cannot be detected by the ECM.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T44


Page 127 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 127)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 103: Glow Plug Controller Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM does not continuously monitor the glow plug control
circuitry. An open or shorted to ground glow plug control relay on the
control (coil) side circuit can be detected by an on demand output
Page 128 of 208

circuit check performed during the engine off test. The following
fault codes may be stored:
CODE 251 - ATA CODE SID 38 FMI 11: GPC: OCC SELF-TEST FAILED
- Code 251 indicates that the ECM has performed an output circuit
test, measured the voltage drop across the glow plug relay circuit and
determined it is above or below specification. If the fault is
present, the glow plug relay is not operating and the glow plugs are
not enabled. Possible causes for code 251 are an open feed circuit,
open glow plug relay coil or an open or shorted GPC signal circuit.
CODE 252 - ATA CODE SID 36 FMI 11: GLOW PLUG LAMP: OCC SELF-
TEST FAILED - Code 252 indicates that the ECM has performed an output
circuit test, measured the voltage drop across the glow plug Wait lamp
circuit and determined it is above or below specification. Possible
causes are the lamp is burned out or an open or shorted lamp circuit.

INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Signal Functions
The Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor is a thermistor type
sensor that has a variable resistance that changes with temperature.
When interfaced with the ECM it produces a 0-5 volt analog signal that
will deduce temperature. The IAT sensor's primary function is to
measure intake air temperature to determine when exhaust backpressure
is needed.

Fault Detection Management


An IAT signal that is detected out-of-range high or low by
the ECM will cause the engine to ignore the IAT signal, disable
exhaust backpressure operation and assume an ambient temperature of
59F (15C).

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E


Page 129 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 129)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 104: Intake Air Temperature Sensor Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
With the ignition ON, the ECM continuously monitors the IAT
signal to determine if it is within expected values. If the signal
voltage is above or below the expected values, the ECM will set a
fault code. If the IAT sensor is not sending a correct signal, the ECM
will default to 77 F (25C). If the ignition is turned off, the code
Page 130 of 208

will become an Inactive code. IAT codes will cause the Engine Warning
Light to turn on. Fault codes that may be set are as follows:
CODE 154 - ATA CODE PID 171 FMI 4: AMBIENT AIR TEMP SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE LOW - Code 154 will be set if the ECM detects the signal
voltage to be less than .127 volts for more than .20 seconds. Code 154
may be caused by a short to ground in the signal circuit, or a
defective sensor.
CODE 155 - ATA CODE PID 171 FMI 3: AMBIENT AIR TEMP SIGNAL
OUT-OF-RANGE HIGH - Code 155 will be set if the ECM detects the signal
voltage to be more than 4.6 volts for more than .20 seconds. Code 154
may be caused by an open signal circuit between the ECM and the
sensor, a short to voltage source, or a defective sensor.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 131 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 131)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 105: Intake Air Temperature Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 132 of 208

Fig. 106: Testing Intake Air Temperature Sensor Circuit


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL
INJECTION (NAVISTAR
CONTROL T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 132)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
PRESSURE

Signal Functions
The Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor is a variable
capacitance sensor that when supplied with a 5 volt reference signal
from the ECM produces a linear analog voltage signal that indicates
pressure. The ICP function is to provide a feedback signal to indicate
injection control pressure to enable the ECM to command the correct
Page 133 of 208

injector timing and pulse width and the correct injection control
pressure for proper fuel delivery at all speed and load conditions.

Fault Detection Management


If the ECM detects a malfunctioning ICP sensor, the WARN lamp
will light. The ECM will go to open loop control of injection
pressure.

Fig. 107: Injection Control Pressure Sensor Connector Check


EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444
Page 134 of 208

Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM continuously monitors the ICP signal to determine if
it is within expected values. If the signal voltage is above or below
the expected values, the ECM will set a fault code. The ECM will then
ignore the ICP signal and use a preset value determined by engine
operating conditions. ICP codes will turn on the Engine Warning Light.
If the ignition is turned off, the code will become an inactive code.
The following codes may be set:
CODE 124 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 4: ICP SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
LOW - An out-of-range low signal will be set if the signal voltage is
less than .039 volt for more than one second. Code 124 may be caused
by an open or short to ground on the signal circuit, a defective
sensor or an open VREF circuit.
CODE 125 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 3: ICP SIGNAL OUT-OF-RANGE
HIGH - An out-of-range high signal will be set if the signal voltage
is more than 4.9 volts for more than one second. Code 124 may be
caused by an open return circuit, short to voltage on the signal
circuit or a defective sensor.
CODE 332 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 13: ICP PRESSURE ABOVE SPEC
WITH ENGINE OFF - Code 332 will be set if the signal from the ICP
sensor is higher than expected with the engine not running. If the ECM
detects this fault, the ECM will ignore the ICP signal and operate the
IPR with a fixed value determined from engine operating conditions.
Code 332 may be caused by a defective sensor or a biased circuit.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC


Page 135 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 135)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 108: Injection Control Pressure Sensor Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 136 of 208

Fig. 109: Testing Injection Control Pressure Sensor Circuit (1 Of 2)


EMISSIONS
Courtesy of -Navistar
DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E
International ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p.
Corp. 136)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 137 of 208

Fig. 110: Testing Injection Control Pressure Sensor Circuit (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

INJECTOR DRIVER MODULE POWER SUPPLY

Signal Functions
The Injector Driver Module (IDM) receives switched 12 volt
power with the key on from the IDM power relay.

Signal Functions
The IDM power circuits are not continuously monitored. If the
circuit is not operating the engine will not run. The ECM uses the
Output Circuit Check (OCC) initiated during the Standard Test to test
the IDM relay control coil circuits for opens or shorts. On each power
up the IDM performs a self-check. If internal faults are detected a
fault code will be set.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 137)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 138 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 138)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 111: Injector Driver Module Power Circuit Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM uses the OCC to test the IDM relay control circuit.
Use the PRO-LINK EST to perform the OCC test. The PRO-LINK will
indicate if there are faults present and what they are. The following
fault codes may be present:
Page 139 of 208

CODE 243 - ATA CODE SID 37 FMI 11: IDM_ENABLE OCC FAULT - If
the IDM detects a fault during the OCC test, code 243 will be set.
This indicates that the circuit is shorted (high or low) open or no
power is present to energize the IDM relay. When code 243 occurs, it
can also cause codes 253, 523, 541 or 543 to be set. These codes may
be caused by several conditions. The following information only
applies only to the IDM Power Relay circuits that might cause the
codes.
CODE 522 - ATA CODE SID 233 FMI 12: IDM INTERNAL FAILURE. No
causes given.
CODE 523 - ATA CODE SID 233 FMI 4: IDM POWER VOLTAGE LOW -
Code 523 can be caused by a faulty IDM PWR relay control circuit,
excessive voltage drop, a low voltage drop or a defective IDM PWR
relay. If codes 243, 253, 523, 541 or 543 are active, perform Testing
IDM PWR Relay & Related Circuits. See Figs. 113 through 115.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 139)For
Page 140 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 140)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 112: Injector Driver Module Power Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 141 of 208

Fig. 113: Testing Injector Driver Module Power Circuit (1 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 141)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 142 of 208

Fig. 114: Testing Injector Driver Module Power Circuit (2 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 142)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 143 of 208

Fig. 115: Testing Injector Driver Module Power Circuit (3 Of 3)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

INJECTOR DRIVE CIRCUITS

Signal Functions
There are two injector drive circuits, the High Side and the
Low Side. The High Side drive output function is to supply the
injectors a 115 volt DC power supply at a maximum of 10 amps. The
power supply is available on a continuous basis. The Low Side drive
outputs control
EMISSIONS the injector
- DIESEL on time
(NAVISTAR T444E(fuel
ELECquantity), timing (in
ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 143)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
relation to TDC) and sequencing (firing order).
The IDM fires each individual injector by completing the
ground circuit to each injector solenoid. A valid Cylinder
Identification (CI) and Fuel Demand Command Signal (FDCS) must be sent
from the ECM to the IDM before an injector will be allowed to be
fired.

Fault Detection Management


Page 144 of 208

The IDM is capable of detecting, when the engine is running,


individual injector open and shorts to either ground or battery. It is
also capable of detecting right or left bank high side opens or shorts
to ground. A special On-Demand Buzz test will also allow the operator
to enable all injector solenoids while the engine is off to verify
circuit operation.
IDM detected diagnostic fault codes will not be transmitted
if the EF line is not functioning, however the engine will operate
normally. If a short to ground condition is detected on an individual
injector, the IDM will discontinue the power to the bank with the
shorted injector, enable the WARN light and operate the engine on 4
cylinders.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p


Page 145 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 145)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 116: Injector Drive Circuits Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

IDM Diagnostics
The IDM monitors the voltage on the driver circuits and is
capable of detecting an open or shorted circuit. If the IDM detects a
short to ground or a multiple fault in a driver, the IDM will
Page 146 of 208

discontinue operation of that driver which would cause the engine to


operate on the remaining bank of 4 cylinders. The IDM will transmit a
message to the ECM that a fault has been detected.
Faults detected by the IDM will be stored in the IDM and
transmitted to the ECM during an Engine Off Standard Test. These
faults will be transmitted as inactive faults. The following fault
codes may appear for the injector drive circuits.

NOTE: The last digit of the fault code indicates the affected
cylinder. For example, code 421 indicates cylinder No. 1 has
an open circuit between the IDM high side driver and the low
side signal return to the IDM. The SID's No. 1 through 8
indicate cylinder numbers in a similar manner.

CODES 421 THRU 428 - ATA CODE SID 1 THRU 8 FMI 5: HIGH SIDE
TO LOW SIDE OPEN - Codes for High Side to Low Side Open indicate an
open circuit between the IDM high side driver and low side driver.
Possible causes are an open wire in the injector harness, open
injector return circuit or injector solenoid.
CODES 431 THRU 438 - ATA CODE SID 1 THRU 8 FMI 4: HIGH SIDE
SHORTED TO LOW SIDE - Codes for High Side to Low Side Short indicate
the return voltage is too high due to a short circuit between the high
side driver and return circuit. Possible causes are a shorted injector
solenoid or wiring harness.
CODES 441 THRU 448 - ATA CODE SID 1 THRU 8 FMI 3: LOW SIDE
SHORTED TO B+ - Low Side Shorted to battery power indicates the IDM
has detected continuous battery voltage on the signal return circuit.
A short circuit in the injector wiring harness will set these codes.
CODES 451 THRU 458 - ATA CODE SID 1 THRU 8 FMI 6: LOW SIDE
SHORTED TO GROUND - Low Side Shorted to ground indicates the return
circuit shorted to ground. A shorted injector solenoid or wiring
harness to ground will set these codes.
CODE 511 - ATA CODE SID 151 FMI 11: BANK 1 HAS MULTIPLE
FAULTS - Multiple faults indicate more than 1 fault was detected by
the IDM such as an open and a short in cylinder Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7.
With code 511 active, the IDM will disable the opposite bank drivers.
CODE 512 - ATA CODE SID 152 FMI 11: BANK 2 HAS MULTIPLE
FAULTS - Multiple faults indicate more than 1 fault was detected by
the IDM such as an open and a short in cylinder Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 8.
With code 512 active, the IDM will disable the opposite bank drivers.
CODE 513 - ATA CODE SID 151 FMI 5: HIGH SIDE OPEN, RIGHT
GROUP - High side open indicates the IDM has detected an open circuit
to injectors on cylinder Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7. With code 513 active, the
IDM will compensate for misfire to keep the engine operating and will
light the Engine Warning Light.
CODE 514 - ATA CODE SID 152 FMI 5: HIGH SIDE OPEN, LEFT GROUP
- High side open indicates the IDM has detected an open circuit to
injectors on cylinder Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 8. With code 514 active, the
IDM will compensate for misfire to keep the engine operating and will
light the Engine Warning Light.
CODE 515 - ATA CODE SID 151 FMI 6: HIGH SIDE BANK 1 SHORT TO
GROUND OR B+ - Code 515 indicates the IDM has detected excessive
current draw on cylinder Nos. 1, 3, 5 and 7. With code 515 active, the
IDM will compensate for misfire to keep the engine operating and will
light the Engine Warning Light.
CODE 521 - ATA CODE SID 152 FMI 6: HIGH SIDE BANK 2 SHORT TO
GROUND OR B+ - Code 521 indicates the IDM has detected excessive
current draw on cylinder Nos. 2, 4, 6 and 8. With code 521 active, the
EMISSIONS
IDM will compensate for misfire to keep the engine operating and will - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELE
Page 147 of 208

light the Engine Warning Light.


CODE 524 - ATA CODE SID 151 FMI 3: BOTH HIGH SIDE SWITCHES
SHORTED TOGETHER - Code 524 indicates a short circuit between the 2
high side drivers. The IDM will light the Engine Warning Light.
CODE 544 - ATA CODE SID 152 FMI 14: INJECTOR FAULT BANK NO. 2
- Code 544 indicates the ECM has detected more than one injector in
bank No. 2 with low voltage.
CODE 545 - ATA CODE SID 151 FMI 14: INJECTOR FAULT BANK NO. 1
- Code 545 indicates the ECM has detected more than one injector in
bank No. 1 with low voltage.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 148 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 148)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 117: Injector Drive Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 149 of 208

Fig. 118: Testing Injector Drive Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 149)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 150 of 208

Fig. 119: Testing Injector Drive Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

INJECTOR PRESSURE REGULATOR

Signal Functions
The Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) is a variable position
valve that controls injection pressure. The ECM uses many input
variables to determine the desired injection control pressure. Battery
voltage is supplied to the IPR with the ignition ON. Valve position is
controlled by switching the output signal circuit to ground inside the
ECM. On/off time is modulated from 0-50 percent dependent upon the
desired injection control pressure.

Fault Detection Management


An open or a short to ground control circuit can be detected
by an On Demand Output Circuit Check performed during the Engine Off
Test. The ECM can detect, while the engine is running, if desired
injection control pressure is equal to measured control pressure. If
the measured pressure does not reasonably compare to desired pressure,
the ECM ignores the measured ICP signal and attempts to control the
engine with the desired value. If the problem was in the sensor
circuit, this strategy causes little performance problems. If the
problem is in the control circuit, engine performance will be
unsatisfactory.

NOTE: The engine will not operate with an IPR circuit that is not
functioning.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 150)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 151 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 151)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 120: Injection Control Pressure Regulator Connector Check


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM monitors the injection control pressure while the
engine is in operation. If the actual pressure is more or less than
desired pressure, the ECM will set a fault code. If a code is set, the
Page 152 of 208

ECM will ignore the ICP sensor and control the engine using pre-
programmed values. The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 241 - ATA CODE SID 42 FMI 11: INJECTION CONTROL PRESSURE
REG. OCC SELF-TEST FAILED - Code 241 is set only during the Engine Off
Standard Output Circuit Check. This indicates that the ECM has found a
voltage drop across the IPR circuit that is above or below
specification. If the fault is present, the engine will not run.
Possible causes for this code are an open feed circuit or fuse to the
IPR, open IPR solenoid or an open or shorted IPR signal circuit.
CODE 331 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 0: INJECTION CONTROL PRESSURE
ABOVE SYSTEM WORKING RANGE - Code 331 indicates the ECM has detected
injection control pressure greater than the maximum allowable. This
code will light the Engine Warning Light. Possible causes are
incorrect ICP signal due to faulty circuits or sensor, grounded IPR
signal circuit, a malfunction in the injection control pressure system
or a sticking or blocked IPR valve.
CODE 333 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 10: INJECTION CONTROL
PRESSURE ABOVE/BELOW DESIRED LEVEL - Code 333 may be set during normal
engine operation through the Continuous Monitor function or during the
Engine Running Standard test. It indicates the measured pressure does
not match the expected value. The ECM will light the Engine Warning
Light. With code 333 active, the ECM will ignore the ICP sensor signal
and will control the IPR from programmed values to keep the engine
operating. Possible causes are an incorrect ICP signal due to circuit
or sensor malfunctions, IPR signal circuit may be grounded or contain
excessive resistance. The IPR valve may be sticking or blocked.
CODE 334 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 7: INJECTION CONTROL PRESSURE
UNABLE TO REACH SETPOINT WITH POOR PERFORMANCE - Code 334 indicates an
injection control system response time fault and may be set during
normal engine operation. The ECM compares actual versus desired
injection control pressure and looks for a large pressure difference
for a short period of time. If the response time is not quick enough,
code 334 will be set and the Engine Warning Light will come on.
Possible causes are low oil level, contaminated or aerated
oil, trapped air in the injection control pressure system, defective
or stuck IPR, intermittent IPR wiring connections, loose injector O-
rings, ICP sensor and/or circuit problems, system biased high or low.
CODE 335 - ATA CODE PID 164 FMI 1: INJECTION CONTROL PRESSURE
UNABLE TO BUILD PRESSURE DURING CRANKING - Code 335 indicates the ECM
has determined that injection control pressure has failed to build to
a minimum value during a pre-programmed period of engine cranking time
which varies with engine temperature. Engine cranking speed must be
more than 130 RPM before fault detection starts.
Possible causes are no oil in engine, air in injection
system, defective or stuck IPR regulator, leaking injector O-rings,
loose high pressure pump gear, defective high pressure oil pump.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 153 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 153)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 121: Injection Control Pressure Regulator Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 154 of 208

Fig. 122: Testing Injection Control Pressure Regulator Circuit


EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 154)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
(1 Of 2)
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 155 of 208

Fig. 123: Testing Injection Control Pressure Regulator Circuit


(2 Of 2)
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

KEEP ALIVE MEMORY POWER

Signal Functions
The ECM has information stored in volatile memory which is
erased or lost when power is disconnected from the module. This memory
is referred to as Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Power. The ECM stores
historical diagnostic information from previous engine operating
cycles, learned limits from certain engine and vehicle sensors and
programmable parameters sent from the Vehicle personality Module
(VPM). The VPM utilizes the KAM power circuit to remain powered for at
least 30 minutes after each key off cycle to record accumulator values
for vehicle miles, hours and fuel used.

Fault Detection Management


On every power up, KAM memory in the ECM is checked by the
processor to determine if any information in memory has been lost or
can be stored correctly. A fault code will be set if power has been
disconnected, information sent from the VPM does not agree with the
power up or if the memory internal to the ECM is defective. There is
no fault detection for loss of KAM power to the VPM, however, the VPM
will be unable to communicate with the Electronic Service Tool (EST)
when the ignition is off.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 155)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 156 of 208

Fig. 124: Keep Alive Memory Power Connector Checks


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 156)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
ECM Diagnostics
During normal operation the ECM performs certain tests. When
the ignition is ON, the ECM performs the Start-Up KAM test to test its
Keep Alive memory. This test is performed once each time the key is
turned on or when the ECM resets. The ECM performs a test to determine
if the memory is working properly, but a lack of battery power to ECM
Page 157 of 208

terminal No. 1 can cause fault codes 224 and 653 to be set. When power
to KAM has been disrupted there will be no inactive faults.
CODE 224 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 2: ECM: KAM CORRUPT - Code
224 may be caused by a short or open in the KAM circuit. High or low
voltage to ECM terminal No. 1 from the KAM battery supply circuits
will cause code 224. If the battery cable has been disconnected, on
the next key ON cycle, code 224 will be present, indicating that the
KAM memory has lost power. The code will change to inactive status on
the next key cycle. Faulty KAM memory in the ECM can also cause code
224.
CODE 615 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 13: ECM: PROGRAMMABLE
PARAMETER KAM CORRUPT FAULT - If code 615 occurs when KAM power supply
to the ECM is good, then the KAM memory is defective. ECM diagnostics
are required.
If codes 224 or 653 are active, perform Testing KAM Power
Circuits.
See Fig. 127.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 158 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 158)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 125: Keep Alive Memory Power Circuit Wiring Diagram (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 159 of 208

Fig. 126: Keep Alive Memory Power Circuit Wiring Diagram (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 159)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 160 of 208

Fig. 127: Testing Keep Alive Memory Power Circuits


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 160)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE (MAP) SENSOR

Signal Functions
The MAP sensor is a variable capacitance sensor which
operates on a 5 volt reference signal from the ECM to produce a
digital frequency that indicates pressure. The MAP signal is used to
control smoke by limiting fuel quantity during acceleration until a
specified boost pressure is obtained. The MAP also optimizes injection
timing for boost pressure measured.

Fault Detection Management


A MAP signal that is detected by the ECM to be out-of-range
or at an incorrect value for specific conditions will cause the ECM to
Page 161 of 208

ignore the MAP signal and will operate the engine with the values from
estimated MAP.

Fig. 128: MAP Sensor Connector Checks


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
The ECM monitors the MAP sensor output signal for expected EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T
Page 162 of 208

values. If the ECM sees a value more or less than expected it will set
a fault code. If a fault code is set, the ECM will ignore the MAP
signal. An active code will turn on the Engine Warning Light. If the
ignition is turned off, the code will be stored as an inactive code.
The following fault codes may be set:
CODE 121 - ATA CODE PID 102 FMI 8: MAP FREQUENCY OUT-OF-RANGE
HIGH - Code 121 will be set if the ECM detects a frequency greater
than 256 Hz for more than .10 seconds in the MAP signal. Excessive
high frequency noise in the MAP signal will cause this code to be set.
CODE 122 - ATA CODE PID 102 FMI 11: MAP SIGNAL IS INACTIVE -
Code 122 will be set if the ECM detects a frequency less than 90 Hz,
or an inactive MAP signal for more than .25 seconds. Possible causes
are a defective MAP sensor or MAP sensor signal circuits open or
shorted to ground.
CODE 123 - ATA CODE PID 102 FMI 2: MAP SIGNAL ABOVE SPECIFIED
LEVEL AT LOW IDLE - Code 123 will be set when the MAP signal is
greater than 16.7 psi absolute at low idle. Possible causes are a
restricted or plugged hose which supplies intake manifold boost
pressure to the sensor or a defective sensor.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444


Page 163 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 163)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 129: Accelerator, MAP & BARO Sensor Circuits Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 164 of 208

Fig. 130: Testing MAP Sensor Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 164)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 165 of 208

Fig. 131: Testing MAP Sensor Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy
EMISSIONSof -Navistar International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 165)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
SPEED CONTROL COMMAND SWITCHES

Signal Functions
For cruise control, ECM terminal No. 50 outputs a 6.58 volt
signal to the resistor block. Activating the cruise command switches
causes the signal to pass through different resistance levels in the
resistor block, altering the signal which is grounded at ECM terminal
No. 39. There are five expected signals to the ECM: OFF, ON, SET,
RESUME and open (no switches have been used).
For models with remote PTO control, to use the remote
controls, cruise control must be turned on using the cab cruise ON/OFF
switch. The remote Set/Resume witch and disable switch are wired
parallel to cab switches and operate in the same manner. With cruise
control ON, placing the remote PTO Preset switch in the ON position
causes the PTO to operate at a preset engine speed programmed into the
Page 166 of 208

Vehicle Personality Module (VPM). Placing the remote PTO Variable


switch in the ON position caused the PTO to operate using the remote
pedal.

NOTE: If both switches are ON, the remote pedal is deactivated.

Fault Detection Management


The ECM monitors the Speed Control Command Switches (SCCS)
signal for the five expected signals. If an incorrect signal is
detected, code 221 is logged. The ECM also monitors the R-APS (Remote
Pedal Sensor Switches) signal input at ECM terminal No. 30 from the
remote pedal sensor for out-of-range signals, high or low.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 167 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 167)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 132: Speed Control Command Switches Connector Checks


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

ECM Diagnostics
For Speed Control Command Switches (SCCS), the ECM monitor
the signal on SCCS circuit 97AC for the expected five signals
possible. If a signal is detected by the ECM that does not match any
one of the five signals, code 221 is set and PTO or cruise control
Page 168 of 208

functions are disabled.


CODE 221 - ATA CODE SID 244 FMI 2: ECM: SCCS SWITCH OR
CIRCUIT FAULT - The ECM monitors the R-APS signal input at ECM
terminal No. 30 from the remote pedal sensor for out-of-range signals
high or low. A wiring or component defect that changes the circuit
resistance will create a biased high or low signal, causing the code
to be set. A short to a 12 volt or 5 volt circuit will change the
expected signal, causing the code to be set. A short to ground will
also change the signal, setting the code. Perform Testing Speed
Control Command Switches.
See Fig. 135.
For Remote Pedal Sensor (RPS) switches, the ECM monitors the
R-APS signal input at ECM terminal No. 30 from the remote pedal sensor
for out-of-range signals high or low. The following codes may be set:
CODE 213 - ATA CODE SID 29 FMI 4: ECM: RPS ORL - If the ECM
detects an RPS signal lower than 152 mV, code 213 is set and the
remote pedal is disabled. Perform Testing Remote Pedal Switches. See
Fig. 142.
CODE 214 - ATA CODE SID 29 FMI 3: ECM: RPS ORH - If the ECM
detects an RPS signal greater than 4.55 volts, code 214 is set and the
remote pedal is disabled. Perform Testing Remote Pedal Switches. See
Fig. 142.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E


Page 169 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 169)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 133: Speed Control Command Switches Wiring Diagram (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 170 of 208

Fig. 134: Speed Control Command Switches Wiring Diagram (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 170)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 171 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 171)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Fig. 135: Testing Speed Control Command Switches (1 Of 4)
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 172 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 172)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 136: Testing Speed Control Command Switches (2 Of 4)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 173 of 208

Fig. 137: Testing Speed Control Command Switches (3 Of 4)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 173)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 174 of 208

Fig. 138: Testing Speed Control Command Switches (4 Of 4)


Courtesy
EMISSIONSof -Navistar International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 174)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 175 of 208

Fig. 139: Testing SCCS On/Off & Set/Resume Switches


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

Remote PTO Does Not Operate Or Operates Incorrectly


If the remote preset PTO mode does not operate properly, no
fault codes will be set because the ECM does not diagnose the enable
preset switch circuit. If the cruise control works properly, but the
remote enable preset switch does not operate, perform Testing Remote
PTO Preset & Variable Enable Circuits. See Fig. 140.
If the remote variable PTO mode does not operate properly, no
fault codes will be set because the ECM does not diagnose the enable
EMISSIONS - DIESEL
variable switch (NAVISTAR
circuit. T444E
Codes 213 and ELEC ENG CTRL)Article
214 indicate Text
that the ECM (p. 175)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
has
detected an out-of-range signal high or low from the remote pedal
sensor, however. If the cruise control works properly, but the remote
variable enable switch does not operate, check for codes. If codes 213
or 214 are present or if no codes are present, perform Testing Remote
PTO Preset & Variable Enable Circuits, see Fig. 140, and Testing
Remote Pedal Sensor Circuits, see Fig. 142.
Page 176 of 208

Fig. 140: Testing Remote PTO Preset & Variable Enable Circuits
(1 Of 2)
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Articl


Page 177 of 208

Fig. 141: Testing Remote PTO Preset & Variable Enable Circuits
(2 Of 2)
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 177)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 178 of 208

Fig. 142: Testing Remote Pedal Sensor Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 178)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 179 of 208

Fig. 143: Testing Remote Pedal Sensor Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

SELF-TEST INPUT SWITCH & ENGINE WARNING LIGHT

Signal Functions
The Self-Test Input (STI) switch (or PRO-LINK EST) can be
used to run Key On Engine Off (KOEO) Standard tests. Faults detected
during this test result in active fault codes which are flashed
through the Engine Warning Light. If no codes are present, code 111
will flash, indicating no codes are present. ECM terminal No. 48 has 5
volts with the key ON and engine off. Depressing the STI switch
grounds terminal No. 48, causing it to change from 5 volts to 0 volts,
signaling the ECM to start the KOEO Standard test.
When the key is turned ON, the Engine Warning Light (EWL)
turns on and remains on while the ECM runs normal start up tests, and
then turns off. If the ECM detects a problem, the light remains on.
Ignition power from fuse No. F6 (fuse No. A2 with FBC) is applied to
the EWL. The ground side of the EWL is connected to ECM terminal No.
17, which is a ground switch. The ECM applies 12 volts to terminal No.
17 (light off) or 0 volts (light on), in response to engine
EMISSIONS 1996 Mi
conditions. - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 179)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101

Fault Detection Management


There are no ECM diagnostics for the STI or EWL circuits.
Page 180 of 208

ECM Diagnostics
There are no ECM diagnostics for the STI or EWL circuits. For
testing, see Figs. 146 through 148.

Fig. 144: Self-Test Input & Engine Warning Light Connector Checks
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 180)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 181 of 208

Fig. 145: Self-Test Input & Engine Warning Light Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 181)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 182 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 182)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 146: Testing Self-Test Input Circuit


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 183 of 208

Fig. 147: Engine Warning Light Does Not Come On Test


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 183)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 184 of 208

Fig. 148: Engine Warning Light Remains On Test


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

TACHOMETER INPUT CIRCUITS

Signal Functions
The ECM provides the VPM with a 0-12 volt digital signal that
indicates engine speed. The VPM buffers this signal and supplies the
instrument panel with a signal to operate the tachometer. The
frequency sent by the ECM is 1/5th of the actual engine RPM.

Fault Detection Management


The VPM can detect is the TACH signal is not being received
from the ECM and will set a fault code to indicate the loss of
communication. No fault detection is available for communication
between the VPM and the instrument panel.

ECM Diagnostics
If the Camshaft Position (CMP) signal is not received and
processed by the ECM, the engine will not start. If the engine is
running, but the tachometer does not operate, the problem could be in
the speedometer/tachometer unit. An open or high or low short circuit
condition in the tachometer buffer circuit may also cause the problem.
The only fault code set for the tachometer circuit is code 233.
CODE 233 - ATA CODE PID 190 FMI 2: VPM: TACHOMETER BUFFER
INOPERATIVE - This code is set during the Key On Engine Running Tach
Buffer test if engine speed is less than 1250 RPM, circuit 97D is open
or shorted between
EMISSIONS the
- DIESEL ECM and VPM
(NAVISTAR or if
T444E the ENG
ELEC VPM internal buffering
CTRL)Article Text (p. 184)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
circuit is defective. Perform the appropriate tachometer testing to
isolate the problem.
See Figs. 151 through 153.
Page 185 of 208

Fig. 149: Checking Tachometer Circuit Connector


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 185)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 186 of 208

Fig. 150: Tachometer Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 186)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 187 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 187)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 151: Testing Tachometer Circuit


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 188 of 208

Fig. 152: Testing ECM/VPM Tachometer Circuit (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 188)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 189 of 208

Fig. 153: Testing ECM/VPM Tachometer Circuit (2 Of 2)


Courtesy
EMISSIONSof -Navistar International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 189)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
TWO SPEED AXLE INPUT CIRCUIT

Signal Functions
The VPM is programmed with the high and low rear axle ratios.
Page 190 of 208

The ratios are used to calculate the speedometer signal, depending


upon which mode the switch is in. The VPM uses the high ratio unless
voltage is applied to VPM terminal No. 9, indicating the two speed
selector switch is in the low range. The two speed switch applies 12
volts to the VPM when the switch is in the low position.

Fault Detection Management


There are no ECM diagnostics for the two speed circuits.

ECM Diagnostics
There are no ECM diagnostics for the two speed circuits. For
testing, use the following procedure as well as Testing Two Speed
Speedometer Circuit. See Fig. 156.

Two Speed Axle Test


1) Use the PRO-LINK 9000 EST to verify correct VPM
programming including correct high and low rear axle ratios. If
programmed correctly, go to next step. If programming is not correct,
make necessary corrections.
2) Use the EST to monitor the two speed switch while changing
switch position several times. If the switch does not function, go to
next step. If the switch functions properly, go to step 4).
3) Disconnect VPM harness connector No. 381. Turn ignition ON
and place switch in LOW position. Measure voltage between ground and
VPM connector terminal No. 9 (circuit 93A). Battery voltage should be
present. If battery voltage is present, replace VPM. If voltage is
less than 10.5 volts, check connections. If voltage is 0 volts check
for opens or short to ground.
4) Perform Speedometer Self-Diagnostic Test. If self-test is
not okay, problem is in speedometer/tachometer. If self-test is okay,
road test vehicle and have a passenger monitor vehicle speed using
PRO-LINK. If the PRO-LINK displays the correct speed, replace the
speedometer/tachometer unit. If PRO-LINK does not display correct
speed, replace VPM.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T


Page 191 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 191)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 154: Two Speed Electric (Air) Axle Circuit Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 192 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 192)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Fig. 155: Two Speed Electric (Hydraulic) Axle Circuit Wiring Diagram
Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 193 of 208

Fig. 156: Testing Two Speed Speedometer Circuit


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

VOLTAGE REFERENCE CIRCUIT

Signal Functions
The Voltage Reference (VREF) circuit is a 4.5-5.5 volt power
supply from the ECM that provides power to the three wire engine and
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p.
vehicle sensors and provides a benchmark or reference voltage for the
193)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
ECM.

Fault Detection Management


There is no fault detection specifically for the VREF signal
directly, but if there is a VREF circuit fault the sensors in the
section of the circuit affected may set an out-of-range high or low
code. Multiple high or low codes indicate a VREF or a signal ground
fault condition.

ECM Diagnostics
There is no ECM diagnostics specifically for the VREF signal.
If multiple sensor codes are set, it is possible that the VREF signal
Page 194 of 208

circuit or the return circuit is open. The engine will not operate
without a valid VREF signal.

Fig. 157: Voltage Reference Circuit Connector Checks


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T4


Page 195 of 208

Fig. 158: Voltage Reference Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 195)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 196 of 208

Fig. 159: Testing Voltage Reference Circuit


Courtesy
EMISSIONSof -Navistar International
DIESEL (NAVISTAR Corp.
T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 196)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
VEHICLE PERSONALITY MODULE

Signal Functions
The Vehicle Personality Module serves four major functions
which are described as follows:
Programming:
* Provides factory set engine ratings and horsepower.
* Allows field reprogramming of tire size, axle ratio, etc.
* Allows customer programming of special features.
Diagnostics fault retrieval and command of special operator
on demand tests. With the use of an Electronic Service Tool (EST) the
VPM will allow for:
Page 197 of 208

* Retrieval of continuous fault codes set in the ECM, VPM or


IDM.
* Command of special diagnostic tests.
* Display of engine and vehicle parameters on a real time basis.
Stores accumulated values and log engine events.
* Shows vehicle miles, hours and fuel used.
* Logs engine events such as overheat, low oil pressure, etc.
Drives the dashboard tachometer and speedometer units.
* Receives inputs from ECM and TACH sensors.
* Buffers signals and drives tachometer/speedometer gauges.
* Communicates vehicle speed to ECM.

Fault Detection Management


The VPM has the ability to detect internal faults conditions
such as incorrect programming, no programming, wrong configuration of
ECM and/or VPM, corrupted memory and lost memory situations.
Management of a VPM detected fault will vary with the severity of the
fault. The more severe faults will only allow the vehicle to operate
in field defaults which will curtail horsepower and disable customer
features. Less severe faults will only log a code.

ECM Diagnostics
The following codes may be logged by the VPM:
CODE 613 - ATA CODE SID 252 FMI 1: VPM: VPM/ECM SOFTWARE
MISMATCHED,
CODE 614 - ATA CODE SID 252 FMI 13: ECM: VPM/ECM SOFTWARE
MISMATCHED - Codes 613 and 614 will only occur when the VPM or ECM has
been changed in the field. At start-up, the ECM compares software
versions in the VPM and ECM. If the versions are not compatible, codes
613 or 614 and 622 will be set. Code 622 indicates Field Defaults are
being used and turn on the Engine Warning Light. If codes 613 and 614
are active, the ECM and VPM must be software compatible. Whichever
component was recently replaced is not the correct part number with
the component that was not replaced. Determine the correct part number
and replace. The component with the most recent configuration code
will set the fault code.
CODE 615 - ATA CODE SID 254 FMI 13: ECM: PROGRAMMABLE
PARAMETER KAM CORRUPT MEMORY - At start-up the ECM performs tests on
the KAM memory. If the KAM memory test fails, code 615 will be set.
The engine will operate on field defaults, turning on the Engine
Warning Light and setting code 622. Code 615 can also be caused by no
or low power to KAM memory at ECM terminal No. 1. If code 615 is
active, check KAM memory feed circuit. If a defect is found, correct
defect. If KAM power is present to ECM terminal No. 1 and code 615 is
active, attempt to clear code. If code 615 continues to be set,
replace ECM.
CODE 621 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 1: ECM: ECM USING
MANUFACTURING DEFAULTS - Symptoms are the engine operates but is
limited to 25 HP rating and Engine Warning Light is on. If the VPM is
not programmed at the factory or an unprogrammed VPM is installed, the
ECM will select parameter values from the manufacturing default list.
If the condition causing code 621 to set is intermittent and the
condition is no longer present, the code will become inactive and the
engine will operate normally. If code 621 is active, program the VPM
using established programming procedures in the PRO-LINK manual.
CODE 622 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 0: ECM: ECM USING FIELD
DEFAULTS - Symptoms are the engine operates but is limited to 175 HP,
the Engine Warning Light is on and customer options are disabled. When
the vehicle is not operating under normal operating conditions, the
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 197)For cyph8r pa
Page 198 of 208

ECM uses partial or full field default values stored in he ECM memory,
instead of programmed values stored in the VPM memory. If this
happens, code 622 will be set. If the condition causing code 622 to
set is intermittent and the condition is no longer present, the code
will become inactive and the engine will operate normally. Code 622 is
an indicator that field defaults are being used. Other code can cause
code 622 to be set. The other codes identify the condition hat caused
the field defaults to be used. If code 622 is active, review other
logged codes. The specific reasons for the ECM using the defaults must
be determined and corrected. When corrected, the ECM will not use the
field default mode.
CODE 623 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 13: ECM: INVALID EFRC - This
code indicates that the ECM requested and was unable to get valid
Engine Family Rating codes from the VPM. If this occurs, code 623 is
set, and the engine operates on field defaults causing code 622 to be
set. . If the condition causing code 623 to set is intermittent and
the condition is no longer present, the code will become inactive and
the engine will operate normally. If code 623 is active, reprogram the
VPM with the proper engine family data.
VPM Diagnostics
The VPM record total engine hours, total vehicle miles and
total fuel used. While the vehicle is operating, the information is
stored and every 30 minutes the information is written to EEPROM
memory locations in the VPM as new totals. The accumulator totals can
be read using the PRO-LINK EST. If the VPM can't find a serviceable
memory location to write the data, codes 642, 643 or 644 will be set.
CODE 634 - ATA CODE PID 250 FMI 2: VPM: FUEL METER MEMORY
LOCATION ERROR - This code indicates that the first attempt to write
the fuel totals encountered a defective memory location. The fuel
totals logged may be inaccurate although the error will not be more
than 1/2 hour use of fuel. If the fuel meter totals are used for
vehicle maintenance or otherwise essential to vehicle operation, the
VPM should be replaced. The next read/write error will result in all
of the fuel meter data being lost.
CODE 635 - ATA CODE PID 247 FMI 2: VPM: HOUR METER MEMORY
LOCATION ERROR - This code indicates that the first attempt to write
the engine hour totals encountered a defective memory location. The
hour totals logged may be inaccurate although the error will not be
more than 1/2 hour. If the hour meter totals are used for vehicle
maintenance or otherwise essential to vehicle operation, the VPM
should be replaced. The next read/write error will result in all of
the hour meter data being lost.
CODE 641 - ATA CODE PID 245 FMI 2: VPM: ODOMETER MEMORY
LOCATION ERROR - This code indicates that the first attempt to write
the vehicle mile totals encountered a defective memory location. The
mile totals logged may be inaccurate although the error will not be
more than 30 miles. If the miles meter totals are used for vehicle
maintenance or otherwise essential to vehicle operation, the VPM
should be replaced. The next read/write error will result in all of
the miles meter data being lost.
CODE 642 - ATA CODE PID 250 FMI 12: VPM: FAULTY FUEL METER -
This code indicates that the write cycle of the EEPROM memory
locations in the VPM have been exceeded. The fuel meter totals have
been lost. If the fuel meter totals are used for vehicle maintenance
or otherwise essential to vehicle operation, the VPM should be
replaced.
CODE 643 - ATA CODE PID 247 FMI 12: VPM: FAULTY HOUR METER -
This code indicates that the write cycle of the EEPROM memory
locations in the VPM have been exceeded. The hour meter totals have EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444
Page 199 of 208

been lost. If the hour meter totals are used for vehicle maintenance
or otherwise essential to vehicle operation, the VPM should be
replaced.
CODE 645 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 72: VPM: RAW EEPROM MEMORY
LOCATION ERROR - Code 645 requires no action. Code 645 indicates an
error was detected at one of the EEPROM memory locations in the VPM.
The code is informational and is logged as an inactive code. Code 645
will be logged with another code which specifies what system or
feature is affected. Check for additional codes along with code 645 to
determine which system is at fault.
CODE 651 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 10: VPM: FEATURE MEMORY LIST
CORRUPTED - If the VPM detects an error with the feature list, code
651 will be set. Symptoms of code 651 are; engine runs on partial
defaults but Engine Warning Light is not on, vehicle features such as
cruise control, remote PTO and optional engine protection system are
disabled. If code 651 is active, recycle the VPM. With key ON, remove
fuse F4 (H1 with FBC) and reinstall fuse. If code 651 is inactive, end
test. If code 651 is still active, reprogram the VPM. If code 651 is
active after reprogramming the VPM, replace VPM.
CODE 652 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 2: VPM: ENGINE/FUEL MEMORY
LIST CORRUPTED - Symptoms of code 652 are engine runs on defaults
setting code 652 and Engine Warning Light is on. If code 652 is
active, recycle the VPM. With key ON, remove fuse F4 (H1 with FBC) and
reinstall fuse. If code 651 is inactive, end test. If code 651 is
still active, replace the VPM.
CODE 653 - ATA CODE SID 253 FMI 12: VPM: ENGINE RATING MEMORY
LIST CORRUPTED - Symptoms of code 653 are engine runs on defaults
setting code 653 and Engine Warning Light is on. If code 653 is
active, recycle the VPM. With key ON, remove fuse F4 (H1 with FBC) and
reinstall fuse. If code 653 is inactive, end test. If code 653 is
still active, replace the VPM.
CODE 654 - ATA CODE SID 252 FMI 12: VPM: WATCHDOG TIME-OUT
FAULT - If a VPM software fault is detected, code 654 will be set,
then the VPM will reset. The driver will not notice the reset, but the
code will be logged as inactive following the reset. If code 621 is
active, program the VPM using the procedures in the PRO-LINK manual.

VEHICLE SPEED SIGNAL

Signal Functions
The Vehicle Speed Signal (VSS) from the speed sensor is input
to the VPM. VPM programming includes number of teeth on the sensor
wheel, tire size and axle ratios. Using this information the VPM
creates a signal which is sent to the speedometer/tachometer as input
for speedometer function. The VPM also outputs a DCL formatted vehicle
speed signal over the DCL data link circuit to the ECM. The ECM uses
the input for controlling vehicle functions including cruise control.
Additionally, the VPM outputs an ATA formatted signal over the data
link to the diagnostic connector where the vehicle speed can be read
using the PRO-LINK EST.

Fault Detection Management


The vehicle speed signal is monitored continuously by the VPM
to see that the signal is within a certain range. If the VSS signal is
out-of-range, the VPM sends a signal to the ECM telling it that the
VPM detected a fault in the VSS. When the ECM sees an out-of-range
high signal, VPM code 141 or 142 is set, but the Engine Warning Light
is not turned on. The ECM disables the cruise control and PTO
operation. If road speed limiting is enabled, the ECM will limit EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444
Page 200 of 208

engine speed in all gears. Torque level tailoring will use a


prescribed torque curve.

ECM Diagnostics
If the speedometer does not operate properly but no fault
codes are present, use the PRO-LINK to attempt to read the vehicle
speed. If vehicle speed can be read, the problem is in the
speedometer/tachometer unit in the instrument panel. The vehicle speed
signal is monitored continuously by the VPM to see that the signal is
within a certain range. If the VSS signal is out-of-range, the VPM
sends a signal to the ECM telling it that the VPM detected a fault in
the VSS. When the ECM sees an out-of-range high signal, VPM code 141
or 142 is set, but the Engine Warning Light is not turned on. The ECM
disables the cruise control and PTO operation. If road speed limiting
is enabled, the ECM will limit engine speed in all gears. Torque level
tailoring will use a prescribed torque curve. The following codes may
be set in the VSS circuit:
CODE 141 - ATA CODE PID 84 FMI 4: VPM: VSS ORL - Code 141 is
set if the VPM detects a VSS signal that is out or range low. This may
be caused by an open or short to ground in the circuit between the VPM
and the sensor. Perform Testing VPM To Sensor Circuit. See Fig. 162.
CODE 142 - ATA CODE PID 84 FMI 3: VPM: VSS ORH - Code 141 is
set if the VPM detects a VSS signal that is out or range high. This
may be caused by a shorted VREF or VBAT circuit between the VPM and
the sensor. Perform Testing VPM To Sensor Circuit.
See Fig. 162.
The ECM/VPM diagnostics do not check for VSS sensor
adjustment, so it is possible with a miss-adjusted sensor to get a
faulty vehicle speed signal without setting codes 141 or 142. The
speedometer and/or odometer will operate erratically or not at all. If
codes 141 and/or 142 are not present, and speedometer does not
function properly, perform Testing Speedometer.
See Fig. 166. If codes 141 and/or 142 are present, correct the cause
of the codes before diagnosing speedometer.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E E


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EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 201)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 160: Vehicle Speed Signal Connector Checks


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 202 of 208

Fig. 161: Vehicle Speed Signal Circuit Wiring Diagram


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 202)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 203 of 208

Fig. 162: Testing VPM To VSS Sensor Circuits (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 203)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 204 of 208

Fig. 163: Testing VPM To VSS Sensor Circuits (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 204)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 205 of 208

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 205)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi

Fig. 164: Testing VSS Sensor Circuit With Man. Trans.


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
Page 206 of 208

Fig. 165: Testing VSS Sensor Circuit With Allison Trans.


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 206)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 207 of 208

Fig. 166: Testing Speedometer (1 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.
EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 207)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi
Page 208 of 208

Fig. 167: Testing Speedometer (2 Of 2)


Courtesy of Navistar International Corp.

END OF ARTICLE

EMISSIONS - DIESEL (NAVISTAR T444E ELEC ENG CTRL)Article Text (p. 208)For cyph8r pacific la ca 92101 1996 Mi