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# Josh Matthews

## Odds Ratio Calculations

Benediction University
MPH 604
Week 5 Written Assignment - Odds Ratios
Show all your work for the best possible evaluation of your responses.

1. Write the formula for an odds ratio and interpret in words exactly what the ratio tells us about
the relationship between an exposure and outcome.

2. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is an idiopathic, chronic, and disabling voice disorder. In a case-
control study, 150 cases of SD were identified along with 150 controls. Of those with SD, 16
meningitis. Set up the appropriate contingency table and calculate and interpret the odds ratio
for the relationship between meningitis and SD.

3. Calculate the odds ratio for each table below. Does the relationship between coffee
consumption and osteoporosis differ according to smoking status? Explain.

## Table 1. COFFEE DRINKING AND OSTEOPOROSIS - Raw

Osteoporosis
Coffee Drinker Yes No
Yes 152 118
No 48 82
Odds ratio: 152 X 82/48 X 118= 12464/5664= 2.2

Table 1 STRATIFIED BY SMOKING: SMOKERS Coffee Drinking and Osteoporosis among Smokers

Osteoporosis

Yes 110 55
No 10 25

## Odds Ratio: 110 X 25/ 10 X 55=2750/550= 5

Table 1 STRATIFIED BY SMOKING: NON-SMOKERS: Coffee Drinking and Osteoporosis among
Nonsmokers

Osteoporosis
Coffee Drinker Yes No
Yes 42 63
No 38 57
Odd Ration= 42 X 57/38 X 63=2394/2394=1

Calculate the odds ratio for each table. Does the relationship between coffee consumption and
osteoporosis differ according to smoking status? Explain.

Coffee drinkers and osteoporosis are different depending on smoker/ non-smoker. OR= association
of risk versus outcome.

4. The following ORs are reported for several hypothetical examples. Give you interpretation of
the results, assuming all results are statistically significant unless otherwise specified.

## a. OR (low-fat diet and colon cancer) = 0.6

People on a low-fat diet have .6 times the odds of colon cancer as those who do not follow
low-fat diets.

## b. OR (aerobic exercise and dental caries) = 1.0 (not significant)

There is no significant difference of those whom perform regular aerobic exercise and the
odds of dental caries. This supports my belief that cardio is a pointless endeavor.

## c. OR (exposure to side-stream cigarette smoke and lung cancer) = 1.3

Being exposed to side-stream smoke makes those 1.3 times more likely to have lung cancer.

## d. OR (infectious disease of the pelvis and ectopic pregnancy) = 3.0

Those with infectious disease of the pelvic are 3 times more likely to have an ectopic
pregnancy.

5. Is one of these ORs larger in terms of the magnitude of the relationship between the exposure
and outcome? Explain.

OR = 2.0
OR = 0.5
Odds ratio of 1 doesnt not have an impact either way. If the odds ratio is greater
than 1 then there is a greater chance of the outcome. If the odds ratio is less than
1 then there is a less chance of the outcome. With that said, 2 has a greater
chance of happening.